Volume 57 - Number 4 - Winter 1991

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

57:40104 Belacek, Jaromir. An analysis of mortality in the Czech Republic, 1982-1987 (log-linear models). [Analyza umrtnosti v Ceske Republige 1982-87 (logaritmicko-linearni modely).] Demografie, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1991. 121-33 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This article describes the application of log-linear models to aggregate mortality sets in Czechoslovakia. The analysis considers sex, age, causes of death, family status, educational status, and regional differences. The results are illustrated in a series of cartograms.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40105 Burcin, Boris; Stloukal, Libor. Mortality of the Czech and the Slovak populations considering historically low mortality rates. [Umrtnost Ceske a Slovenske populace z hlediska historicky minimalnich mer umrtnosti.] Demografie, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1991. 106-13 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The mortality rates of the Slovak and Czech populations of Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1988 are analyzed. The lowest death rates in the country's history were achieved for all age groups during this period. The authors calculate that a significant increase in life expectancy for both ethnic groups will occur in 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40106 Burnett, John. Housing and the decline of mortality. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 158-76 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between housing conditions and the historical mortality decline in Europe is examined. The data considered are primarily for England and Wales in the nineteenth century.
Correspondence: J. Burnett, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40107 Chiang, Ching Long. Competing risks in mortality analysis. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 12, 1991. 281-307 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"In this paper, we present a brief review of the concept of competing risks and the statistical methods of mortality analysis, including estimation of three types of probability of dying with respect to a particular cause of death. We will describe formulas of estimates for cohort studies, medical follow-up studies, and analyses of mortality data for a current population. To illustrate this method of analysis, we will use the major cardiovascular (CV) diseases and malignant neoplasms mortality data of the United States white male and female population in 1986."
Correspondence: C. L. Chiang, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40108 Foster, Andrew. Are cohort mortality rates autocorrelated? Demography, Vol. 28, No. 4, Nov 1991. 619-37 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper the author examines the proposition that heterogeneity in individual frailty leads to autocorrelation in cohort mortality rates. A simple model is used to construct analytic expressions for the covariance of cohort mortality rates at different ages under a number of alternative assumptions about the stochastic process generating shocks in mortality. The model then is used to construct a procedure that uses correlations in cohort mortality rates to estimate the extent of heterogeneity in a population without relying on strong assumptions about the distribution of frailty or the shape of the underlying hazard. The procedure then is used to show that cohort mortality data from France are consistent with a generalized random-effects model in which frailty is gamma-distributed."
Correspondence: A. Foster, University of Pennsylvania, Economics Department, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40109 Goldblatt, Peter; Moser, Kath; Fox, John; Pugh, Helena; Jones, David; Rosato, Michael; Leon, Dave. Longitudinal study. Mortality and social organisation. Series LS, No. 6, ISBN 0-11-691292-8. 1990. xiv, 192 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
"This volume brings together a number of papers which have used the OPCS Longitudinal Study to investigate relationships between employment, occupation, social characteristics and subsequent mortality [in England and Wales]." Data for the studies are also taken from the 1971 and 1981 censuses and the National Health Service Central Register.
Correspondence: Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40110 Haines, Michael R. Conditions of work and the decline of mortality. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 177-95 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between working conditions and mortality in Europe is explored using nineteenth-century data for England and Wales. The author concludes that the urban environment as a whole had a much greater impact on mortality than did the occupational situation of individuals.
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40111 Herrera Leon, Lorenzo; Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo; Mitat Valdes, Jorge; Galvez Gonzalez, Ana M. Life expectancy at birth and its relationship to changes in mortality by age, sex, and cause. [La expectativa de vida al nacimiento y su relacion con los cambios en la mortalidad por edad, sexo y causa.] Revista Cubana de Salud Publica, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 29-36 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors analyze changes in life expectancy at birth in Cuba over the period 1977-1984 with regard to age, sex, and cause of death. The methods used are those developed by J. H. Pollard.
For the study by Pollard, published in 1982, see 49:10159.
Correspondence: L. Herrera Leon, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Calle 23 y N, Vedado, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40112 Holford, Theodore R. Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 12, 1991. 425-57 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
This article is concerned with the effects of age, period, and cohort on disease incidence and with mortality from that disease. The emphasis is on the interpretation of results from fitting regression models to data that include age, birth cohort, and period or year of diagnosis. Some examples are presented using U.S. data for lung cancer.
Correspondence: T. R. Holford, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40113 Jannetta, Ann B.; Preston, Samuel H. Two centuries of mortality change in central Japan: the evidence from a temple death register. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 3, Nov 1991. 417-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we introduce a new Japanese source to historical demographic analysis: the Buddhist temple death register, or kakocho. We exploit a death register belonging to a Buddhist temple in the Hida region of central Japan. This register documents the mortality experience of a large rural population for a period that extends over two centuries [from 1771 to 1970] and which includes Japan's modern transformation....We use death data to estimate birth rates and death rates and to construct period life tables. We believe that these life tables, shown in the Appendix, represent the longest series of mortality estimates available for any region in Asia."
Correspondence: A. B. Jannetta, University of Pittsburgh, Department of History, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40114 Khristov, Emil. Probabilities of death by calendar year with consideration of the migratory balance. [Veroyatnosti za umirane po kalendarni godini s otrazyavane na migratsionnoto saldo.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1990. 111-8 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author considers the probabilities of death by calendar years with a migratory balance reflection. Attention is focused on the measures of age-related mortality as the most sensitive indicators of the health service standards in the country." Data are primarily for Bulgaria, with some worldwide data used to illustrate the model.
Correspondence: E. Khristov, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, 7 Noemvri 1, 1040 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40115 Kunitz, Stephen J. The personal physician and the decline of mortality. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 248-62 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the contribution of the personal physician system to the historical decline of Western mortality. He first points out that physicians' significant input to mortality reduction cannot realistically be dated prior to the 1940s, and then considers why there is therefore a continuing interest in the contribution of physicians to the mortality decline that occurred prior to the 1940s. He examines what physicians do in practice, the changes and conflicts that occurred in medicine from the end of the nineteenth century to the end of World War II, and finally the consequences of the therapeutic revolution in the 1940s and 1950s.
Correspondence: S. J. Kunitz, University of Rochester Medical Center, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40116 Lewchuk, Wayne. Industrialization and occupational mortality in France prior to 1914. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1991. 344-66 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which workplace characteristics such as the levels of mechanization or managerial control influenced occupational mortality in France at the beginning of the twentieth century. Data include statistics from a study by M. Huber published in 1912. The author concludes "that long hours of work, under conditions where labor had limited control of the pace of work, represented the most serious occupational risk facing early French workers. The effect of long hours of work on mortality dwarfed the impact of either mechanization or size of establishment."
Correspondence: W. Lewchuk, McMaster University, Department of Economics and Labour Studies Programme, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:40117 Perrenoud, Alfred. The attenuation of mortality crises and the decline of mortality. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 18-37 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the causes of Europe's mortality decline using data from the sixteenth century onward. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of mortality crises. He concludes that the decline was associated with a general decrease in normal mortality rather than a change in the frequency or pattern of mortality crises. The importance of climatic changes is considered.
Correspondence: A. Perrenoud, University of Geneva, Department of Economic History, 3 place de l'Universite, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40118 Rao, Keqin. Theoretical models and prediction of the changes in case mortality patterns in major Chinese cities. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990. 43-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Through a comparison of different methods, this study is intended to set up more satisfactory theoretical models of case mortality patterns in major Chinese cities, to ascertain the manner of changes in the time sequence of various diseases, and to predict the trends of these changes. This study is based on the data of causes of death in the country's 14 cities having a population of over one million, where there are complete statistical registration systems and reliable data."
Correspondence: K. Rao, Ministry of Public Health, Department of Planning and Finance, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40119 Rusev, Bozhidar. Influence of the age-specific death rate on average life expectancy in Bulgaria, 1900-1980. [Vliyanie na povazrastovata smartnost varkhu izmenenieto na srednata prodalzhitelnost na zhivota v Balgariya prez perioda 1900-1980 g.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1990. 84-92 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author develops a model for assessing the effect of changes in the age-specific death rate on life expectancy. The model is illustrated using data for Bulgaria for the period 1900-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40120 Schofield, R.; Reher, D.; Bideau, A. The decline of mortality in Europe. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828328-8. LC 90-19692. 1991. xiv, 270 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume includes a selection of the papers presented at a seminar on medicine and the decline of mortality, held at the Fondation Merieux's Centre des Pensieres at Lake Annecy, France, June 22-25, 1988, and organized by the IUSSP's Committee on Historical Demography. The 14 papers examine various aspects of the mortality decline that has occurred over the past 200 years in Europe and the rest of the developed world.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40121 Schofield, Roger; Reher, David. The decline of mortality in Europe. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 1-17 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature on the causes of the mortality decline that began in Europe in the eighteenth century. It includes consideration not only of published studies in general but also of papers published in the same volume as this paper.
