Volume 57 - Number 3 - Fall 1991

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

57:30405 Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I. Marriage patterns, trends, and timing in urban Khartoum, 1940-1975: theory and evidence. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1991. 177-90 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In this article we review relevant theory and present empirical evidence to show that the association between post-nuptial residence and marriage forms, on the one hand, and marital timing, on the other, is often imprecise, and that early/late ages at marriage are independent of forms of marriage and post-nuptial residence preparations. The geographical context of this article is urban Khartoum [Sudan]. The main focus is the socio-historical process of urbanization and its subsequent effects on marriage, residence patterns, and marital timing."
Correspondence: A. I. Abdelrahman, New Jersey Department of Health, AIDS Division, Trenton, NJ 08625. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30406 Aryal, Ram H. Socioeconomic and cultural differentials in age at marriage and the effect on fertility in Nepal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 167-78 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author examines the determinants of marriage age and fertility in Nepal. "Age at marriage is one of the factors that influence the fertility behaviour of women, particularly in a society like Nepal where contraceptive use is low. Socioeconomic and cultural factors, particularly religion and ethnicity, are important variables in determining age at marriage in Nepal. Fertility was negatively related with age at marriage. Marriage duration had a greater influence on fertility than age at marriage, although these were strongly correlated."
Correspondence: R. H. Aryal, Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Graduate Programme in Demography, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30407 Biondi, G.; Perrotti, E. Marriage trends in the Italo-Greeks of Italy. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 129-35 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The Italo-Greek ethnolinguistic minority, living in thirteen villages of southern Italy, marry largely amongst themselves but there are some intermarriages with native Italians. The majority of marriages are within the villages, but there is some marriage movement from one Italo-Greek village to another. Data on marriage and birthplace of parents and grandparents obtained by questionnaires to families of primary school children (aged 6-13 years) are analysed, to show the trends in breakdown of isolation over the last two generations."
Correspondence: G. Biondi, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Animal and Human Biology, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30408 Blom, Ida. The history of widowhood: a bibliographic overview. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1991. 191-210 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author assesses historical research concerning widowhood in the United States and Europe from the eighteenth century to the present. "So far certain general perspectives in the changing demographic, economic, and cultural aspects of widowhood have been outlined, and a multitude of cross-cultural variations from the general patterns have also been found. This, as well as the fact that gender-specific consequences of widowhood result in an unequal distribution of sources concerning widows and widowers respectively, indicates the need for future research in the field."
Correspondence: I. Blom, University of Bergen, Department of History, POB 25, 5027 Bergen Universitetet, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30409 Brandon, Anastasia J. Marriage dissolution, remarriage and childbearing in West Africa: a comparative study of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria. Pub. Order No. DA9101137. 1990. 281 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(8).

57:30410 Burch, Thomas K. Modeling remarriage: a simple modification of Hernes' model of first marriage. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 90-10, Nov 1990. 6 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The aims of this research note are twofold: 1) to suggest that an apparent disorderliness in remarriage may be in part a function of how the process is conceptualized, and in part a function of the relatively small number of events (compared to first marriages); 2) to suggest a modification of Hernes' first marriage model (1972) that yields good and behaviourally plausible fits to the remarriage experience of several cohorts of divorced men and women in Canada."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30411 Burkart, Gunter. In and out of wedlock. An empirical study on changing attitudes toward marriage and parenthood. [Liebe mit und ohne Trauschein. Ergebnisse einer empirischen Studie uber Milieudifferenzierungen im Bedeutungswandel von Ehe und Elternschaft.] Demographische Informationen 1990/91, [1991]. 60-7, 154 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The theory of 'individualization' offers a useful framework for understanding the present changes in partnerships, marriage, and parenthood....This paper presents results of a 'qualitative' study which, in addition to a general trend towards individualization, reveals differences according to socio-regional milieus. These differences are reflected in four areas: cohabitation, marriage, the conflict between parenthood and career, and sex roles within partnerships....The observed trends support the notion that the future will bring a polarization of life styles: a family-oriented and an individualized style." The geographical focus is on Germany.
Correspondence: G. Burkart, Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Soziologie, Hittorfstrasse 16, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30412 Carmichael, Gordon A. A cohort analysis of marriage and informal cohabitation among Australian men. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, Vol. 27, No. 1, Mar 1990. 53-72 pp. Bundoora, Australia. In Eng.
"Australia's postwar marriage boom lasted until the early 1970s, since when ages at marriage have risen and a growing minority of young people have avoided marrying. This paper focuses on the retreat from marriage and the accompanying increase in consensual partnering. Multi-state life tables constructed for five-year age cohorts using marriage/relationship histories from a 1986 nationally representative sample of 2,104 males aged 20-59 are used to explore three issues: the extent of the retreat from marriage; the extent of the more or less concurrent increase in informal cohabitation; and the extent to which the latter trend may have offset the former."
Correspondence: G. A. Carmichael, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PI).

