Volume 58 - Number 1 - Spring 1992

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

58:10102 Bah, Sulaiman M.; Rajulton, Fernando. Has Canadian mortality entered the fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition? Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1991. 18-41 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"According to the epidemiologic transition theory, the third and final stage of the evolution of mortality and morbidity patterns consists of degenerative and man-made diseases. It has been proposed that there is yet another stage of the epidemiologic transition, the fourth stage which is remarkably different from the third. This paper brings together the different perspectives of this new stage and examines whether or not Canadian mortality has entered the fourth stage." The implications for public health planning are discussed.
Correspondence: S. M. Bah, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10103 Bouvier-Colle, M. H.; Vallin, J.; Hatton, F. Mortality and causes of death in France. [Mortalite et causes de deces en France.] Collection Grandes Enquetes en Sante Publique et Epidemiologie, ISBN 2-7040-0632-6. 1990. xvi, 409 pp. DOIN Editeurs: Paris, France; Editions INSERM: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on aspects of mortality in France, with a focus on recent trends in causes of death. The objective of the collection is to make generally available recent work by demographers, epidemiologists, and statisticians. Topics covered include theories of mortality, the history of certification of the causes of death, the development of the classification of diseases, developments in identification of deaths by cause, AIDS, infant mortality, excess male mortality, and social inequalities in mortality.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, 101 rue de Tolbiac, 75654 Paris Cedex 13, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10104 Capocaccia, R.; Farchi, G.; Prati, S.; Mariotti, S.; Verdecchia, A.; Angeli, A.; Scipione, R.; Feola, G.; Morganti, P. Mortality in Italy in 1988. [La mortalita in Italia nell'anno 1988.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 91/37, 1991. ii, 59 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy; Istituto Nazionale di Statistica [ISTAT]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"A series of analytical tables for mortality data in Italy in 1988 is described. The age-and-sex specific rates for [the] whole of Italy are reported for 45 different death causes, as well as the national standardized rate referred to the 1971 population. The standardized rates for each of the 20 regions and the three main subdivisions: North, Center, South and Islands are also reported. This report belongs to a series describing mortality in Italy since 1970, using the same methods, with yearly up-dating editions."
For a previous report by Capocaccia et al. for 1987, see 56:40113.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10105 Carlson, Elwood; Bernstam, Mikhail S. Population and resources under the socialist economic system. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 374-407 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"We have surveyed five aspects of the socialist economic system relevant to demographic conditions, especially to working-age mortality: (1) high and growing resource intensity; (2) the monopoly power of state-owned enterprises over environmental and other living conditions; (3) the monopsony power of management over labor and working conditions; (4) the monopoly power of producers over the quality of their output; and (5) the productivity-based wages under guaranteed employment. We expect these factors to contribute significantly to the high and rising mortality in socialist countries." The geographical focus is on Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the USSR, with some data cited from other Eastern European countries.
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10106 Courbage, Youssef. An economy in recession, female economic activity increasing, and mortality declining in Morocco. [Economie en recession, activite feminine en expansion et mortalite en diminution au Maroc.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1991. 1,277-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent mortality trends in Morocco are reviewed based on official data from a 1986-1988 multi-round demographic survey. The focus is on the relationship between women's higher education and employment levels and mortality trends.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10107 Keyfitz, Nathan. Experiments in the projection of mortality. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1991. 1-17 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"How fast will mortality fall in the decades ahead? One way of phrasing the question is in terms of past periods: will it be as fast as Canada showed in 1976-81, or only as fast as the average 1921-81, or as slow as 1926-31?...I will argue that the whole matter of projecting mortality comes down to deciding what past period describes the future...." The author concludes that any of several methods could be used, including the Brass method, but that "no trend calculation, or regression on economic variables, seems able to forecast the future, that is to [accurately account for such events as] technical advance...and new fashions in behaviour." Life tables for Canada concerning the period 1920-1982 are used as illustrations.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10108 Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W. N.; Mackenbach, J. P. The decline in winter excess mortality in the Netherlands. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1991. 971-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Reasons for the recent decline in excess winter mortality in the Netherlands are explored using official data. "Numbers of deaths by age, cause of death, and month of death for the period 1953-1988 were analysed by loglinear regression. There was a 50% reduction in winter excess mortality between the 1950s and 1970 followed by a much smaller reduction in later years. The decline in winter excess for total mortality can largely be attributed to parallel declines for a number of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases....The results suggest that the decline in winter excess mortality in the Netherlands can only partly be explained by decreases in influenza-associated mortality. It is argued that the role of the introduction of central heating is minimal and that a fundamental role is played by factors closely related to socioeconomic progress."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10109 Mesle, France. Mortality in East European countries. [La mortalite dans les pays d'Europe de l'Est.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 599-649 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes mortality patterns in the countries of Eastern Europe, including Albania and Yugoslavia. "In most East European countries, life expectancy at birth has barely increased after the end of the 1960s, and in Poland and Bulgaria there has even been a decline in men's life expectancy. This increase in mortality was primarily caused by an increase in age-specific death rates at working ages, linked with an increase in cardiovascular and malignant disease. The first two parts of this paper deal with trends in cause-age specific mortality rates in each [country] from the beginnings of the 1950s to the present day. In spite of the striking similarity in trends, conditions differ in individual countries. The situation in the GDR is more favourable than elsewhere; in Czechoslovakia, which was affected much earlier, conditions seems to have improved recently. In contrast, the situation in Yugoslavia, which used to be more encouraging, appears to be developing in the same way as elsewhere in Eastern Europe. It should also be noted that there are considerable differences between mortality rates in different regions of Poland and of Yugoslavia, and those of different social groups in Hungary."
Correspondence: F. Mesle, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10110 Michnay, Laszlone. Mortality in Bekes county. [A halandosag alakulasa Bekes megyeben.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 69, No. 12, Dec 1991. 987-99 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality in the Hungarian county of Bekes is analyzed over the period 1960-1989. The author concludes that the changes noted are largely due to the aging of the population but that changes in the environment and in living conditions have also affected mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10111 Mturi, Akim J. Relationship between mortality and socio-economic development in Tanzania: an ecological analysis. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 455-88 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The current paper attempts to investigate the relationship between mortality and socio-economic development in the United Republic of Tanzania for the intercensal period 1967-1978." Data are from the 1967 and 1978 censuses and from statistical abstracts.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10112 Noumbissi, Amadou. What lessons can be learned from the log-linear and logit-linear relations existing between different structures of mortality? [Quels enseignements tirer des relations log-lineaire et logit-lineaire pouvant exister entre les structures de mortalite?] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 162, ISBN 2-87209-164-5. Oct 1991. 18 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The respective influence of the choice of the mortality model versus the choice of mortality level on the log-linear and logit-linear relations between different structures of mortality is evaluated. Using the Coale and Demeny life tables, one discovers that the choice of mortality level is more important than the choice of the model. The regression's slope represents both the 'family' and the level of the mortality standard. The main interest of the paper is to state new considerations in estimating mortality from the logit system as Brass proposed and deals with the possibilities of using these log and logit-linear relations to estimate covariates of mortality."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10113 Pollard, John H. Fun with Gompertz. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1991. 1-20 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author examines Gompertz's law of mortality and describes approximations and shortcuts in calculations made using the law. The usefulness of these formulas for the demographer is noted. The formulas are illustrated using data for the Federal Republic of Germany and Yugoslavia.
