Volume 57 - Number 4 - Winter 1991

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

57:40557 Dickason, David G. Socio-demographic area of Delhi. Population Geography, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1989. 1-20 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates statistically and displays cartographically previously untabulated and unpublished data from the 1971 Census of India for the entire population of Delhi. Data pertain to Delhi's census 'charges' (wards) and were originally tabulated in the form of 348 variables relating to occupational distribution, migration, and non-worker status--each classified separately by gender. Although these data are subject to multiple reporting errors and fallacious ecological inferences, they constitute the largest database yet assembled for comparative analysis of Indian intra-metropolitan patterns and structures. Socio-demographic patterns and areas are identified reflecting the traditional-modern, formal-informal, familistic, and ethnic constituents of the national capital of India."
Correspondence: D. G. Dickason, Western Michigan University, Department of Geography, Kalamazoo, MI 49008. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40558 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Structure of population, 1990. [Vaestorakenne, 1990/Befolkningens sammansattning, 1990.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1991, No. 11, 1991. 136 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Swe; Fin. with sum. in Eng.
Data are presented on the characteristics of the population of Finland in 1990. Information is included on language, sex distribution, age distribution, place of birth, citizenship, religion, marital status, and fertility. The data are presented primarily by province, with some data by municipality.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40559 Frisen, Carl M. Population characteristics in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jun 1991. 55-66 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article provides information on population characteristics of the Lao People's Democratic Republic such as ethnicity, age and sex distribution, fertility, mortality, migration, labour force, education and projected size of the population in the future. It also provides some policy implications." Data are mainly from the country's first nationwide census, conducted in 1985, and are primarily based on a 10 percent sample.
Correspondence: C. M. Frisen, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40560 Grundy, Emily. Ageing: age-related change in later life. In: Population research in Britain, edited by Michael Murphy and John Hobcraft. 1991. 133-56 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Population Investigation Committee: London, England. In Eng.
"The first section of this paper concerns demographic trends in England and Wales, biological and psychological changes associated with ageing and psychosocial models of ageing. The socio-economic position of the elderly and trends in their economic and residential status are considered in the second section. The third part of the paper is based on an analysis of data from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) Longitudinal Study which have been used to look at the 'empty nest' stage of the life cycle and at residential changes between 1971 and 1981 among those aged 65 or over in 1971. The use and provision of health and social services and some of the implications of the ageing of the elderly population are considered in the final part of the paper."
Correspondence: E. Grundy, King's College, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, Chelsea Campus, 552 Kings Road, London SW10 0UA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40561 Gui, Shixun. Elderly populations in the Jingan district of Shanghai and the special districts of Tokyo: a comparative analysis. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1989. 459-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present paper is a comparative analysis of part of the survey of the elderly population conducted in the Jingan District of Shanghai in October 1987, and part of the survey on the social welfare (the actual living conditions) of the elderly in the special districts of Tokyo, with a view to finding the similarities and differences between the two localities....The purpose...[is] to pinpoint certain measures adopted by Japan with respect to the aging issue that might be of interest to China." Consideration is given to marital status, family structure, number of children, health status, education, and employment. The role of family support of the elderly receives particular attention.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40562 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Main results of the population census of 1990. [Az 1990. evi nepszamlalas osszefoglalo eredmenyei.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 69, No. 10, Oct 1991. 765-73 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The results of a two percent sample taken from the January 1990 census of Hungary are presented. The size and structure of the population are described by age, sex, and level of education, as is occupational status. Data on family and household composition and housing characteristics are also included.
Correspondence: Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly Utca 5-7, P.O.B. 51, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40563 Nam, Charles B.; Dasvarma, Gouranga L.; Rahardjo, Sri P. The changing age distribution in Indonesia and some consequences. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, Aug 1991. 121-36 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Beginning with a discussion of the sources and quality of Indonesian age data by sex, this paper examines the changes in the functional age groups of the population of Indonesia from 1971 to the year 2005, and the implications of these changes for education, labour force participation, dependency ratios and fertility. Data for the period 1971 to 1985 are based on actual enumerations, while those for the period 1990 to 2005 are based on projections. Although the provisional totals of the 1990 Census had been released before the publication of this paper, their breakdown by age was still not available. The functional age categories discussed in the paper include the pre-school years, the primary and intermediate school ages, the teenage years, the reproductive ages of women, the principal working ages and the post-work years. It concludes with a discussion of various policy and planning implications of these changes."
