Volume 57 - Number 3 - Fall 1991

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

57:30263 Alter, George. The contribution of the European demographic transition to theories of fertility decline. PIRT Working Paper, No. 20, Jan 1990. 35 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine three leading theories of fertility decline which are widely cited by demographers concerned with both historical and contemporary demographic problems. My goal is not to evaluate the evidence in support of each theory but rather to identify the central assumptions and propositions underlying each school of thought. I shall try to show that these schools can be characterized by their answers to two fundamental questions: Do fertility transitions result from changes in parents' motivation to limit family size or from changes in attitudes and access to birth control? If changes in motivation are the determining factor, to what extent are these changes linked to socio-economic change, or are key attitudes about the family and children spread independently of prevailing structural conditions?" The author assesses Easterlin's supply-demand framework, the European Fertility Project, and Caldwell's wealth flows theory.
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30264 Andorka, Rudolf. Demographic change and economic development in Hungary since the second world war. In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. 1989. 183-201 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author examines economic development and demographic change in Hungary since World War II. "The modernization of the Hungarian economy and society resulted in the acceptance of the two-children family norm by all classes of society. As a consequence, the level of fertility is lower than that necessary for simple replacement. From the population policy measures introduced in the last decades, the restriction of induced abortions had no effect on cohort fertility, but the financial assistance given to families with children had a moderate impact, at least stopping the decline of fertility and also slightly increasing the desired and planned number of children of young couples."
Correspondence: R. Andorka, Budapesti Kozgazdasagtudomanyi Egyetem, Dimitrov-ter 8, 1093 Budapest IX, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30265 Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Colombiana [PROFAMILIA] (Bogota, Colombia); Institute for Resource Development/Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Colombia: Survey of Prevalence, Demography, and Health, 1990. [Colombia: Encuesta de Prevalencia, Demografia y Salud, 1990.] Jun 1991. xxii, 243, [41] pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
This is the final report presenting results from the Colombian Demographic and Health Survey, carried out in 1990, which included 8,644 women of reproductive age. Following a description of survey methodology and of the survey population's characteristics, chapters are included on fertility, knowledge and sources of family planning, other proximate determinants of fertility, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, breast-feeding, women's health, and intrafamily violence.
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30266 Benefo, Kofi D. The determinants of family size preferences and traditional child-spacing practices in West Africa. Pub. Order No. DA9023517. 1990. 296 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study is based on World Fertility Survey data for Senegal, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, and Cameroon. It was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(4).

57:30267 Bertollini, Roberto; Di Lallo, Domenico; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Perucci, Carlo A. Reduction of births in Italy after the Chernobyl accident. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Vol. 16, No. 2, Apr 1990. 96-101 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"After the Chernobyl accident serious concern spread throughout Italy about the possible effects of the consequent exposure to radioactivity on fetuses. A reduction of births in the first three months of 1987, and particularly in February was observed throughout Italy. In April-June 1987 a 4.8% increase in the number of births was observed. The magnitude of both phenomena varied in different areas of the country....Italian data suggest a voluntary decrease in the number of planned pregnancies and the termination of some of them in the first weeks after the accident as a consequence of postdisaster stress."
Correspondence: R. Bertollini, Epidemiology Unit, Lazio Region, Via di Costanza 53, 00198 Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:30268 Brass, W. Cohort and time period measures of quantum fertility: concepts and methodology. In: Life histories and generations, edited by Henk A. Becker. 1991. 455-76 pp. Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, ISOR: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Various alternative methods of measuring time period total fertility rates are described and their relative merits discussed. Time period parity progression ratios are estimated using data for England and Wales for the period since World War II. The author concludes that empirical methods developed by Louis Henry may be the most satisfactory for the calculation of time period total fertility rates.
Correspondence: W. Brass, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30269 Castro Martin, Teresa. Recent patterns of family formation in Spain: a sequential analysis of parity transitions. Pub. Order No. DA9101526. 1990. 316 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(9).

57:30270 Cigno, Alessandro. The timing of births: a theory of fertility, family expenditures and labour market participation over time. In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. 1989. 133-51 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"An intertemporal microeconomic model of family decisions emphasising the effects of the mother's age on the 'quality' of the child and the financial implications of interrupting the mother's career to care for a child is developed to analyse the effects of personal characteristics and of several economic variables on the time-profiles of childbearing and of income raising and spending activities of married couples. The model's predictions are then used to interpret the decline of completed fertility and the reversal of an earlier tendency towards younger motherhood that has characterised Western Europe over recent years."
Correspondence: A. Cigno, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30271 Cooper, Jacqui. The divergence between period and cohort measures of fertility. Population Trends, No. 63, Spring 1991. 19-21 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the national population projections [for the United Kingdom] the long-term assumption for future childbearing is of an average family size of 2.0 children per woman. However, the calendar year fertility rates have been lower than this for the last sixteen years and currently imply a figure of about 1.8 children per woman. This article explains why the difference between these two measures of fertility is not inconsistent or illogical."
Correspondence: J. Cooper, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30272 Creton, Dominique. Fertility changes and the Irish family. Geography, Vol. 76, Pt. 2, No. 331, Apr 1991. 154-7 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
Fertility trends in Ireland are examined for the 1980s. The author discusses regional fertility variations, the recent fertility decline, and changes in family patterns. Comparative demographic indicators are presented for the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Greece for 1987.
Correspondence: D. Creton, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30273 Cronk, Lee. Wealth, status, and reproductive success among the Mukogodo of Kenya. American Anthropologist, Vol. 93, No. 2, Jun 1991. 345-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The evolutionary biological hypothesis that culturally defined values and goals are proximate means of enhancing reproductive success is tested on data from the Mukogodo, a small group of Maa-speaking pastoralists in north-central Kenya who value the accumulation of livestock. The results support the prediction that, at least among males, livestock wealth should correlate with reproductive success. This correlation appears to be due mainly to greater polygyny among wealthier men. Lower age at first marriage among wealthier men may also contribute to the correlation between livestock wealth and reproductive success. The association between livestock wealth and reproductive success does not appear to be due to the productivity of wives and children, to bride-wealths obtained when daughters marry, or to the effects of wealth on the reproductive success of men's wives."
Correspondence: L. Cronk, Texas A and M University, Department of Anthropology, College Station, TX 77843-4352. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30274 Donaldson, Loraine. Fertility transition: the social dynamics of population change. ISBN 1-55786-090-4. LC 90-43941. 1991. vi, 227 pp. Basil Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of the process of demographic transition from high, fluctuating rates of fertility to low, more narrowly fluctuating rates. The main focus is on the experience of the developing countries since World War II. The author develops a model of the process of fertility change over the course of the demographic transition, which emphasizes experienced lifestyles and time constraints. The model takes into account the relationships among the dynamics of income growth, living standard changes, and fertility behavior. Developing country data are used to test the model. The study concludes with a consideration of the policy implications of the life style approach to the relationship between population and development.
Correspondence: Basil Blackwell, 3 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30275 Finnas, Fjalar. Fertility in Larsmo: the effect of Laestadianism. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1991. 339-51 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author studies fertility change in Larsmo, Finland. Fertility development is exceptional here due to the presence of Laestadianism, a revivalist movement that is opposed to contraception. "About 40 per cent of the population are Laestadians. [They] do not cohabit outside formal marriage, and the rule of pre-marital sexual abstinence seems to be observed. Within marriage, fertility seems to be unrestricted with respect to the first child, but an increasing proportion of Laestadians have begun to practise family planning, lengthen birth intervals, and restrict their families to three or four children....Since mortality is very low, a total fertility of six births per woman corresponds to a net reproduction of about 2.9, which is among the highest documented after 1970." The impact of the pro-natalist Laestadians on the fertility of non-members within the community is also assessed.
Correspondence: F. Finnas, Box 38C, 66100 Malax, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30276 Gao, Ersheng; Chen, Changzhong; Gu, Xingyuan. An analysis of intermediate fertility variables in Shanghai, Hebei and Shaanxi. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1989. 329-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"On the basis of the data from China's first thorough survey on fertility [conducted in 1985], organized by the State Statistical Bureau, this study will analyze...intermediate fertility variables in Shanghai, Hebei and Shaanxi according to the [Bongaarts] Model. It will also provide a general survey of the model."
Correspondence: E. Gao, Shanghai Medical College, Medical Population Research Center, 138 Yixueyuan Lu, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30277 Guo, Shenyang. Shanghai: pioneer of fertility decline in People's Republic of China--trends and determinants of fertility transition, 1950-1984. Pub. Order No. DA9023557. 1990. 223 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(4).

57:30278 Heckman, James J.; Walker, James R. The relationship between wages and income and the timing and spacing of births: evidence from Swedish longitudinal data. Econometrica, Vol. 58, No. 6, Nov 1990. 1,411-41 pp. Evanston, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper estimates semiparametric reduced-form neoclassical models of life-cycle fertility in Sweden....The estimated model integrates aspects of life cycle fertility that have previously been studied in isolation of each other: completed fertility, childlessness, interbirth intervals, and the time series of annual birth rates. The main objective of this paper is to determine which aspects of life cycle fertility, if any, are sensitive to male income and female wages."
Correspondence: J. J. Heckman, University of Chicago, Department of Economics, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30279 Hinde, Peter R. A. The fertility transition in rural England. Pub. Order No. BRDX89238. 1985. 601 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Sheffield.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(3).