57:30413 Catasus Cervera, Sonia I. Cuban nuptiality in the twentieth century. [La nupcialidad cubana en el siglo XX.] 1991. [x], 154, [28] pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Changes in nuptiality over the course of the twentieth century in Cuba are analyzed. Particular attention is given to changes in nuptiality since the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Differences in nuptiality in 1981 by place of residence, race, and occupation are also examined.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30414 De Silva, W. I. Age at marriage in Sri Lanka: stabilizing or declining? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 395-404 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Over the last four decades in Sri Lanka, age at first marriage for males increased marginally, and for females it rose considerably, but there has been no recent increase in female age at marriage. Among the younger cohorts, estimated ages at which some married indeed show a declining mean age at marriage. Coale-McNeil estimates indicate that there is no real decline in female age at marriage in Sri Lanka. Marriages were delayed as a result of economic hardship or increased mortality to the mid-1970s, but once the overall economy improved after 1977, more marriages took place. Female age at marriage in Sri Lanka remained slightly below 24 years, the age which is anticipated by younger cohorts, and this level is likely to persist for some time."
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30415 Fukurai, Hiroshi; Alston, Jon. Divorce in contemporary Japan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 453-64 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model."
Correspondence: H. Fukurai, Texas A and M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-2125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30416 Haskey, John C. Social and family characteristics of marriage in England and Wales: information derived from marriage registration records. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 179-200 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Information on social and family aspects of marriage was obtained from a sample of over a thousand marriages solemnised in England and Wales in 1979....The factors are analysed in terms of social class differences as well as in relation to the distance over which marriages range and other demographic characteristics of the partners and their marriage."
Correspondence: J. C. Haskey, Central Statistical Office, Cabinet Office, Great George Street, London SW1P 3AQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30417 Heaton, Tim B. Time-related determinants of marital dissolution. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 2, May 1991. 285-95 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this article, several dimensions of temporality are identified and their impact on marital dissolution is assessed in a multivariate continuous time model using marital and fertility histories from the June 1985 [U.S.] Current Population Survey. The temporal concepts are timing of prior events, historical time, duration dependence, and selectivity. Results indicate that marital stability is decreasing over time, increases over marital duration, increases with age at marriage, and varies with the arrival and aging of children."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Center for Studies of the Family, 940 SWKT, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30418 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Bando, Rieko. Divorce rate of Japan: 1980-1988. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 3, Oct 1990. 56-64 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data are presented on divorce rates by sex and age and the total divorce rate in Japan from 1980 to 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30419 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Yamamoto, Michiko. Marriage rates in Japan: 1980-1987. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 1, Apr 1990. 67-82 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Marriage rates in Japan are examined for the period 1980-1987. Data from official Japanese sources are presented for each year on total marriage rates and average age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30420 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). Age at marriage differentials in India, 1984. 1988. ix, 191 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This report concerns differentials in age at marriage in India, and is based on data from a special survey carried out in 1984 as part of the Sample Registration System. Age at marriage differentials are analyzed separately for rural and urban areas by various factors for India and for its major states. Factors considered include educational status, religion, and Scheduled Caste or Tribe.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, West Block No. 1, Wing No. 1, 2nd Floor, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30421 Jegouzo, Guenhael. Changes after 1975 in the numbers of single male farmers. [L'evolution apres 1975 du celibat agricole masculin.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 41-61 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In France, marriage rates have been lowest among male farmers, particularly among smallholders, the lower section of medium farmers and agricultural labourers....However, it would seem that during the last 15 years, permanent celibacy among male farmers has been on the decrease in France. Previous trends which resulted in a continuous increase of never-married male farmers aged between 40 and 49, have been reversed, except in a number of regions, mainly as a result of the decline in the numbers of smallholders. However, prolonged bachelorhood (at the ages of 30-39 years) has persisted, and, in spite of the fact that male farmers increasingly take their brides from outside agriculture, their difficulties in finding a mate have increased. Unemployment has resulted in more young men remaining in the countryside than young women. The persistence of large disparities, even though they may have decreased, bears witness to the fact that some parts of the farming population have not been able to adapt to the socio-economic changes which have affected them."
Correspondence: G. Jegouzo, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales de Rennes, 147 rue de l'Universite, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30422 Kono, Shigemi. A treatise on sex ratio in population by marital status: marriage squeeze and widowhood. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 1, Apr 1991. 1-16 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This study deals with imbalances of sex ratio in population by marital status, particularly focussing on two important demographic problems in Japan...the first relating to an excess of male population in marriageable ages and the second relating to an excess of [single, widowed, or divorced women] in the middle and old ages....Population ageing [of] unmarried women, whether never married, widowed or divorced, [is examined]....Tables of [the] family life cycle have been constructed for Japanese couples for the periods 1920 to 1985, particularly specifying lengths of widowhood and widowerhood."