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, MacQuarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10114 Salhi, Mohammed. Biographical data in the analysis of differential mortality: a new approach applied to the situation in Norway. [Les donnees biographiques dans l'analyse de la mortalite differentielle: une nouvelle approche appliquee au contexte norvegien.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 161, ISBN 2-87209-163-7. Sep 1991. 26 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"After a brief review of the regression methods using individual survival data, this article focuses on an approach recently developed in the field of causal mortality analysis on the basis of an original use of biographical data. The paper discusses the ways of implementing this approach and its improvement possibilities on the basis of an application in the Norwegian context."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10115 Toto, Jean P. An attempt to estimate the indicators of mortality using data from the 1984 general population census of the Congo: the case of the city of Brazzaville. [Essai d'estimation des indicateurs de mortalite a partir des donnees du recensement general de la population du Congo de 1984: cas de la ville de Brazzaville.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1989. 75-100 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The level of underregistration of deaths in Brazzaville, Congo, is estimated using 1984 census data. The author concludes that underreporting significantly affects the level but not the age structure of mortality. A method of estimating mortality levels more accurately using vital statistics data is proposed.
Correspondence: J. P. Toto, Centre National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, B.P. 2031 Brazzaville, Congo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10116 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality patterns--United States, 1989. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2 ed. Vol. 41, No. 7, Feb 21, 1992. 121-5 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes [U.S.] mortality data compiled by [the Centers for Disease Control's] National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for 1989 and compares patterns with 1988." It includes information on the leading causes of death.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10117 Wilmoth, John; Vallin, Jacques; Caselli, Graziella. When does a cohort's mortality differ from what we might expect? Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 93-126 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The authors have developed a model to systematically analyze a matrix of mortality data. "Through its detailed description of the structure of the matrix, it offers the possibility of confirming certain hypotheses or of formulating new ones about the mortality experience of certain peculiar cohorts. The descriptive power of the method will be seen here in application to the French mortality experience over the period 1899-1981."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
This is a translation of the Italian article published in 1988 and cited in 55:20143.
Correspondence: J. Wilmoth, University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

58:10118 Adams, Melissa M.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Rhodes, Philip H.; McCarthy, Brian J. Another look at the black-white gap in gestation-specific perinatal mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1991. 950-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Reasons why black infants born near or at term experience higher mortality than white infants in the United States are examined. The authors "compared race-specific rates of perinatal mortality by deviation in grams from the median birthweight for four categories of gestation (35-36, 37-38, 39-41, and 42-43 weeks). We also used race-specific standards to examine the difference between the median birthweight and the optimum birthweight (i.e. birthweight with the lowest mortality)....[It is shown] that a lower median birthweight does not necessarily mean an increase in perinatal mortality. However, our findings show that, as gestation advances toward term and the divergence between black and white birthweights increases, the consequences of this divergence, as measured by perinatal mortality, are deleterious for blacks." Data were derived from U.S. vital records for 1983-1984.
Correspondence: C. J. Berg, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10119 Overpeck, Mary D.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Prager, Kate. The lowest birth-weight infants and the U.S. infant mortality rate: NCHS 1983 linked birth/infant death data. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 3, Mar 1992. 441-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This analysis links birth and infant death data for the 1983 U.S. birth cohort to show that infants weighing less than 750 grams, comprising 0.3 percent of all births, account for 25 percent of all deaths in the first year of life and 43 percent of deaths in the first week. The implications for reducing infant mortality rates, black-white mortality differentials, and mortality among low birth-weight infants are discussed.
Correspondence: M. D. Overpeck, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Statistics and Prevention Research, Division of Epidemiology, Executive Plaza North, Room 640, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:10120 Pratinidhi, Asha; Shrotri, Aparna; Shah, Usha; Garad, Saraswati. Effect of social custom of migration for delivery on perinatal mortality. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 171-6 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Migration for delivery is a peculiarity observed in some states in India. It is observed in this study that in [a] majority of women from [the] State of Maharashtra this migration is for the sake of convenience or as a social custom. Traditionally first delivery takes place at [the] mother's place. The pregnant mother gets the support from her own mother, mother-in-law or some other relative during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period. This care appears to be of crucial importance as indicated by the lower mortality observed in the group getting help from mother/mother-in-law....Higher perinatal mortality observed among babies born to mothers who delivered in their own home without the advantage of presence of experienced elderly persons is note-worthy. The perinatal mortality is lowest for the babies born to mothers migrating to their mothers' place for delivery."
Correspondence: A. Pratinidhi, B. J. Medical College, Department of Preventive Social Medicine, Poona, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10121 Wilcox, Allen J.; Skjoerven, Rolv. Birth weight and perinatal mortality: the effect of gestational age. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 3, Mar 1992. 378-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the effects of gestational age and other factors on perinatal mortality using data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry for 400,000 singleton births that occurred over the period 1967-1984. The results suggest that "gestational age is a powerful predictor of birth weight and perinatal survival. After these effects of gestational age are controlled for, relative birth weight retains a strong association with survival."
Correspondence: A. J. Wilcox, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:10122 Zhang, Jun; Cai, Wenwei; Chen, Hua. Perinatal mortality in Shanghai: 1986-1987. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1991. 958-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The incidence of, and risk factors associated with, perinatal mortality in Shanghai [China] during 1986-1987 are examined using data from a multi-site study conducted in 29 hospitals. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 14.96 per 1,000 births....Higher parity, multiple pregnancy, and maternal age [35 or older] were the risk factors for perinatal mortality. Asphyxia, cord complications, and congenital malformations were found to be the major causes of perinatal deaths. Comparison of mortality rates between Shanghai and the U.S. suggests that the shortage of advanced technology in perinatal care (e.g. neonatal intensive care units) is a major obstacle to the reduction of perinatal mortality in Shanghai."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, University of North Carolina, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

58:10123 Ahmed, Feroz. Infant mortality among black Americans. ISBN 1-56669-000-5. LC 92-70329. 1992. vi, 79 pp. Howard University, Institute for Urban Affairs and Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author analyzes the causes of high infant mortality among U.S. blacks. Socioeconomic factors examined include maternal age, marital status, education, and socioeconomic status. Consideration is given to the effects on pregnancy outcomes of inadequate health care and nutrition, drug abuse, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use during pregnancy. Medical risk factors and specific causes of infant deaths are also analyzed. Data are from published research and official sources.
Correspondence: Howard University, Institute for Urban Affairs and Research, 2900 Van Ness Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20008. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10124 Amin, Ruhul; Kamal, G. M.; Chowdhury, J. Infant and child mortality in a rural area of Bangladesh: socio-demographic differences, use of medical technologies, and causes of death. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 131-8 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study analyses the retrospective maternity history, infant and child mortality, and morbidity data collected from a rural area of Bangladesh which has recently been exposed to a decentralised curative and preventive health service both by governmental and nongovernmental health agencies." The authors use this information to assess whether recently introduced health technologies are reaching the rural population, whether the population can use them effectively, and whether that use is reducing infant and child mortality. They find that "the level of infant and child mortality continues to be high in rural Bangladesh by a developing country standard. In fact, the level of infant and child mortality in our study population in 1987 shows little change from that of the national infant and child mortality level from the late 1950s through the early 1980s...." Lack of an effective immunization program is cited as a prime factor.
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10125 Badari, V. S.; Gopal, Y. S.; Devaramani, S. C. Infant mortality, its components and correlates: findings from a longitudinal study in rural Karnataka, India. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1991. 89-108 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper the nature of association between infant mortality and some demographic, socio-economic, biosocial and health care variables was studied. The data on infant mortality for the study were obtained by following up a sample of pregnant women [living in]...rural areas of Bangalore Division of Karnataka State [India] during 1977....The important findings of the study are that infant mortality was higher for males than for females, it was higher when the mother was either very young or relatively old..., it was inversely associated with education of the parents (particularly that of the mother) and economic status of the family, it was higher if the mother previously had a still-birth, it was higher for the births attended by untrained persons and it was lower for those born in institutions."