57:30280 Hoem, Jan M. Remarkable recent fertility in Sweden: an interpretation. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 61, ISBN 91-7820-047-4. Nov 1990. 15, [8] pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This note displays the steep increase in Sweden's period Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in recent years and shows that the TFR has now reached the reproduction level despite Swedish women's record high labor force participation and their unusually late entry into motherhood. The demographic mechanism behind this development is an increase in the tempo of childbearing....An interpretation is offered for the particularly strong increase in fertility rates at very low ages of the last previous child as a specific response to a particular item in a package of social policy reforms."
Correspondence: University of Stockholm, Section of Demography, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30281 Horska, Pavla. A contribution to the study of legitimate fertility in Slavic Central Europe in the pre-statistical era. [Contribution au probleme de la fecondite legitime en Europe Centrale slave a l'epoque prestatistique.] Review of Historical Demography, No. 6, 1990. 44-56 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Fre.
The author reviews recent work on fertility trends in the Slavic lands that formed part of the Hapsburg Empire in Central Europe. The primary focus is on the Czech regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, for which substantive historical records have survived.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30282 Horvath, Robert A. Economic change and family size in Hungarian historical demography. In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. 1989. 169-82 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The present paper is a verification of the new theory of demographic transition forwarded by Kingsley Davis in 1984 based on the changing pattern of the division of labor and the reversal of the sex roles within the family or the household as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution. As a test case the end of the era of feudalism and the capitalist era [up until] World War II in Hungary was chosen because of its predominantly agrarian economic structure and was relatively well documented by historical demographic and economic statistics...."
For the paper by Davis, published in 1984, see 50:40654.
Correspondence: R. A. Horvath, Institut International de Statistique, Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30283 Hsueh, Yung-Chang; Anderton, Douglas L. Temporal dimensions of the fertility transition: an age-period-cohort analysis of frontier fertility. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1990. 447-64 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates age, period, and cohort effects on marital fertility during onset of the Utah fertility transition (1880-1900). Computerized genealogies are used to derive age-period-cohort fertility rates for 49,842 once-married couples. Age, period and cohort effects on marital fertility are then estimated using Johnson's (1985) relational model. Declining marital fertility in Utah is shown to be explained by both lower fertility levels across periods and increasing age-specific limitation across cohorts. Direct cohort effects on fertility are insignificant. These results are consistent with prior research, and the view that fertility levels were adaptive (in part through birth spacing across ages) to immediate contexts of childbearing while age-specific fertility truncation increased across cohorts (in part through the more general diffusion of contraceptive innovations)."
Correspondence: D. L. Anderton, University of Massachusetts, Social and Demographic Research Institute, Department of Sociology, Machmer W-34, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: New York Public Library.

57:30284 Ishikawa, Akira. Trends in marital fertility of Japanese females: 1947-1988. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 1, Apr 1990. 56-66 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Fertility changes in Japan are examined for the post-World War II period. The analysis is presented by year and cohort for maternal age and parity. Findings reveal recent trends in marriage postponement and consequently a higher maternal age at first birth and decreased parity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30285 Kang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shaoxian. Factors that directly affect fertility of rural women: a survey on the fertility of married fertile women in Yangzhen Township, Shunyi County, Beijing. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1989. 345-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is intended to clarify the factors that directly affect women's fertility...as well as to study the relationships among them, and to lead to an understanding of the characteristics of the changes in women's fertility in China's rural areas." Data are from 1982 and concern Yangzhen Township, near Beijing.
Correspondence: X. Kang, Beijing Medical University, College of Public Health, Xue Yuan Lu, Northern Suburb, Beijing 100083, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30286 Kono, Shigemi. Determinants and consequences of low fertility in low-fertility countries. Institute of Population Problems Reprint Series, No. 11, Oct 1990. [14] pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to review the low fertility situation in the low fertility countries of the ESCAP region [Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore] with particular reference to its determinants and consequences. Although such a situation has not yet constituted the major trend in the region, it is now rapidly gaining importance. Since the majority of the developing countries in the region favour low fertility and endeavour fertility control through family planning, the current low fertility countries would provide some useful models for those developing countries in [the] foreseeable future."
This paper is reprinted from "Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982): Selected Papers", U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 1984, pp. 61-74.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30287 Kotrikadze, B. V.; Sinel'nikov, A. B. The birth rate in the Georgian SSR: trends and means of regulation. [Rozhdaemost'v gruzinskoi SSR: tendentsii i puti regulirovaniya.] ISBN 5-520-00799-3. 1990. 222 pp. Metsniereba: Tbilisi, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze the dynamics of fertility in Georgia, USSR, taking into consideration the influence of socioeconomic, demographic, and psychological factors. They predict a declining level of fertility through the year 2069. Therefore, the final chapter discusses ways in which the government has been encouraging families to have more children and suggests improvements in pro-natalist programs.
Correspondence: Metsniereba, ul. Kutuzova 15, 380060 Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30288 Lecaillon, Jean-Didier. The determinants of post-transitional fertility: the teachings of economic theory. [Les determinants de la fecondite post-transitionnelle: enseignements de la theorie economique.] Revue Francaise d'Economie, Vol. 5, No. 3, Summer 1990. 73-105, 206 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The influence of economic factors on fertility in developed countries is discussed. "This article presents the principal theories on this matter (Easterlin hypothesis, demographic implosion, new home economics); so it is possible to point out interpretation elements of the observed demographic situation (contraceptive revolution, singular family model, increase of...female activity)." Based on this analysis, the author suggests directions for future economic policies.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30289 LeClere, Felicia B. The impact of measurement on the link between women's status and fertility in Taiwan. Pub. Order No. DA9032323. 1990. 200 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Pennsylvania State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(6).

57:30290 Lloyd, Cynthia B. The contribution of the World Fertility Surveys to an understanding of the relationship between women's work and fertility. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 144-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the use of World Fertility Survey data for research on the relationship between women's paid work and fertility in developing countries. "The article begins with a discussion of factors conditioning the relationship between women's economic activity and fertility. Then the measurement of women's work in the World Fertility Survey is explained, followed by some descriptive material on patterns of work among the developing countries participating in the survey program. The various findings on this relationship emerging from analyses of WFS data are critically discussed...with emphasis placed on comparative studies....The conclusion provides some thoughts about future research strategies on this topic, in terms of both data collection and analysis, given the severe limitations of cross-sectional surveys for the analysis of causal relationship."
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30291 Lotter, J. M. Sociocultural factors and fertility. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1988. 7-12 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationships among sociocultural factors and fertility levels in South Africa. Attention is given to the transition to low fertility, fertility trends, and fertility differences by region. Race or ethnic group, religion, educational status, and employment are the major factors considered.
Correspondence: J. M. Lotter, Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X41, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30292 Low, Bobbi S.; Clarke, Alice L. Family patterns in nineteenth-century Sweden: impact of occupational status and landownership. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1991. 117-38 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study compares the reproductive lives of individuals in four Swedish parishes during the 1800s, analyzing data not only at the aggregate but also the lineage level. Our purpose was to examine whether changes in family patterns correlate with resource richness, predictability and partibility, and individual ability to access resources (age, sex, parity, occupational status)." Findings reveal that men's reproductive behavior was affected by their occupational status and land ownership.
Correspondence: B. S. Low, University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30293 Lu, Qiwen. A review of studies on China's fertility transition. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1990. 37-40 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author reviews literature that concerns the relationship between China's fertility decline and socioeconomic development.
Correspondence: Q. Lu, Beijing University, Sociology Department, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30294 Luna, F.; Fuster, V. Reproductive pattern in a rural Mediterranean population: La Alpujarra, Spain. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 501-6 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The reproductive pattern of a sample of nuclear families from La Alpujarra (Andalusia, Spain) is analysed. The origin of the wife or consanguinity of the couple does not influence fertility. Variability in number of pregnancies is most closely associated with marriage duration followed by the wife's year of birth. Differences in the number of births are explained more by the number of pregnancies than by the number of miscarriages. The number of survivors to the first birthday is dependent on the number of births and to a lower extent on infant mortality. Data from incomplete families show that reproductive performance of the wife below the age of 45 cannot be accepted as a reliable estimate of complete reproduction."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: F. Luna, Complutense University, Department of Animal Biology I (Anthropology), Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30295 Martinelle, Sten. Fertility projection based on birth order data--a Swedish approach. Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1990. 1-11 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The decreasing fertility rates in Sweden during the 1970s can be explained as postponement of childbearing. An increasingly larger part of each generation has chosen to bear children at a late age, after education and some years of occupational work. As a consequence, the yearly age-specific rates will, in years to come, change systematically towards relatively high rates for women in the second half of the fertile period; changes which are important in population projections. To predict the future rates a model based on birth order data and assumptions about the final family size is used. The model and its application in the 1989 projection of the Swedish population is discussed in the paper. Alternative projections and the assumptions behind the alternatives are specified."
Correspondence: S. Martinelle, Statistics Sweden, Population Research Office, S-115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

57:30296 Moreno, Lorenzo. An alternative model of the impact of the proximate determinants on fertility change: evidence from Latin America. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1991. 313-37 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A model is proposed for decomposition of changes in total fertility by several of its proximate determinants. The new method has been derived from previous work in modelling marital fertility within the framework of generalized linear models. The discussion is illustrated by data from countries in Latin America and the Caribbean in which there has been at least one survey from the World Fertility Survey and from the Demographic and Health Surveys projects. The results of the new approach are then compared with those obtained from the application of Bongaarts's model of proximate determinants to the same data."
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30297 Mostert, W. P.; Hofmeyr, B. E. Socioeconomic factors affecting fertility in the developing countries and of the developing population groups in South Africa. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1988. 1-6 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"In the present paper...socioeconomic factors affecting the fertility of the developing population groups in South Africa, are discussed and compared with findings [for developing countries] from the WFS [World Fertility Survey]." Data for South Africa are from an independent survey conducted during 1981-1982. "The relationship between socioeconomic factors and three dependent variables (marital fertility, desired family size, and current contraceptive use) is analysed....The analyses are restricted to the examination of the extent to which the wife's differentials in fertility and associated variables related to education, employment status, and rural/urban residence persist, when other socioeconomic characteristics of the couple are controlled statistically."
Correspondence: W. P. Mostert, Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X41, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30298 Muruli, Leunita A. Education, labor force participation, residence, and fertility among Kenyan women. Pub. Order No. DA9032350. 1990. 77 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Pennsylvania State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(6).

57:30299 Nebenfuhr, Eva. Fertility trends and socioeconomic development in the Philippines. [Kinderzahl und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung auf den Philippinen.] Demographische Informationen 1990/91, [1991]. 48-52, 154 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The present article summarizes fertility trends in the Philippines over the last 30 years. Crude birth rate, total fertility rate and age-specific fertility rates are used as indicators showing the decline of fertility. The relevance of changing marriage patterns, contraceptive use and acceptance, government family planning policy and the role of women in Philippine society are discussed in detail."
Correspondence: E. Nebenfuhr, Universitat Wien, Institut fur Geographie, Dr Karl Lueger-Ring 1, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30300 O'Keeffe, Janet E. Starting a second family: the effect of children from a husband's prior marriage and the payment of child support on birth expectations in women's first and second marriages. Pub. Order No. DA8813374. 1988. 266 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines whether women whose husbands have previously been married have lower fertility than those whose husbands were not previously married, using 1982 U.S. data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. The author analyzes "the relationship between birth expectations and husbands' characteristics--prior marital status, age at current marriage, children, and the payment of child support." The results indicate that for women in first marriages, children from previous marriages had little impact on fertility. "For women in second marriages, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the negative relationship between a husband's prior marital status and birth expectations is spurious....Factors that are important in predicting childbearing in women's second marriages are: the husband's and wife's age at current marriage, the wife's parity at remarriage, the age of her youngest child at remarriage and her earnings."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Los Angeles. This publication was cited in 57:10267 with the author's name misspelled.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(7).