Correspondence: R. Schofield, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40122 Sierra Medina, Wilson; Ines Gutierrez, Clara. The death register, 1987-1988. [Registro de defunciones, 1987-1988.] Boletin de Estadistica, No. 447, Jun 1990. 128-66 pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
Detailed statistics on mortality in Colombia in 1987 and 1988 are presented, together with some retrospective data to 1970. The data are provided on deaths by sex and region, causes of death, infant and child mortality, age-specific mortality, and deaths by marital status and medical intervention.
Location: New York Public Library.

57:40123 Spencer, Byron G.; Winkowska, Irena. A multivariate analysis of mortality in rural Africa. African Studies Review, Vol. 34, No. 2, Sep 1991. 81-96 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This study provides an analysis of the determinants of mortality in a part of Ethiopia, an area called Legeambo. While this area is small, it is similar in many important respects to other parts of rural Africa: the standard of living is low, access to sources of water for drinking, cooking, and bathing is difficult, and medical services are all but nonexistent. It is also similar to other areas in terms of its high rate of mortality." Data are from a household survey undertaken in 1980 in connection with an FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) project designed to improve the standard of living in the area.
Correspondence: B. G. Spencer, McMaster University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40124 Vallin, Jacques. Mortality in Europe from 1720 to 1914: long-term trends and changes in patterns by age and sex. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 38-67 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes changes in mortality in Europe from 1720 to 1914. The data used are primarily from Henry's reconstitution of parish registers for France and Wrigley and Schofield's retrospective projections for England. The significance of differences among the countries of Europe is stressed, with regard not only to timing of the mortality decline but also to its age and sex patterns.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40125 Woods, Robert. Public health and public hygiene: the urban environment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 233-47 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we deal with four issues in the long debate on the form and causes of the decline in mortality between 1700 and 1914, issues which are especially associated with the contribution of public hygiene. The first concerns the nature of public hygiene as an element of public health, including various forms of environment and environmental change which have come to be linked with notions of public health. The second is concerned with the urban environment, urbanization, and the high level of mortality experienced by the inhabitants of most large towns. The third deals with the issue of public responsibility." The impact of medical intervention on public health is also considered. The geographical focus is on Europe.
Correspondence: R. Woods, University of Liverpool, POB 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

57:40126 Bailey, Patricia E.; Dominik, Rosalie C.; Janowitz, Barbara; Araujo, Lorena. Obstetrical care and perinatal mortality in a rural area of northeastern Brazil. [Assistencia obstetrica e mortalidade perinatal em uma area rural do nordeste brasileiro.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 111, No. 4, Oct 1991. 306-18 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines deliveries in a rural community of northeastern Brazil served by midwives who had received training that included the referral of pregnancies with complications....Data were collected on 1,661 women, of whom 62% gave birth in their homes and 38% in hospitals....The factors significantly associated with perinatal mortality were advanced maternal age, the presence of prenatal pathology, abnormal presentation, complications in labor, and previous stillbirth." The results indicate that midwives are providing prompt and appropriate care to high-risk patients.
Correspondence: P. E. Bailey, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40127 Bentham, Graham. Chernobyl fallout and perinatal mortality in England and Wales. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1991. 429-34 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on perinatal mortality in England and Wales. Although there were marked geographical differences in contamination from Chernobyl, it is found that there was no rise in perinatal mortality that could be associated with radiation.
Correspondence: G. Bentham, University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

57:40128 Aly, Hassan Y. Egyptian child mortality: a household, proximate determinants approach. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul 1991. 541-52 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
The author attempts to analyze the causes of childhood mortality in Egypt. Following a review of the direct, indirect, and proximate determinants approaches to analyzing mortality, the author presents the empirical models used in the estimation process. Data are from the 1980 World Fertility Survey for Egypt. Factors considered include number of pregnancies, blood relationship between spouses, breast-feeding, water quality, electricity supply, crowdedness of living conditions, and the adequacy of the sewer system.
Correspondence: H. Y. Aly, Ohio State University, Department of Economics, 142A Morrill Hall, 1465 Mt. Vernon Avenue, Marion, OH 43302. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40129 Amin, Sajeda. Infant mortality and breastmilk supplementation in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1990. 15-31 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The effects of timing and type of breast-milk supplementation on infant mortality in Bangladesh are analyzed using a discrete time analog of a continuous time proportional hazards model. Data are from the Determinants of Natural Fertility Study conducted from 1975 to 1978 among some 2,000 women in Matlab thana. "The statistical analyses show that breastfeeding type at various stages of the child's life is a significant predictor of infant mortality, even when variables such as...mother's [age], education, religion and SES [socioeconomic status] are included in the model. The study shows that infants breastfed at birth have better probabilities of survival relative to those who are never breastfed or are given liquid supplements very early in life. This effect remains significant even when mother's nutrition at childbirth, which is used as a proxy for birth weight, is controlled."
Correspondence: S. Amin, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, GPO Box 3854, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:40130 Amin, Sajeda. The effect of women's status on sex differentials in infant and child mortality in South Asia. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1990. 55-69 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper examines differentials in infant and child mortality focussing specifically on the patterns related to sex-specific birth order and mother's education. The data come from rural Punjab [India] and were collected in the period 1968-73....The findings suggest that the influence of maternal education, sex and birth order are complex and interact with each other: second and higher order daughters are found to have higher mortality relative to first daughters and sons. Although levels of female education [are] very low in this population, children of educated mothers in general have lower risk of dying. However, it appears that their daughters of second or higher birth order have abnormally high mortality in the first month of life."
Correspondence: S. Amin, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, GPO Box 3854, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40131 Barbieri, Magali. The determinants of child mortality in the third world. [Les determinants de la mortalite des enfants dans le tiers-monde.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 18, ISBN 2-87762-029-8. Oct 1991. 40 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author refines a model originally developed by W. H. Mosley and L. C. Chen for the analysis of infant and child mortality in developing countries. The main change to the model involves a redefinition of the proximate determinants and their regrouping into three, rather than five, classes. The three groups proposed are exposure to disease, resistance to disease, and treatment. The author demonstrates the value of the proposed model for the comparative analysis of infant and child mortality and the development of programs designed to affect such mortality in developing countries.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40132 Basu, Alaka M.; Basu, Kaushik. Women's economic roles and child survival: the case of India. Health Transition Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 1991. 83-103 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article provides evidence that women's employment, in spite of its other benefits, probably has one crucial adverse consequence: a higher level of child mortality than is found among women who do not work. We examine various intermediate mechanisms for this relationship and conclude that a shortage of time is one of the major reasons for this negative relation between maternal employment and child survival. However, even in the area of child survival, there is one aspect which is positively affected by female employment: the disadvantage to girls in survival which is characteristic of South Asia seems to be smaller among working mothers." The geographic focus is on India.
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Institute of Economic Growth, University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40133 Behm Rosas, Hugo; Barquero Barquero, Jorge. Mortality in childhood: Central America, Panama, and Belize. [La mortalidad en la ninez: Centroamerica, Panama, y Belice.] Serie OI, No. 1007, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/CR/R.11. Sep 1990. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica; Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama [INCAP]: Guatemala City, Guatemala. In Spa.
This is a collection of seven volumes examining mortality among children under age five in the countries of Central America. Included are Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Panama. The focus is on the period 1980-1989. Topics covered include causes of death and differential mortality by region and sex.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40134 Chassaigne, Philippe. Infanticide in London during the Victorian era: an attempt at a quantitative analysis. [L'infanticide a Londres a l'epoque victorienne: essai d'approche quantitative.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 227-37 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The incidence and distribution of infanticide throughout the city of London, England, during the nineteenth century are described. "Although the statistical evidence referring to it is scattered and uneasy to collect, infanticide amounts to a substantial proportion of homicidal criminality (40% in England and up to 60% and more in London). Three phases summarize its evolution: an ascending period up to 1850 then [it stays] at a regular level for the next thirty years; the two last decades are those of a decline, especially after 1890. Of the whole of England, London is the hotbed for this kind of criminality, and, at parish level, the Middlesex ones, and more particularly those of the West Middlesex are far ahead."