Correspondence: C. B. Nam, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:40564 New Zealand. Department of Statistics (Wellington, New Zealand). Demographic and economic consequences and implications of changing population age structures: causes of changes in the age structure. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, May 1991. 51-63 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
This is a report on determinants of changes in New Zealand's age composition that was presented at the European Statisticians Seminar, held September 24-28, 1990, in Ottawa, Canada. Consideration is given to fertility trends, mortality patterns, external migration, ethnic composition, and age and age distribution.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40565 New Zealand. Department of Statistics (Wellington, New Zealand). Demographic and economic consequences and implications of changing population age structures: consequences of future changes in the age structure for public revenues and expenditures. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, May 1991. 64-78 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
This is a report on projected consequences of future changes in New Zealand's age structure that was presented at the European Statisticians Seminar, held September 24-28, 1990, in Ottawa, Canada. Consideration is given to population size and growth, cohort changes, demographic aging, income maintenance, health care issues, and ethnic and gender differentials.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40566 Nowakowska, Barbara; Obraniak, Wlodzimierz; Nowak-Sapota, Kazimiera; Zarzycka, Zofia. Geographical differences in population aging in Poland. [Terytorialne zroznicowanie procesu starzenia sie ludnosci Polski.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 333, 1991. 182 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors analyze regional differences and trends in population aging in Poland for the period 1975-1987. Consideration is given to such individual factors as occupation, marital status, employment status, and family and household characteristics. More general factors are also explored, including migration rates, birth and death rates, population density, and type of economy.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-544 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40567 Pantelides, Edith. Economic and social aspects of population ageing in Argentina. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/113, 1991. x, 58 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one of three case studies commissioned by the U.N. Population Division describing the various aspects of population aging in developing countries. This particular work examines the social and economic consequences of demographic aging in Argentina. "The main objectives of these studies are: (a) to illuminate the demographic processes that have brought about changes in the age structure of the population; and (b) to provide planners with a better understanding of the social and economic implications of such changes."
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40568 Remedios, Grace; Sita, K. Demographic characteristics of the environs of Tarapur atomic power station. Population Geography, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1989. 62-76 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the demographic characteristics of the area surrounding the Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra, India, in order to evaluate the advisability of increasing generation capacity and to understand the impact any accident might have on the region. They conclude that the prevailing wind patterns imply that any accident involving radioactive emissions would have serious implications for the health of the neighboring population. The authors therefore oppose expansion of the facility.
Correspondence: G. Remedios, University of Bombay, Department of Geography, University Road, Fort, Bombay 400 032, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40569 Rogers, Richard G. Demographic characteristics of cigarette smokers in the United States. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1991. 1-12 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This research uses a multivariate log-linear examination of a [U.S.] national data set to analyze the combined influences of ethnicity, age, and sex on cigarette smoking status, not only for smokers but for former smokers and current nonsmokers as well. In general, we find that demographic differences in smoking vary across several dimensions. For instance, compared to females, males are more likely to smoke and to smoke heavily....Mexican-Americans who smoke generally smoke small quantities of cigarettes. And Blacks are as likely as other groups not to smoke at all, and less likely than Anglos to smoke heavily. This article discusses potential future mortality effects, intervention strategies, and directions for future research."
Correspondence: R. G. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40570 Torres, Clemente. The construction of life profiles by social class in Chile. [Construccion de perfiles de vida para grupos sociales en Chile.] Estudios de Economia, Vol. 16, No. 2, Nov 1989. 193-222 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author develops a series of life profiles for men and women living in the Greater Santiago area of Chile over the past 25 years. These profiles, which are based on the concept of life expectancy at birth, illustrate the length of time individuals take to go through such life cycle stages as education, employment, unemployment, and retirement. The concept is used to analyze changes in the life profile over time and how these differ by class.
Correspondence: C. Torres, Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Administrativas, Departamento de Economia, Avenida Bernardo O'Higgins 1058, Casilla 10-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40571 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York); Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA] (Ottawa, Canada); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Argentina: the situation and needs of the third age. Some selected cities. [Argentina: situacion y necesidades de la tercera edad. Algunas ciudades seleccionadas.] CELADE Serie A, No. 223, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.109. Aug 1991. vii, 195 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This study surveys the aging population in Argentina, the majority of whom live in the cities of greater Buenos Aires, La Plata, and Rosario. Statistics on other smaller cities are also included. Figures on housing, transportation options, health, retirement, and occupational status are provided. The emphases are on whether ample social services are currently provided for the elderly, and on planning for the problems associated with the expected growth in the size of the aged population. The provision of adequate retirement benefits and of opportunities for employment in later life are cited as partial solutions.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40572 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Ageing and urbanization: proceedings of the United Nations International Conference on Ageing Populations in the Context of Urbanization, Sendai (Japan), 12-16 September 1988. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/109, Pub. Order No. E.91.XIII.12. ISBN 92-1-151233-6. 1991. viii, 461 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume presents the reports and recommendations from a conference held in 1988 in Japan on the relationship between demographic aging and urbanization. The geographical scope of the conference was worldwide. The report and recommendations are divided into three substantive sections on demographic trends and prospects, socioeconomic implications of aging urban populations, and support for the urban elderly. The background papers included are organized under the same topics and are further divided into general background papers and papers dealing with specific cities.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40573 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Population profile of the United States, 1991. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 173, Jul 1991. 38 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents a summary of data from a wide range of sample surveys on U.S. social and economic trends. "The report includes data collected from 1986 to 1990 and reflects the most recent information available on each topic in early 1991. In many cases, the data are shown by race and Hispanic origin." Topics covered include school enrollment, educational attainment, households and families, marital status and living arrangements, child care, need for assistance with everyday activities, labor force and occupations, income, poverty, wealth, and the elderly.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40574 Vierck, Elizabeth. Fact book on aging. ISBN 0-87436-284-9. LC 90-34667. 1990. xxii, 199 pp. ABC-Clio: Santa Barbara, California; Clio Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is designed as a source for basic data on demographic aging and its consequences in the United States. It includes chapters on the size and growth of the older population, life expectancy and longevity, geographic distribution and mobility of the aged, work and retirement, income, and marital status, living arrangements, and family. The data are primarily taken from official published sources.