57:30301 Pandey, Arvind; Singh, R. N. A stochastic model applicable to the study of open birth intervals regardless of parity. Rural Demography, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, 1988. 19-26 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"We present a probability model for describing the variation in open birth intervals regardless of parity of women having specific marital duration. Deriving the expression for the expected value of open birth intervals, the model has been applied to an observed set of data of a sample survey [in India]...."
Correspondence: A. Pandey, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30302 Pendleton, Brian F.; Chang, H. C. Factors affecting a woman's age at first birth and first marriage in Taiwan. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 27, No. 3-4, Jul-Oct 1990. 209-28 pp. Ghaziabad, India. In Eng.
The authors analyze the determining factors for marital age and for age at first birth for women in Taiwan. "A 21 variable model is developed and explored using interview data with 971 married Taiwan women collected in 1979. Models are tests for two cohorts of women: those over 30 years of age and those 30 and under. Among younger women, desired number of sons and age are important in determining age at first birth....Husband's age, respondent's education, and age determine age at first marriage among younger women. Among older women, only age at first marriage affects age at first birth while husband's age, respondent's father's and mother's educations, and respondent's age determine age at first marriage."
Correspondence: B. F. Pendleton, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:30303 Preston-Whyte, Eleanor. Culture, context and behaviour: anthropological perspectives on fertility in Southern Africa. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1988. 13-23 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
The author uses an anthropological perspective to analyze fertility in South Africa, with a focus on the impact of sociocultural factors on reproductive behavior. The socioeconomic value of high fertility for Black Africans, particularly men, and its effect on contraceptive use and the implementation of family planning programs are discussed.
Correspondence: E. Preston-Whyte, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30304 Rao, Vijayendra; Greene, Margaret E. Marital instability, inter-spouse bargaining and their implications for fertility in Brazil: a multi-disciplinary analysis. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. OSC 91-3, May 1991. 43 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper employs both ethnographic methods with field interviews conducted in Brazil in the spring of 1990, and econometric methods with survey data, to examine the impact of inter-household bargaining and marital instability on fertility in Brazil. Thereby, it also attempts to clarify the influence of the variety of Latin American marital forms (consensual, civil, religious), on fertility....It is found that women who have higher threats of divorce, as measured by the unearned incomes of husband and wife, the relative availability of alternative mates, and the possibilities of female employment in the regional labor force, bear fewer children....We also present evidence to show that the extent to which fertility increases marital stability bears a strong negative association with the degree of fertility control."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: NORC Librarian, NORC/University of Chicago, 6030 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30305 Sah, Raaj K. The effects of child mortality changes on fertility choice and parental welfare. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 99, No. 3, Jun 1991. 582-606 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Empirical studies have overwhelmingly shown that a lower child mortality rate leads to lower fertility. Yet it has not been possible to satisfactorily analyze this relationship in even the simplest theoretical models. This paper attempts to bridge this gap between theory and the empirical literature. The paper also presents results on the effects of child mortality changes on parental welfare. The analysis captures the dynamic stochastic feature of fertility choice, subsumes other endogenous choices (e.g., the quality of the children), and treats the number of children as a discrete variable (this added realism is important for the analysis)."
Correspondence: R. K. Sah, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:30306 Sharma, O. P.; Retherford, Robert D. Effect of female literacy on fertility in India. Occasional Paper, No. 1 of 1990, 1990. 59 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of female literacy on fertility in India. Data are from the 1981 census, supplemented by data from other official sources. Variables considered include the total fertility rate, female literacy, the proportion urban, child mortality, and mean age at first marriage. The results suggest that an increase in the literacy rate is likely to lower fertility rates substantially.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, West Block No. 1, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

57:30307 Sudan. Department of Statistics (Khartoum, Sudan); Institute for Resource Development/Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Sudan Demographic and Health Survey, 1989/1990. May 1991. xxii, 180 pp. Khartoum, Sudan. In Eng.
This report presents results from the Sudan Demographic and Health Survey, 1989/1990, which included 5,860 ever-married women aged 15-49 from the six regions of northern Sudan. Following introductory chapters describing the background characteristics of households and respondents, chapters are included on fertility, fertility regulation, nuptiality and exposure to the risk of pregnancy, fertility preferences, childhood mortality, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, and female circumcision.
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30308 Sufian, Abu J. M. Socioeconomic characteristics and fertility of labour migrants in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Population Sciences, Vol. 9, Jul 1990. 29-36 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper examines the socioeconomic characteristics and their influence on fertility of the labour migrants to the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The data were collected from the health centers in the city of Al-Khobar. The dummy regression technique was employed to analyze the...number of living children. The analysis shows that...wife's education has the largest contribution in lowering fertility. On the other hand, fertility varies directly with the husband-wife age difference."
Correspondence: A. J. M. Sufian, King Faisal University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30309 Sullivan, Susan. The effects of the recession on women's employment and fertility with particular reference to the birth of a third child. Pub. Order No. BRDX91182. 1986. 487 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University College of Swansea, Wales.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(9).

57:30310 Uhiara, Adeze N. The effect of women's education, economic roles, and values on fertility in Nigeria. Pub. Order No. DA9013631. 1989. 166 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(3).

57:30311 Valkovics, Emil. Application of polynomial approximation in the indirect modeling of general age-specific fertility rates. [Polinomialis approximacio alkalmazasa az altalanos korspecifikus termekenysegi aranyszamok indirekt modellezeseben.] Demografia, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1988. 67-120 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The article presents and evaluates the methods of indirect modelling based on the fitting of the Gompertz curve to the cumulated values of the 1959-1985 general age-specific fertility rates of Hungary....It also mentions many other transformations which permit...polynomial approximation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30312 Vermunt, J. K. A multivariate model for first births. [Een multivariaat model voor de geboorte van het eerste kind.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 5, May 1991. 22-33 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The objective of this study was to construct a multivariate model to explain individual differences in first birth, using economic and sociological fertility theories and the findings from past analyses on data from the Netherlands Fertility Survey....The explanatory variables found to be significant are age at first birth, household position, labour force participation, educational level, and period of first birth....The parameters of the model can be used to calculate the probability to remain childless for women with a specific life cycle."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30313 von Cube, Alex. The fertility decline in the Federal Republic of Germany: a political analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9021597. 1989. 260 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Maryland at College Park.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(3).

57:30314 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Births and birth rates, Canada, 1989. [Naissances et taux de natalite, Canada, 1989.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 79-82 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Official data on births, crude birth rates, and total fertility rates for 1981, 1988, and 1989 are presented for each Canadian province. Age-specific fertility rates are also provided.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30315 Walsh, Robert W.; Woelfel, Mary L.; Shuttleworth, Ann; Spitz, Alison; Goldberg, Howard L.; Morris, Leo. New York Reproductive Health Survey, 1989. May 1991. xiv, 62, [109] pp. New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Reproductive Health: Albany, New York; U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This report presents results from the New York Reproductive Health Survey conducted in 1988-1989. The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on fertility status and contraceptive practices of women aged 15-44 living in New York State, excluding New York City. The survey, conducted by telephone, collected data on 1,910 women and covered topics such as "basic sociodemographic characteristics, number of pregnancies and live births, desired family size, intendedness status of the last pregnancy, smoking history and use during pregnancy, reproductive health knowledge, sexual experience and current sexual activity, elective and nonelective sterilization, ever and current contraceptive use, source of and payment for contraceptive methods, and self-reported episodes of infertility."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30316 Wildasin, David E. Non-neutrality of debt with endogenous fertility. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 42, No. 2, Apr 1990. 414-28 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Although its full implications for a number of areas in economics have yet to be felt, the fact is that there is a great deal of evidence to suggest that fertility depends on economic variables, i.e., fertility is subject, at least in part, to choice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the consequences of this fact for the analysis of government policies involving intergenerational transfers. In particular, we investigate the Barro (1974) neutrality proposition on government debt, and the closely related question of the impact of an unfunded social security programme, in an economy with endogenous fertility." The author focuses on both developed and developing countries and the experiences specific to them.
Correspondence: D. E. Wildasin, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30317 Yang, Zhihui. Study on the fertility of the female aged population above 60. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1990. 30-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Marital and fertility histories of women aged 60 and over in China are presented. Data are from a sample survey conducted in 1987. Marriage age, age at first birth, educational level, family size, and occupation are compared for rural and urban cohorts.
Correspondence: Z. Yang, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Studies, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30318 Zhong, Fenggan. China's demographic transition viewed from the angle of developing countries. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1990. 1-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author presents a cross-national comparison of the demographic transition in China and selected developing countries. Data concern the crude birth rates and crude death rates and are from official Chinese sources and the 1984 U.N. Demographic Yearbook.
Correspondence: F. Zhong, Zhongshan University, Population Research Institute, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30319 Zimmerman, Frank E. South Indian fertility decline: the life cycle and the kin group. Pub. Order No. DA9103947. 1990. 131 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(9).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