Correspondence: P. Chassaigne, Universite de Bordeaux III, Espl. Michel-Montaigne, Domaine Universitaire, 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40135 Condran, Gretchen A.; Kramarow, Ellen A. Child mortality among Jewish immigrants to the United States. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 22, No. 2, Autumn 1991. 223-54 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors analyze reasons for the low levels of infant and child mortality among Jewish immigrants to the United States in the early twentieth century. They examine historical interpretations of the phenomenon, including racial and biological determinants, family and child-care practices, and better access to medical care and acceptance of scientific medicine. Data from the 1910 U.S. census are used to analyze the impact of assimilation, socioeconomic status, mother's literacy and labor force status, and fertility levels.
Correspondence: G. A. Condran, Temple University, Department of Sociology, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

57:40136 Eberstadt, Nicholas. America's infant-mortality puzzle. Public Interest, No. 105, Fall 1991. 30-47 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Reasons for the continued high rate of infant mortality in the United States in comparison with other countries are discussed. The author notes that even though differences in the accuracy of reporting infant deaths may explain a percentage of the gap between the United States and other countries, they do not explain the phenomenon as a whole. He concludes that the role of public policy in reducing rates of infant mortality may be limited by a strong American prejudice in favor of individual freedom and rights, which includes the de facto right to be a negligent parent.
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

57:40137 Fauveau, Vincent; Koenig, Michael A.; Wojtyniak, Bogdan. Excess female deaths among rural Bangladeshi children: an examination of cause-specific mortality and morbidity. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1991. 729-35 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Excess female infant mortality in rural Bangladesh is analyzed using data for 1986-1987 from Matlab thana. It shows that female children aged 1 to 4 had a risk of dying 1.8 times higher than male children. "The causes of death which contributed the most to this excess female mortality were severe malnutrition and diarrhoeal diseases. The risks of dying were 2.5 and 2.1 higher for female than for male children for these two causes, respectively. Possible mechanisms are examined using data on incidence of selected diseases and admission rates to curative facilities. There was no gender difference in incidence of severe diarrhoeal diseases, but female children with diarrhoea were taken to the hospital significantly less often than male children. In contrast, there was a higher incidence of severe malnutrition in female than male children, and a lower rate of hospital admission. The data suggest that gender differentials in mortality may not be as much affected by preventive measures against diarrhoea as by efforts to provide equivalent curative services to female and male children."
Correspondence: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40138 Forbes, Douglas; Frisbie, W. Parker. Spanish surname and Anglo infant mortality: differentials over a half-century. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 4, Nov 1991. 639-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using a half-century of death records from San Antonio/Bexar County, Texas, we examine the timing and cause structure of Spanish surname and Anglo infant mortality. Our findings show that despite the substantial disparities between ethnic-specific infant mortality rates in the early years of the study, there have been consistent declines in overall, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality for both groups, as well as a major convergence of mortality rates between Spanish surname and Anglo infants. Further, we demonstrate that the convergence is of relatively recent origin and is due primarily to shifts in postneonatal mortality. Finally, we examine the transition reflected in the cause structure of ethnic-specific infant mortality and show that the convergence was largely the result of reductions in deaths from exogenous causes. Implications for research into the 'epidemiologic paradox' are discussed."
Correspondence: D. Forbes, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40139 Ford, Rodney; Pearce, Geof. The recent history of the certification of death and the classification of causes of death in New Zealand. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, May 1991. 79-95 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"The aim in this paper is to address some of the methodological issues which arise in studying infant mortality: the problems of the data, our (partial) solutions to them and limitations resulting from problems which remain. The study is built up from a foundational analysis of official mortality statistics [for New Zealand]." Topics covered include death registration, death certification, statistical coding of death data, data validity, and the international coding of diseases.
Correspondence: R. Ford, Primary Health Division, P.O. Box 1475, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40140 Frisbie, W. Parker; Forbes, Douglas; Rogers, Richard G. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality as proxies for cause of death: evidence from ethnic and longitudinal comparisons. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 12.13, 1990-1991. 25, [4] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Past research in infant mortality has often employed timing of death as a surrogate for the cause of death, with neonatal mortality assumed to be dominated by endogenous causes and postneonatal mortality characterized by exogenous causes....We...question [these assumptions] through the use of a 51-year data set [for San Antonio, Texas] of consistently coded infant death records, which also allows comparison of Mexican American and Anglo infants. Our findings indicate that (1) while the relationship between timing and cause of death is reasonably consistent with the 'proxy' assumptions in earlier years, the reverse is true in more recent years; (2) the degree of congruence varies with ethnicity and whether estimation is of endogenous or exogenous rates; and (3) any utility period-specific indicators may have is to be found primarily in relative comparisons, as opposed to estimation of cause-specific mortality rates. We further explore the implications of these results for the interpretation of previous studies using timing of infant death as a proxy for cause of death."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40141 Gandotra, M. M.; Das, Narayan; Dey, Devamony. Infant mortality and its causes. ISBN 81-7040-044-9. 1989. viii, 168 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of infant mortality in India. The primary focus is on why the state of Gujarat has such a high level of infant mortality, given its status as a socioeconomically well-developed Indian state. Chapters are included on current levels of infant mortality and fertility, the determinants of infant mortality, maternal and child health care, nutritional status, environmental sanitation and personal hygiene, and specific causes of death. Data are from a survey undertaken in 1979-1980 involving some 59,000 persons. The results suggest that, although some of Gujarat's high rates of infant mortality may be due to problems of data collection, there are also some identifiable causes, such as high fertility, poor health, and inadequate nutrition.
Correspondence: Himalaya Publishing House, Ramdoot, Dr. Bhalerao Marg, Girgaon (Kelewadi), Bombay 400 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40142 Hale, Christiane B. Infant mortality: an American tragedy. Population Trends and Public Policy, No. 18, Apr 1990. 16 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The high level of U.S. infant mortality relative to the country's wealth and status as a developed country is discussed. The author enumerates several contributing factors, including low birth weight; poverty, especially when associated with other characteristics such as the mother being an adolescent, unmarried, or black; and lack of access to affordable health care. Emphasis is on the cost-effectiveness of providing prenatal care to all pregnant women regardless of their status.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, Circulation Department, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40143 Iyasu, Solomon; Lynberg, Michele C.; Rowley, Diane; Saftlas, Audrey F.; Atrash, Hani K. Surveillance of postneonatal mortality, United States, 1980-1987. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 40, No. SS-2, Jul 1991. 43-55 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Data on postneonatal mortality (PNM) in the United States from 1980 to 1987 are analyzed by race, sex, age at death, residence characteristics, and cause of death. It is noted that rates declined for both black and white infants over this period. "Most of the decline resulted from reduced mortality from infectious diseases and injuries....[as well as] decreased mortality attributable to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) among black infants...." The authors conclude that "PNM is related to environmental factors such as socioeconomic status...[and] demographic factors such as maternal age, marital status, and parity; and utilization of and access to health care."
Correspondence: S. Iyasu, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Pregnancy and Infant Health Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40144 Kohler, Lennart. Infant mortality: the Swedish experience. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 12, 1991. 177-93 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
The author examines the decline in infant mortality in Sweden from 1915 and identifies factors behind the extremely low infant mortality rate in that country. "Due to the multiple factors affecting these parameters, this article will not only show trends in these health measures in Sweden, but discuss relevant family characteristics and summarize the social support system, including health care services, which together form the 'Swedish model' of the welfare state. The article concludes with a discusson of the most important factors for successful pregnancy outcomes...."
Correspondence: L. Kohler, Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40145 Lardelli, Pablo; Masa, Josefa; Maderuelo, Angel; Delgado, Miguel; Galvez, Ramon. Infant, neonatal, postneonatal and perinatal mortality in Spain, 1975-1984. Interregional and interannual differences. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 5, 1991. 613-20 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Regional differentials in infant, neonatal, postneonatal, and perinatal mortality in Spain are analyzed. The results show a decrease in all these mortality rates over the period 1975 to 1984. The economic and health factors behind the differences observed are discussed.