Correspondence: S. Kono, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30423 Kutsar, Dagmar. Marriage breakdown in Estonia. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 29, 1991. 73-82 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This article summarizes the main features of the divorce statistics and analyzes divorce data [for Estonia] from the year 1988....The analysis revealed...; 1. The remarriage rate has increased more rapidly than the divorce rate; 2. The divorce rate...is higher in cities, in the regions of high immigration and industrialization; 3. The length of marriages has decreased...; 4. Women in Estonia are highly active in initiating divorce." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: D. Kutsar, Tartu University, Ulikooli 18, Tartu, 202400 Estonian SSR, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30424 Lin, Sung-Ling. Changes in reproductive function among remarried women: the effects of spousal characteristics. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1990. 501-16 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between change in childbearing function from a woman's first to second marriage and the degree of similarity between her first and second husbands in age, education, and religion. Using data from the [U.S.] 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, the specific hypothesis tested is: where plans are similar, the second husband tends to resemble the first to a greater extent than where childbearing functions differ. Separate tests relating to age, education, and religion provide only limited support for this hypothesis. However, when the various tests are considered collectively as a system, the weight of the evidence provides general support for the hypotheses. The implications of these findings for understanding trends in marriage are discussed."
Correspondence: S.-L. Lin, Tunghai University, Department of Sociology, Taichung, Taiwan. Location: New York Public Library.

57:30425 Millar, Wayne J. Divorces, Canada and the provinces, 1989. [Divorces, Canada et provinces, 1989.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 83-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Official data on the number of divorces, and divorce rates by Canadian province for 1988 and 1989 are presented.
Correspondence: W. J. Millar, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30426 Qu, Xihua. A general rule of relationship between age and marriage and its numerical model. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 155-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, I will undergo an analytical research of the vagueness of the process of marriage and marital age parameters. Consequently, I will deduce from this research a fuzzy mathematical model of the distribution of first marriage age....I intend to bring to light a general rule followed by marital age relations and, therefore, enable its simple and precise application to quantitative analysis and theoretical studies." The geographical focus is on China.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30427 Saluter, Arlene F. Marital status and living arrangements: March 1990. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 450, May 1991. iv, 101 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed information on the marital status and living arrangements of the noninstitutional population of the United States, based on the results of the March 1990 Current Population Survey. The text of this report compares current survey data with data collected from earlier surveys. In some instances, data from decennial censuses are used when survey data are not available. Data contained in this report reflect the impact of various factors on the behavior of men and women regarding marriage, divorce, and living arrangements, and the corresponding effect upon the living arrangements of children." Selected data are presented by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, metropolitan residence, and region.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30428 Schellekens, Jona. Determinants of marriage patterns among farmers and agricultural laborers in two eighteenth-century Dutch villages. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1991. 139-55 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Eighteenth-century population listings and church records [for the Netherlands] are used to examine the determinants of marriage patterns in an agricultural population. Using macro-level data it is shown that the availability of mates has relatively little effect on marriage patterns. Using micro-level data it is shown that determinants affect marriage patterns differentially across occupational groups. Special attention is given to explaining marital behavior among agricultural laborers. A determinant of their marriage patterns is suggested which has received little attention so far: the attractiveness of marriage relative to service in husbandry."
Correspondence: J. Schellekens, Hebrew University, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30429 Sufian, Abu J. M. Socioeconomic correlates of age difference between spouses in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 75, No. 3, Apr 1991. 164-9 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The relationship between age and socioeconomic differences among spouses was analyzed for 398 couples living in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Two groups of couples, Saudis and non-Saudis, were compared. Findings reveal that among Saudi couples "husband's education, and income are significantly related to the age difference, while for non-Saudis, only wife's education (high) has a significant relationship with the age difference."
Correspondence: A. J. M. Sufian, King Faisal University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, P.O.B. 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30430 Sweet, James A.; Bumpass, Larry L. Disruption of marital and cohabitation relationships: a socio-demographic perspective. NSFH Working Paper, No. 32, Jul 1990. 39 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this chapter we identify some of the characteristic features of a social demographic approach to the study of marital disruption [in the United States]. We then discuss some conceptual and measurement issues in the demographic study of marital disruption, and review some of the major findings of research in this tradition, focusing primarily on our own recent work. Finally, because of the increase in cohabitation, and the complexity that it adds to the demographic analysis of the formation and termination of unions, we will discuss recent trends and differentials in the incidence and stability of cohabiting unions." Data are from U.S. censuses, vital statistics, the Current Population Survey, and selected sample and longitudinal surveys.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30431 Taj, Anju M. Gender, intergenerational relations and marriage patterns in Indonesia. Pub. Order No. DA9023651. 1990. 295 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(4).

57:30432 Takahashi, Shigesato. An analysis of life course patterns in Japan: the effects of mortality and nuptiality changes between 1965 and 1985. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 1, Apr 1991. 17-26 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"In this study, we examined the impact on the marital life course patterns [of] mortality and nuptiality changes....We have constructed the marital-state life table for the [years] 1965 and 1985 based on Japanese data. By using the marital-state life table, we examined the sensitivity of the mortality and nuptiality changes on life course patterns."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30433 Tsai, Wen-hui. Mainland Chinese marriage and family under the impact of the four modernizations. Issues and Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Mar 1988. 100-19 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate marriage and the family in mainland China under the impact of the Four Modernizations program. The bulk of the paper will be devoted to a discussion of the emergence of 'new' marriage and family patterns in mainland China in the 1980s under the impact of current socioeconomic changes." The Four Modernizations program consists of a simultaneous attempt to modernize agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology. The author notes a trend toward the nuclear family in which family size is small and the husband-wife relationship is replacing the father-son relationship as the center of the family.