Correspondence: V. S. Badari, Population Centre, 2nd Cross, Mulleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10126 Barbieri, Magali. New evidence on the impact of maternal education on infant and child mortality in Senegal. PIRT Working Paper, No. 34, Mar 1990. 37, [8] pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
"Following the approach developed by Mosley and Chen to integrate both proximate and background determinants of infant and child mortality into a single framework, the research presented in this paper uses a 1986 Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the mechanisms through which maternal education affects child health in Senegal. A two-stage procedure is implemented, involving the use of logistic and ordinary least squares regressions as well as hazard models, to describe the pathways of influence. The three groups of intermediate variables examined in the analysis are: exposure to disease, breastfeeding pattern, and the utilization of health services."
For the article by W. H. Mosley and L. C. Chen, published in 1984, see 50:40161.
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10127 Bocquier, Philippe. The relationship between infant mortality rates and birth spacing in the suburbs of Dakar (Senegal). [Les relations entre mortalite des enfants et espacement des naissances dans la banlieue de Dakar (Senegal).] Population, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 813-31 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author studies "the relationship between rates of mortality in infancy and childhood and birth spacing...[using] results from a retrospective survey carried out in Pikine, suburb of Dakar (the capital of Senegal), in 1986 among 2,807 women aged between 15 and 49 years. The non-parametric method of analysis used to study the interactions between demographic events provides interesting results which are of some relevance to population policies. First, women in Pikine do in fact practise a form of birth control, but only at parities higher than the sixth. Secondly, the arrival of a new child does not appear to increase the risk of the preceding child dying in childhood."
Correspondence: P. Bocquier, ORSTOM, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10128 Buchanan, Anne; Weiss, Kenneth M. Infant mortality in a Mexican-American community: Laredo, Texas, 1950-1977. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1991. 233-41 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Published infant mortality rates (IMR's) for Mexican-American populations frequently are lower than expected given the socioeconomic status (SES) of these populations. It has been speculated that this is due to bias or incompleteness in Mexican-American vital statistics. In this paper an extensive genealogical data base constructed from Catholic church records and civil records for the border city of Laredo, Texas is used to study this problem. The infant mortality probabilities (IMP's) since 1950 are compared to conventional IMR's, both based strictly on the population at risk defined by baptisms, in which the deaths are a proper subset of the denominator, and these are compared with IMR's calculated in the usual way from aggregate civil records of births and infant deaths for Laredo. We find that when these data are used, the IMR's for the most recent years are about twice the conventional rates computed from registered vital statistics."
Correspondence: A. Buchanan, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10129 Chackiel, Juan; Simini, Franco. Estimation of infant mortality based on perinatal clinical history. [Estimacion de la mortalidad infantil a partir de la historia clinica perinatal.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 18-19, No. 51-52, Dec-Apr 1990-1991. 39-61 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors present a method for estimating childhood mortality based on censal data. The procedure is used to obtain indirect retrospective estimates of infant mortality and can be adapted to data specific to parturient women. It is concluded that the technique would be of value "for evaluating and making a follow-up of infant mortality trends in countries for which reliable vital statistics are not available." It is tested on data from Colombia and Uruguay.
Correspondence: J. Chackiel, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10130 Daulaire, Nils M. P.; Starbuck, Eric S.; Houston, Robin M.; Church, Mary S.; Stukel, Therese A.; Pandey, Mrigendra R. Childhood mortality after a high dose of vitamin A in a high risk population. British Medical Journal, Vol. 304, No. 6821, Jan 25, 1992. 207-10 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt "to determine whether a single high dose of vitamin A given to all children in communities with high mortality and malnutrition could affect mortality and to assess whether periodic community wide supplementation could be readily incorporated into an ongoing primary health programme." Data are for Jumla district, Nepal, and concern "all children aged under 5 years; 3,786 in eight subdistricts given single dose of vitamin A and 3,411 in remaining eight subdistricts given no supplementation....Risk of death for children aged 1-59 months in supplemented communities was 26% lower...than in unsupplemented communities. The reduction in mortality was greatest among children aged 6-11 months....The death rate from diarrhoea was also reduced...."
Correspondence: N. M. P. Daulaire, International Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Major Childhood Diseases (INTERCEPT), P.O. Box 168, Hanover, NH 03755. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:10131 El-Deeb, Bothaina. Community factors influencing infant and child mortality in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 211-27 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present study deals with the examination of the community factors affecting infant and child mortality in Egypt." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and other published sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10132 Feeney, Griffith. Child survivorship estimation: methods and data analysis. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 5, No. 2-3, Summer-Fall 1991. 51-5, 76-87 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"The past 20 years have seen extensive elaboration, refinement, and application of the original Brass method for estimating infant and child mortality from child survivorship data. This experience has confirmed the overall usefulness of the methods beyond question, but it has also shown that...estimates must be analyzed in relation to other relevant information before useful conclusions about the level and trend of mortality can be drawn....This article aims to illustrate the importance of data analysis through a series of examples, including data for the Eastern Malaysian state of Sarawak, Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia. Specific maneuvers include plotting completed parity distributions and 'time-plotting' mean numbers of children ever born from successive censuses. A substantive conclusion of general interest is that data for older women are not so widely defective as generally supposed."
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10133 Fildes, Valerie. Breast-feeding in London, 1905-19. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 53-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Medical Officer of Health reports for London boroughs, 1900-19, are analysed to determine the incidence of neonatal breast-feeding, duration of lactation, reasons for early supplementation and premature weaning, and their relationship with infant mortality. In a sample of 222,989 infants, breast-feeding rates were very high....There was a significant positive correlation between breast-feeding and infant mortality due to poor maternal diet and health, poor nutritional quality of supplementary and substitute foods, and the use of an unhygienic feeding bottle. Energetic campaigns to counteract these problems probably contributed to the fall of infant mortality in this period."
Correspondence: V. Fildes, Holt View, Lye Hill, Breachwood Green, Hitchin SG4 8PP, Herts, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10134 Guo, Guang; Rodriguez, German. Estimating a multivariate proportional hazards model for clustered data using the EM algorithm, with an application to child survival in Guatemala. OPR Working Paper, No. 91-11, Oct 1991. 21 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper discusses a random-effects model for the analysis of clustered survival times, such as those reflecting the mortality experience of children in the same family. We describe parametric and non-parametric approaches to the specification of the random effect and show how the model may be fitted using an accelerated EM algorithm. We then fit two specifications of the model to child survival data from Guatemala. These data had been analyzed before using standard hazard models which ignore cluster effects."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10135 Hill, Kenneth. Approaches to the measurement of childhood mortality: a comparative review. Population Index, Vol. 57, No. 3, Fall 1991. 368-82 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"In the developing world, measures of child mortality are needed for a variety of purposes, and estimates of child mortality can be obtained by a variety of approaches. In this paper, the author reviews the characteristics that child mortality measures should have for particular purposes, and then examines the available measurement approaches to determine the extent to which they provide accurate measures with the required characteristics. Particular emphasis is put on the comparative performance of different approaches in different settings to produce estimates of recent levels and trends in child mortality. He concludes that no single approach can satisfy all measurement purposes and that all approaches are sensitive to the quality of data collection, but that many needs can be met by relatively inexpensive data collection and analysis methods."