57:30320 Finnas, Fjalar. The effect of religion on fertility differentials. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 29, 1991. 28-35 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article reports the main results of a detailed study made on fertility and demographic development in a small municipality on the western coast of Finland. A great part of the inhabitants of this municipality belongs to a pro-natalistic religious revival movement, the Laestadians, with a total fertility rate of 6.0....The author analyzes the reproductive behavior among the Laestadians, examines the effect of the high Laestadian fertility on the demographic behavior of non-Laestadians in the municipality and discusses the study of regional differences in fertility level variation and factors affecting it. The study is based on data for all women born between 1930 and 1970 collected from the Church register."
Correspondence: F. Finnas, Abo Akademi, Social Science Research Unit, Domkyrkotorget 3, 20500 Abo, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30321 Gu, Baochang. On the effects of socio-economic development and family planning on the decline of fertility in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 125-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to discuss variations in fertility in China in 1981 among its 28 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions (without including Tibet and Taiwan, for lack of data), and explore the impact of socioeconomic development and family planning on the decline of the fertility rate in China."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30322 Hofferth, Sandra L.; Hayes, Cheryl D. Risking the future: adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing. Vol. 2, 1987. xii, 520 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This volume is a product of a two-year study undertaken by the Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing, set up by the National Research Council's Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy. The objectives of the panel were "(1) to assemble, integrate, and assess data on trends in teenage sexual and fertility behavior; (2) to review and synthesize research on the antecedents and consequences of early pregnancy and childbearing; and (3) to review alternative preventive and ameliorative policies and programs." The geographical focus is on the United States. Volume II, presented here, includes "detailed background reviews of existing research on factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse, contraceptive use, pregnancy, childbearing, and parenting for young mothers, fathers, and their children, as well as the costs and effects of policies and programs....Also included...is a comprehensive statistical appendix presenting data from a variety of sources on trends in teenage sexual and fertility behavior." Volume I includes the panel's findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
For Volume I, published in 1987, see 53:10350.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30323 Huang, Ying. Impact of changes in women's fertility during urbanization on China's population development. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1990. 19-26 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author analyzes the changes in China's total fertility rate over the past 40 years, with a focus on the differences between rural and urban areas. The role of urbanization in the country's fertility decline is examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30324 Ignegongba, Keumaye. Fertility in Mauritania. [La fecondite en Mauritanie.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 17, ISBN 2-87762-019-0. Jun 1991. 39 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This study presents an analysis of fertility differentials in Mauritania based on various data sources: the 1957 Survey carried out by the MISOES (Senegal), a census undertaken in urban areas in 1961-62, the 1964-65 demographic survey, the 1976-77 General Population Census and the Mauritania National Fertility Survey of 1981 (ENMF). The quality of these data is quite low, especially concerning age reporting. The ENMF, however, a fertility specific survey, provides reasonably good information. The level of sterility in Mauritania has been relatively constant since 1977 and approximately 7% of women aged 40 or more have not had any live [births]. Fertility indicators show that over time 'Moorish women' have experienced a fertility lower than that of 'Black African' women. Fertility differentials have also been observed according to social groups and the level of education."
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30325 Kamaras, Ferenc. Social differences in fertility in light of family planning surveys. [A termekenyseoj tarsadelmi kulonbsegei a csaladtervezesi vizsgalatok tukreben.] Demografia, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1988. 26-66 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author presents the results of a family planning survey, intended to analyze fertility by social status in Hungary. The survey, which covered married females, was conducted in 1974 and 1984. "According to the findings of the survey there were no significant differences in the premarital family plans by social strata, but there are already great dissimilarities in the family sizes desired ten years later. The original family plans of the strata of non-manual occupations, higher educational level and of third-level education seem to be the least stable."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30326 Liao, Futing. Fertility differentials of religious and ethnic groups in the United States: a fuzzy group membership approach. Pub. Order No. DA9032989. 1989. 170 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(6).

57:30327 Muthiah, Annamalai C. Fertility and proximate determinants in rural Tamil Nadu. Pub. Order No. DA9027297. 1988. 365 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Fertility differentials among four cultural groups living in Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed. This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the Australian National University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(5).

57:30328 Poston, Dudley L.; Jia, Zhongke. Socioeconomic structure and fertility in China: a county level investigation. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 507-15 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of the general fertility rate in the counties of China shows significant associations with infant mortality, illiteracy, and the percentage of the population employed in industry, but not with industrial or agricultural output. Urban counties differ from rural in the importance of the illiteracy rate. The associations in the rural counties vary according to the region of China in which they are located."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30329 Roy, T. K.; Rao, G. Rama; Prasad, Rajiva. Education, fertility and contraception among Hindus and Roman Catholics in Goa. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 353-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The paper has attempted to determine whether the decisions of a woman to marry at a specific age, to use a specific method of family planning, and to have a certain number of children, are influenced by the level of education in the community." Data are from a survey of 654 Hindu and 250 Roman Catholic currently married women between the ages of 30 and 49 living in Goa, India. "The analyses suggest that the effect of community (village) level of education [is] weak in comparison to individual level of education. Among the Hindus, the effect of community level education was only apparent among those who were better educated....For Roman Catholics, however, the community effect could be noticed among the women with no schooling, as well as [among] the moderately educated women. The effect was statistically significant only in the case of marriage pattern and contraceptive use."
Correspondence: T. K. Roy, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30330 Stroup-Benham, Christine A.; Trevino, Fernando M. Reproductive characteristics of Mexican-American, mainland Puerto Rican, and Cuban-American women: data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 265, No. 2, Jan 9, 1991. 222-6 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to investigate reproductive characteristics of Hispanic females aged 15 to 45 years [living in the United States]. Mexican-American and Puerto Rican women reported approximately 1.9 and 1.7 live births each, respectively, whereas Cuban-American women reported 1.1. Mexican-American women were more likely to be using oral contraceptives and were more likely to have had a hysterectomy or an oophorectomy than were Cubans and Puerto Ricans. The largest percentage of tubal ligations were found among Puerto Rican women. Mexican women who had been pregnant in the previous 12 months were more likely than their Puerto Rican and Cuban-American counterparts to be breastfeeding."
Correspondence: C. A. Stroup-Benham, University of Texas Medical Branch, Office of Educational Development, 144 Gail Borden Building F-64, Galveston, TX 77550. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30331 Tambashe, Oleko; Shapiro, David. Employment, education, and fertility behavior: evidence from Kinshasa. Jun 1991. v, 97 pp. Universite de Kinshasa, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Departement de Demographie: Kinshasa, Zaire. In Eng.
"This research focuses on the links among employment, education, and fertility among women residing in Kinshasa, Zaire's capital city....[We] examine fertility levels and differentials with respect to educational attainment and employment status, among other factors....We provide substantive results of our analyses of lifetime fertility, as well as of the starting and spacing patterns of family formation. More specifically, the report documents levels and correlates of lifetime fertility (as measured by children ever born), timing and correlates of age at first marriage and age at first birth, and levels and determinants of contraceptive use, breastfeeding, and postpartum abstinence. We also examine the level and determinants of employment in the modern sector....The data for this research are from a household survey carried out in Kinshasa during the second quarter of 1990....[and cover] a sample of approximately 2,400 women of childbearing age (ages 13-49)."
Correspondence: Universite de Kinshasa, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Departement de Demographie, BP 127, Kinshasa XI, Zaire. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30332 Tsutsui, Takuma; Igarashi, Tadataka; Tsubouchi, Yoshihiro. Fertility in Bangladesh villages. Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 28, No. 3, Dec 1990. 369-83 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze the high fertility in two Bangladesh villages based on survey and genealogical data. "Compared with nation-wide data, [the] two villages showed comparatively high fertility. There was a difference in fertility between the two villages, which appeared to result from a difference in mean age at first marriage. No other factors were identified....As for the government's family planning program, neither village showed much effect."
Correspondence: T. Tsutsui, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30333 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Trends in fertility and infant and maternal health--United States, 1980-1988. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 40, No. 23, Jun 14, 1991. 381-3, 389-90 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Infants born to teenaged mothers and to unmarried mothers are particularly at risk for low birth weight (LBW), which in turn increases their risk for serious morbidity, permanent disability, and death. In the United States, data from birth certificates are the primary source for monitoring trends in reproductive patterns and maternal and infant health. This report uses information from U.S. birth certificates for 1980 and for 1985-1988 to characterize trends in fertility among teenagers (aged 15-19 years) and unmarried women, use of prenatal care, and the incidence of LBW."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30334 Zhang, Tianlu. The marriage pattern and population reproduction of the national minorities of China. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1990. 27-36 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author examines differences in marriage patterns and fertility among the national minorities in China. The impact of various forms of cohabitation on reproductive behavior and on age at first marriage is discussed.
Correspondence: T. Zhang, Beijing Economics College, Research Institute of Population and Economics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

57:30335 Evina Akam. An attempt to measure infertility from non-stationary Poisson flows: an application to Cameroon. [Essai de mesure de l'infecondite a partir des flux de Poisson non stationnaires: application au cas du Cameroun.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1987. 5-35 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
Problems concerning the concepts and measurement of infertility in Africa are first examined. The author then introduces Poisson's flows and applies them to the analysis of fertility data. Finally, the concepts are applied to fertility data from Cameroon, including regional surveys conducted from 1960 to 1965 and the National Fertility Survey of 1978.
Correspondence: Evina Akam, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30336 Leridon, Henri. Sterility and sub-fecundity: from silence to impatience? [Sterilite et hypofertilite: du silence a l'impatience?] Population, Vol. 46, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 225-47 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes sterility and sub-fecundity among women in France, using data from surveys conducted in 1978 and 1988. "The proportion of women between the ages of 25 and 44 who admitted to having experienced difficulty in conceiving, sharply increased between 1978 and 1988, rising from 18% to 30%. They had waited, on average, slightly less than two years to conceive, a period which does not seem to have changed over time. If durations of 12 months or less are excluded, the proportion of 'sub-fecund' women drops from 30% to 17%....The increased proportion of difficulties expressed in 1988 compared with 1978 could be the result of greater impatience among couples questioned in 1988, but perhaps even more so, of their struggle against resigning themselves to remaining childless; there is, thus no real evidence to suggest that there has been a true increase in sub-fecundity or sterility."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30337 Mosher, William D.; Pratt, William F. Fecundity and infertility in the United States: incidence and trends. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 56, No. 2, Aug 1991. 192-3 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The authors contrast the conclusions of their own report on trends in infertility in the United States with those of E. Greenhall and M. Vessey concerning Great Britain. They conclude that "physicians providing infertility services do not have more patients due to an 'epidemic' of infertility because there is no epidemic. There are more infertility patients because the huge Baby Boom generation (born 1946 to 1964) is now 27 to 45 years old, and they are delaying childbearing into the ages where they are more likely to become infertile."
The article by E. Greenhall and M. Vessey was published in Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 54, No. 6, Dec 1990, pp. 978-83.
For the original report, published by the same authors in 1990, see 57:10312.
Correspondence: W. D. Mosher, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

