Volume 57 - Number 3 - Fall 1991

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

57:30100 Abrams, Peter A. Does increased mortality favor the evolution of more rapid senescence? Center for Population Analysis and Policy Research Report, No. 91-05-4, May 1991. 25 pp. University of Minnesota, Center for Population Analysis and Policy: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The purpose of this note is to reconsider the relationship between extrinsic mortality and the pattern of senescence that is expected under both adaptive and nonadaptive theories for the evolution of senescence. The analysis shows that the often-cited prediction of more rapid senescence with higher extrinsic mortality should only occur under specific assumptions about both the evolutionary mechanism producing senescence and the nature of population growth. In particular, if population growth is density independent, there should be no effect of extrinsic mortality on the rate of senescence, regardless of the evolutionary mechanism. If population growth is density dependent, increased extrinsic mortality may favor either an increase or a decrease in the rate of senescence, or increases at some ages and decreases at others, depending on both the evolutionary mechanism producing senescence and the nature of the population regulation. Finally, if forces of mortality have different effects on differently aged individuals..., a wide variety of patterns may be predicted, depending on the age-[specificity] of the effects."
Correspondence: University of Minnesota, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30101 Blanco, Maria A.; Farre, Mireia. Mortality levels and causes of death in the Spanish provinces. [Niveaux et causes de mortalite dans les provinces espagnoles.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 151-60 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine mortality patterns by age and cause of death in Spain since 1960. Regional variations among the provinces are described.
Correspondence: M. A. Blanco, Universitat Autonomia de Barcelona, Departamento de Geografia, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30102 Borah, Woodrow. Epidemics in the Americas: major issues and future research. Latin American Population History Bulletin, No. 19, Spring 1991. 2-13 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author discusses the problems associated with the study of epidemics in the Americas. He indicates that "study of the history of the epidemics in the Americas faces peculiar difficulties inherent in any topic which covers the New World from pole to pole in a widely interdisciplinary range....The interdisciplinary nature of the theme exposes the inadequacies of our bibliographies and indexes, especially those by field of study. The topic apparently falls between the interstices of anthropological, historical, and even medical indexes, including the international medical index." He then proposes new avenues of research that may prove helpful.
Correspondence: W. Borah, University of California, Department of History, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30103 Comiti, Vincent-Pierre. A historical review of European mortality. [Approches historiques de la mortalite europeenne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 379-86 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is an overview of the methodology used in studying mortality in Europe since the seventeenth century. The author notes that mortality studies initially concentrated on social and demographic characteristics, moved to spatial and social differences in mortality in the late 1800s, then to medical causes of diseases.
Correspondence: V.-P. Comiti, College de France, Departement d'Histoire de la Medecine, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Physique, 11 Place Mercelin-Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30104 Cornell, L. L. Intergenerational relationships, social support, and mortality. PIRT Working Paper, No. 12, Dec 1989. 17 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
The author investigates the relationships among social support, intergenerational relationships, and mortality, using official Japanese data. "The present analysis concentrates on women in the latter decades of life, from age 60 to death up to 30 years later, and on how coresidence with spouse, married child, and grandchildren of various ages influences mortality....The population under investigation here is the cohort of [56] women born 1751 to 1775 who, at chronological age 60, were resident in the village of Yokouchi....This examination...demonstrates that the absence of relationships with spouse, married children, and grandchildren can have a significant negative effect on survival."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30105 Cossa, L. Interrogation program of a mortality data base: 1887-1955. [Programma per l'interrogazione di un archivio di dati di mortalita: anni 1887-1955.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 91/12, 1991. 15 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita [ISTISAN]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The author reports on the development of a data base consisting of official Italian data on mortality for the period 1887-1955 and the appropriate software to access it.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30106 Czernichow, P.; Vaguet, A.; Frenkiel, J.; Froment, L.; Maret, Y.; Guermond, Y. Premature mortality: comparative methods. [La prematurite des deces: methodes comparees.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 417-26 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors calculate an index to compare premature mortality, using data for France. The method takes into account regional differentials in mortality, with a focus on how they affect the analysis by potential years of life lost.