Correspondence: P. Lardelli, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Publica, Avenida de Madrid 11, 18012 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40146 Largesse, Pierre. The "Drop of Milk" of Elbeuf: a study of its impact. [La "Goutte de Lait" d'Elbeuf: etude sur son efficacite.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 43-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the impact on infant mortality of the organized distribution of sterilized milk begun in 1898 in Elbeuf, France. The study covers the period 1883-1913. The results suggest that other factors, such as improvements in public hygiene and health education, may have played the major role in reducing levels of infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40147 Monteiro, Mario F. G. The effect of maternal education on the risk of infant mortality. [O efeito da educacao materna sobre o risco da mortalidade infantil.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 74-86 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of maternal education on infant mortality in Brazil is analyzed by estimating relative risks in a case control study. "The cases consisted of a sample of infant deaths which were registered at the Registry Office and which occurred in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (Brazil) in 1980, and the control group was a sample of births occurring in the same region in 1980, and also notified to the Registry Office. With information obtained from a special household survey, a total of 688 cases and 762 controls [were] analyzed...for maternal education and its association with family income, birth order and environmental factors. Specific relative risks (associated with maternal education) have also been calculated separately for 3 groups of cause-of-death and for 3 age-at-death groups."
Correspondence: M. F. G. Monteiro, Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Departamento de Indicadores Sociais, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt 166, 20021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40148 Morel, Marie-France. The care of children: the influence of medical innovation and medical institutions on infant mortality, 1750-1914. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 196-219 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the effect of improvements in medical treatment on the reduction in infant mortality that occurred between 1750 and 1914. The geographical focus is on Europe. She concludes that medical and paramedical personnel played a key role in spreading information on methods of child-rearing that reduced mortality at early ages.
Correspondence: M.-F. Morel, Ecole Normale Superieure, Fontenay-Saint-Cloud, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40149 Mychaszula, Sonia M.; Pollitzer, German; Somoza, Jorge L. Infant mortality in Junin de los Andes and in the Mapuche population in the south of Neuquen province: studies carried out between 1984 and 1989. [La mortalidad infantil en Junin de los Andes y en la poblacion mapuche del sur de la provincia del Neuquen: estudios realizados entre 1984 y 1989.] Apr 1991. 31, 33 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina; International Development Research Centre [IDRC]: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Spa.
Results are presented from four demographic studies conducted between 1984 and 1989 in Neuquen province, Argentina. The studies included a retrospective survey on the socioeconomic conditions of rural communities, research on infant mortality using the previous child method, an experimental census of the urban population of Junin de los Andes, and a prospective and a retrospective survey of the rural Mapuche population. The data, which are primarily for infant mortality, show that while the death rate is still high, it is declining, and is lower in urban than in rural areas. Results also indicate that estimates based on data from official registers are unreliable and substantially underestimate infant mortality.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40150 Pandey, Mrigendra R.; Daulaire, Nils M. P.; Starbuck, Eric S.; Houston, Robin M.; McPherson, Klim. Reduction in total under-five mortality in western Nepal through community-based antimicrobial treatment of pneumonia. Lancet, Vol. 338, No. 8773, Oct 19, 1991. 993-7 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors report the results of a project to detect and treat pneumonia, undertaken from 1986 to 1989 among more than 13,400 children under age five in Jumla, Nepal. During the period studied, mortality from all causes was lowered significantly, particularly among infants. The results show that "indigenous community workers can effectively detect and treat pneumonia, and reduce overall child mortality, even without other primary care activities."
Correspondence: N. M. P. Daulaire, INTERCEPT, P.O. Box 168, Hanover, NH 03755. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40151 Polednak, Anthony P. Black-white differences in infant mortality in 38 standard metropolitan statistical areas. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 11, Nov 1991. 1,480-2 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report examines the Black-White difference in infant mortality rate in 38 large [U.S.] standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs), including several in California, in relation to socioeconomic status indicators and an index of residential segregation." The results suggest that the differences between black and white infant mortality are more closely linked to indexes of segregation than to those of poverty.
Correspondence: A. P. Polednak, Yale School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 60 College Street, P.O. Box 3333, New Haven, CT 06510. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40152 Poston, Dudley L. Patterns of infant mortality in China. Population and Development Program: 1990 Working Paper Series, No. 2.19, 1990. 29 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper uses newly available data for the counties and cities of the People's Republic of China to both describe the range and variability in infant mortality, and to examine its main socioeconomic and health-related determinants." Data are primarily from the 1987 Population Atlas of China.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:40153 Quine, Susan. Social class as a risk factor for infant mortality in an Australian population. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan 1991. 65-72 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Studies in other countries have identified social class as a risk factor for infant mortality. In Australia there is no systematic collection of population data by social class, partly due to the absence of a recognized measure. The use of occupational prestige as an indicator of social class is discussed and Australian prestige scales reviewed. In a population based study, logistic regression analysis of infant mortality in an Australian [New South Wales] population shows the effects of social class on infant mortality which remain when maternal age, marital status and parity are controlled."
Correspondence: S. Quine, University of Sydney, Department of Public Health, Building A27, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40154 Rahman, Mizanur. Gender preference, fertility behavior, and excess female child mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA9113704. 1991. 250 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(12).

57:40155 Richter, Kerry; Adlakha, Arjun. The effect of infant and child mortality on subsequent fertility. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1989. 43-62, 117 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"The focus of this study is the replacement behavior of individual couples who have experienced the death of a child, and the differences in the ability and/or motivation of families to replace children who have died. The hypothesis is that the replacement effect, a direct behavioral response to the death of a child, varies by such factors as socioeconomic status, use of contraception and parity. These differentials as well as cross-cultural variations are examined using World Fertility Survey data from [Colombia], Kenya, Sri Lanka and Pakistan....Proportional hazards models are used to examine how the impact of an infant death differs for population subgroups, and how these factors vary across the four countries. The findings suggest that women in these four countries are motivated to replace a child that dies and that their subsequent fertility is higher. Women with [more] education...and women who have close to ideal family size...are significantly more effective at replacing a child who dies."
Correspondence: K. Richter, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Nakhonchaisri, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40156 Rodriguez, Bienvenida; Urena, Maritza; Rincon, Manuel. Dominican Republic: infant mortality in Santo Domingo in the 1980s (report on a study of mortality using the previous-child method). [Republica Dominicana: la mortalidad infantil en Santo Domingo en la decada de los anos 80 (informe del estudio sobre la mortalidad mediante el metodo del hijo previo).] CELADE Serie OI, No. 1005, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM.CR/R.8. ISBN 9977-58-145-2. Apr 1990. vii, 84 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica; Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Familia [CONAPOFA]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
The authors assess the difficulties in using surveys to collect sufficient population statistics, especially those on infant mortality, in developing countries. The present study, conducted between January and June of 1988 in the Dominican Republic, uses the previous-child method in an attempt to redress these problems. Chapters are included on sources and methodology used, women who received medical attention as a result of pregnancy termination, and estimates of actual infant mortality relative to such factors as socioeconomic variables.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Avenida 6a y Calle 19, Edificio Unibanco, Apartado 5249, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40157 Rogers, David E.; Ginzberg, Eli. Improving the life chances of children at risk: Cornell University Medical College Sixth Conference on Health Policy. ISBN 0-8133-8036-7. LC 90-34118. 1990. viii, 184 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a report from a conference focusing on the correlation between health indicators of poor children in the United States and economic and social deprivation. "The book is concerned both with infant mortality and morbidity and with early childhood development. It opens with a discussion of the epidemiological dimensions of infant mortality and raises issues of changing definitions, reporting, and nosologic concepts as they affect statistics, international comparison, and what is known about the biological mechanisms involved in neonatal death. Societal and political factors affecting service to high-risk mothers and, ultimately, infants are illuminated in a comprehensive review of prenatal care in the United States."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40158 Sankrithi, Usha; Emanuel, Irvin; van Belle, Gerald. Comparison of linear and exponential multivariate models for explaining national infant and child mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1991. 565-70 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to develop descriptive and predictive models for infant and child mortality on an international level or scale." The authors develop "product form multivariate regression models (multiplicative exponential)...with infant and child mortality as outcomes, and national economic, health, nutrition, education, and demographic statistics as predictor variables. The models were applied to data from 129 countries....For comparison purposes, more conventional sum form models (additive linear) were also estimated, and yielded R-square values...markedly lower than the product form models. The product form models also had a much more uniform distribution of residuals and provided improved model fit across the different categories of nations....Using a product form model, the correlation between physicians per capita and infant mortality was shown to be negative rather than positive--thus correcting for an anomaly seen in previous studies which showed a positive correlation between physicians per capita and infant mortality."