57:30338 Ahmed, A. Rashid; Debnath, S. C.; Modak, P. C.; Hossain, M. I.; Mondal, A. G. Some characteristics of rural acceptors of family planning measures. Rural Demography, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, 1988. 41-6 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"Some selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the acceptors and nonacceptors of family planning measures in a rural area of Mymensingh district [Bangladesh] have been studied and analysed." Factors considered include age, income, education, farm size, family size, wife's age at marriage, wife's education, newspaper reading, and radio listening.
Correspondence: A. R. Ahmed, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30339 De Wit, Margaret; Rajulton, Fernando. Voluntary sterilisation among Canadian women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 263-73 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey, proportional hazards modelling was employed to determine factors associated with the likelihood of voluntary sterilisation among 5,315 women of childbearing age, and the trends in timing and differences in the likelihood associated with different age cohorts. Multivariate analysis suggests that educational attainment, parity and duration since last birth at the time of sterilisation, religious commitment, province of residence and marital status at the time of sterilisation are all important predictors. Education and parity attainment emerged as the best predictors of the timing of voluntary sterilisation in all age cohorts, but the contribution of other covariates varies between cohorts."
Correspondence: M. De Wit, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30340 Goldscheider, Calvin; Mosher, William D. Patterns of contraceptive use in the United States: the importance of religious factors. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 102-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Previous research has shown that the major religious communities in the U.S. have all shifted their expected family size downward but significant differences in contraceptive use styles continue to characterize Catholics, Protestants, Jews, and those of no religious affiliation. This paper examines data from Cycle IV of the National Survey of Family Growth (1988) to extend the time period covered by previous research by comparing the emerging contraceptive use patterns and fertility expectations among women in the late 1980s with earlier cohorts from previous national studies, beginning in the 1960s. The categories of religious affiliation are extended to include specific religious denominations...and include measures of religiosity....These data are examined for blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, pp. 426-7).
Correspondence: C. Goldscheider, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30341 Gonzalez, Eduardo T. Health, education and family planning in the Philippines: governmental initiatives and household choice. Pub. Order No. DA9101163. 1990. 254 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(8).

57:30342 Hunt, Kate; Annandale, Ellen. Predicting contraceptive method usage among women in West Scotland. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 405-21 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Users of the six major methods of contraception [in West Scotland] are compared across a broad range of variables using data from a community sample. Differences between the groups were apparent for a range of socioeconomic and reproductive variables, and current users of the various methods also differed in their past use of contraception....Discriminant analysis showed that the most predictive variables distinguishing women who had opted for permanent methods of contraception (female sterilization and vasectomy) were the woman's stated reason for using her current method and her past contraceptive patterns; the inclusion of social, health and reproductive indicators did little to improve the prediction. It is argued that heightened expectations for contraceptive efficacy in the face of increasing concerns about long-term health consequences have contributed to the increased use of permanent methods."
Correspondence: K. Hunt, MRC Medical Sociology Unit, 6 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30343 Kjaer, Susanne K.; Teisen-Simony, Marie-Louise C.; Haugaard, Birthe J.; Christensen, Rene B.; Lynge, Elsebeth; Jensen, Ole M. Choice of contraception in relation to sexual activity in young women in Nuuk/Godthab (Greenland) and in Nykobing Falster (Denmark): a population-based cross-sectional investigation comprising 1,247 women. [Valg af Kontraception i relation til seksuel aktivitet blandt yngre kvinder i Nuuk/Godthab (Gronland) og i Nykobing Falster (Danmark): en populationbaseret tvaersnitsundersogelse blandt 1,247 kvinder.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 153, No. 4, Jan 21, 1991. 278-81 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
"Contraceptive habits in relation to sexual activity were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional investigation. A total of 661 women from Nykobing Falster [Denmark] and 586 women from Nuuk/Godthab in Greenland participated. The women, who were in the age group 20-39 years, were selected at random from the census....Both in Godthab and in Nykobing Falster [Denmark] a 'non-barrier' method of contraception was the...[most common] method employed, regardless of the number of sexual partners....From the point of view of prevention of sexually transmitted disease, it is striking that among women with [20 or more] sexual partners, approximately 79% and approximately 40% in Godthab and Nykobing Falster, respectively, had never employed condoms or diaphragms. In future, it will be important to investigate the patterns of sexual behaviour in various cultures and their development during the course of time in order to advise a population on the basis of the norms found in the culture concerned."
Correspondence: S. K. Kjaer, Kraeftens Bekaempelse, Cancerregisteret, Rosenvaengets Hovedvej 35, Postboks 839, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30344 Kost, Kathryn L. Contraceptive discontinuation in Peru: patterns and demographic implications. Pub. Order No. DA9026411. 1990. 227 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(4).

57:30345 Li, Xiaoping. The utility of reproduction and economic measures for birth control. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1989. 311-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Economic models that describe the effects of child worth on reproductive behavior in rural China are presented. The author also examines some economic measures for birth control, government and family expenditures and related costs per child, and possible outcomes for increased government investment in family planning.
Correspondence: X. Li, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30346 Liskin, Laurie; Wharton, Chris; Blackburn, Richard; Kestelman, Philip. Condoms--now more than ever. Population Reports, Series H: Barrier Methods, No. 8, Sep 1990. 36 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors discuss the need to increase condom use worldwide as a means of both preventing sexually transmitted diseases and avoiding unwanted pregnancy. Aspects considered include the gap between use and need, the effectiveness of condoms, promoting condom use, counseling condom users, making condoms more available, and ensuring high-quality condoms.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30347 Mosher, William D.; McNally, James W. Contraceptive use at first premarital intercourse: United States, 1965-1988. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 108-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The analyses on which this article is based used data from Cycle IV of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), which was conducted in 1988. Our study, which examines U.S. trends in contraceptive use at first premarital intercourse in 1965-1988, includes variables identified in previous studies as affecting use--race, Hispanic origin, Jewish or fundamentalist religious affiliation, education of mother, and living arrangements at age 14. We also include some community-level variables to determine if they had independent effects on contraceptive use at first intercourse."
Correspondence: W. D. Mosher, National Center for Health Statistics, Family Growth Survey Branch, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30348 Sadik, Nafis. Choice or chance? Populi, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1991. 4-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author summarizes the current demographic situation worldwide and discusses international development strategies. "Targets in fertility and family planning for the next decade are for the first time part of international development strategies. Reaching them will be critical for development--and even for human survival--in the next century." Suggestions for future policies include balanced population growth, improved family planning services, increased support for the development of new contraceptives, promotion of women's rights, social development, and the provision of adequate funding.
Correspondence: N. Sadik, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30349 Sydenstricker, John M. Family, fertility, and settlement strategies in Rondonia: a case study. [Familia, fecundidade e as estrategias de assentamento em Rondonia: um estudo de caso.] Textos NEPO, No. 18, Aug 1990. 111 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
This is an exploratory analysis of family planning in a frontier region of Brazil, the Machadinho Settlement Project in Rondonia. The author notes that family planning patterns follow national trends, with an emphasis on modern methods, particularly sterilization. No evidence is found that contraceptive practice is related to survival strategies in this frontier community. In contrast, the author suggests that "the means and conditions under which fertility control occurs in frontier regions might possibly contribute even more to the decrease of living standards of a population already driven to poverty levels."
Correspondence: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, Cep 13081, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30350 Szarewski, Anne; Guillebaud, John. Contraception: current state of the art. British Medical Journal, Vol. 302, No. 6787, May 25, 1991. 1,224-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is a brief review of current trends in contraceptive practice in the United Kingdom based on a review of published sources. The focus is on recent changes in contraceptive methods chosen.
Correspondence: A. Szarewski, Margaret Pyke Centre, London W1V 5TW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30351 Thompson, Barbara; MacGillivray, Ian; Fraser, Cynthia. Some factors in the choice of male or female sterilisation in Aberdeen. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 359-63 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Factors affecting the decision to undergo sterilization procedures are discussed. The data concern male and female sterilization seekers living in Aberdeen, Scotland. "In a random sample of 84 men and 167 women, medical considerations, an intransigent attitude of one partner or a fear of adverse effects, were related to the decision on which partner should seek sterilisation. Only 19% of couples felt that they had a real choice between male and female sterilisation."
Correspondence: B. Thompson, University of Aberdeen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aberdeen AB9 1FX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30352 Tsuya, Noriko O. Population change and family planning from the perspectives of women in Asia and the Pacific. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 56, Feb 1991. [v], 45 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper examines population changes and family planning from the perspectives of women in the five constituent subregions of Asia and the Pacific (i.e., Eastern Asia, South-eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, and Oceania) as well as in selected individual countries in each subregion. First, we look at trends and differentials in population growth rate. Next, as two major determinants of population growth, we look at changes in mortality, as indicated by the Crude Death Rate....and life expectancy at birth by sex, and changes in fertility as measured by the Crude Birth Rate...and the Total Fertility Rate....Thirdly, focusing our attention on demographic factors affecting fertility, we examine changes and differentials in the two most important proximate determinants: women's marriage and contraception....We examine knowledge, use and method of contraception among ever-married women. Fourthly, we also consider governments' perception and policies concerning fertility and family planning in countries in Asia and the Pacific."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30353 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Contraceptive needs and demand in developing countries in the 1990s. Populi, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1991. 34-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The following material is excerpted from a report submitted to the United Nations Population Fund's Consultative Meeting on Contraceptive Requirements in Developing Countries by the Year 2000, held 25-26 February 1991 in New York. The report...was to take account of the increasing demand for contraceptive commodities and indicate the resources necessary to meet those needs." Projections of specific contraceptive method needs are included.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30354 Wohlschlagl, Helmut. Family planning programs and birth control in the third world. [Familienplanungsprogramme und Geburtenkontrolle in der Dritten Welt.] Demographische Informationen 1990/91, [1991]. 17-34, 153 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"After critically analyzing the government perceptions of the acceptability of the current fertility level and the extent of population control measures in the developing countries, the article discusses the effectiveness of family planning programmes....Third World countries with family planning programmes tend to have a more rapid fertility decline than countries without such programmes. This is true at every level of development, but programmes seem to be more effective where socioeconomic development is more advanced and where there is an unmet need for fertility control....The last section of the article discusses levels and trends in contraceptive use in the Third World and group-specific factors influencing this process. Finally the effectiveness of incentives or sanctions introduced by a number of Third World countries to reduce fertility is reviewed."
Correspondence: H. Wohlschlagl, Universitat Wien, Institut fur Geographie, Dr Karl Lueger-Ring 1, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