Correspondence: P. Czernichow, Departement de l'Information Medicale, C.H.U., F-76031 Rouen, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30107 David, Patricia H.; Bisharat, Leila; Kawar, Sana. Using routine surveys to measure mortality: a tool for programme managers. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1991. 309-19 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The use of simple survey techniques to gather data on mortality is considered. "Results from trials in Jordan, Syria, Djibouti and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen show that widely-used routine surveys for estimating vaccination coverage can be adapted to collect data on health indicators such as child and maternal mortality. Estimation methods must be robust and fieldwork well-supervised. [By] adding questions about total children ever born and surviving, the survival of the preceding birth, and the survival of sisters to such surveys, population-based estimates of the trend and recent level of childhood mortality and of the lifetime risk of maternal death can be obtained."
Correspondence: P. H. David, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30108 Dzienio, Kazimierz. Mortality by sex, age, and cause of death in European and highly developed countries outside Europe in the years 1960-1984. [A halandosag nemenkent, eletkor es a halal oka szerint, Europaban es a magasan fejlett Europan kivuli orszagokban az 1960-1984-es evekben.] Demografia, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, 1989. 216-39 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
This is a comparative analysis of mortality in developed countries by age, sex, and cause of death for the period 1960-1984. Data are from published sources. The study covers Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30109 Faus-Pujol, Maria C. Morbidity-mortality in Spain. [Morbidite-mortalite en Espagne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 127-34 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in mortality and morbidity in Spain are reviewed, and comparisons among the country's provinces are made. It is noted that the diseases that have the greatest impact on Spanish mortality are those of the circulatory system, tumors, and respiratory problems.
Correspondence: M. C. Faus-Pujol, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Geografia, Ciudad Universitaria, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30110 Hansluwka, Harald. The impact of medicine on the decrease in mortality in industrialized countries. [Az orvostudomany hatasa a halandosag csokkenesere az iparilag fejlett orszagokban.] Demografia, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, 1989. 188-215 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The role of medicine in the decline in mortality and the increase in life expectancy since the eighteenth century in developed countries is examined. The author notes that medical intervention can temporarily mitigate the consequences of poverty and undernutrition but not eliminate them, and that improvements in health conditions cannot be attributed to any single factor.
Correspondence: H. Hansluwka, Alliiertenstrasse 14, 1020 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30111 Higueras Arnal, Antonio. Mortality and social change in Spain (1975-1988). [Mortalite et changement social en Espagne (1975-1988).] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 143-50 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in mortality and morbidity patterns in Spain are analyzed using data for the period 1970-1988. An increase in life expectancy and a decrease in the level of mortality are cited, and differences among provinces are explored.
Correspondence: A. Higueras Arnal, Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Letras, Departamento de Geografia, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30112 Hirayama, Takeshi. Life-style and mortality: a large-scale census-based cohort study in Japan. Contributions to Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Vol. 6, ISBN 3-8055-5201-7. 1990. x, 138 pp. Karger: Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author analyzes the results of a large-scale cohort study designed to observe the effects of individual life-style on mortality in Japan. The study, which was carried out in six prefectures between 1966 and 1982 and covered almost 300,000 persons, addresses cancer and other causes of death and their relation to life-style variables such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital status, and reproductive history. The study methodology is described in some detail. The effects of desirable life-style traits on healthy aging and prevention of premature death are also discussed.
Correspondence: Karger, CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30113 Hohn, Charlotte; Pollard, John. Mortality in the two Germanies in 1986 and trends 1976-1986. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 1, Apr 1991. 1-28 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Mortality data of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR [German Democratic Republic] are compared by age, sex and cause of death....Within the period from 1976 to 1986 life expectancy has risen in the Federal Republic of Germany, whereas in the GDR it increased to a minor extent only, so that the gap between the two parts of Germany has clearly enlarged. This enlarged gap in life expectancy largely depends on a higher mortality in the GDR due to diseases of the circular system and the respiratory organs, external influences and 'other' causes of death. The last-mentioned two groups also 'contain' the normally [separately] reported causes of death 'cirrhosis of the liver', 'suicide', 'accidents', and some diseases of the digestive system."