Correspondence: K. Hill, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10136 Howell, Embry M. Socioeconomic factors in birth outcomes: the United States and France. Pub. Order No. DA9125046. 1991. 159 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This comparative analysis of infant mortality during the 1980s was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at George Washington University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10137 Jinadu, M. K.; Olusi, S. O.; Agun, J. I.; Fabiyi, A. K. Childhood diarrhoea in rural Nigeria. I. Studies on prevalence, mortality and socio-environmental factors. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1991. 323-7 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This population-based study was conducted to determine the prevalence, mortality, and socio-environmental determinants of diarrhoeal diseases in children less than 5 years of age in a rural area of Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria....Social and environmental factors including dirty feeding bottles and utensils, inadequate disposal of faeces and household refuse, and poor storage of drinking water were found to be significantly related to the high incidence of the diseases."
Correspondence: M. K. Jinadu, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Community Health and Nutrition, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10138 March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (White Plains, New York). Infant survival in rural America. Aug 1991. 18, [12] pp. White Plains, New York. In Eng.
This report documents infant health risks in rural areas of the United States, with a focus on the increased mortality risks associated with birth defects. The report includes "infant health statistics for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas for 1988; national average statistics for the period 1984-1988, comparing central cities, suburbs in metropolitan areas, small towns in nonmetropolitan counties, and the most rural portions of nonmetropolitan areas; states' 1987-1988 average infant mortality rates for nonmetropolitan counties and the most rural sections of nonmetropolitan areas; and case studies of the infant mortality problem...for 1988." The importance of maternal health programs is stressed, and differences in the causes of infant mortality in rural and urban areas are examined. Some policy recommendations are made.
Correspondence: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, National Headquarters, 1275 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Plains, NY 10605. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10139 Mbacke, Cheikh S. M. Measuring child mortality from maternity histories collected at time of childbirth: case of the EMIS surveys. Genus, Vol. 47, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1991. 109-30 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper deals with the retrospective estimation of child mortality from maternity histories collected in conditional samples e.g. samples of women giving birth within a definite period of time and interviewed at time of birth of the last child who is excluded from the maternity histories. A new technique for the indirect estimation of infant mortality trends is presented....The technique is applied to Bobodioulasso (Burkina Faso) data and used to estimate infant mortality trends in the United States from 1908 to 1933."
Correspondence: C. S. M. Mbacke, Institut du Sahel, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, Division Formation, BP 1530 Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10140 Meckel, Richard A. Save the babies: American public health reform and the prevention of infant mortality, 1850-1929. The Henry E. Sigerist Series in the History of Medicine, ISBN 0-8018-3879-7. LC 89-15389. 1990. xi, 302 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of public health and social welfare in the United States in the period from 1850 to 1929, during which a main focus of attention was on the reduction of infant mortality. Three stages in efforts to improve child survival are identified: the first, from 1850 to 1880, involved sanitizing environmental conditions; the second, lasting up to the 1920s, involved improvements in infant feeding; and the third, starting in the first decade of the twentieth century, focused on maternal health. Attention is given to the ongoing debate concerning the relationships among infant mortality, poverty, and ethnicity.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 701 West 40th Street, Baltimore, MD 21211. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:10141 Miller, Jane E.; Trussell, James; Pebley, Anne R.; Vaughan, Barbara. Birth spacing and child mortality in Bangladesh and the Philippines: how much is explained by gestation? OPR Working Paper, No. 91-9, Jun 1991. 28 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"We assess the degree to which prior estimates of the effect of interval length on infant and child mortality are contaminated by failure to control for the effects of gestation by examining the relations among birth intervals, gestation length and child survival in Bangladesh and the Philippines. First, we investigate the extent to which the relation between length of preceding birth interval and mortality is confounded by the effects of gestation....Second, we estimate the indirect effect of conception interval on mortality through its impact on prematurity. We then introduce controls for birth order and prior familial child loss in order to determine whether there is any evidence for the hypothesis that women who have had many pregnancies are more likely to experience a child death because of 'maternal depletion', and for the hypothesis that some families simply have a higher propensity toward child mortality. Finally, we assess the risk of poor child health that may be attributable to short conception intervals once the effects of potentially confounding factors such as mother's age, socioeconomic status, and breastfeeding duration are controlled."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10142 Muhuri, Pradip K.; Preston, Samuel H. Effects of family composition on mortality differentials by sex among children in Matlab, Bangladesh. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1991. 415-34, 564-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article examines the effect of sex composition of older siblings on the mortality of male and female children at ages six months to five years in Bangladesh, using data from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System. The results reveal a powerful pattern of parental discrimination against girls. Having an older sister constitutes a grave risk factor for a girl, one that far exceeds any other revealed in the study. A similar, though more muted, pattern exists among boys....These cross-sex results are further evidence that Bangladeshi parents do not treat sons and daughters as perfect substitutes for one another and that they pursue a child survival strategy aimed at securing some balance between male and female offspring, albeit with a strong bias toward sons."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. K. Muhuri, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10143 Mukhopadhyay, Barun K. Differentials of infant mortality in rural West Bengal: a case study. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 155-69 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"A pilot survey was carried out in the villages of Aminpur and Sandhipur of Hooghly district of West Bengal [India] in the years 1983-84....[It was] aimed at procuring fertility and infant mortality statistics (other than regarding health) more accurately through longitudinal visits by well experienced interviewers....For the present paper data on children everborn and surviving by the age of women were only used for the two villages and for different social groups....[The] findings obtained from the present study clearly showed that differentials in mortality were affected by differentials in sociocultural and other aspects of life."
Correspondence: B. K. Mukhopadhyay, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10144 Nagarajan, R. Access to land and child survival: some research issues. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 147-56 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes the effect of landholding on child survival in developing countries. "The present review is divided into two parts. First, the empirical evidence on the overall effect of access to land on child survival is reviewed. This is followed by a review of studies that have examined one or more relevant intermediate variables."
Correspondence: R. Nagarajan, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10145 Olson, Sherry. Family contexts of fertility and infant survival in nineteenth-century Montreal. [Thornton, Patricia A.] Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1991. 401-17 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In exploring the effects of industrialization on the distribution of resources among the various communities in Montreal [Canada] during the second half of the nineteenth century, we examined first-year mortality in the cohort of infants born in 1859....Our initial hypothesis was that differential survival among infants born in 1859 could be attributed entirely to socioeconomic status, and that mortality differences between ethnic groups would merely reflect ethnic divisions of class and habitat. Results required that we reject this hypothesis and seek an alternative explanation of the substantial differentials of infant mortality between cultural communities. To evaluate the possible impact of differences in fertility and infant feeding, we undertook an analysis of birth spacing. The evidence remains ambiguous, since the three cultural communities all display 'natural' fertility and widespread practice of breastfeeding."
Correspondence: P. A. Thornton, Concordia University, Department of Geography, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10146 Pebley, Anne R.; Amin, Sajeda. The impact of a public-health intervention on sex differentials in childhood mortality in rural Punjab, India. Health Transition Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, Oct 1991. 143-69 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the effects of a public-health intervention program on sex differentials in health and mortality during childhood in the Ludhiana District of Punjab state in northern India. We also attempt to determine whether public-health programs seeking to reduce the effects of preferential treatment for sons in areas like the Ludhiana District should focus on all girls in a family, or whether...some girls are at substantially higher risk of poor health and mortality than others in the same family. Finally, we look briefly at whether the public-health intervention in the Ludhiana District had a greater effect on reducing mortality for daughters identified as being at higher risk." The authors find that "among the different health-service packages offered as part of the experimental design, those including nutritional services seem to have been more successful in reducing excess female mortality....The results also indicate that, consistent with earlier research, girls with surviving older sisters had higher mortality rates after their first month of life. Contrary to earlier research, however, boys with surviving older brothers also have higher mortality rates, at least between the ages of one and three years."