Correspondence: ABC-Clio, 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911, Santa Barbara, CA 93116-1911. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40575 Vossen, Ad. Population ageing and increasing public expenditure: is population policy the answer? Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1991. 49-67 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"In this paper we first of all try to become somewhat more explicit in indicating the consequences of ageing, by proposing an index which relates a simple age specific public expenditures profile to an age specific labour force participation profile. This index is calculated for different demographic ageing scenarios representing possible future situations in the Netherlands. Most scenarios show rapidly increasing index values between the second and fourth decade of the 20th century. Next, analyses are carried out in order to investigate whether either demographic policies (fertility and/or migration) or labour force policies might reduce the expected costs of an ageing society."
Correspondence: A. Vossen, Tilburg University, Department of Social Science, Demography Section, P.O. 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40576 Zhang, Ping. Issues and characteristics of the unmarried population. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990. 87-97 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines characteristics of the never-married population in China. Consideration is given to sex ratio, geographical distribution, educational levels, and rates for rural and urban populations. Data are from the 1982 census and 1987 sample survey of one percent of the population.
Correspondence: P. Zhang, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Sociology, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

57:40577 Balaci, M.; Copil, I. M.; Popescu, C.; Ghenciu, G.; Arcan, V. M. Statistic demographic studies concerning longevity of Romania's population. III. Estimates of the longevals 90-99 years of age and centenarians aged 100 and over based on census data. Romanian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol. 11, No. 3-4, 1990. 191-9 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Rum.
The authors estimate the number of persons aged 90 to 99 years and the number of persons 100 years and over in Romania by sex and region for the year 1988. Data are based on the 1977 national census. The results show increases in both groups for the entire country and by district, with a sex differential favoring females.
Correspondence: M. Balaci, National Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40578 Casper, Waltraut; Hermann, Sabine. The development of life expectancy in European countries. In: Socio-economic differential mortality in industrialized societies, volume 7. 1991. 215-26 pp. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"We attempted to calculate comparable values of life expectancy for all countries by means of a simple method. We based our data on the death and population figures of the European countries in the years 1975-1985....The average life expectancy is 68 years for males and 77 years for females respectively. For both sexes together it is about 73 years. The highest life expectancy for males is recorded in Iceland (74.5 years) and for females in Spain (80.7 years). Hungary registered the lowest life expectancy for males (65.1 years), and Romania the lowest for females (72.6 years)....In all countries the life expectancy of females exceeds that of males; the difference is 6.6 years on the average."
Correspondence: W. Casper, Institute of Medical Statistics and Data Processing, Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40579 Floud, Roderick. Medicine and the decline of mortality: indicators of nutritional status. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 146-57 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this...chapter...is to survey the progress that has been made in the use and understanding by historians, economists, and demographers of indicators of nutritional status and to suggest directions for future research, with particular reference to the causes of the European mortality decline between 1700 and 1914." The emphasis is on the measurement of height as a primary anthropometric indicator of nutritional status.
Correspondence: R. Floud, City of London Polytechnic, 117/119 Houndsditch, London EC3A 7BU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40580 Fossett, Mark A.; Kiecolt, K. Jill. A methodological review of the sex ratio: alternatives for comparative research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 4, Nov 1991. 941-57 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article addresses conceptual, methodological, and practical issues that arise in the investigation of the effect of the sex ratio on marriage and family formation in comparative research. Using census data for the black populations of U.S. metropolitan areas, the study examines the relationships of several measures of the sex ratio to each other and to various indicators of family formation and family structure. Analysis indicates that different measures of the sex ratio are often only moderately correlated with each other and thus often have quite different correlations with measures of family formation and structure. When measures of the sex ratio are properly formulated, they have strong associations with marriage prevalence, nonmarital fertility ratios, and the prevalence of single-parent, female-headed families with young children....The conclusion is that, when appropriate caution is exercised, relatively simple measures can be used in comparative research investigating the effect of the sex ratio on family formation and family structure."