Correspondence: U. Sankrithi, University of Washington, Department of Epidemiology, SC-36, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40159 Smith, Philippa M. Infant welfare services and infant mortality: a historian's view. Australian Economic Review, No. 93, Jan-Mar 1991. 22-34 pp. Parkville, Australia. In Eng.
The author analyzes the main causes of the rapid decline in infant mortality that occurred in Australia from 1870-1950. In particular, she challenges the claim that much of the credit for the decline should go to the infant welfare movement's organized campaigns to educate mothers in the feeding and care of their babies.
Correspondence: P. M. Smith, Flinders University of South Australia, School of Social Sciences, Economic History Discipline, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:40160 Sofyardi. Levels, trends, and prospects concerning infant and child mortality in West Sumatra. [Tingkat, perbedaan dan prospek kematian bayi dan anak di Sumatra Barat.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 18, No. 35, Jun 1991. 59-84 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"This article investigates the levels, trends and differentials in infant and child mortality in West Sumatra [Indonesia]. The results of this study, based on the 1971, 1980 Population Censuses and the 1985 Intercensal Population Survey confirm a trend toward lower infant and child mortality in West Sumatra over the last two decades. The estimates also show that there are considerable urban-rural differentials in childhood mortality. In general, babies born in urban areas have a lower mortality rate than those born in rural areas. The study also shows that education, age at first marriage, occupation, and literacy level of the mother have significant effect on the child mortality differentials."
Correspondence: Sofyardi, Universitas Andalas, Fakultas Ekonomi, Padang, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40161 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Infant mortality--United States, 1988. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 40, No. 37, Sep 20, 1991. 644-6 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is a summary of infant mortality trends by race for the United States for 1988. Data are provided on the number of infant deaths, mortality rate, and cause of death. Some comparisons with findings for 1987 are made.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40162 Zhou, Youshang; Rao, Keqin; Zhang, Deying. A study on infant mortality in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1989. 419-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors report the results of a survey of infant mortality conducted in China in 1988. The survey covered approximately 2.5 percent of the country's population and concentrated on providing estimates for rural areas, where vital statistics data of this nature are frequently inadequate. Consideration is given to the number of deaths, urban and rural differences, age distribution, neonatal deaths, and such related factors as socioeconomic conditions and hygiene.
Correspondence: Y. Zhou, Wuhan Tongji Medical College, Wuhan, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

57:40163 Coale, Ansley. People over age 100: fewer than we think. Population Today, Vol. 19, No. 9, Sep 1991. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines errors in age reporting among the extremely old in the United States. He suggests that the death rates of the oldest U.S. age groups are significantly understated, particularly at advanced ages.
Correspondence: A. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40164 Timaeus, Ian. Estimation of adult mortality from orphanhood before and since marriage. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 3, Nov 1991. 455-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The orphanhood method has proved an important source of adult mortality estimates in countries without adequate vital registration systems, but produces rather out-of-date results and is prone to under-reporting of orphanhood at young ages (the 'adoption effect'). In this paper we investigate whether a brief and straightforward supplementary question about the timing of the deaths of women's parents relative to first marriage can be used to study these problems. Coefficients are presented for estimating adult mortality from maternal and paternal orphanhood before and since marriage. Estimation of the time location of the results is discussed, and the methods are applied to data from Morocco, Burundi and Uganda....When it is accurately reported, information on orphanhood before marriage yields a series of mortality estimates that extends back at least 30 years."
Correspondence: I. Timaeus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

57:40165 Hsieh, John J. A general theory of life table construction and a precise abridged life table method. Biometrical Journal, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1991. 143-62 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we lay the foundation of life table construction by unifying the existing life table methods. We also present a new method of constructing current (period) abridged life tables....The development includes (1) a careful formulation and computation of age-specific death rates, (2) derivation of a new set of formulas for computing the survivorship function from the observed age-specific death rates and populations, (3) estimation of the main life table functions by spline interpolation, integration and differentiation, and (4) use of a quadratic and a Gompertz function to close the life table....The method is illustrated with construction of abridged life tables using Canadian data."
Correspondence: J. J. Hsieh, University of Toronto, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40166 Meyer, Kurt; Paul, Christine. General life table, 1986-1988. [Allgemeine Sterbetafel, 1986/88.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 6, Jun 1991. 371-81 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The methods used in preparing life tables for West Germany for the period 1986-1988 are described. The tables are based on the 1987 census. Major results of the life tables are then presented, and comparisons are made with data for 1970-1972 and earlier years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40167 Uruguay. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Montevideo, Uruguay). Uruguay: abbreviated life tables by sex. The whole country, 1984-1986. [Uruguay: tablas abreviadas de mortalidad por sexo. Total del pais, 1984-1986.] 1988. 27 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
Abbreviated life tables are presented by sex for Uruguay for the period 1984-1986. A comparative analysis is made with data from retrospective life tables since 1908-1909.
Correspondence: Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos, Cuareim 2052, Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

57:40168 Bhasin, M. K.; Kshatriya, Gautam. Fertility and mortality differentials among the different population groups of Sikkim, India. Journal of Human Ecology, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1990. 267-76 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Differential mortality and fertility trends among the Buddhist and Hindu populations of the Indian state of Sikkim are analyzed using data from a sample of 281 mothers who had completed their reproductive cycles. The relative importance of the fertility and mortality components in the natural selection process among the populations studied is discussed.
Correspondence: M. K. Bhasin, University of Delhi, Department of Anthropology, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40169 Blum, Alain. Differential mortality from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries: space and society. [Mortalite differentielle du XVIIe au XIXe siecle: espace et societe.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 13-22 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a historical review of the study of differential mortality, with a focus on how scholars from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries examined this phenomenon and how their thinking changed in response to empirical observation. The author also explores the geographical and social factors affecting differential mortality in France during the same period.
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40170 Caselli, G.; Duchene, J.; Egidi, V.; Santini, A.; Wunsch, G. A matter of life and death: methodologies for the life history analysis of adult mortality. In: Socio-economic differential mortality in industrialized societies, volume 7. 1991. 242-77 pp. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"In this paper, we shall examine an approach to differential mortality in adulthood based on the assumption that death is the outcome of one's whole life history, made up of the time spent in different states which gradually lead the individual to contract a disease (or to have an accident) and eventually to die....This paper will therefore deal with the basic assumptions underlying our approach, and the conceptual framework adapted to the main groups of medical causes dealt with." Consideration is given to data collection, particularly those from longitudinal studies, in order to obtain monitored individual data; life history analysis and reconstruction; and data linkage. The focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40171 Caselli, Graziella. The quest for an interpretation of mortality differences: socio-economic background and adult mortality. In: Socio-economic differential mortality in industrialized societies, volume 7. 1991. 229-41 pp. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
The author discusses problems in analyzing differential mortality based on socioeconomic factors. Consideration is given to the availability of data and the formulation of hypotheses, including the examination of time factors, risk factors, and changes within social groups. Suggestions for improved methods of study and data collection are also made. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40172 Dupaquier, Jacques. Urban excess mortality. [La surmortalite urbaine.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 7-11 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author reviews the literature concerning the causes of higher mortality in cities and towns throughout most of European history. The primary geographical focus is on France.