Correspondence: A. R. Pebley, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10147 Rance, Susanna; Wolowyna, Oleh; Pinto Aguirre, Guido. Health and population: infant survival. [Salud y poblacion: supervivencia infantil.] 1989. 31 pp. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]: La Paz, Bolivia; Research Triangle Institute: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Spa.
The reasons for the high levels of infant mortality experienced in Bolivia are examined. The authors discuss infant morbidity and immunization programs, the main causes of infant and child deaths, child nutrition, and reproductive risks. They conclude that high levels of infant and child mortality are primarily due to poverty, unequal distribution of resources, and lack of access to health services. Data are primarily from official sources.
Correspondence: Consejo Nacional de Poblacion, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10148 Roth, E.; Kurup, B. Child mortality levels and survival patterns from southern Sudan. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 139-46 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors present an "analysis of southern Sudanese data [that] was undertaken to delineate levels and patterns of childhood mortality in two major population centres. Indirect estimation techniques revealed high levels of childhood mortality, indicating a continuation of the severe mortality differential...between northern and southern Sudanese populations....The finding of this study that maternal education is the most significant determinant of child survival concurs with past studies noting its importance for developing countries with scarce resources."
Correspondence: E. Roth, University of Victoria, Department of Anthropology, P.O. Box 1700, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10149 Sadio, Abdoulaye. Seasonal hunger, birth timing, and pregnancy outcome in a rural region of the Sahel. Pub. Order No. DA9124095. 1991. 189 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, which concerns the Sahel region of Western Africa, was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10150 Spiers, P. S. Relative risk of early and late death in infancy among offspring of non-native-born parents residing in Washington State. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 1, Feb 1992. 89-98 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the possible effects of parental place of birth on infant mortality in the United States by comparing "the ratios of early neonatal deaths to postperinatal deaths among the offspring of migrant mothers and the ratios of such deaths in white infants in the geographic regions in which the migrant mothers were born....The deceased offspring of these migrant mothers died over a 10-year period in Washington State." It is noted that "a significant positive trend was observed when the mother and the father were born in the same region but not when they were born in different regions." The implications of these findings for the study of human genetics, particularly antigen-sharing among couples, are discussed.
Correspondence: P. S. Spiers, University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10151 Srivastava, J. N. Impact of birth spacing on child survival in rural Uttar Pradesh. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 141-6 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objectives of this paper are to investigate the influence of the preceding inter-live birth interval on infant and child mortality in rural areas of Uttar Pradesh State [India] and to estimate potential reduction in these rates by having well spaced births."
Correspondence: J. N. Srivastava, Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10152 Tilak, Jandhyala B. G. Socio-economic correlates of infant mortality in India. Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali, Vol. 38, No. 2, Feb 1991. 169-92 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
The author analyzes variations in infant mortality among the major states of India and between rural and urban areas. The focus is on the socioeconomic factors affecting such mortality. Those examined include educational status, income, literacy, and availability of health services.
Correspondence: J. B. G. Tilak, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, 17-B Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:10153 Tresserras, R.; Canela, J.; Alvarez, J.; Sentis, J.; Salleras, L. Infant mortality, per capita income, and adult illiteracy: an ecological approach. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 3, Mar 1992. 435-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Changes in the relationships among infant mortality, per capita income, and adult illiteracy between 1960 and 1982 are analyzed using published data for 103 countries.
Correspondence: R. Tresserras i Gaju, Departament de Sanitat i Seguretat Social, Travessera de les Corts 131-159, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:10154 Tu, Ping. A comparative analysis of determinants of infant and child mortality in Shanghai and Shaanxi. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1990. 169-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data from the first phase of an in-depth fertility survey carried out in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi and Hebei and in Shanghai municipality in 1985 are used in a comparative analysis of infant and child mortality in Shaanxi and Shanghai. The author concludes that the main differences in mortality between rural and urban areas are related to differences in levels of education, occupations, and childbearing patterns.
Correspondence: P. Tu, Beijing University, Population Institute, Hai Dian, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10155 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Child mortality in developing countries: socio-economic differentials, trends and implications. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/123, Pub. Order No. E.91.XIII.13. ISBN 92-1-151233-6. 1991. ix, 129 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present volume...is to assess trends in child mortality differentials in some developing countries and to explore the extent to which these trends are related to indicators of socio-economic development and to health policies in each country. Similar data and methods are used for each country to identify categories of children at high risk of child mortality, to investigate patterns of differentials of child mortality and to determine the extent to which those patterns are changing over time." The volume covers Costa Rica, Honduras, Jordan, Kenya, Paraguay, and Thailand. It is a follow-up to the 1985 U.N. study on the same topic for 15 developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
For the previous study, published by the United Nations in 1985, see 52:10206.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10156 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Infant mortality--United States, 1989. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 41, No. 5, Feb 7, 1992. 81-5 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes 1989 [U.S.] infant mortality data based on information from death certificates compiled through the Vital Statistics System of CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and compares findings with those for 1988."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10157 Vella, Venanzio; Tomkins, Andrew; Nidku, John; Marshall, Tom. Determinants of child mortality in south-west Uganda. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 103-12 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables were taken from 4,320 children in a baseline survey carried out in March-April 1988 in the district of Mbarara, south-west Uganda. After 12 months a follow-up survey assessed the mortality of the children during the preceding year. Lack of ownership of cattle, recent arrival in the village, using candles for lighting, being of birth order higher than 5 and having a father with less than 8 years of schooling were significantly associated with child mortality. The addition of mid-upper arm circumference significantly improved the logistic model of socioeconomic variables and mortality and did not diminish the predictive power of socioeconomic variables in relation to increased mortality. This suggests that nutritional status and specific socioeconomic factors are both, independently, important predictors of child mortality."
Correspondence: V. Vella, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Human Nutrition, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10158 Zenger, Elizabeth A. Heterogeneity among families in infant mortality and reproductive patterns in Matlab, Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA9132751. 1991. 246 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(6).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

58:10159 Alter, George. Old age mortality and age misreporting in the United States, 1900-1940. PIRT Working Paper, No. 24, May 1990. 26, [4] pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
"This paper describes the application of indirect estimation techniques to a re-evaluation of [old-age] mortality levels and trends and the extent of age misreporting in U.S. censuses and vital registration between 1900 and 1940. First, estimates of the true age distribution at ages 65 and over are developed from a model life table and intercensal rates of population growth....Second, a model of age misreporting is used to describe the differences between the estimated age distribution and the reported age distribution." The author concludes that "the fall in expectation of life at age 65 between 1905 and 1915 may reflect a period in which the decline in mortality from infectious diseases was offset by rising mortality from degenerative diseases. The correlation of old age mortality with industrialization and urbanization suggests that the economic and social changes of the late nineteenth-century may have taken a toll in higher mortality among those who survived into the twentieth century."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10160 Rahman, Omar; Foster, Andrew; Menken, Jane. Older widow mortality in rural Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 1992. 89-96 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Prospective data from rural Bangladesh are used to explore the adverse impact of widowhood on old age female mortality. The results indicate that widows aged 45 and above have significantly higher mortality than their currently married counterparts. Controlling for age and disability status, much of this excess mortality risk can be accounted for by patterns of living arrangements and household assets. An analysis of older widows suggests that the presence of adult male kin in the household (primarily sons), and to a lesser extent household headship (both of which may be interpreted as reflecting individual access to resources in this society) have a substantial impact on mortality risks for this group of women."