Correspondence: M. A. Fossett, Texas A and M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40581 Hulanicka, B.; Waliszko, A. Deceleration of age at menarche in Poland. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 18, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 507-13 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The purpose of this paper is to describe secular growth changes in age at menarche of girls in Poland during the past 40 years. For this purpose data obtained from four consecutive surveys conducted in 1955, 1966, 1978 and 1988 were analysed....Data regarding schoolgirls aged 7-18 were collected by the status quo method. It was found that after the continuous trend towards an earlier maturation of Polish girls from 1955 to 1978 a substantial slowing down, and even a reverse trend, was observed. The deceleration of the age at menarche is most marked among girls from small towns. The results seen to have been caused by the retardation of menarcheal age in social groups which in the previous examinations were the earliest maturers."
Correspondence: B. Hulanicka, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Anthropology, ul. Podwale 75, 50-449 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

57:40582 Borsch-Supan, Axel; Stahl, Konrad. Life cycle savings and consumption constraints: theory, empirical evidence, and fiscal implications. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1991. 233-55 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Recent tests of both the pure and the extended life cycle hypothesis have generated inconclusive results on the life cycle behavior of the elderly. We extend the life cycle model by introducing a constraint on the physical consumption opportunities of the elderly which, if binding, imposes a consumption trajectory declining in age. This explains much of the received evidence on the elderly's consumption and savings behavior, in particular declining consumption, and increasing savings and wealth with increasing age. Our analysis of [Federal Republic of Germany] data gives additional support to our theory. We finally draw the implications of the theory on the incidence of consumption and income (wealth) taxes, and on the recent (inconclusive) tests of intergenerational altruism."
Correspondence: A. Borsch-Supan, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics, Schloss, W-6800 Mannheim, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40583 Burkhauser, Richard V.; Duncan, Greg J. United States public policy and the elderly: the disproportionate risk to the well-being of women. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1991. 217-31 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Cross-sectional comparisons show that poverty among the aged in the United States has dropped dramatically over the last two decades. We use longitudinal data to identify economic events associated with unfavorable economic outcomes and to trace the influence of these events on women and men at different ages. We find that while social insurance programs appear to prevent severe financial hardship from the most frequent work-related events, they are far less effective in cushioning the economic impact of widowhood and divorce, especially for women. We suggest a number of policy changes that would provide some measure of social insurance against adverse family-related events."
Correspondence: R. V. Burkhauser, Syracuse University, 400 Maxwell Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244-1090. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40584 Cantillon, Bea. Socio-demographic changes, income distribution, and poverty. Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1991. 95-122 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this contribution, the results are presented of an empirical analysis of the consequences of socio-demographic changes on income distribution, poverty and the adequacy of social security [in Belgium]. The research shows that recent socio-demographic trends are not only accompanied by the increase in the cost of social security, but also by important changes in income distribution and in the adequacy of social security. It turns out that the occurrence of a social risk no longer automatically implies a situation of need while, on the other hand, new needs have emerged which are not included in the social risks traditionally covered by social insurance." The focus is on the impact of demographic aging and on the economic well-being of the elderly.
Correspondence: B. Cantillon, University of Antwerp, Centre for Social Policy, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40585 Dooley, Martin D. The demography of child poverty in Canada: 1973-1986. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1991. 53-74 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines trends in the incidence and severity of child poverty in Canada between 1973 and 1986. Particular attention is paid to the relation between child poverty and demographic variables such as number of children per family. Multivariate analysis is used to assess how much of the change in the incidence of child poverty can be accounted for statistically by demographic change. Various definitions of income are used to analyze the impact of government transfers, taxes and the earnings of wives on child poverty." The prevalence of poverty among children of young married couples and single mothers is noted.
Correspondence: M. D. Dooley, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40586 Greene, Richard P. Poverty area diffusion: the depopulation hypothesis examined. Urban Geography, Vol. 12, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 526-41 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
This paper examines the role depopulation plays in the growth of areas of extreme poverty in U.S. inner cities. "A growth typology of extreme poverty areas reveals four different neighborhood outcomes resulting from population change. The evidence demonstrates that the depopulation hypothesis does not describe the growth circumstances of all poverty areas. Regional variations in poverty area depopulation rates are a reflection of how broader demographic and economic changes have played out unevenly across the national urban system."