Correspondence: J. Dupaquier, Residence Beausoleil 9, 160 Boulevard de la Republique, 92210 Saint-Cloud, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40173 Eberstadt, Nicholas. Health and mortality in Eastern Europe, 1965-85. Communist Economies, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990. 347-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author explores reasons and indicators for the high morbidity and mortality rates of Eastern Europe and the USSR during the period from 1965 to 1985. "Epidemiological reasoning would prompt profound questions about the impact of governance on health conditions in these areas. The populations...have different languages, cultures and histories....[and] vary in material and technical attainment. The most obvious common characteristic of these countries is that they have all been ruled by Marxist-Leninist states....After more than two decades of health decline...it is perhaps not premature to inquire into whether the health problems evidenced in these countries might be in part systemic."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40174 Eggerickx, Thierry; Debuisson, Marc. Excess urban mortality: the case of Wallonia and Brussels at the end of the nineteenth century (1889-1892). [La surmortalite urbaine: le cas de la Wallonie et de Bruxelles a la fin du XIXe siecle (1889-1892).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 23-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Excess urban mortality in Belgium at the end of the nineteenth century is discussed. The analysis is presented by age, sex, and social class, and focuses on the French-speaking parts of the country, including the capital, Brussels.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40175 France. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED] (Paris, France); France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France); Comite International de Cooperation dans les Recherches Nationales en Demographie [CICRED] (Paris, France). Socio-economic differential mortality in industrialized societies. Vol. 7, 1991. 316 pp. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
This report concerns the fifth meeting, held in Paris in 1989, of the Network on Socio-economic Mortality Differentials in Industrialized Societies, which was established in 1979 by CICRED. The report consists of a series of country analyses on France, Finland, Italy, Norway, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Papers are also included on occupational differences in hospitalization in Denmark and the development of life expectancy in Europe. A section of four methodological and theoretical studies is also included.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: CICRED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40176 Huang, Rongqing. Mortality of population in China and Japan: a comparative analysis. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1989. 449-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author compares mortality in China and Japan from 1950 to 1985 and analyzes the differences between the two countries. Consideration is given to sex differences, regional differences, and trends in the major causes of death. The analysis shows "the gap between China and Japan in the health standards of the population [and also suggests] a course for [reducing] mortality of the Chinese population....There is great potential...of reducing infant mortality, especially for female infants....Moreover, the further control of infectious diseases can still play a major role in raising the average life expectancy of the Chinese population in the years ahead."
Correspondence: R. Huang, Beijing College of Economics, Institute of Population, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40177 Ishikawa, Akira. Occupational differences in life expectancy: 1989. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jan 1991. 86-95 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Differential mortality by occupation and sex is analyzed for Japan for the year 1989 using official data. The results show that the employed live longer than those without regular occupations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40178 Johansson, S. Ryan. Welfare, mortality, and gender. Continuity and change in explanations for male/female mortality differences over three centuries. Continuity and Change, Vol. 6, No. 2, Aug 1991. 135-77, 129, 131 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Life expectancy at birth is often used to index the relative welfare of various populations. But within this framework male/female longevity differentials are anomalous. Women have been and are still less privileged than men, yet they live longer. This situation has encouraged the belief that females have timeless biological advantages over males. But historical data can be used to show that in the age range 3 to 55 pronounced mortality crossovers have occurred in male/female age-specific death rates. Accounting for this historical variability requires that simple, timeless theories of welfare and longevity be replaced by more complex ones, which consider how culturally influenced, gender-characteristic behaviour patterns, unfolding in different disease environments, are biologically translated into age-specific death rates. When biological and cultural complexity are given their due, it becomes possible to explain how lower levels of relative welfare can generate lower levels of mortality for some disadvantaged populations in some disease environments."
Correspondence: S. R. Johansson, Stanford University, Humanities Center, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40179 Kraus, Jaroslav. Contributions to regional mortality differentials. [Prispevek k regionalni diferenciaci umrtnosti.] Demografie, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1991. 210-21 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"In this article there have been applied some analytical methods of multidimensional analysis based on calculated abridged mortality tables for the districts of Czechoslovakia (1981-1985)." The techniques were used to assess average life span and probability of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40180 Minder, C. E. A conceptual and methodological discussion of transnational comparisons of socio-economic mortality differences and an example. In: Socio-economic differential mortality in industrialized societies, volume 7. 1991. 278-94 pp. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"This paper is divided into three parts: first a theoretical part which examines in some detail the concepts and difficulties of transnational comparisons of differentials in socio-economic mortality. The second part outlines a statistical framework for such comparisons useful under certain conditions. In part three, the proposed approach is applied to a comparison of socio-economic mortality differentials of England and Wales, Sweden and Switzerland." Results show that Sweden has the lowest socioeconomic mortality differences. A strong connection between social support systems and low differential mortality is noted in this analysis.
Correspondence: C. E. Minder, University of Bern, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Hochschulstrasse 4, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40181 Moser, Kath A.; Pugh, Helena S.; Goldblatt, Peter O. Inequalities in women's health in England and Wales: mortality among married women according to social circumstances, employment characteristics and life-cycle stage. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1990. 71-84 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Data obtained from follow-up of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys Longitudinal Study 1971 Census sample have been used to look at women's mortality differentials at ages 15-59 in England and Wales....In this paper we focus on married women and use age of youngest child as a measure of life-cycle stage. We relate this to whether the woman was a housewife, or was in full or part-time paid employment, so as to examine how these affect differences in mortality by social class. We find that socio-economic mortality differences persist irrespective of life-cycle stage....Housewives married to men in manual occupations experienced death rates over one and a half times as high as those married to men in non-manual occupations. For women in employment the differences by husbands' social class are of a lesser magnitude....Differences in the mortality of those in full and part-time work depend on the woman's own social class and are greater for non-manual than manual classes."
For a related study, published by the same authors in 1988, see 54:20224.
Correspondence: K. A. Moser, City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40182 Pulaska-Turyna, Beata. Geographic differences in mortality in Poland. [Terytorialne zroznicowanie umieralnosci ogolnej w Polsce.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 36, No. 5, May 1991. 24-7 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
An analysis of differential mortality by region in Poland for the periods 1976-1978 and 1984-1986 is presented. The results show not only that significant differences existed in the earlier period, but that they increased in the second period, particularly with regard to differences between the eastern and western parts of the country. Poland seems therefore an exception to the trend in many developed countries toward a decline in geographic mortality differentials associated with the post-demographic transition era.
Correspondence: B. Pulaska-Turyna, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26-28, 00-325 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40183 Trifiro, Maria C. Differential mortality among the Spanish provinces: causes of death and risk factors among adults. [La mortalite differentielle dans les provinces espagnoles: causes de deces et facteurs de risques chez les adultes.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 156, ISBN 2-87209-140-2. 1991. 84, 2 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Differential mortality at the provincial level in Spain is analyzed using data for the period 1976-1980. Data are presented on life expectancy at birth by province and for mortality risk differentials by age and sex. The focus is on provincial differences in mortality between the ages of 45 and 65 by cause of death and sex.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40184 Valkovics, Emil. Decomposition of the differences in life expectancies. [A varhato atlagos elettartamok kozotti kulonbsegek tenyezokre bontasa.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 69, No. 8-9, Aug-Sep 1991. 667-81 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"This study decomposes the differences between average life expectancies at age x by double standardization into effect of differences in the mortality structure by causes of death, and into effect of differences in the average life expectancies of those deceased due to certain causes of death, relying on abridged life tables by causes of death as for Belgium and Hungary in 1984....The mortality structure by causes of death is more favourable in the case of females in both countries, but it contributes less to the rather significant differences in general mortality level. It is worth mentioning that the differences in the mortality level of males and females presents itself more definitely in Hungary than in Belgium."
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Maros-u. 27 v. 2, 1122 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40185 van der Waals, Fransje W. Differences in leading causes of death, hospitalization and general practice visits among Dutch women and men. Women and Health, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1991. 101-23 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Mortality differences between Dutch women and men were compared to differences in hospitalization and general practitioner visits. Ranks for the top fifteen diagnoses per sex...were computed for the age groups 15-44 years, 45-64 years and over 65 years....Twice as many men...die in all age groups, resulting in a surviving excess of women in the oldest age group....More men than women were hospitalized, in particular in the oldest age group....Men visit the general practitioner for diseases for which they are also hospitalized and also often die from. Women visit the general practitioner for a wide range of ailments only in part representative of diseases for which they are hospitalized or die from."
Correspondence: F. W. van der Waals, University of Amsterdam, Women's Health Studies, Academic Medical Center, Room J212, 15 Meibergdreef, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

57:40186 Anderson, R. M.; May, R. M.; Boily, M. C.; Garnett, G. P.; Rowley, J. T. Spread of HIV-1 in Africa: sexual contact patterns and the predicted demographic impact of AIDS. Nature, Vol. 352, Aug 15, 1991. 581-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The spread of HIV-1 in Africa is examined here in the light of recent information on the main epidemiological and behavioural determinants of transmission. Mathematical models incorporating demographic, epidemiological and behavioural processes are used to assess the potential demographic impact of the disease AIDS. These analyses highlight the significance of patterns of sexual behaviour, and in particular networks of sexual contact, on the predicted spread of infection. Current data reveal substantial variations in the degree of spread between and in countries, but new analyses support earlier predictions that in the worst-afflicted areas AIDS is likely to change population growth rates from positive to negative values in a few decades."