Correspondence: O. Rahman, RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

58:10161 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Life tables, 1989. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamislukuja, 1989/Dodlighets- och livslangdstal, 1989.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1991, No. 15, Dec 1991. 13 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Fin; Swe.
Life tables are presented for Finland for 1989, as well as data on life expectancy at various ages and by province.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10162 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). SRS based abridged life-tables, 1981-85. Occasional Paper, No. 1 of 1989, 1990. iii, 29 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Abridged life tables are presented for India for the period 1981-1985, based on data from the Sample Registration System. The data are provided separately for rural and urban areas, by sex, and by major states.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10163 Tas, R. F. J. Period life tables for the Netherlands by sex and age, 1986-1990. [Periode-overlevingstafels naar geslacht en leeftijd, 1986-1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 12, Dec 1991. 18-22 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Life tables are presented by age and sex for the Netherlands for the period 1986-1990. A decline in age-specific mortality is demonstrated, especially for younger males. An increase in life expectancy across the population is shown.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

58:10164 Blum, Alain; Houdaille, Jacques; Lamouche, Marc. Mortality differentials in France during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 163-85 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"The very high quality of a set of marriage records for Paris during the 1860s made it possible to apply indirect methods to estimate adult mortality differentials by certain geographical and social criteria of the 19th century. The largest differences between groups were observed to be social, geographical origin apparently having little impact....It is interesting that social differences in adult mortality are similar in magnitude to those observed today. Perhaps the principal factor of differentiation is then the level of child mortality....It is by no means necessary to have a set of data as complete as ours. The indirect methods we have used proved largely adequate for estimating mortality differentials."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1989 and cited in 55:30175.
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10165 Casper, Michele; Wing, Steve; Strogatz, David. Variation in the magnitude of black-white differences in stroke mortality by community occupational structure. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 45, No. 4, Dec 1991. 302-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze data on stroke mortality for black and white men and women between the ages of 35 and 74 living in the southern United States. The focus is on the socioeconomic factors, including occupational structure, that may contribute to the higher prevalence of such mortality among blacks. They conclude that "the larger racial inequalities in communities of lower occupational structure in the south suggest that aspects of the black experience which are conducive to high rates of stroke mortality are exacerbated in those communities."
Correspondence: M. Casper, Centers for Disease Control, Cardiovascular Health Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE (M/S K-47), Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10166 Coale, Ansley J. Excess female mortality and the balance of the sexes in the population: an estimate of the number of "missing females" Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1991. 517-23, 565-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The effect of sex differentials in mortality on the sex ratio is examined. "In almost all populations the ratio of male to female births is about 1.06; when health care and nutrition for both sexes are about the same, this male majority at birth is erased by male mortality at every age higher than female. In the past (and in some instances also at present) in China, South Asia, and West Asia, the greater female resistance to death is offset by poorer nutrition and inferior health care, resulting in an elevated masculinity of the population. In this note the ratio of males to females that would have been produced in the absence of traditionally based differential treatment of the sexes is estimated for selected populations. The total number of females missing because of inferior care is about 60 million." Estimates are provided for Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Western Asia.
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10167 Goldman, Noreen; Hu, Yuanreng. Mortality differentials by marital status: a case study of Japan. OPR Working Paper, No. 91-8, Jun 1991. 23, [4] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"The objective of this analysis is to gain a better understanding of the factors which produce...distinct mortality patterns in Japan. Our emphasis is on explaining the high mortality risks experienced by the never-married population, but we consider [other] anomalies as well....We begin by exploring the extent to which reporting errors could account for the observed patterns. We proceed by examining the evidence in favor of marriage selection by considering aspects of the mate selection process in Japan which could lead to both high and declining relative mortality ratios for single persons....We explore data on cause of death by marital status in Japan and in the United States in an attempt to learn more about plausible selection or protection mechanisms related to the higher mortality ratios in Japan. Finally, we consider several hypotheses which are consistent with the cause of death analysis and which relate social, economic and cultural aspects of the environment of married and unmarried persons to the higher mortality risks of the unmarried."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10168 Hu, Yuanreng. Mortality differentials by marital status: a comparative analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9112282. 1991. 237 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, which uses data for Japan, Sweden, and the United States, was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(2).

58:10169 Lee, Sea-Baick; Yoon, Bong Ja. Regional and monthly variations in mortality. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jul 1991. 82-99 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"Regional and monthly variations in Korean mortality during the period of 1975-1988 were investigated using vital registration data....A clear regional variation in death rates was found, with lower rates in the large cities of Seoul and Pusan and [in] two provinces...." Differences in provincial rates are associated with socioeconomic variables and differences in levels of public health development. Changes in seasonal variations in mortality over time are noted due to the changing pattern of causes of death from the predominance of infectious diseases in the 1970s to chronic and degenerative diseases in the 1980s.
Correspondence: S.-B. Lee, Seoul National University, School of Public Health, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10170 Malaker, C. R.; Crook, N. R. The use of widowhood data for investigation of mortality differentials in West Bengal--a district level analysis. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 121-9 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors, in attempting to assess mortality differentials in West Bengal, India, present the case for using "questions on widowhood, from which indirect estimates of mortality may also be obtained....[However,] certain biases arise from employing the standard indirect techniques to data on widowhood obtained in this way, that tend to give systematic under-estimates of mortality, at least in the case of West Bengal. However, if one's main interest lies in the investigation of mortality differentials, for instance urban-rural, or in the ranking of units of analysis such as districts in order of mortality, and not so much in the level of mortality per se, then once again this method applied to the censuses may be exceedingly fruitful."
Correspondence: C. R. Malaker, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10171 Schultz, Helga. Social differences in mortality in the eighteenth century: an analysis of Berlin church registers. International Review of Social History, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1991. 232-48 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
Social differences in mortality in eighteenth-century Germany are analyzed using data from two Berlin parish registers. The results suggest that the life expectancy of laborers averaged 18 years, whereas that of civil servants or academics was 35 years. "Particularly infants and small children were the victims of 'social inequality before death', [and] adults were only marginally affected. Nor did the major epidemics and diseases contribute much to this inequality. Although neither the use of animal milk for feeding nor leaving children with wetnurses in the country were common in Berlin at this time, conditions in this early-industrial city contributed to extremely high levels of infant mortality for specific sections of the population."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10172 Tabutin, Dominique. Excess female mortality in North Africa from 1965 to the present day: descriptive aspects. [La surmortalite feminine en Afrique du Nord de 1965 a nos jours: aspects descriptifs.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 833-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in excess mortality among females in North Africa are analyzed and compared for the period from 1965 onward. The author finds that "in general, mortality of women has fallen more rapidly than that of men at ages 10 and over, and the excess mortality of women has gradually disappeared....However, girls have not benefited from this change during the period of childhood and adolescence when they continue to suffer excess mortality....As is the case in many other less developed countries, the phenomenon is concentrated at young ages."
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10173 West, R. R. Specificity of association in analysis of mortality and inference on causality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1991. 984-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt is made to approach the interpretation of differences in mortality experiences of populations or groups de novo....[The author examines] the effect that bias, through preconceived ideas or prior teaching, may have on interpretation of data....The figures are first introduced without captions. All describe the 'age-mortality experience' of populations or groups; all are dimensionally the same, with death rate as the ordinate and age as the abscissa; and all are derived from highly reputable data sets. Comparisons are made between the 'age-mortality experiences' of groups classified by exposure within figures, and for different diseases between figures."