Correspondence: W.-h. Tsai, Indiana University-Purdue University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Fort Wayne, IN 46801. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

57:30434 van Poppel, F.; de Beer, J. The effect of changes in divorce laws on the divorce rate: an application of intervention analysis. [Het effect van veranderingen in de echtscheidingswetgeving op het echtscheidingscijfer: een toepassing van interventie-analyse.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 6, Jun 1991. 27-35 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article examines the effects of three juridical changes [in 1838, 1883, and 1971] on the divorce rate in the Netherlands....For this purpose intervention variables were added to a statistical time-series...model. If it is assumed that the effects of the 1883 and 1971 reforms have been permanent, the total effect of the juridical reforms has been considerable. However, even though the model based on the assumption of permanent effects provides the best fit of the data, changes occurring some years after the immediate effects suggest that it may be reasonable to assume that the effects were temporary only." An English-language version of the article is available from the author.
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30435 Watanabe, Yoshikazu. Demographic life stages of Japanese women: cohort trends and socioeconomic variations. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1990. 49-58 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in the timing of marriage and childbearing among Japanese women are analyzed for cohorts born between 1890 and 1940. Data are from surveys carried out by the Institute of Population Problems. The results show that the timing of these events was strongly affected by World War I, economic depressions in the interwar period, conscription, pronatalist policies during World War II, and changes in legislation that made access to contraception and abortion easier following World War II.
Correspondence: Y. Watanabe, Ushiku 1316-8, Ushiku-shi, Ibarraki-ken 300-12, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30436 Xiong, Yu; Yang, Yang. Nuptial and childbearing customs of the ethnic minorities in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 251-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The current nuptial customs of the ethnic minorities in China are examined. "Although monogamous marriage has now been adopted by all but a few ethnic communities, variations still exist between different nationalities in the specific forms of marriage and range of intermarriage owing to the uneven nature of historical development. Such variations are shaped by various factors of the given locality and given time such as the socioeconomy, religion, culture and education, and exert direct influence on the childbearing behavior and reproduction of the ethnic population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

57:30437 Bartiaux, Francoise. Household composition of the elderly in Italy (1981). [La composition des menages des personnes agees en Italie (1981).] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 1, Apr 1991. 59-98 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The last Italian census (1981) was used to study the household composition of people aged sixty and over. Composition varied with the age and sex of the elderly person, and with area of residence. Those who lived with, or at the home of, a child were studied especially closely. Geographical variation in the household composition of elderly people showed that composition is a living reflection of the past and present demography of each region."
Correspondence: F. Bartiaux, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30438 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Huinink, Johannes. Human capital investments or norms of role transition? How women's schooling and career affect the process of family formation. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 1, Jul 1991. 143-68 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Proponents of the 'new home economics' hypothesize that women's growing economic independence largely accounts for the rise in delayed marriage and motherhood in industrialized societies. This article assesses this hypothesis for the Federal Republic of Germany by estimating the dynamic effects of women's educational and career investments on the timing of family events. Event-history analysis shows that the delaying effect on the timing of the first marriage across cohorts does not result from an increase in the quality of women's human capital investments as posited by the new home economics. Rather, women's extended participation in schooling delays their transition to adulthood, an effect aligned with normative expectations that young women in school are 'not ready' for marriage and motherhood. Increasing career resources, however, do lead women to postpone or avoid having children."
Correspondence: H.-P. Blossfeld, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:30439 Cain, Mead T. The activities of the elderly in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1991. 189-202 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"With the aid of observed and retrospective data on time-use from a sample of rural Bangladeshis, this paper seeks to...[describe] the role of the elderly in the household division of labour, management, and authority. The objective is to elaborate how labour-use and activity patterns change with advancing age, for men and women and rich and poor, and to explore the broader implications of such change. Concepts of work, retirement, and dependency are critically examined. The results of several labour surveys are used to estimate the limits that the physical effects of ageing place on the labour-force participation of the elderly."
Correspondence: M. T. Cain, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30440 Crimmins, Eileen M.; Easterlin, Richard A.; Saito, Yasuhiko. Preference changes among American youth: family, work, and goods aspirations, 1976-86. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1991. 115-33, 202, 204 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines trends and differentials by sex in both absolute and relative preferences among American young adults from 1976 to 1986. If one considers marriage and family formation preferences alone, the desires of American youth to marry and have children changed very little over this period. When one shifts from absolute to relative preferences, desires for goods for oneself have increased substantially, and for leisure and goods for one's children moderately. Considered in this context, the stability in marriage and family preferences implies a shift in relative preferences against children."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 420).