Correspondence: R. M. Anderson, University of London, Imperial College, Department of Biology, Parasite Epidemiology Research Group, London SW7 2BB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

57:40187 Ashley, John; Smith, Tracey; Dunnell, Karen. Deaths in Great Britain associated with the influenza epidemic of 1989/90. Population Trends, No. 65, Autumn 1991. 16-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This article combines official data for England, Wales, and Scotland to analyze mortality from influenza in 1989-1990. "First it documents the size and timing of the peak of the deaths and the subsequent deficit in following months. Second it describes the age and sex of those affected. Finally it sees whether other information on the death certificate such as place of death and other contributory causes of death can throw some light on who was particularly at risk of dying during the epidemic."
For a related article by Michael Curwen et al., published in 1990, see 56:40183.
Correspondence: J. Ashley, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Medical Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40188 Bogdanov, Zdravko. Mortality due to circulatory disorders. [Smartnost ot bolestite na organite na kravoobra shchenieto.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1990. 93-100 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in mortality caused by circulatory disorders in Bulgaria are examined using data for the period 1975-1985. Consideration is given to cerebrovascular effects and ischemic heart disease, sex and age factors, and residence characteristics. The need to lower the morbidity and mortality rates caused by these diseases is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40189 Bouvier-Colle, M.-H.; Varnoux, N.; Costes, P.; Hatton, F. Reasons for the underreporting of maternal mortality in France, as indicated by a survey of all deaths among women of childbearing age. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1991. 717-21 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Results are presented from a retrospective survey conducted in France to examine the extent of and reasons for the underestimation of maternal mortality. The survey involved the doctors certifying the 3,045 deaths that occurred among women aged 15-44 from December 1988 to March 1989. The authors identify 27 additional deaths, of which 16 are considered as having obstetric causes. "The discussion deals with the misclassification of maternal deaths and the difficulty of determining the underlying cause of deaths involving complex diseases or uncertain pathogenesis."
Correspondence: M.-H. Bouvier-Colle, INSERM, Unite 149 de Recherches Epidemiologiques sur la Mere et l'Enfant, 16 avenue P. Vaillant-Couturier, F94807 Villejuif, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40190 Brancker, Anna. Causes of death 1989. [Causes de deces, 1989.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1991. 170-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Data on the causes of death for 1989 for Canada and the provinces are presented. Consideration is given to the number of deaths, death rates, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and accidental and violent deaths. Data are provided separately for males and females.
Correspondence: A. Brancker, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40191 Caselli, Graziella. Health transition and cause-specific mortality. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 68-96 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the part played by the changes in causes of death during the demographic transition in Europe. The data are for England and Wales for 1871-1951, Italy for 1881-1951, and Norway for 1910-1951. She concludes that the relationships among patterns of mortality and changes in socioeconomic development and living standards explain the differences in the timing of the transition in different countries. Furthermore, the specific pattern of the transition in the countries that first experienced the industrial revolution can be understood by looking at changes in causes of death.
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40192 David, Patricia; Kawar, Sana; Graham, Wendy. Estimating maternal mortality in Djibouti: an application of the sisterhood method. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1991. 551-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This paper describes the application of the sisterhood method, an indirect technique for deriving population-estimates of maternal mortality, to data from a multi-purpose survey carried out in Djibouti in 1989. "These data suggest that the lifetime risk of dying of pregnancy-related causes in Djibouti is about 5% or 1 in 20. This is equivalent to a maternal mortality ratio of about 740 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, assuming a total fertility rate of about 6.8."
Correspondence: P. David, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40193 de Marco, Roberto; Zanolin, Elisabetta. Methods for analyzing and mapping standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for rare causes of death. Statistica, Vol. 50, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1990. 547-60 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"In this paper we review and present methods and models, based on the maximum likelihood approach, for the study of the pattern of variability of a set of standardized mortality ratios. These methods can be useful in analyzing and mapping standardized mortality risks for very rare causes of death." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: R. de Marco, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Biometria e Statistica Medica, Corso Strada Nuova 65, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40194 Doll, Richard. Progress against cancer: an epidemiologic assessment. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 134, No. 7, Oct 1, 1991. 675-88 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
In this, the John C. Cassel Memorial Lecture delivered at the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research in Buffalo, New York, in June 1991, the author reviews progress in the treatment of cancer over the past 60 years. The focus is on trends over time in both morbidity and mortality by age and sex, particularly among young adults and children in developed countries. The author concludes that "the picture provided by the trends in mortality is certainly encouraging, as they have shown a decrease of about 20 percent in both sexes, spread broadly across most of the principal categories of the disease, which can be attributed to a combination of improved treatment of some cancers and a reduced incidence of others. Incidence, in contrast, has shown an increase of 2 percent in women and of 23 percent in men. Some of the increase may be due, as in the case of children, to more complete registration, but this is certainly not the explanation for the major part of the substantial increase in men."
Correspondence: R. Doll, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Studies Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40195 Fauveau, V.; Stewart, K.; Khan, S. A.; Chakraborty, J. Effect on mortality of community-based maternity-care programme in rural Bangladesh. Lancet, Vol. 338, No. 8776, Nov 9, 1991. 1,183-6 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"In this study, the efficacy of a maternity-care programme to reduce maternal mortality has been evaluated in the context of a primary health-care project in rural Bangladesh." The project was carried out in Matlab thana from 1987 to 1989. "The findings suggest that maternal survival can be improved by the posting of midwives at village level, if they are given proper training, means, supervision, and back-up. The inputs for such a programme to succeed and the constraints of its replication on a large scale should not be underestimated."
Correspondence: V. Fauveau, SCF/UK, BP 1146, Vientiane, Laos. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40196 Fauveau, Vincent; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Chowdhury, Hafizur R.; Sarder, Abdul M. Assessment of cause of death in the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System. Centre for Population Studies Research Paper, No. 91-1, ISBN 0-902657-37-2. Aug 1991. v, 26, [17] pp. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
The authors describe methods used to assess cause of death in the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The focus is on modifications introduced in 1986. Consideration is given to coding and classification, procedures for neonatal and adult female deaths, and the analysis of results.
Correspondence: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40197 Griva, Khristiyan. Causes of death in Bulgaria, 1975-1985. [Smartnost po prichini v Balgariya prez perioda 1975-1985 g.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1990. 101-10 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality by cause of death in Bulgaria is examined for the period 1975-1985. Consideration is given to sex differentials and to excess mortality among men. Diseases with the greatest increase in mortality rate are endocrine and intestinal disorders, cancer, and circulatory diseases.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40198 Huetz de Lemps, Xavier. The Philippines faced with the ghost of the Ganges: cholera in the second half of the nineteenth century. [Les Philippines face au "fantome du Gange": le cholera dans la seconde moitie du XIXe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 309-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes data concerning the cholera epidemics that swept the Philippines in the second half of the nineteenth century. Differences in cholera mortality by ethnic groups are noted, as well as the ineffectiveness of efforts by the colonial authorities to control the disease.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40199 Kogevinas, M.; Marmot, M. G.; Fox, A. J.; Goldblatt, P. O. Socioeconomic differences in cancer survival. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 45, No. 3, Sep 1991. 216-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationships among socioeconomic status and cancer survival in England and Wales. Data are from official sources and cover the period 1971-1983. Socioeconomic status is assessed by housing tenure. The authors find that council tenants, a lower socioeconomic group, had poorer survival than owner-occupiers for all cancers, regardless of age, sex, cause of death, or prognosis of the cancer. Delay in seeking care is identified as a major contributing cause.
Correspondence: M. Kogevinas, University College, London and Middlesex School of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Gower Street, London WC1E 6EA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40200 Koonin, Lisa M.; Atrash, Hani K.; Lawson, Herschel W.; Smith, Jack C. Maternal mortality surveillance, United States, 1979-1986. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 40, No. SS-2, Jul 1991. 1-13 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The authors present results from a retrospective study concerning "all identified maternal deaths in the United States, including Puerto Rico, for the period from 1979 through 1986. The maternal mortality ratio for the period was 9.1 deaths/100,000 live births. The ratios increased with age and were higher among women of black and other minority races than among white women for all age groups....Unmarried women had a higher risk of death than married women. Women who had received any prenatal care had a lower risk of dying than women who had received no care....The risk of maternal death increased with decreasing levels of education for all age groups...."