Correspondence: R. P. Greene, Northern Illinois University, Department of Geography, DeKalb, IL 60115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40587 Hirsl, Miroslav. Earnings of young families in Czechoslovakia (1970-1988). [Prijmy mladych domacnosti v Ceskoslovensku (1970-1988).] Demografie, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1991. 222-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Using census, survey, household structure, and earnings data for Czechoslovakia, the growth in net family income of those married up to five years is analyzed for the years 1970-1988. A one-percent annual increase is demonstrated. Factors considered include age of male household head, occupation, and level of education.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40588 Lam, David; Levison, Deborah. Age, experience, educational status, and differences in income: the United States and Brazil. [Idade, experiencia, escolaridade e diferenciais de renda: Estados Unidos e Brasil.] Pesquisa e Planejamento Economico, Vol. 20, No. 2, Aug 1990. 219-55 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper analyses age and experience profiles of earnings inequality for American and Brazilian males. Decomposition of the inequality profiles using a human capital framework clarifies the determinants of cross-section inequality profiles and demonstrates a number of important differences in the shape of the two countries' profiles and in their underlying components. Changes in the distribution of schooling across cohorts are shown to play a central role in explaining cross-section inequality profiles within each country and in explaining differences in earnings inequality in the United States and Brazil."
Correspondence: D. Lam, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40589 Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina. Women's income profile as a key indicator of women's status for the understanding of changing fertility behaviour in rural Kenya. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1990. 31-43 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The study is based on data collected in 1985-86 in two villages in Kenya contrasting with regard to the degree of socio-economic development. The data suggest that when women in either of the two communities reach a level of income that allows them to afford more than basic needs, their behaviour is similar with respect to investments in the quality of children (in terms of clothes and school fees) and to contraception. When women's income is substantial (within the context of rural Kenya), women's aspirations for their children increase and children become costly to mothers. Also when women have an income that allows them to hire labour, they rely more on hired labour and on purchased needed commodities rather than on their children's labour contributions....Under these conditions, the 'flow of resources' follows the direction from mothers to children and leads to mothers' desire to control the number of children they bear, as evidenced by their contraceptive behaviour."
Correspondence: C. Safilios-Rothschild, Agricultural University, Department of Gender Studies in Agriculture, Salverdaplein 11, POB 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

57:40590 Akiri, Preston. Modeling residential mobility: the example of Le Havre. [La modelisation de la mobilite residentielle: l'exemple du Havre.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1991. 251-72 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes a model based on input-output models that considers out-migration from a particular system. "These movements have important effects on population distribution and the stock of dwellings, and start new vacancy chains, just like new constructions. [By]...incorporating these movements into a model,...vacancies created by out-migration or obtained by new constructions in a given period are both reallocated by the model in the ensuing period. It thus becomes a better tool for decision-making, hypothesis testing, simulation and forecasting, taking account of the state of the housing market and the urban situation in general." Data are for the French city of Le Havre.
Correspondence: P. Akiri, Laboratoire MTG, B.P. 108, 76130 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40591 Alba, Richard D.; Logan, John R. Variations on two themes: racial and ethnic patterns in the attainment of suburban residence. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3, Aug 1991. 431-53 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To investigate racial and ethnic diversity in suburbanization [in the United States],....we use [a multilevel model] to analyze the determinants of suburban versus central-city residence for 11 racial/ethnic groups. The analysis reveals that family status, socioeconomic, and assimilation variables influence the suburbanization process rather consistently....There are also suburbanization differences among metropolitan areas, particularly related to the relative economic status of cities and their suburbs, and between the northeast/north central regions and the south/west. Finally, we conclude that suburbanization is variable across the groups in a way that is not captured by broad categories such as 'Asian' or 'Hispanic.'"
Correspondence: R. D. Alba, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40592 Kiernan, Kathleen E. Transitions in young adulthood in Great Britain. In: Population research in Britain, edited by Michael Murphy and John Hobcraft. 1991. 95-114 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Population Investigation Committee: London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the passage from adolescence to adulthood in the United Kingdom in the period following World War II. Topics covered include economic activities and living arrangements, educational status, marriage and cohabitation, and parenthood. The influence of class and sex on the maturation process is also considered.
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, Family Policy Studies Centre, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40593 Liu, Zheng; Li, Jianbao. On the relationships between rural labor productivity, family investment in education, and population quality. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990. 67-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors consider "the relationships between labor productivity and population quality in order to demonstrate the importance of economic development, and of improving population quality in rural areas. This study is made on the basis of surveys conducted in 1979 and 1986 on the age-specific VP and VC [volume of production and volume of consumption] in certain areas of Jiangsu Province [China]." Population quality is defined primarily in terms of the educational status of the labor force.