Correspondence: E. M. Crimmins, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30441 Czujko, Lubomira. Family life cycle: surveys of marriage cohorts. [Cykl zycia rodziny: badania kohort malzenskich.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/99, 1990. 107-15 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The results of a sample survey of 10,000 newly married couples in Kiev, capital of the Ukraine, USSR, are presented. These couples, originally interviewed in 1970, were followed up after 5- and 10-year intervals, and again in 1990. The primary aim of the survey was to identify changing attitudes and reproductive behavior in different phases of the life cycle. Data are included on family composition at the time of each round of the survey. The important effect of living conditions on family size is noted, as are women's difficulties in reconciling economic activity and motherhood, which in turn have reduced the number of children they have actually had.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30442 Dawson, Deborah A. Family structure and children's health: United States, 1988. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10: Data from the National Health Survey, No. 178, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1506. ISBN 0-8406-0439-4. LC 91-7501. Jun 1991. iv, 47 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report describes the family arrangements of children 17 years of age and under and the association between family structure and various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the children and their families. The focus of the report is on the relationship between family structure and children's health and well-being. Physical health, educational attainment, and emotional health are compared for children in the four most common types of family. Data are from the 1988 [U.S] National Health Interview Survey on Child Health."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30443 Doenges, Catherine E. Patterns of domestic life in colonial Mexico: views from the households. Latin American Population History Bulletin, No. 19, Spring 1991. 14-21 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author proposes new directions for the study of family life in colonial Mexico. "The goal was to present an alternative perspective for discussing patterns of domestic life in colonial Latin America and to illustrate how use of the life-course perspective improves on the more static, conventional Laslett approach....Statistically based examinations of domestic life-course patterns, when combined with information about the economic, legal, and emotive aspects of families, can bring us closer to understanding social dynamics and everyday life in Mexico's past."
Correspondence: C. E. Doenges, Syracuse University, Department of Geography, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30444 Goldani, Ana M. Changing Brazilian families and the consequent need for public policy. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4, Nov 1990. 523-37 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author examines public policy in relation to the family in Brazil. "A central concern here is to show how the Brazilian family (towards which public policy has been oriented) has changed and what are the possible policy strategies for dealing with these transformations....Individual characteristics and changes in family structure, to be sure, are not the only factors responsible for greater demand for public policies. Structural factors constraining basic needs such as food, health, employment, housing, and education lie behind the need for greater participation of the state."
Correspondence: A. M. Goldani, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, CP 1170, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30445 Goody, Jack. Futures of the family in rural Africa. In: Rural development and population: institutions and policy, edited by Geoffrey McNicoll and Mead Cain. 1990. 119-44 pp. Population Council: New York, New York; Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"I have tried to survey a wide range of factors affecting the future of the family in Africa [based on research in Ghana carried out during the last four decades]. In conclusion, I would draw attention to the following points. (1) The diversity of preexisting social forms and the differential impact of external pressures. (2) The common features related to the nature of an agricultural system with relatively open access to resources and its relationship to migration and the growth of population, now more rapid than elsewhere in the world. (3) The effects of increasing population on land and upon limited material resources. (4) The lack of a 'joint family organization' in the Asian sense....(5) The corresponding strength of the wider kinship ties of lineage, weakening under changing modes of livelihood but still important for welfare purposes. (6) The effects of mass schooling and mass bureaucratic employment on the economy....(7) The concomitant existence of neo-traditional farming. (8) The reaction of all types of 'farm families' to the high degree of uncertainty in all spheres of social life and the effect of such uncertainty on decisionmaking and activity within the household."
Correspondence: J. Goody, St. John's College, Cambridge CB2 1TP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30446 Gordon, Linda; McLanahan, Sara. Single parenthood in 1900. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1991. 97-116 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The Public Use Sample of the 1900 census was used to examine single parenthood in the U.S. population overall, in seven major cities, and in four predominately rural states. The data allow us to identify single parent subfamilies, a group missed by reports based on published census statistics. The proportion of children living with single parents in 1900 approximated that of 1960: 8.5 percent as compared with 9.1 percent. Migration and immigration were not associated with single parenthood. Black children were more likely than white children to live with single parents, especially black children in urban areas. Approximately seventy-five percent of black and white single parents were widows."
Correspondence: L. Gordon, University of Wisconsin, Department of History, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30447 Hewlett, Barry S. Demography and childcare in preindustrial societies. Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, Spring 1991. 1-37 pp. Albuquerque, New Mexico. In Eng.
"This article considers the relationships between selected demographic structures (total fertility, infant and child mortality, sex-age distribution, divorce rate, causes of death) and childcare patterns among hunter-gatherers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists. Demographic data from fifty-seven preindustrial societies indicate that the demographic structure of a population can be useful for understanding intercultural variability in caregiving practices identified in 'traditional' characterizations of childcare in these populations (e.g., indulgent care, multiple caregivers, multiage play groups). Analysis of demographic structures also identifies two 'emergent' features of childcare in preindustrial populations that are infrequently mentioned in socialization studies of these populations: stepparent-stepchild relations and differential investment in sons and daughters."