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30114 Lissner, Lauren; Odell, Patricia M.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Stokes, Joseph; Kreger, Bernard E.; Belanger, Albert J.; Brownell, Kelly D. Variability of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 324, No. 26, Jun 27, 1991. 1,839-44 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this study we examined the associations between variability in body weight and health end points in subjects participating in the Framingham [Massachusetts] Heart Study, which involves follow-up examinations every two years after entry....Using the 32-year follow-up data, we analyzed total mortality, mortality from coronary heart disease, and morbidity due to coronary heart disease and cancer in relation to intraindividual variation in body weight, including only end points that occurred after the 10th biennial examination. We used age-adjusted proportional-hazard regression for the data analysis....[It is concluded that] fluctuations in body weight may have negative health consequences, independent of obesity and the trend of body weight over time."
Correspondence: K. D. Brownell, Yale University, Department of Psychology, 2 Hillhouse Avenue, Box 11A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30115 Ma, Shuluan. Analysis of factors determining the average life expectancy. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1990. 16-23 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The average life expectancy in China is analyzed, based on a path analysis of socioeconomic factors affecting longevity in other developing and developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30116 Meir, Avinoam. A disparity-based diffusion approach to analysis of mortality decline. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 403-6 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author presents two models that describe the process of mortality decline: "a temporal disparity-based mortality-decline diffusion model, and a spatial disparity-based mortality-decline diffusion model. This approach provides a basis for a further development of a methodology for studying the dynamic pattern of mortality changes and decline over time and space."
Correspondence: A. Meir, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Geography, Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30117 Mendizabal, Enric; Mompart, Anna; Pujadas, Isabel. Mortality in rural and mountainous areas in Catalonia. [La mortalite des zones rurales et montagnardes de Catalogne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 161-4 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Methodological problems in studying mortality in sparsely populated areas are discussed using data for rural Catalonia, Spain. The effect of migration on the estimation of mortality levels is analyzed.
Correspondence: E. Mendizabal, Universitat Autonomia de Barcelona, Centre d'Estudis Demografics, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30118 Meneghel, Giovanna. Mortality and socioeconomic conditions in Italy. [La mortalite en Italie selon des facteurs socio-economiques.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 173-80 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality in Italy is examined, with a focus on socioeconomic determinants and occupations. Data are from an official 1986 study. Aspects considered include geographic factors, sex and age, educational level, household size and home ownership, and occupation.
Correspondence: G. Meneghel, Universita Udine, Istituto de Geografia, Via Antonini 8, 33100 Udine, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30119 Palagiano, Cosimo. Applications and applicability of the geographical research on mortality: the example of Italy. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 237-43 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The effects of mortality studies on public health policy in Italy are examined. The focus is on geographic variations in causes of death and their implications for health policies.
Correspondence: C. Palagiano, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Instituto di Geografia, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30120 Pollard, J. H. Mortality changes and their economic consequences, with particular reference to cause of death. In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. 1989. 42-69 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"Economic development can lead to substantial changes in the demographic characteristics of a population, and these demographic changes usually have important economic implications....In this paper, techniques previously developed for analysing the effects of mortality change on expectation of life are extended to allow the analysis of changes in certain key demographic and economic indicators. The methods allow concise and ready interpretations of the factors leading to the observed changes. Changes in the net reproduction rate of a population, hospital insurance and pensions are given as examples." Data from Australia, Kuwait, and Hungary are applied to the model.
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30121 Rahardjo, Pudjo; Ang, Eng Suan; Zablan, Zelda C.; Prasartkul, Pramote. Morbidity and mortality differentials: regional report. Technical Report Series Monograph, No. 54, Sep 1988. 45 pp. National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Center for Information and Documentation Network: Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
This report presents results from a project on morbidity and mortality differentials carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand as part of Phase III of the ASEAN Population Programme. The aim of the project is to develop accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality, as well as information on their determinants, in order to provide a basis on which to build future health and population programs.
Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

57:30122 Scholz, R. D.; Neumann, H. Dynamics of life expectancy. [Zur Dynamik des Lebensverlangerungs prozesses an ausgewahlten Beispielen.] Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete, Vol. 36, No. 10, 1990. 544-7 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze changes in life expectancy using data from selected industrialized countries in Europe. The impact of infant and child mortality on life expectancy is estimated.
Correspondence: R. D. Scholz, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Institut fur Sozialhygiene des Bereich Medizin, Otto-Grotewohl-Strasse 1, Berlin DDR-1080, Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30123 Scholz, R. D.; Schott, Jurgen. The role of migration in estimating probabilities of age-specific events exemplified by the probability of death. [Zur Berucksichtigung der Wanderung bei der Abschatzung altersspezifischer Ereigniswahrscheinlichkeiten am Beispiel der Sterbenswahrscheinlichkeiten.] Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete, Vol. 35, No. 12, 1989. 728-9 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The influence of migration on age-specific events is demonstrated by age-specific mortality and the life expectancy computed on the basis of age-specific mortality rates for the [German Democratic Republic] in 1984. The results demonstrate that the life expectancy of the population of Berlin will be underestimated by 0.28 years if migration processes are not taken into consideration."
Correspondence: J. Schott, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Institut fur Sozialhygiene des Bereich Medizin, Otto-Grotewohl-Strasse 1, Berlin DDR-1080, Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30124 Thumerelle, Pierre-Jean. Mortality in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region: an example of the stability of regional models of mortality. [La mortalite dans le Nord-Pas-de-Calais: un exemple de la stabilite des modeles regionaux de mortalite.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 55-72 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality rates and life expectancy in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais are described. The author notes that the region has the country's lowest life expectancy and suggests that this is due to the effects of sociocultural factors.
Correspondence: P.-J. Thumerelle, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30125 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality patterns--United States, 1988. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 40, No. 29, Jul 26, 1991. 493-5, 501-2 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
U.S. mortality trends in 1988 are analyzed using data from death certificates compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. Information is provided on main causes of death by sex and race.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30126 Valkonen, Tapani; Krumins, Juris; Zvidrins, Peteris. Mortality trends in Finland and Latvia since the 1920s. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 29, 1991. 61-72 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article compares the development of mortality in Finland and in Latvia from World War II to the 1980s. The main interest in carrying out this study has been in assessing the extent and manner in which being a part of the Soviet Union has influenced the mortality of Latvia. Life expectancy at birth, mortality trends by age and sex as well as differences in mortality by cause of death are the main topics of the article."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Franzeninkatu 13, 00500 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30127 Yazaki, Lucia M. Causes of death and life expectancy at birth in the State of Sao Paulo and its regions, 1975-1983. [Causas de morte e esperanca de vida ao nascer no Estado de Sao Paulo e regioes, 1975-1983.] Colecao Realidade Paulista, ISBN 85-85016-36-1. Aug 1990. vii, 128 pp. Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados [SEADE]: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
Mortality trends in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are analyzed using state vital statistics. Data sources and quality are first discussed and mortality patterns in the state and its regions are analyzed by age group and sex. Changes in causes of death over the period 1975-1983 and the contribution of specific causes of death to life expectancy are also considered.
Correspondence: Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados, Avenida Casper Libero 464, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

57:30128 Samms-Vaughan, M. E.; McCaw-Binns, A. M.; Ashley, D. C.; Foster-Williams, K. Neonatal mortality determinants in Jamaica. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 36, No. 4, Aug 1990. 171-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes neonatal mortality in Jamaica. "The Jamaican Perinatal Survey included among its objectives the quantification of the island's neonatal mortality rate, the identification of the causes of these deaths (Wigglesworth Classification), and the determination of characteristics of both mother and infant that are associated with increased mortality. A death questionnaire was completed on babies who were born between September 1986 and August 1987, and who died in neonatal period throughout the island of Jamaica. The neonatal mortality rate was 17.9 per 1,000 live births...."