57:30355 Moreno, Lorenzo; Goldman, Noreen. Contraceptive failure rates in developing countries: evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1991. 44-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Based on Demographic and Health Survey data, contraceptive failure rates are estimated for 15 countries in Latin America, Asia and North Africa. The results are generally consistent with those reported in other studies in developed and developing countries. Method-specific failure rates vary dramatically across regions--rates for the Asian countries are generally below those for both the North African and the Latin American countries--as well as within regions. For example, first-year life-table rates for the pill vary between 5.4 percent for Brazil and 11.8 percent for the Dominican Republic. Such variation is believed to result both from data reporting problems and from true variation in the consistency of use across societies."
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30356 Ogedengbe, O. K.; Giwa-Osagie, O. F.; Nwadiani, K.; Usifoh, C. Failed contraception in Nigerian women: outcome of pregnancy and subsequent contraceptive choice. Contraception, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jul 1991. 83-8 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The outcome of pregnancy in 56 patients who had contraceptive failure out of the 5,431 new acceptors at the Family Planning Clinic...University of Lagos, [Nigeria] between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 1989, [was] analysed. There were 40 IUD, 6 OC, and 4 injectable failures. Three patients had had voluntary surgical contraception (VSC) and 3 used barrier methods....There were 17 (30.1%) live births, 34 (56.6%) terminations of pregnancy and 3 (5.2%) spontaneous abortions....Fifty per cent of the patients who had used the IUD continued with the method. Seven patients subsequently requested VSC. None of the patients using the injectable contraceptive or barrier methods continued with the method...."
Correspondence: O. K. Ogedengbe, University of Lagos, College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology and Fertility Regulation, PMB 12003, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30357 Silvestre, Louise; Bouali, Yasmina; Ulmann, Andre. Postcoital contraception: myth or reality? Lancet, Vol. 338, No. 8758, Jul 6, 1991. 39-41 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors review the literature on the effectiveness of postcoital contraception (PCC). They conclude that "the reported failure rate of PCC with either high-dose oestrogen or CEP (combined estrogen/progesterone preparations] is grossly underestimated because of the methods used. The main reason for such an underestimation is that in all the studies the investigators have used the total number of women included as the denominator, and not the number of women potentially pregnant--a number that is obviously smaller."
Correspondence: A. Ulmann, Direction des Recherches Cliniques, Roussel-Uclaf, 102 Route de Noisy, 93230 Romainville, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30358 Thapa, S.; Vaidya, T. M. Vasectomy reversal in Nepal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 423-32 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from 157 men in Nepal who had vasectomy reversal are analysed. Most sought reversal within 5 years of vasectomy. Half of the men sought reversal because of the death of a male child, and about one-fourth because of the loss of a female child....The results suggest that the demand for reversal could be considerably reduced by more careful screening of the potential vasectomy acceptors."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

57:30359 Cai, Zuofu. A sociological perspective of and measures to overcome difficulties in rural population control. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1990. 43-9, 34 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author analyzes the sociological factors affecting population control programs in rural China using data from a survey of more than 900 persons in Jiangling county, Hubei province. Such factors include child worth, son preference, failure of program leaders, lack of knowledge, and old-age security. The author then offers recommendations for program improvements.
Correspondence: Z. Cai, Jiangling County Party Committee, Policy Research Office, Hubei Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30360 Cao, Jingchun. The family center--a new form of organization for rural family planning. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989. 95-100 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The history and functions of rural family planning centers in China are reviewed, with a focus on a center in Liaoning Province. "To date, more than 8,500 such centers have been established in 92.2 percent of the rural resident's groups. What the centers do is to give rural residents education and services in family planning, and help them educate themselves....According to statistics, 99.3 per cent of the babies born in Liaoning Province in 1986 were planned. More than half of the counties and districts and over 90 per cent of the villages reported no unplanned births. The Province now leads the nation in fulfillment of family-planning goals."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30361 Jiang, Zhenghua. Comments on estimations of family planning effects. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1990. 44-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author evaluates family planning program strategies in China. "This paper attempts to make comments on ways of calculation and analysis of the effects of various socio-economic and non-family planning factors as well as family planning factors during the process of population growth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30362 Li, Honggui. Achievements in China's family planning work shown by fertility and birth control sampling surveys. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1990. 35-42, 34 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This is an evaluation of China's family planning programs since 1970. Using data from three censuses and a 1988 fertility and birth control survey, the author describes the successes achieved. Consideration is given to the decline in fertility, changes in marriage age and childbearing intentions, improvements in life expectancy and infant mortality, and the increased tempo of the demographic transition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30363 Martinez Manautou, Jorge. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of the family planning program of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. [Analisis del costo beneficio del programa de planificacion familiar del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.] ISBN 968-6178-10-4. 1987. 124 pp. Academia Mexicana de Investigacion en Demografia Medica: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is an evaluation of the family planning program of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Following a general description of the program, the author attempts to calculate the number of births averted by the program and their cost. He then compares those figures to the cost of the births that did occur, in order to calculate the economic effectiveness of the program.
If requesting this document from CELADE, specify DOCPAL No. 14152.00.
Correspondence: Academia Mexicana de Investigacion en Demografica Medica, Apdo. Postal 27-486, Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

57:30364 Miller, Robert A.; Ndhlovu, Lewis; Gachara, Margaret M.; Fisher, Andrew A. The situation analysis study of the family planning program in Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 131-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A new, relatively 'quick and clean' operations research approach called a 'situation analysis' was developed for examining the strengths and weaknesses of the family planning program of Kenya....As late as 1986, the Kenya program was rated 'weak' and 'poor' in the international literature. The Kenya Situation Analysis Study found a functioning, integrated maternal and child health family planning program serving large numbers of clients, with an emphasis on oral contraceptives and Depo-Provera (and an underemphasis on permanent methods). Although a number of program problems were revealed by the study, overall, in terms of performance, a rating of 'moderate' is suggested as more appropriate for Kenya's national family planning program today. In terms of the quality of care, a 'moderate to moderate-high' rating is suggested."
Correspondence: R. A. Miller, Population Council, Africa Operations Research and Technical Assistance Project, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30365 Murthy, N. Linga; Kumar, S. Vijaya. Demographic trends and the impact of family welfare programmes in India. Asian Economic Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, Apr 1990. 45-76 pp. Hyderabad, India. In Eng.
The authors examine population growth trends and evaluate family planning programs in India. They note that despite intensified efforts and government claims of increased acceptance of family planning, the birth rate has remained stationary since 1977.
Correspondence: N. L. Murthy, Kakatiya University, Department of Economics, Warangal, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30366 Obermeyer, Carla M.; Potter, Joseph E. Maternal health care utilization in Jordan: a study of patterns and determinants. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 177-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the patterns and determinants of maternal health care utilization in Jordan, using data from the Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey of 1983. The study focuses on the 2,949 women who had a child in the five years preceding the survey. Through multivariate analysis of differentials in the utilization of prenatal care and health care at delivery, the study accesses the effect of sociodemographic factors, including residence, education, parity, and standard of living. The coverage of maternal health care in Jordan is discussed in relation to the overall organization of health services, the various providers of care, and the role of cultural factors."
Correspondence: C. M. Obermeyer, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population Sciences, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30367 Qin, Fangfang. The impact of family planning on fertility in China: an evaluation. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 139-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of the paper is...to evaluate through quantitative analysis the extent to which various factors affect fertility in order to pinpoint the major ones that have led to the rapid decline of fertility. It has been demonstrated through analysis of a large quantity of data that family planning under the guidance of national population policies is the major cause for the decline of the fertility rate to the replacement level within the short span of a dozen years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30368 Simmons, George B.; Balk, Deborah; Faiz, Khodezatul K. Cost-effectiveness analysis of family planning programs in rural Bangladesh: evidence from Matlab. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 83-101 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study systematically examines the cost of the [Family Planning Health Services Project in Matlab, Bangladesh] and assesses its cost-effectiveness. An experimental design framework is used as a basis for understanding the cost-effectiveness of the project, although a sensitivity analysis lends further support to the relative efficiency of the approach undertaken in Matlab. Although in the aggregate, the Matlab Project is more expensive than the government's family planning program, it is also more effective, generating enough output to offset the extra costs of the intensified delivery system."
Correspondence: D. Balk, University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30369 Stahler, Gerald J.; DuCette, Joseph P. Evaluating adolescent pregnancy programs: rethinking our priorities. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 129-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors propose new methods for evaluating adolescent pregnancy programs in the United States. "We are calling for a change in the way most adolescent pregnancy programs are evaluated and in the expectations funding agencies have for the evaluations undertaken by the programs they support. Evaluation should involve a collaborative effort in which resources are maximized and individual programs and third-party evaluators focus on their areas of expertise. Programs could use more of their resources on service delivery and process evaluation, while third-party evaluators would conduct rigorous impact evaluations....Attaining these goals requires extremely detailed process evaluation at the individual program level and precise and accurate data collection on client outcomes over a long enough period to allow adequate evaluation of the program's impact."
Correspondence: G. J. Stahler, Temple University, College of Education, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30370 Vernon, Ricardo; Ojeda, Gabriel; Vega, Ana. Making vasectomy services more acceptable to men. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1991. 55-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The results of an operations research project that tested two models of vasectomy service delivery in Colombia show that although clinics serving only males performed higher monthly average of vasectomies than did clinics serving men in a mixed male-female context (12 vs nine), that difference was not statistically significant....Contrary to expectations, clients of the exclusively male clinics were no more satisfied with the services they received or with their vasectomy than were clients of the mixed clinics or the control clinic."
Correspondence: R. Vernon, Population Council, Apartado Postal 105-152, C.P. 11560, Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30371 Webb, Glenn; Ladipo, O. A.; McNamara, Regina. Qualitative methods in operations research on contraceptive distribution systems: a case study from Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1991. 321-6 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article discusses the application of qualitative methods in operations research on a family planning service delivery system. Market traders in Ibadan, Nigeria were trained to sell oral contraceptives, condoms, and spermicidal foaming tablets....The strength of the market associations was a factor influencing acceptance of the project and the number of customers for the traders' other wares were found to positively influence the volume of sales of contraceptives."
Correspondence: G. Webb, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30372 Younis, Nabil. Population program management: an approach to improving performance. Population Sciences, Vol. 9, Jul 1990. 19-27 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The management of population programs in developing countries is evaluated. "The lack of success of such programs is explained by [improper] management which includes: (1) lack of government commitment, (2) insufficient change in the basic social conditions which affect the family size, (3) lack of the perfect fertility regulation method, (4) insufficient managerial skills to make population programs work efficiently and effectively." The author presents an outline for effective management.
Correspondence: N. Younis, Al Azhar University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