Correspondence: L. M. Koonin, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40201 Kruger, Oystein. Risk factor changes and mortality changes: a regional perspective on ischaemic heart disease in Norway 1966-85. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1991. 423-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study from Oppland county, Norway, examines risk factor changes in three regions with different mortality time trends among middle-aged males, for ischaemic heart disease, including sudden, unexpected death....The study is partly based on vital statistics and on results from two health screening surveys conducted in 1976-78 and in 1981-83. Regional data for the following risk factors are considered: serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body weight and prevalence of smoking." The results suggest that changes in risk factors are not necessarily accompanied by mortality changes in the same direction, either because of the time-lag factor or because of the presence of other important risk factors.
Correspondence: O. Kruger, University of Trondheim, Department of Geography, N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40202 Langford, Ian. Childhood leukaemia mortality and population change in England and Wales 1969-73. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1991. 435-40 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between leukemia mortality in childhood and rapid population growth is examined. "This study examines childhood leukaemia mortality for 1,365 local authority areas of England and Wales for the period 1969 to 1973 with reference to population change between 1961 and 1971. A significantly increased risk of childhood leukaemia mortality was found for 0-14 year olds in areas which experienced more than a 50% increase in population over the decade....A cumulative sum analysis shows a threshold at approximately 50% population growth rather than a continuous relationship. A map of the data suggests that areas of significantly raised mortality compared to the national average are concentrated in and around the major conurbations of the area studied."
Correspondence: I. Langford, University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40203 Lazarus, Nancy B.; Kaplan, George A.; Cohen, Richard D.; Leu, Diing-Jen. Change in alcohol consumption and risk of death from all causes and from ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal, Vol. 303, No. 6802, Sep 7, 1991. 553-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The association between alcohol consumption and mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease is examined, with a focus on the difference between long-term abstainers and more recent nondrinkers. Data concern changes in alcohol consumption among 4,070 men and women living in Alameda County, California, during the period 1965-1974 and mortality from 1974 to 1984. The results provide further evidence that nondrinkers are a heterogeneous group whose members may have different risks of death depending on the length of their abstention from drinking alcohol.
Correspondence: G. A. Kaplan, California Department of Health Sciences, Human Population Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94704-9980. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40204 Lessa, Ines. Years of productive life lost to premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1991. 229-36 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This presentation concerns itself with the economic cost--expressed in terms of years of economically active life lost to premature mortality--imposed by cardiovascular diseases in relatively developed and undeveloped regions of Brazil....Using the official 1985 government statistics on mortality and the economically active population, [it is shown that]....the relative role of cardiovascular mortality among both men and women was greatest in the South and Southeast, the interregional differences generally being less among women than among men....Similar comparison of cardiovascular diseases' role relative to other diseases in men versus women...demonstrated that this role was considerably greater in women than in men."
This is a translation of the Portuguese article also published in 1991 and cited in 57:20195.
Correspondence: I. Lessa, Rua Padre Feijo, 29-4o Andar, 40000 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40205 Loftin, Colin; McDowall, David; Wiersema, Brian; Cottey, Talbert J. Effects of restrictive licensing of handguns on homicide and suicide in the District of Columbia. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 325, No. 23, Dec 5, 1991. 1,615-20 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The impact of a law adopted in the District of Columbia in 1976 that banned the purchase, sale, transfer, or possession of handguns by civilians on the frequency of homicides and suicides is examined. The results show that "restrictive licensing of handguns was associated with a prompt decline in homicides and suicides by firearms in the District of Columbia. No such decline was observed for homicides or suicides in which guns were not used, and no decline was seen in adjacent metropolitan areas where restrictive licensing did not apply. Our data suggest that restrictions on access to guns in the District of Columbia prevented an average of 47 deaths each year after the law was implemented."
Correspondence: C. Loftin, University of Maryland, Institute of Criminal Justice and Criminology, Violence Research Group, 220 Lefrak Hall, College Park, MD 20742-8235. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40206 Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.; Looman, Caspar W. N. Cultural and economic determinants of geographical mortality patterns in the Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 45, No. 3, Sep 1991. 231-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze geographical variations in cancer mortality in the Netherlands, with a focus on reasons for the higher mortality found in southern regions. "The results of regression analysis show that the excess mortality is primarily related to the high percentage of Roman Catholics in this part of the country....These associations are partly due to a higher prevalence of smoking among Roman Catholics....Since the early 1950s the association between geographical mortality patterns and the percentage of Roman Catholics in the population has gradually become less strongly positive. This suggests that the convergence of the mortality rates in the South towards the national average may be related to a gradual lessening of differences in lifestyle between population groups."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40207 Madai, Lajos. Six great cholera epidemics and mortality in the South Transdanubian region of Hungary in the nineteenth century. [Hat nagy kolerajarvany es a halandosag Magyarorszag del-dunantuli regiojaban a XIX. szazadban.] Demografia, Vol. 33, No. 1-2, 1991. 58-95 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"Between 1831-32 and 1872-73 there were six great cholera epidemics in Europe....The general crude mortality rate was highest in [the South Transdanubian region of] Hungary both in the years without epidemic and in the years with cholera epidemic. The incidence of mortality caused by cholera can be estimated...by means of a balance-like comparison of the data known from the official vital statistics. The surplus of general mortality calculated between the non-epidemical years and the years with cholera epidemic measures the incidence of mortality caused by cholera. The results of the official statistical surveys on epidemics of that time cannot reflect the real morbidity and mortality due to the general insufficient development of public health."
Correspondence: L. Madai, Bem Rakpart 26, 1011 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40208 McCleary, Richard; Chew, Kenneth S. Y.; Hellsten, James J.; Flynn-Bransford, Marilyn. Age- and sex-specific cycles in United States suicides, 1973 to 1985. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 11, Nov 1991. 1,494-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors analyze 267,740 male and 89,653 female suicides occurring in the United States between 1973 and 1985, using data from the National Center for Health Statistics Mortality Detail File. It is shown that the cyclical patterns observed are specific by age and sex. "Day-of-the-week effects are found almost exclusively in middle-aged suicides; day-of-the-month effects are found almost exclusively in elderly male suicides; and month-of-the-year effects are found almost exclusively in teenaged and elderly suicides."
Correspondence: R. McCleary, University of California, Program in Social Ecology, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40209 Puranen, Bi. Tuberculosis and the decline of mortality in Sweden. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 97-117 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Reasons for the decline in the importance of tuberculosis as a cause of death are examined using data for Sweden over the last 200 years. It is established that "the principal components of the standard of living (particularly housing and occupation) markedly influence the risk of exposure, infection, and death. These socio-economic factors affect variations in tuberculosis directly, whereas virulence and immunity operate as factors that underlie the general level of morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis."
Correspondence: B. Puranen, Institutet for Framtidsstudier, Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40210 Relethford, John H. Sex differentials in unintentional injury mortality in relation to age at death. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1991. 369-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Sex differentials in unintentional injury mortality were examined using death records for New York State residents that died as the result of an unintentional injury between the years 1984 and 1988....Male/female ratios were computed for nine age groups and for the four leading causes of unintentional injury death: motor vehicle incidents, falls, fire, and drowning. Male mortality is significantly higher than female mortality for all causes....All four leading causes of unintentional injury death show a peak in relative male risk in young adulthood....This common peak may reflect increased risk associated behaviors of young males, including alcohol."
Correspondence: J. H. Relethford, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Oneonta, NY 13820. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40211 Wong, Laura R.; Simons, Harmen; Graham, Wendy; Schkolnik, Susana. Estimations of maternal mortality using the surviving sisters method: experiences in Latin America. [Estimaciones de mortalidad materna a partir del metodo de sobrevivencia de hermanas: experiencias en America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 18, No. 50, Aug 1990. 9-53 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This report presents the results in applying the method of surviving sisters for estimating maternal mortality with information provided by census or surveys in rural villages in Gambia, West Africa, Mapuche indigenous settlements of Cautin, Chile, marginal populations of the peripheric districts of Lima, Peru and rural villages of Avaroa, Bolivia. The results show high levels of maternal mortality and in those cases where it is possible to make comparisons, much higher levels than those indicated in vital statistics. An association between maternal mortality and adult female mortality, infant mortality and fertility, can also be observed, due probably to the fact that all these indicators are closely related to the living conditions and to the availability and quality of the health services. Following these results a detailed exposition of the method and of the required basic information is made and a wide discussion of the particularities of its application in each Latin American case is presented."
Correspondence: L. R. Wong, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.