Correspondence: R. R. West, University of Wales, College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, Heath Park, Cardiff CF4 4XM, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10174 Wilkinson, R. G. Income distribution and life expectancy. British Medical Journal, Vol. 304, No. 6820, Jan 18, 1992. 165-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between income distribution and mortality is explored using data from published sources. Specifically, the author attempts to "investigate the cross sectional relation between income distribution and mortality and its possible interactions with gross national product per head and to assess whether changes in income distribution over time are related to changes in mortality in developed countries." He concludes that "there is clear evidence of a strong relation between a society's income distribution and the average life expectancy of its population."
Correspondence: R. G. Wilkinson, University of Sussex, Trafford Centre for Medical Research, Brighton BN1 9RY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

58:10175 Bouyer, J.; Breart, G.; Delecour, M.; Dormont, S.; Houllemare, L.; Papiernik, E.; Pechevis, M. Reducing maternal mortality in developing countries: toward an action program. [Reduire la mortalite maternelle dans les pays en developpement: pour un programme d'action.] ISBN 2-900498-07-4. 1989. 239 pp. Centre International de l'Enfance: Paris, France; Editions INSERM: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Paris, France, October 3-7, 1988 concerning the reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries. The 15 papers included here look at specific case studies, primarily in the francophone countries of Africa, as well as the main causes of maternal mortality, the estimation of maternal mortality from inadequate data, problems involved in reducing mortality from this cause, and appropriate epidemiological methods.
Correspondence: Centre International de l'Enfance, Chateau de Longchamp, Bois de Boulogne, 75016 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10176 Bustan, Mahmoud A.; Mustafa, Mustafa M.; Kohli, B. R.; El-Sayed, Ali M. Potential gains in life expectancy of Kuwaiti nationals through partial and complete elimination of neoplasm mortality, 1984. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 147-53 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The paper estimates the potential gains [in the life expectancy of the Kuwaiti population] resulting from partial and complete elimination of mortality due to neoplasm. Even though the complete elimination of a cause of death may not be biomedically feasible, the results point out the optimum gains that could be achieved. More realistic are the findings based on partial elimination which have implications for practical decision-making in setting health goals, allocation of resources and evaluation of health programmes."
Correspondence: M. A. Bustan, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Science, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10177 Centerwall, Brandon S. Homicide and the prevalence of handguns: Canada and the United States, 1976-1980. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 134, No. 11, Dec 1, 1991. 1,245-65 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"As compared with Americans, Canadians in the 1970s possessed one tenth as many handguns per capita. To assess whether this affected the total criminal homicide rate, the mean annual criminal homicide rates of Canadian provinces were compared with those of adjoining U.S. states for the period of 1976 to 1980. No consistent differences were observed; criminal homicide rates were sometimes higher in the Canadian province, and sometimes higher in the adjoining U.S. state." A comment by Harold B. Houser (pp. 1,261-3) and a response from the author (pp. 1,264-5) are included.
Correspondence: B. S. Centerwall, 611 33rd Avenue E., Seattle, WA 98112. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:10178 Dackam Ngatchou, Richard. Why does measles kill in Tropical Africa? [Pourquoi la rougeole tue-t-elle en Afrique Tropicale?] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1989. 101-58 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
Reasons for the high level of mortality associated with measles in Sub-Saharan Africa are examined through a review of the available literature. The author concludes that although malnutrition is the major contributing factor, other factors are also relevant, such as the relative absence of immunization programs.
Correspondence: R. Dackam Ngatchou, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10179 Dooghe, Gilbert; Pauly, Danny. Demographic analysis of suicide among the elderly in Belgium. [Demografische analyse van de zelfmoord van ouderen in Belgie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1991. 55-80 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine suicide among the elderly in Belgium using data from the 1980s. They consider sex differentials in suicide rates, age factors, and family relationships. It is noted that the ratio of men to women is 2.2 to 1 and that suicide rates are especially high among elderly men aged 75 and over.
Correspondence: G. Dooghe, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10180 Duchene, Josianne. Decrement-increment tables and the measurement of morbidity and mortality: cancer incidence, prevalence, lethality and survival in the Nordic countries. Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 159, ISBN 2-87209-145-9. Jun 1991. 33 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
Morbidity data from cancer registries and mortality data from death certificates are used to analyze cancer mortality and survival in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden in recent years using the synthetic cohort approach. The results suggest that "though women pay to cancer a heavier debt than men in terms of years of life lost in healthy or unhealthy states, they contract forms of cancer with more favourable [prognoses]."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10181 Farchi, G.; Fidanza, F.; Mariotti, S.; Menotti, A. Alcohol and mortality in the Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 74-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The relation of alcohol consumption to mortality is examined using the data of the Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study...The present analysis includes 1,536 men aged 45-64, whose dietary habits and food consumption, including alcoholic beverages, were measured in 1965. Of them, 463 men died in a follow-up period of 15 years. The analysis shows a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption, expressed as percentage of total daily energy intake, and both overall mortality and cardiovascular mortality; this J-shaped relationship is evident even after adjusting for age, cigarette smoking and occupation."
Correspondence: G. Farchi, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10182 Fliess, Kenneth H. Mortality transition among the Wends of Serbin, Texas, 1854-1884: changes in pattern of death from parochial records. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1991. 266-76 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This article investigates causes of death between 1854 and 1884 among the Wends of Serbin, Texas, a nineteenth-century European immigrant community. The goal is: (1) to show that data pertaining to individual cause of death extracted from parochial records can contribute to knowledge about historical mortality patterns at the community level, (2) to determine if an epidemiological transition occurred in this population, and (3) to identify changes in disease patterns over time. Changes in the pattern of disease for the entire population as well as for the subpopulation under one year of age are analyzed."
Correspondence: K. H. Fliess, University of Nevada, Department of Anthropology, Reno, NV 89557. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10183 Hansluwka, Harald; Karrer, Karl. Stomach cancer mortality in Austria, 1961-1965 and 1981-1985. [A gyomorrak okozta halandosag Ausztriaban 1961/65-ben es 1981/85-ben.] Demografia, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1990. 219-33 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Mortality due to stomach cancer and other cancers of the digestive system in Austria for the periods 1961-1965 and 1981-1985 are analyzed and compared. Consideration is given to sex and age differentials and to rates for provinces. Some comparative data for Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia are provided.
Correspondence: H. Hansluwka, Alliiertenstrasse 14, 1020 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10184 Izsak, Janos. Trends in the distribution of cancer deaths in Hungary. [A daganatos betegsegek halaloki koncentraciojanak magyarorszagi alakulasarol.] Demografia, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1990. 270-81 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
A method for estimating changes in age distribution among cancer deaths is illustrated using data for Hungary. Some comparative data for Finland and the United States are offered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10185 Kane, Thomas T.; El-Kady, Adel A.; Saleh, Saneya; Hage, Marvin; Stanback, John; Potter, Linda. Maternal mortality in Giza, Egypt: magnitude, causes, and prevention. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 45-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents results from a population-based study of the magnitude and causes of maternal mortality in the Giza governorate of Egypt in 1985-86. Deaths to women in the reproductive ages were identified through the death registration system. Family members of the deceased were interviewed using the 'verbal autopsy' approach. Immediate and underlying causes of death were then assessed by a medical panel. This methodology allows for the classification of multiple causes of death and is appropriate when registration of adult deaths is nearly complete, but reporting on cause of death on death certificates is poor....The maternal mortality rate is estimated to be, at minimum, 22 maternal deaths per 100,000 women aged 15-49....Since most deliveries occur at home, many with the help of traditional birth attendants, TBAs [traditional birth attendants] will need training in early diagnosis, treatment, and/or effective referral of problem pregnancies." Policy implications and the need for better preventive care are discussed.