57:30373 Bongaarts, John. The KAP-gap and the unmet need for contraception. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 23, 1991. 34 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The KAP-gap refers to a discrepancy between the practice of contraception and reproductive intentions. This gap, which is considered an indication of an unmet need for contraception, has conventionally been measured as the proportion of married women who want no more children but are not using contraception. The paper critically reviews a variety of new approaches to the measurement of the KAP-gap or unmet need and concludes that these methodologies are flawed, sometimes seriously. This is particularly true for studies suggesting that the KAP-gap is of no policy significance. A new method for estimating the unmet need is proposed and applied to data from 15 developing countries with DHS surveys. In this set of countries on average 17 percent of married women had an unmet need for contraception."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30374 Calhoun, Charles A. Desired and excess fertility in Europe and the United States: indirect estimates from World Fertility Survey data. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 1, Apr 1991. 29-57 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents indirect estimates of desired family size and unwanted births for married and cohabitating women in twelve European countries and the United States. An econometric model for censored discrete data is used to estimate the distribution of desired family size from individual observations on children ever born and total expected births. The data are from the UNECE Comparative Fertility Study of WFS surveys for Europe and the United States and originated in national surveys between April 1975 and December 1979. Estimates of the bivariate distribution of cumulative and desired fertility are used to compute the proportion of women with excess fertility and the average number of unwanted births for each country. The indirect estimates are compared with those from an analysis of survey responses to questions about desired and unwanted births."
Correspondence: C. A. Calhoun, Federal National Mortgage Association, 3900 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30375 Campbell, Eugene K. Sex preferences for offspring among men in the Western area of Sierra Leone. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 337-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines whether sex preference occurs among men in the Western area of Sierra Leone....A survey of ever-married men aged 20 years and over in the Western area of Sierra Leone was carried out in late 1986, and a total of 3,006 men completed a questionnaire which provided information on their present and future composition. Eighty per cent of the sample was urban from Greater Freetown and the rest were rural....Although over 50% of men in the Western area expressed a desire for a balanced sex composition of surviving children...there is evidence for an overall preference for sons. When asked about the relative value of boys and girls, men gave higher priority to boys than girls, with over 70% of both urban and rural men considering sons to be more important."
Correspondence: E. K. Campbell, University of Botswana, Demography Department, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30376 Cronk, Lee. Intention versus behaviour in parental sex preferences among the Mukogodo of Kenya. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 229-40 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between parents' stated sex preferences for children and actual parental behaviour towards sons and daughters is examined among the Mukogodo, a group of traditional pastoralists in rural Kenya. Although their cultural values are male-centred and they tend to express a preference for sons, Mukogodo parents actually appear to be more solicitous of daughters, and the Mukogodo have a strongly female-biased childhood sex ratio."
Correspondence: L. Cronk, Texas A and M University, Department of Anthropology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30377 De Silva, W. Indralal. Consistency between reproductive preferences and behavior: the Sri Lankan experience. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 188-97 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data collected in the 1982 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Prevalence Survey and the 1985 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Survey, a follow-up study, were used to examine the reliability of respondents' preferences for additional children. At the aggregate level, consistency was remarkable: In 1982, 47 percent of women said they wanted more children and in 1985, 49 percent had more, for a slight excess of actual over wanted fertility. Even though inconsistencies existed, at the individual level preferences were moderately predictive of subsequent behavior. Unwanted fertility was related not only to the demographic characteristics of the women but also to disagreement with their husbands on desired fertility....Nonusers of contraception were over three times more likely than contraceptors using modern methods to have had an unwanted birth."
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30378 Jensen, Eric R. An econometric analysis of the old-age security motive for childbearing. International Economic Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Nov 1990. 953-68 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
"A switching regression for birth interval lengths with endogenous switching is developed to test Mead Cain's contention that parents' fertility decisions arise from lexicographic preferences for old-age security. The model is estimated as a survival model using Malaysian data. Assuming that contraceptors constitute the group of parents who have attained the minimal number of children with which they feel their old-age support is secure, strong support for Cain's concept of old-age security as the principal interest of those parents who have not yet attained a sufficient number of children appears in these data. However, the income effect accompanying the provision of alternative means of old-age support generates an ambiguous effect on subsequent fertility."
Correspondence: E. R. Jensen, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30379 Maxwell, Nan L. Individual and aggregate influences on the age at first birth. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1991. 27-46 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study examines the role of both individual adolescent expectations of market and nonmarket income and aggregate influences on first birth timing for Blacks and Whites and for three birth cohorts of [U.S.] women. Using two panels of the National Longitudinal surveys, results suggest that between-race differences in age at first birth result from differences in individual expectations about market and nonmarket income. Cohort differences in age at first birth result from relationship differences in both individual and aggregate influences, with aggregate influences differentially altering the role of individual expectations on first birth timing. These results suggest that employment policies that reduce poverty and increase wages would effectively delay childbearing."
Correspondence: N. L. Maxwell, California State University, Department of Economics, Hayward, CA 94542. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30380 Ntozi, James P. M. The desire for children in tropical Africa: the influence of relatives on fertility decisions in Ankole, Uganda. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 433-46 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper enquires how the extended family influences fertility attitudes in Ankole [Uganda]....The paper shows that Ankole has a fairly strong extended family system, with variations between socioeconomic groups. The system gives the elders much power which they use to put pressure on married relatives to follow the pronatalist traditions of the society....The assistance flows in terms of meeting educational costs, contributions to bride-wealth of sons, and helping with some of the expenses of the wedding gifts of daughters. The poorer cultivators tend to rely more on the extended family for support than the richer pastoralists and mixed farmers. Additionally, almost all the respondents claimed commitment to supporting relatives and expected relatives to help their children. These actions and attitudes encourage pronatalist behaviour among the Banyankole couples." Data are from a 1985 survey of 1,664 women and 1,029 men.
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30381 Oni, Gbolahan A.; McCarthy, James. Family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices of males in Ilorin, Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1991. 50-4, 64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A household survey conducted between September 1988 and January 1989 in Ilorin, Nigeria, yielded data on the contraceptive knowledge, attitudes and practices of 1,022 men....Contraceptive knowledge is virtually universal among these men, with the condom and oral contraceptives the most commonly known methods....The majority of men at all education and residence levels have positive attitudes toward family planning, and contraceptive use is associated with communication about family planning between husbands and wives."
Correspondence: G. A. Oni, University of Ilorin, Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30382 Pick de Weiss, Susan; Atkin, Lucille C.; Gribble, James N.; Andrade-Palos, Patricia. Sex, contraception, and pregnancy among adolescents in Mexico City. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 74-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents the development and results of a study that analyzed the psychosocial determinants of abstaining from sexual intercourse, practicing contraception, and avoiding pregnancy. It was carried out with a representative household and a clinic sample of 12-19-year-old females of lower-middle and lower socioeconomic levels in Mexico City. Among the implications of the results for program design are: (1) the need for clarifying erroneous beliefs and providing detailed, practical knowledge concerning sexuality, pregnancy, use of and access to contraceptives; (2) a broad definition of sex education....Attention to male attitudes and communication skills as well as ways of improving communication and support networks among peers was also found to be essential."
Correspondence: S. Pick de Weiss, Instituto Mexicano de Investigacion en Familia y Poblacion, Mexico City, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30383 Stover, John; Bravo, Mario. The impact of AIDS on knowledge and attitudes about condoms as a contraceptive method in urban Mexico. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1991. 61-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Research conducted in urban areas of Mexico indicates that AIDS information programs do not harm the image of the condom as a family planning method. Spontaneous knowledge of the condom both as a method of preventing AIDS and as a contraceptive method increased as a result of a public information campaign and the publicity surrounding it. The two types of knowledge were highly correlated."
Correspondence: J. Stover, Futures Group, 76 Eastern Boulevard, Glastonbury, CT 06033. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30384 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). The social attitude toward children survey, 1988. ISBN 974-8090-05-1. [1989?]. 151 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This report presents results from a 1988 survey concerning attitudes toward children in Thailand. The data, which are provided separately for the whole country and for major regions, concern currently married women aged 15-49 by number of living children, age, educational status, and occupation; those wanting more children; expectations for children; expected support from children; and female employment.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30385 Wang, Di. An analysis of the changes in values concerning marriage and reproduction. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1989. 357-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results are analyzed from a 1988 survey of attitudes toward marriage and reproduction that was conducted in Zhejiang Province, China. The survey covered 520 persons and concerned changes in the preferences for marriage age, child's sex, and family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