Correspondence: Z. Liu, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40594 Mare, Robert D. Five decades of educational assortative mating. American Sociological Review, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1991. 15-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines how changes in education, women's participation in the labor force, fertility, cohabitation, and average age at marriage have affected the relationship between husbands' and wives' educational attainment in the United States over the past 50 years. "Census and Current Population Survey data from 1940 to 1987 indicate that the association between spouses' schooling increased between the 1930s and the 1970s and was stable or decreased in the 1980s....After estimated trends in educational assortative mating are adjusted for the length of time between school leaving and marriage, some evidence of increased homogamy from the 1930s to the 1980s remains. This may result from increasing competition in the marriage market for wives with good prospects in the labor market. Increases in educational homogamy may increase inequality among families and in the socioeconomic achievement of their offspring."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, p. 393).
Correspondence: R. D. Mare, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40595 Mutchler, Jan E.; Burr, Jeffrey A. A longitudinal analysis of household and nonhousehold living arrangements in later life. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3, Aug 1991. 375-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper we employed data from the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation to assess the patterns of change in living arrangements among nonmarried individuals aged 55 and over during a 2-1/2-year period in the mid-1980s. Our model emphasizes the role of socioeconomic resources and health in making these decisions in the context of other important factors that influence the pool of alternatives for living arrangements. Our results show that economic resources are important in the process of choosing household living arrangements, but that health dominates the decision to enter an institution. According to the results presented here, the association between economic resources and institutionalization is minimal, once health is considered."
Correspondence: J. E. Mutchler, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40596 Sagar, Prem. Male-female literacy differential in India--1981. Population Geography, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1989. 21-39 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author examines inequalities in the literacy rates between males and females in India. Regional variations in literacy are examined by district using maps. "The male-female literacy differential is low in coastal, peripheral and metropolitan areas and is high in inland and mountainous areas. These regional disparities are the product of differences in length of educational background, age at marriage, level of urbanisation, standard of living and proportion of socially conservative and backward sections of society....The study in spatial dimension provides a strong base for the removal of sex biased discrimination in society."
Correspondence: P. Sagar, Government College, Dera Bassi, District Patiala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40597 Sha, Jicai. An analysis of the correlation between the educational levels and economic status of the Chinese urban elderly population. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990. 1-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines educational levels of the urban elderly population in China and their effect on income, sources of income, and employment. Data are from a 1987 sample study of the segment of China's population that is more than 60 years old. Educational levels of the urban elderly are found to be higher than those of the rural or total elderly but lower than those of the total population. The author notes that educational level correlates positively with income level, dependence on pension and salary rather than on relatives, employment and re-employment rate, and employment in the non-material sector. It is also found that males are better educated than females and that level of education decreases with age.
Correspondence: J. Sha, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40598 Widayatun. Women's status and child survival in West Java, Indonesia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, Mar 1991. 3-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article attempts to identify geographical patterns in the status of women in the regencies and municipalities of West Java and to examine the relationship between the status of women and infant and child mortality in the province. Using 1980 Indonesian census data, it conceptualizes women's status on two levels: within the household and in society, using education, age at first marriage and occupation as measures of that status. The study demonstrates large regional variations in the status of women, and found that their status is closely linked to infant and child mortality. It suggests that improved education and an increase in the age at first marriage are key elements for improving the status of women in West Java."
Correspondence: Widayatun, Institute of Sciences (PPT-LIPI), Centre for Population and Manpower Studies Indonesia, Widya Graha LIPI, J1n. Gatot Subroto 10, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

57:40599 Abedin, Saleha M. Muslim minority and majority countries: a comparative study of demographic, social and economic data. Journal: Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jul 1989. 375-424 pp. Jedda, Saudi Arabia. In Eng.
This paper presents data on the world's Muslim population. It "attempts to put together demographic and socio-economic data for countries selected on the basis of two criteria: one, the presence of Muslim majority in the population and; two, the presence of Muslim minority population exceeding 2 million and 2 percent of the population." Both current estimates and projections up to the year 2000 are provided. The focus of the study is on the demographic and socioeconomic differences between Muslim populations in countries where they form the majority and those where they are in the minority. The data are from published sources.
Correspondence: S. M. Abedin, King Abdulaziz University, Women's College, Jedda 21441, Saudi Arabia. Location: Pennsylvania State University Library.

57:40600 Bennett, Claudette E. The black population in the United States: March 1990 and 1989. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 448, Aug 1991. v, 141 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of Blacks [in the United States] based primarily on the March Supplement to the 1990 and 1989 Current Population Surveys....Topics covered include population growth, education, family composition, employment, income, earnings, and poverty status....This report highlights comparisons and changes in selected characteristics of Black males and Black females."