Correspondence: T. T. Kane, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10186 Kliewer, Erich. Immigrant suicide in Australia, Canada, England and Wales, and the United States. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 8, No. 2, Nov 1991. 111-28 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Factors influencing the suicide rates of numerous immigrants in groups in Australia, Canada, England and Wales, and the United States during the period 1959-73 were examined....For males, the foreign-born in England and Wales had the lowest suicide rates and the foreign-born in the United States the highest. For females the variation was smaller, with immigrants in the United States having the lowest rates, and those in Australia the highest....In each destination significant correlations existed between the suicide rates of the immigrants and those of the origin populations, indicating that the suicide rates for individual immigrant groups were to some extent predisposed by their experiences in the origin countries. Factors in the destination country also influenced immigrant suicide rates, as the rates of the majority of the immigrant groups converged towards the rates of the destination native-born....The analyses also suggested that migration is more deleterious for females than males."
Correspondence: E. Kliewer, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10187 Lee, Sam Sik. Cause of death by the age and sex: an examination of the pattern of mortality in Republic of Korea, 1985. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 603-42 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Mortality trends are examined by cause of death for the Republic of Korea. Differentials by age, sex, and behavioral factors, including smoking and alcohol drinking, are taken into consideration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10188 Lester, David; Yang, Bijou. Fertility and suicide rates: a time series analysis in the United States. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 97-101 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The present study explores the relationship between fertility and suicide in the United States [from 1933 to 1984] by means of a time series multiple regression analysis. The hypothesis was that times of relatively greater fertility would be associated with a reduced rate of suicide. Since newborn children are not necessarily the most socially integrating forces for people, the effect of a time lag between fertility rates and suicide rates was also explored."
Correspondence: D. Lester, Center for the Study of Suicide, Blackwood, NJ 08012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10189 Maffenini, Walter; Rallu, Jean-Louis. Road accidents in Italy and France. [Les accidents de la circulation en Italie et en France.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 913-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors examine the factors contributing to the high number of motor vehicle accidents and fatalities in France and compare them with those for Italy. Consideration is given to road safety, legislation, type of automobile, and characteristics of drivers, including alcohol consumption and driving behavior.
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10190 McCarthy, James; Maine, Deborah. A framework for analyzing the determinants of maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 23-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Hundreds of thousands of women in developing countries die each year from complications of pregnancy, attempted abortion, and childbirth. This article presents a comprehensive and integrated framework for analyzing the cultural, social, economic, behavioral, and biological factors that influence maternal mortality....One of the main conclusions is that all determinants of maternal mortality (and, hence, all efforts to reduce maternal mortality) must operate through a sequence of only three intermediate outcomes. These efforts must either (1) reduce the likelihood that a woman will become pregnant; (2) reduce the likelihood that a pregnant woman will experience a serious complication of pregnancy or childbirth; or (3) improve the outcomes for women with complications. Several types of interventions are most likely to have substantial and immediate effects on maternal mortality, including family planning programs to prevent pregnancies, safe abortion services to reduce the incidence of complications, and improvements in labor and delivery services...."
Correspondence: J. McCarthy, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10191 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Firearm mortality among persons aged 1 to 34. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 72, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1991. 2-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in firearm mortality in the United States are analyzed. "Firearms claim more than 30,000 lives each year in the United States. In 1988 more than half of these deaths were among ages 1-34, with firearms accounting for 15 percent of all deaths in this age group." Differences by state and by ethnic group are noted. Results indicate a general increase in firearm mortality since 1984, with America's minority youth the major victims.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10192 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Major causes of accident mortality among children: United States, 1988. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 73, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1992. 2-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a review of mortality due to accidents among young people in the United States and is based on data from official sources. "Despite decreases in the overall rate of accidental deaths since 1912, accidents remain the fourth leading cause of death for all ages, combined, and the leading cause between ages 1 and 44." Nearly half of all deaths among those aged 5-9 are from accidents, with males predominating as victims even among the very young.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10193 National Cancer Institute of Canada (Toronto, Canada). Canadian cancer statistics 1991. Apr 1991. 75 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
This annual report presents estimates on cancer morbidity and mortality in Canada for 1991. "This year's special topics are survival rates for cancer treated in Ontario, cancer among Canadian children by histological cell type, cancer in the Canadian Inuit population and registered Indians in Saskatchewan, and statistics on the prevalence of smoking and its relation to mortality from cancer of the lung."
Correspondence: Canadian Cancer Statistics, Canadian Cancer Society, 10 Alcorn Avenue, Suite 200, Toronto, Ontario M4V 3B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10194 Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Steubenville, Ohio. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 135, No. 1, Jan 1, 1992. 12-25 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The relationship between particulate air pollution and mortality is examined using data for Steubenville, Ohio, for the period 1974-1984. "Total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased daily mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature." A comment by Robert E. Waller and Anthony V. Swan (pp. 20-2) and a response by the authors (pp. 23-5) are included.
Correspondence: J. Schwartz, Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20460. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

58:10195 Siddique, A. K.; Baqui, A. H.; Eusof, A.; Zaman, K. 1988 floods in Bangladesh: pattern of illness and causes of death. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1991. 310-4 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The authors study the impact of flooding on disease distribution and mortality in Bangladesh, with a focus on the flood disasters of 1988. Data were collected by health care personnel and from health facility death records. The need to develop long-term health management, which could be supplemented during emergencies, is noted.
Correspondence: A. K. Siddique, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10196 Valkovics, Emil. Estimating mortality from diseases of the circulatory system. [A keringesi rendszer betegsegeibol szarmazo halandosag zavaro hatasoktol mentes leirasa.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 70, No. 1, Jan 1992. 63-77 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A method of estimating mortality by cause of death is presented using data for Hungary on mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The method calculates mortality from simultaneous multiple causes as well as single cause of death.
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, maros-u. 27 v. 2, 1122 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10197 Wallace, R.; Fullilove, M. T. AIDS deaths in the Bronx 1983-1988: spatiotemporal analysis from a sociogeographic perspective. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 23, No. 12, Dec 1991. 1,701-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Patterns of AIDS deaths, in space and time, are examined for the populous Bronx section of New York City in view of the continuing massive destruction of housing and disruption of community which has affected the South Bronx since the early 1970s. Annual Bronx AIDS deaths are studied simultaneously in geographic space and in a dual 'social variate' space, and it is found that study of linked changes in each deeply illuminates patterns in both. This analysis reinforces a rapidly growing body of work which suggests control of AIDS in the United States, particularly prevention of a widespread and relentlessly rising heterosexual phase of the epidemic, may well prove impossible without a timely, general, and considerable program of reform and renewal for its disintegrating inner cities."
Correspondence: R. Wallace, New York Psychiatric Institute, Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Research Department, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

58:10198 Wing, Steve; Barnett, Elizabeth; Casper, Michele; Tyroler, H. A. Geographic and socioeconomic variation in the onset of decline of coronary heart disease mortality in white women. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 2, Feb 1992. 204-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Regional, metropolitan, and socioeconomic factors related to the onset of decline of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality among [U.S.] White women are reported....Mortality data for 1962 to 1978 were used, to estimate the year of onset of decline....Onset of decline of CHD mortality among White women was estimated to have occurred by 1962 in 53% of 507 state economic areas....Metropolitan areas experienced earlier onset of decline than did nonmetropolitan areas. Average income, education, and occupational levels were highest in early onset areas and declined across onset categories....The results are consistent with the idea that the course of the CHD epidemic in the United States has been strongly influenced by socioeconomic development."
Correspondence: S. Wing, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, B #7400, McGavran-Greenburg Building, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).


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