Correspondence: B. S. Hewlett, Tulane University, Department of Anthropology, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30448 Hirosima, Kiyosi. On projections of households by type and of parent-child coresidence rates. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 1, Apr 1990. 51-5 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author presents a method to project family and household composition in Japan to the year 2000 using parent-child coresidence rates. Consideration is given to the age, sex, and marital status of parents and children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30449 Horvath, Robert. Interrelations between economic development and family size in Hungarian historical demography. [A gazdasagi fejlodes es a csaladnagysag osszefuggesei a magyar torteneti demografiaban.] Demografia, Vol. 31, No. 2-4, 1988. 264-79 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines the effects of economic development on the family in Hungary from the late 1800s to the end of World War II. The emphasis is on the differences in timing of the demographic transition among individual countries, in contrast to the proposition of Kingsley Davis that such changes were uniform throughout Western Europe.
For the paper by Kingsley Davis, published in 1984, see 50:40654.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30450 Lauras-Lecoh, Therese. Family trends and demographic transition in Africa. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4, Nov 1990. 475-92 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author examines family trends in Africa and their effects on the demographic transition. The focus is on "the formation of the family through nuptiality and descendants [and] family structures based on the size and composition of residential units."
Correspondence: T. Lauras-Lecoh, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30451 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Brandon, Anastasia J. Women's role in maintaining households: poverty and gender inequality in Ghana. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 25, 1991. 55 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Over the last 30 years in Ghana, the proportion of households headed by women has increased and the composition of these households has shifted, with a growing percentage of households headed by the divorced and widowed. The paper assesses the implications of these trends for family welfare and evaluates more broadly the current role of women in the economic maintenance of households with children, using data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The consumption levels of household members are highest in those households where women have a primary role in the provision of cash earnings either in partnership with their husbands or as the primary cash provider. In all types of households, women work on average longer hours than men but the differences between the sexes are greatest when men and women coreside and least when they do not."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30452 Luscher, Kurt; Engstler, Heribert. Plurality within bounds. A socio-demographic typology of present forms of family formation in Switzerland. [Pluralitat in Grenzen. Eine sozio-demographische Typologie aktueller Formen der Familiengrundung in der Schweiz.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, 1990. 407-13 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in family formation in Switzerland for the period 1979-1987 are discussed. Attitudes toward marriage and variations among different ethnic groups are considered.
Correspondence: K. Luscher, Universitat Konstanz, Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultat, Universitatsstrasse 10, 7750 Konstanz 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30453 Ma, Xia. Ownership, roles of the family and attitudes towards childbirth. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1989. 297-309 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the historical importance of the family in China and the relationship between the notion of private ownership and the family as a social and economic unit. The effects of the economic reforms of the 1980s and demographic aging on the Chinese family are described. Changing attitudes toward childbirth and the indoctrination of values within the family are noted.
Correspondence: X. Ma, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30454 Martin, Linda G.; Tsuya, Noriko O. Interactions of middle-aged Japanese with their parents. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1991. 299-311 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with changes in household structure in Japan over time. Specifically, the authors "use logit analysis to investigate the extent to which married Japanese men and women aged 30 to 59 live with their parents and, in particular, how socio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with co-residence. For men, being the eldest child, being in a lower-status occupation, living in a small town or rural area, being in an arranged marriage, and having a parent without a spouse are all positively associated with co-residence. For women, only demographic variables matter--being the eldest child, having a husband who is not the eldest child, and having a parent without a spouse, lead to a higher probability of co-residence with own parents....The study is based on data from the 1988 Mainichi Newspapers/Nihon University Japanese National Family Survey."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 380).
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30455 Moors, Hein; van Nimwegen, Nico. Social and demographic effects of changing household structures on children and young people. NIDI Report, No. 19, ISBN 90-70990-27-X. 1990. ix, 57 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This report describes changes in the household structure of the European population and the social and demographic consequences for children and young people in the member states of the Council of Europe. More particularly, attention is paid to an analysis of the effects of instability and changes in couples, and to the effects of changing living arrangements on economic, social and psychological aspects of young people, particularly young women. Two lifestyles are specifically relevant in this respect, both because of their increasing numbers, and because of their significance as a transitional phase, or as an alternative, to marriage: consensual unions (cohabitations) and one-parent families."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hauge, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30456 Morioka, Kiyomi. Demographic family changes in contemporary Japan. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4, Nov 1990. 511-22 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Our aim is to examine important aspects of demographic family change in contemporary Japan, and thus to explore the possible near future of the family....In the following sections, I will discuss recent changes in family size, composition and life cycle. The time span is largely limited to the second half of the present century, particularly to the past 30 years, which correspond to Japan's rapid economic growth."