57:30386 Botting, Beverley. Trends in abortion. Population Trends, No. 64, Summer 1991. 19-29 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines trends in legal abortion in England and Wales from 1968, the year the 1967 Abortion Act came into force, to 1989. "This article describes the background leading to the Act....It also discusses the impact on legal abortion, and the changes in fertility patterns, age structures of the population of fertile women, contraception patterns, and attitudes towards abortion."
Correspondence: B. Botting, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Medical Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30387 Clements, Bonnie L. Abortion and family planning bibliography for 1988. ISBN 0-87875-407-5. LC 72-78877. 1991. xxii, 190 pp. Whitston Publishing: Troy, New York. In Eng.
This is the nineteenth annual listing of world literature concerning abortion. The bibliography, which is unannotated, consists of lists of journals cited; books, monographs, and pamphlets; dissertations; and periodical literature organized by subject. It also covers related topics such as birth control, contraceptives, family planning, fertility, and sterilization. Author and subject indexes are included.
For the 1987 bibliography, published in 1990, see 57:20343.
Correspondence: Whitston Publishing Company, P.O. Box 958, Troy, NY 12181. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30388 Hammerslough, Charles R.; Irizarry Mora, Jesus. Contraceptive use and counseling before and after an abortion in Ohio, 1981 and 1986. Ohio Medicine, Vol. 86, No. 9, Sep 1990. 671-7 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to present data on contraceptive counseling and use of abortion patients in Ohio, in 1986....Ohio collects information on contraception used (if any) at the time of conception, and the contraceptive method that the woman is counseled to use following the abortion, in addition to a range of demographic characteristics. The certificate also records whether a contraceptive sterilization was performed at the time of the abortion procedure....Despite deficiencies of incomplete reporting, this analysis provides some leads as to how abortion providers can improve the care they provide and reduce the likelihood of repeat abortions." The data for 1986 are compared with similar data for 1981.
Correspondence: C. R. Hammerslough, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, 109 South Observatory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30389 Krayacich de Oddone, Nelly; Shedlin, Michele G.; Welsh, Michael; Potts, Malcolm; Feldblum, Paul. Paraguayan pharmacies and the sale of pseudo-abortifacients. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 201-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports...[on a case in Paraguay] where a reasonably well-established government-sponsored contraceptive service was suddenly withdrawn. It permits a test of the hypothesis that the restriction of contraceptive services will be associated with an increase in abortion, using quantitative data and qualitative research....This paper documents the use of modern pharmaceuticals as pseudo-abortifacients and provides evidence that the practice may have been influenced by the change in government policy towards family planning in Paraguay."
Correspondence: N. Krayacich de Oddone, Paraguayan College of Chemical Pharmacists, Asuncion, Paraguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30390 Spinelli, A.; Grandolfo, M. E.; Pediconi, M.; Stazi, M. A.; Timperi, F.; Andreozzi, S.; Donati, S.; Greco, V.; Medda, E.; Lauria, L.; Figa Talamanca, I. The voluntary interruption of pregnancy in Italy: 1987-1988. [L'interruzione volontaria di gravidanza in Italia: 1987-1988.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 91/15, 1991. 185 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in legal abortion in Italy in 1987-1988 are analyzed. Factors examined include region, age, marital status, gestational age, place of abortion, and method used. The data confirm a continuing decline in abortion since 1982, although significant regional differences persist. "The abortion rate decreased from 17.2 in 1982 to 12.4 in 1988, while the abortion ratio fell from 381.7 in 1983 to 309.9 in 1988."
For a previous report concerning 1985-1986, see 55:30380.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30391 Trent, Katherine; Powell-Griner, Eve. Differences in race, marital status, and education among women obtaining abortions. Social Forces, Vol. 69, No. 4, Jun 1991. 1,121-41 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"An analysis of over 500,000 pregnancies examines racial, marital and educational differences in adult women choosing abortion [in the United States]. Findings indicate that differences in race among women who abort vary by marital status, parity, and state of residence. Among unmarried women, whites are more likely than blacks, and among married women, blacks are more likely than whites to abort. The relationship between marital status and abortion also varies by education, parity, and state of residence. The likelihood of aborting increases monotonically as education increases, but only for unmarried women. The effect of education on whether women abort also varies by parity....A separate analysis examines determinants of abortion for teenage women."
Correspondence: K. Trent, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30392 Wei, Jinshing. Demographic study of induced abortion as a contraction [contraceptive] device. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 169-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in the use of induced abortion as a means of contraception are examined. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30393 Yusuf, Farhat; Briggs, Dora. Abortion in South Australia, 1971-86: an update. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 285-96 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Official statistics on abortion in South Australia for the period 1971-86 are analysed in terms of incidence, age of patients and nuptiality, reasons for abortion, method of termination, period of gestation, previous abortions and concurrent sterilisation. Demographic implications are discussed and recommendations are made for more education and counselling, especially for younger and unmarried women for whom the incidence of abortion seems to be rising."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

57:30394 Almedom, Astier M.; de Waal, Alexander. Constraints on weaning: evidence from Ethiopia and Sudan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 489-500 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Evidence on infant weaning processes provided by field research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and among a refugee population of Eritreans in the Sudan is presented. The study in Addis Ababa, where households were economically disadvantaged but the situation was nutritionally stable, allowed the identification of factors constraining weaning, which includes both the introduction of supplementary foods and the termination of breast-feeding. While the timing of each aspect of weaning was the outcome of the interaction between mother and infant factors, 'infant-centred' factors were more important in the commencement and 'mother-centred' factors in the completion of weaning. The refugee population had in normal times a similar weaning regime, but under the unstable conditions of flight and life in a refugee camp the process had been significantly altered. Investigation of the factors which have led to altered weaning processes elaborates and confirms the model derived from the Addis Ababa study." Implications for fertility and infant mortality are discussed.
Correspondence: A. M. Almedom, University of Oxford, Department of Biological Anthropology, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30395 Blanc, Ann K.; Rutenberg, Naomi. Coitus and contraception: the utility of data on sexual intercourse for family planning programs. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 162-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article assesses the quality of the data on sexual intercourse for 12 DHS [Demographic and Health Surveys] and shows how these data may be useful for understanding contraceptive use dynamics and for organizing the management of family planning programs. The data show that there is considerable variation among countries in exposure to pregnancy prior to first marriage. Within marriage, the level of coital frequency varies with duration of marriage, fertility intentions, and type of contraceptive method used. Finally, in all countries there is some overlap between contraceptive use and sexual abstinence."
Correspondence: A. K. Blanc, Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30396 Jones, Robert E.; Palloni, Alberto. Effects of infant mortality and weaning on the onset of postpartum menstruation: hazard model analysis. CDE Working Paper, No. 90-06, [1990]. 29, [12] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper proposes alternative methods to explore breastfeeding, health, nutrition, infant mortality and fertility relationships and suggests procedures to incorporate these relationships in the context of a birth interval analysis of the duration of postpartum infertility. The data derive from the Ngaglik Study, a longitudinal investigation of the determinants of birth interval dynamics from Central Java, Indonesia." The results confirm the quantitative importance of infant mortality as a potential determinant of fertility.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 472).
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30397 Lagrange, Hugues. The number of sexual partners: do men have more than women? [Le nombre de partenaires sexuels: les hommes en ont-ils plus que les femmes?] Population, Vol. 46, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 249-77 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In a survey carried out in 1989 in the Rhone-Alps region [of France], each person was questioned about the number of their sexual partners during the last 12 months. This number was analyzed in terms of various factors: sex, type of sexuality, age, marital status, etc. But there was [a] systematic difference between the answers given by men and women. The former claimed to have had [more] sexual partners than the latter. This difference was primarily the result of a small number of statements made by men, who claimed to have had a large number of partners which often included prostitutes and sometimes lacked credibility. The discussion of these marginal situations leads us to question the very notion of 'sexual partner' and the difference in the interpretation given to this term by men and women."
Correspondence: H. Lagrange, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire Sociologique du Changement, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30398 Larsen, Ulla; Vaupel, James W. Hutterite fecundability by age and parity: strategies for frailty modeling of event histories. Center for Population Analysis and Policy Research Report, No. 91-05-1, May 1991. 28, [9] pp. University of Minnesota, Center for Population Analysis and Policy: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this paper we present estimates of how effective fecundability declines with age after age 20 and with increasing parity (i.e., number of previous births). We also present estimates of the degree of heterogeneity among women in their effective fecundability, including an estimate of the proportion of fecund women who [have] persistently low or high monthly chances [of] live-birth conception. The results pertain to...406 Hutterite women in North America who had 3,206 births, largely in the 1940's and 1950's." The estimates "are based on models that incorporate the effects of persistent heterogeneity and that use the full information provided by multiple-spell duration data. In addition, hazards rather than probabilities are modeled, piecewise linear hazard functions are used, and age and parity effects are systematically decomposed."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 473).
Correspondence: University of Minnesota, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30399 Panter-Brick, Catherine. Lactation, birth spacing and maternal work-loads among two castes in rural Nepal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 137-54 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study is based on direct and continuous observation of rural Nepali women who were individually followed throughout their working day. While not originally designed to investigate lactation in relation to post-partum amenorrhoea, it does provide data relevant to this topic. This paper examines ways in which women's subsistence activities affect nursing schedules, and also whether nursing and working behaviours explain fertility differences between two caste groups."
Correspondence: C. Panter-Brick, University of Oxford, Department of Biological Anthropology, University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30400 Rosner, Audrey E.; Schulman, Susan K. Birth interval among breast-feeding women not using contraceptives. Pediatrics, Vol. 86, No. 5, Nov 1990. 747-52 pp. Elk Grove Village, Illinois. In Eng.
"One hundred twelve Orthodox Jewish mothers [in the United States] were surveyed by means of questionnaire about birth interval in relationship to formula-feeding (n = 30) and breast-feeding (n = 236) experiences in the absence of birth control. Analyses indicate that mothers who breast-fed have longer birth intervals than those who did not. Moreover, data obtained from the same mothers show that birth intervals preceded by breast-feeding were longer than those preceded by formula-feeding of the previous infant. For those mothers who breast-fed, there was significant positive correlation between duration of breast-feeding and length of lactational amenorrhea and total birth interval. The age at which night feeding was terminated had corresponding but less strong associations with lactational amenorrhea and total birth interval."
Correspondence: A. E. Rosner, Schulman Medical Associates, 901 48th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11219. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30401 Rowe, David C.; Rodgers, Joseph L. An "epidemic" model of adolescent sexual intercourse: applications to national survey data. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 211-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper applies models of the onset of adolescent sexual intercourse using national data from Denmark and the U.S.A. The model gave excellent fits to data on Danish Whites and a good fit to American Whites, but the model-fits for American Blacks and Hispanics were not as good. The weakness of the latter model fits may reflect either real processes that the model does not capture or problems in the reliability of adolescent sexuality data."
Correspondence: D. C. Rowe, University of Arizona, School of Family and Consumer Resources, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30402 Smith, Tom W. Adult sexual behavior in 1989: number of partners, frequency of intercourse and risk of AIDS. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 102-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reports on trends in adult sexual behavior in the United States, including number of partners, frequency of intercourse, and risk of AIDS. Data are from the National Opinion Research Center's 1988 and 1989 General Social Surveys. He covers various measures of sexual behavior by social and demographic characteristics, as well as behavior associated with the risk of contracting HIV and AIDS.
Correspondence: T. W. Smith, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, General Social Survey Project, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

57:30403 Cooper, Jacqui. Births outside marriage: recent trends and associated demographic and social changes. Population Trends, No. 63, Spring 1991. 8-18 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Between 1980 and 1989 the percentage of births occurring outside marriage in England and Wales rose from 12 per cent to 27 per cent; the numbers also more than doubled. This article examines some of the demographic and social background to the rise. With historically low marriage rates and high divorce rates, the proportion of married women in the childbearing ages has decreased. This change alone would tend to increase the percentage of births outside marriage. However, there have also been changes in the social composition of the unmarried population and the extra-marital fertility rates have risen as cohabitation has increased. Two other features of these changes are: a lower proportion of conceptions outside marriage lead to a marriage before the birth, [and] a higher proportion of extra-marital births are to cohabiting couples."
Correspondence: J. Cooper, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30404 Meekers, Dominique. Marriage and premarital childbearing in Cote d'Ivoire. Pub. Order No. DA9101190. 1990. 290 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(8).


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