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40601 Dima, Nicholas. Recent ethno-demographic changes in Soviet Moldavia. East European Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1991. 167-78 pp. Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
Demographic trends in Soviet Moldavia during the 1980s are reviewed. The focus is on the demography of the Romanian population of Moldavia in the context of the changes brought about by perestroika. The data are primarily from Soviet sources, including the censuses of 1979 and 1989. The data also concern Romanians or Moldavians living elsewhere in the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40602 Farley, Reynolds. The new census question about ancestry: what did it tell us? Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3, Aug 1991. 411-29 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In addition to specific inquiries about race and Spanish origin, the [U.S.] censuses of 1980 and 1990 included an open-ended question about ancestry, which replaced the question about parents' place of birth....This paper examines findings from the new ancestry question from the perspective of measuring ethnicity....The ancestry question allows us to characterize the descendants of European immigrants, but because of ethnic intermarriage, the numerous generations that separate present respondents from their forebears, and the apparent unimportance of ancestry to many whites of European origin, responses appear quite inconsistent. In regard to these groups, we may now be in an era of optional ethnicity, in which no simple census question will distinguish those who identify strongly with a specific European group from those who report symbolic or imagined ethnicity."
Correspondence: R. Farley, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40603 Frey, William H. Are two Americas emerging? Population Today, Vol. 19, No. 10, Oct 1991. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Distribution patterns of whites and minorities in the United States are analyzed using data from the 1980 and 1990 censuses. "These data show that the distribution of U.S. whites across geographic regions and metro areas is becoming increasingly dissimilar to that of faster-growing minorities....Minority gains are most heavily concentrated in the rapidly growing West region and in large metropolitan areas....Minority growth was more than seven times that of whites and helped drive up the national growth rate to 9.8 percent....Growth rates for whites are much slower. Whites are more heavily concentrated in the North, in smaller metros and in nonmetropolitan areas, and in suburban rings."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40604 Halli, Shiva S.; Trovato, Frank; Driedger, Leo. Ethnic demography: Canadian immigrant, racial and cultural variations. Carleton Library Series, No. 157, ISBN 0-88629-108-9. 1990. ix, 497 pp. Carleton University Press: Ottawa, Canada. Distributed by Oxford University Press Canada. In Eng.
This is a selection of 22 papers by various authors on the ethnic demography of Canada, and is the product of a conference held at the University of Manitoba in August 1988. The focus of the collection is on making available to students and policy-makers the most recent data on ethnic demography from the 1981 and 1986 censuses and recent social surveys. The papers are divided by general topics which are fertility, mortality, and migration; demographic processes and ethnic cohesion; immigrant socioeconomic status; and the multiethnic challenge for demographers.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press Canada, 70 Wynford Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1J9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40605 Harmsen, C. N.; van der Heijdt, J. Dutch residents with East-European background, January 1, 1990. [In Nederland woonachtige personen met een Oosteuropese achtergrond, 1 januari 1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 8, Aug 1991. 15-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Official data are analyzed for persons of East European origin, including Albania, the USSR, and Yugoslavia, residing in the Netherlands as of January 1, 1990. Consideration is given to country of birth, age, sex, nationality, parental country of birth, and current residence. There are some 83,000 persons of East European origin in the Netherlands; 43 percent of them were born there and about 70 percent of the total are Dutch nationals.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40606 Klinger, Andras. Population structure of Transylvania by mother tongue. [Erdely nepessege anyanyelvi osszetetelenek alakulasa.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 69, No. 10, Oct 1991. 813-35 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Relying on available official census data for the region of Transylvania, Romania, the author traces the historical development of the language affiliations of the population. The difficulties encountered in assessing the reliability of the available data are discussed. The study covers the period from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day.
Correspondence: A. Klinger, V. Nephadsereg-utca 4, 1505 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40607 O'Hare, William P.; Pollard, Kelvin M.; Mann, Taynia L.; Kent, Mary M. African Americans in the 1990s. Population Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 1, Jul 1991. 40 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors assess the changes in the social and economic status of blacks in the United States since the 1960s. Chapters are included on current trends in population size and distribution, age distribution, fertility, mortality and health, family and residence characteristics, educational attainment, labor force participation, income, wealth, poverty, and political participation. The prospects for the future of African Americans are also reviewed, in light of the lack of progress made in the 1980s due to various political and economic factors. Special sections on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as it effects blacks, and on the 1990 census undercount of blacks and other minorities are also included.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40608 Paille, Michel. Growth of the population speaking languages other than English or French in Quebec: prospects for the year 2006. [Accroissement de la population allophone au Quebec: horizon 2006.] Notes et Documents, No. 77, ISBN 2-550-21098-0. 1990. 20 pp. Conseil de la Langue Francaise: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author projects the development of the population of Quebec province whose mother tongue is not French, English or a North American Indian language. The projections are made separately to the year 2006 for the province as a whole, the island of Montreal, and the Montreal metropolitan region. The results suggest that this population will make up between 8.1 and 9.4 percent of the population of the province, compared to 6.8 percent in 1986.