Correspondence: K. Morioka, Seijo University, Institute of Folklore Studies, 6-1-20 Seijo, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157, Japan. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30457 Murphy, M. Household modelling and forecasting--dynamic approaches with use of linked census data. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 23, No. 6, Jun 1991. 885-902 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author proposes improved methods of household modeling, using dynamic models rather than the headship rate method. "Reasons are discussed why this method has been criticised in recent years....The advantages of dynamic models are discussed, and a number of alternative dynamic models of household formation and dissolution are presented. The data source used is the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys 1% longitudinal study, which contains linked information on 500,000 people in the 1971 and 1981 England and Wales Censuses of Population."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:30458 Nakano, Eiko. A study of childbirth and child-rearing from the viewpoint of family functions. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 1, Apr 1991. 27-39 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons for differences between desired and actual family size in Japan are explored using data from the Japanese National Fertility Survey. Results indicate that socioeconomic factors and the desire to provide for their children require mothers to return to work after the second child, often keeping couples from having a desired third child.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30459 Neyer, Gerda. Single-parent families in Austria. [Alleinerziehende in Osterreich.] Demographische Informationen 1990/91, [1991]. 68-73, 154 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents data on the demographic trends of one-parent families and their current economic and social situation [in Austria]....The vast majority of single-parent families are headed by women....[and are] thus largely dependent on the women's economic status. The data show that the economic disadvantage of single-parent families, i.e. their low per capita income, is caused by discrimination [in] the labour market."
Correspondence: G. Neyer, Instituts fur Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstrasse 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30460 Perez Herrero, Pedro. Family structure and economic development in Mexico (1700-1850). Old and new hypotheses of investigation. [Estructura familiar y evolucion economica en Mexico (1700-1850). Antiguas y nuevas hipotesis de investigacion.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1990. 67-109 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The relationships among the family, population trends, and economic conditions in Mexico at the end of the colonial era are explored through a review of the published literature.
Correspondence: P. Perez Herrero, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30461 Praditwong, Tanaporn. Family formation attitudes of Thai adolescents. Pub. Order No. DA9027075. 1990. 406 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(4).

57:30462 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Jones, Jo Ann. One parent or two? The intertwining of American marriage and fertility patterns. Sociological Forum, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jun 1991. 311-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Marriage and fertility in the United States have become less firmly entwined as more women bear children without marrying and more couples with children divorce. Today a sizeable number of children are expected to spend a portion of their childhood in one-parent households....Using the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle III, this paper estimates the probability that children aged 0-13 in 1982 are living in two-parent households, controlling for their mothers' marital statuses at their births. We find that marital status at birth is an important predictor of household structure at later ages for both white and black populations; however, the childhood environment is actually quite elastic as women marry, divorce, remarry, and redivorce."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB 3210, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30463 Rodgers, Joan R. Poverty and choice of marital status: a self-selection model. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1991. 67-87 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Over the last few decades in the United States, the poverty rate of female-headed families has been about five times the poverty rate of other family types. This paper addresses the question of why, in general, female-headed families are so much poorer than other families. Recognizing that individuals choose their own marital status, a self-selection model is used to identify the factors which determine the poverty rates of married-couple families, families headed by females with no husband present, and families headed by males with no wife present. The following control variables are found to be important determinants of poverty for all three family types: education of family members; age, race, disability, and unemployment of the family head; geographical location, size and composition of the family."
Correspondence: J. R. Rodgers, University of North Carolina, Department of Economics, Greensboro, NC 27412. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30464 Rowland, D. T. Family diversity and the life cycle. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1991. 1-14 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author examines new patterns in family formation in Australia as a means of "finding strategies for describing life cycle experience which [accommodates] the varied ways in which families now develop. This paper reviews the main approaches that have been suggested and proposes a life cycle classification to chart stages of life in major sections of the population....The definitions and classification criteria adopted permit the inclusion of single parents, de facto couples and step parents in life cycle analysis, and thereby provide a basis for a more comprehensive view of the family development experience of cohorts."
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Department of Sociology, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30465 Schwarz, Karl. How many children do families have? Some reflections and results concerning an important question of sociology and social policy. [Wieviele Kinder haben die Familien? Einige Uberlegungen und Ergebnisse zu einer wichtigen sozialwissenschaftlichen und sozialpolitischen Frage.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, 1990. 435-45 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author discusses problems that "arise out of a family concept based upon the number of live-born children and of children being still alive as well as of children living in their parents' household." The geographical focus is on the Federal Republic of Germany.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30466 Sen, Amartya. Cooperation, inequality, and the family. In: Rural development and population: institutions and policy, edited by Geoffrey McNicoll and Mead Cain. 1990. 61-76 pp. Population Council: New York, New York; Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This has been a largely theoretical essay, discussing the problem of cooperative conflicts in the evolution and working of social institutions, and concentrating particularly on the family as an institution. The coexistence of congruence and conflict of interest makes the problem of institutional mediation a particularly complex one in the process of economic development. Benefits to all parties can accrue from the emergence and use of particular institutions, but the division of these benefits calls for systematic investigation....I have tried to argue that variables such as perceptions of contributions and legitimacy can have a profound impact on the cooperative conflicts that influence intrafamily divisions and the well-being of family members. The subjective perceptions are among the objective determinants of family behavior and its far-reaching consequences." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: A. Sen, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30467 Shao, Qin; Hu, Mingxia. A study of the history of the Chinese family structures. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 113-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"It is...the purpose of this paper to discuss the [Chinese] family structure by starting from the major characteristics of family structures in traditional times and moving on from there to a brief description of family structures in modern China and the directions of change in family structures in present-day China." Consideration is given to family size and interpersonal relationships.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30468 Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ikenoue, Masako. Changes in population and household structure in a Yamagata village, 1955-1987. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 1, Apr 1990. 83-9 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in population and household structure are examined for a Japanese village for the period 1955-1987. Findings reveal that the percentage of husband-wife-only households decreased due to an increase in the number of elderly people residing with their children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30469 Touliatos, John; Czaplewski, Mary J. Inventory of marriage and family literature, 1989/90. Vol. 16, ISBN 0-916174-30-1. LC 67-63014. 1991. xiv, 744 pp. National Council on Family Relations: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
This volume is a reference guide to 3,849 articles on marriage and the family that were published between September 1989 and December 1990. The unannotated bibliography is presented in three sections: a subject index, an author index, and a keyword in title (KWIT) index. The geographical scope is worldwide. The bibliography is restricted to publications in English.
For Volume 15, published in 1990, see 56:40402.
Correspondence: National Council on Family Relations, 3989 Central Avenue NE 550, Minneapolis, MN 55421. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30470 von Schweitzer, Rosemarie. Time-budget patterns of populations. [Zeitstrukturmuster von Bevolkerungen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, 1990. 447-65 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"After a short description of the time budgets normally considered in the data sets of demography and population studies, the significance [that] time budget patterns of populations have for the description of various concepts of life styles is pointed out. By means of the example of a certain time budget pattern with a view to the time budget study scheduled by the [German] Federal Statistical Office for 1992, this thesis is furthermore founded and related to the discussion on the household production function in economic theory."
Correspondence: R. von Schweitzer, Universitat Giessen, Institut fur Wirtschaftslehre des Haushalts und Verbrauchsforschung, Bismarckstrasse 37, 6300 Giessen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30471 Wei, Zhangling. The family and family research in contemporary China. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4, Nov 1990. 493-509 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author discusses the history of family research in China from the 1930s to the present. The focus is on periods of interruption, particularly from 1952 to 1980 when research and teaching in sociology were prohibited. She also assesses current research efforts.
Correspondence: Z. Wei, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Sociology, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie, Beijing, China. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30472 Xie, Zhenming. An evaluation of the social effectiveness of one-child policy in China: a tracing survey on one-child families in Hefei, 1986. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1990. 30-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
A comparative study is made of families who have complied with China's one-child policy and those who have not. The study is based on data from 2,985 families who were questioned in 1980 and 1986 and focuses on socioeconomic differences between only-child and multi-child families.
Correspondence: Z. Xie, Anhui University, Population Research Institute, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30473 Yu, Ping. Determinants of family formation knowledge and attitudes among Chinese adolescents. Pub. Order No. DA9106195. 1990. 282 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(9).

57:30474 Zaky, Hassan H. M. Simultaneous approach to family size decisions in Egypt. Pub. Order No. DA9030272. 1990. 205 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(5).

57:30475 Zeng, Yi; Li, Xiaoli; Ma, Zhongdong. A model for summarizing and projecting the rates of leaving the parental home after marriage based on the Chinese data. Center for Population Analysis and Policy Research Report, No. 91-04-4, Apr 1991. 21, [6] pp. University of Minnesota, Center for Population Analysis and Policy: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to establish a model schedule of leaving the parental home after marriage, which is necessary and important for projecting or simulating family life course and family/household structure or indirect estimation when data is not complete. Following [Brass's] Relational Gompertz approach, we developed a model of home-leaving and found it fits and summarizes the Chinese data successfully."
Correspondence: University of Minnesota, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, 301 19th Avenue South, Room 230, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30476 Zeng, Yi. Effects of changing demographic factors upon women's family status in China: a model of family status life table and its application. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989. 77-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of major changes in demographic factors, such as marriage, birth and death, on women's family status in China....The principle of the family status life table will be discussed first to provide background for the introduction of the effective application of such a table in various aspects of Chinese women's marital status, distribution of births, relations between parity status and maternal status and how much of her life is spent as a daughter (when her parents are alive), as a mother, and as both a daughter of parents of senior age and a mother of young children."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30477 Zheng, Guizhen. Family structure and senior care in Shanghai. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1989. 285-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Family characteristics in the city of Shanghai, China, are described. Changes in family size and growth since 1949, the rise of the nuclear family due to socioeconomic changes, and the provision of care for the elderly within the family are considered. Some comparative data for other Chinese provinces and cities are offered.
Correspondence: G. Zheng, Fudan University, Institute of Population, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30478 Zhou, Qing. A preliminary analysis of rural family life cycle in China. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1990. 22-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Trends in family characteristics and the family life cycle in rural China are examined for the 1940s, 1960s, and 1980s.
Correspondence: Q. Zhou, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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