Correspondence: Gouvernement du Quebec, Publications Gratuites, Ministere des Communications, Bibliotheque Administrative, Rez-de-Chaussee, 1037 rue de la Chevrotiere, Quebec G1R 4Y7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40609 Paille, Michel. Language planning and population in Quebec. [Amenagement linguistique et population au Quebec.] Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'Etudes Canadiennes, Vol. 23, No. 4, Winter 1988-89. 54-69 pp. Peterborough, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The effects of the development of language policies favoring French in the Canadian province of Quebec are analyzed. The author concludes that although such policies have had favorable short-term effects, "the francophone population of Quebec will decline at the beginning of the twenty-first century if its birthrate does not rise, for it cannot count on massive immigration to guarantee population renewal."
Correspondence: M. Paille, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40610 Paille, Michel. New trends in the demography of language on Montreal island, 1981-1996. [Nouvelles tendances demolinguistiques dans l'ile de Montreal, 1981-1996.] Notes et Documents, No. 71, ISBN 2-550-19731-3. May 1989. xvii, 173 pp. Conseil de la Langue Francaise: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Demographic trends on the island that forms the central part of the Canadian city of Montreal are analyzed using data from a variety of official sources, including the 1986 census. The focus is on the relative growth of the different language groups, particularly the French-speaking population. The author concludes that the future of the French language in Montreal is dependent on the language preferences and decisions of the immigrant population, whose mother tongue is generally neither French nor English.
Correspondence: Gouvernement du Quebec, Publications Gratuites, Ministere des Communications, Bibliotheque Administrative, Rez-de-Chaussee, 1037 rue de la Chevrotiere, Quebec G1R 4Y7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40611 Paille, Michel. The demographic future of francophones in Montreal island. [L'avenir demographique des francophones de l'ile de Montreal.] Action Nationale, Vol. 81, No. 2, Feb 1991. 222-33 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The future development of languages on the island that forms a major part of central urban Montreal, Canada, is reviewed. The author notes that, according to the most recent census, the francophone population of the area was already under 60 percent, and in view of the low fertility of the resident population and probability of large-scale in-migration, this percentage is likely to decline. Finally, he questions assumptions concerning the absorption into the French-speaking population of new migrants whose mother tongue is neither English nor French.
Correspondence: M. Paille, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40612 Park, Hyunjung. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Korean Americans in the United States in 1980. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 19, No. 2, Dec 1990. 177-99 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"Based on the analysis of 1980 [U.S. Census] Public-Use Microdata Samples, this article demonstrates that the Korean immigrant stream, particularly men, has been very selective even before the 1965 reform....Despite the educational superiority and somewhat positive occupational position, Korean men in the U.S. are seriously disadvantaged in income regardless of nativity status. Korean Americans are not as successful as whites in translating their education into occupation and income; they are better educated for the same job, but experience a lower income return to the same education and the same occupation."
Correspondence: H. Park, Korean Educational Development Institute, 92-6 Umyeon-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-791, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40613 Piplai, Chumki. Demographic study of one sedentary and two migrant populations of Eastern India. Human Biology, Vol. 63, No. 5, Oct 1991. 697-710 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Demographic data were collected from 185 sedentary Oraon of Gumla district of Bihar, 255 migrant Oraon, and 242 migrant Tamang households, covering a total population of 1,009, 1,414, and 1,537 individuals, respectively. Both migrant groups were tea garden laborers working in the Birpara, Lankapara, and Tulsipara tea gardens in the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India. The present study reveals that the migrant Oraon possess significantly higher fertility and (infant) mortality than the sedentary Oraons even though they are a genetically similar group. The study also reveals that the two migrant groups differ with respect to both fertility and mortality even though they inhabit similar physical and sociocultural environments."
Correspondence: C. Piplai, Anthropological Survey of India, Calcutta 700 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40614 Sharma, O. P. Scheduled Castes: population and literates. ISBN 81-85414-01-7. 1990. xi, 453 pp. Kar Kripa: New Delhi, India. Distributed by Bookwell Publications, 24/4800 Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. In Eng.
"The present volume contains total population [for India] of each Scheduled Caste and number of literates among them by rural and urban break up and for both the sexes, as revealed at the time of the 1961, 1971 and 1981 censuses. Similar publication in respect of Scheduled Tribe population has been planned and is currently under compilation."
Correspondence: Kar Kripa, Flat No. 98, Pocket No. 12, Block No. C2C, Janakpuri, New Delhi 110 058, India. Location: New York Public Library.

57:40615 van der Erf, R. F.; Tas, R. F. J. Aliens in the Netherlands on January 1, 1991. [Niet-Nederlanders op 1 januari 1991.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 9, Sep 1991. 14-24 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data on foreigners living in the Netherlands as of January 1991 are analyzed. Consideration is given to age, marital status, fertility, mortality, migration, and population trends by nationality. It is noted that the 1990 increase of 50,000 resident aliens was the largest annual increase in this century. The greatest number of aliens come from Turkey, followed by those from elsewhere in Europe, and thirdly from Morocco.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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