Correspondence: M. E. Samms-Vaughan, University of the West Indies, Department of Child Health, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

57:30129 Ahmad, Omar B.; Eberstein, Isaac W.; Sly, David F. Proximate determinants of child mortality in Liberia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 313-26 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The study looks at the effects of maternal sociodemographic characteristics and the quality of the environment on child survival through two intervening variables, breast-feeding and prenatal care. A linear structural equation modelling approach was used to examine infant and child survival based on a weighted sample of 5,180 Liberian children aged 0-5 years. The findings...reveal complex relationships of the role of education, maternal age and breast-feeding in enhancing child survival."
Correspondence: O. B. Ahmad, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30130 Ahmed, M. Faroque. Infant mortality in Bangladesh: a review of recent evidence. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 327-36 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Data concerning infant and child mortality from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics are evaluated for the period from 1960 to the 1980s and trends in such mortality are reviewed. The author notes that "estimates of child mortality are mainly based on reports by mothers on the survival status of their children. Infant mortality estimates from such data do not seem to have declined in recent years. The Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics sample registration infant mortality estimates appear to be suspiciously low."
Correspondence: M. F. Ahmed, City University, Department of Actuarial Science and Statistics, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30131 Aly, Hassan Y. Demographic and socioeconomic factors affecting infant mortality in Egypt. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 447-51 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the relative importance of demographic and socioeconomic factors with respect to their role in reducing infant mortality in Egypt. Logit analyses of data from a nationally representative sample of Egyptian households, and for urban and rural households separately, indicate that demographic factors have more effect on infant mortality than socioeconomic factors....One of the most important policy conclusions...concerns the importance of providing a vigorous educational campaign to enlighten mothers and prospective mothers in both rural and urban areas on the positive effects of breast-feeding, longer birth intervals, and fewer children on the survival of infants."
Correspondence: H. Y. Aly, Ohio State University, Department of Economics, Marion, OH 43302. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30132 Antoine, Philippe; Diouf, Pap D. Urbanization, schooling, and infant mortality. [Urbanisation, scolarisation et mortalite des enfants.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jun 1988. 9-24 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The effects of urbanization and female education on infant mortality in Africa are reviewed. Data are from a variety of sources and countries, although particular attention is given to Pikine, a suburb of Dakar, Senegal. The results indicate that although both factors contribute significantly to lower infant mortality, the relationships are complex. Concerning urbanization, there are differences by country and social class and, where urban infrastructures are inadequate, high levels of mortality persist. Female education, however, positively affects infant mortality both preventively and curatively.
Correspondence: P. Antoine, ORSTOM, BP 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30133 Azevedo, Mario J.; Prater, Gwendolyn S.; Lantum, Daniel N. Culture, biomedicine, and child mortality in Cameroon. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 12, 1991. 1,341-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article is based on a field study conducted by the authors in East Cameroon in 1987-1988 and on written sources available, including U.N. and Cameroon government statistics. It focuses on two major issues, namely, the relationship between biomedical assumptions and programs and traditional cultural tenets and the impact of both on child mortality in Cameroon's East Province. It contrasts the problems of disease and mortality in the area as reflected in official statistics with the actual health situation in the Province in light of resilient beliefs, attitudes, and practices that hinder rather than facilitate the effectiveness of immunization campaigns undertaken by the government to save the child. The study concludes by discussing policy choices and steps that both the government and the affected people might consider to remedy the region's disappointing health conditions."
Correspondence: M. J. Azevedo, University of North Carolina, Afro-American and African Studies Department, Charlotte, NC 28223. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30134 Barbieri, Magali. The determinants of infant and child mortality in Senegal: an analysis of DHS data. Pub. Order No. DA9103630. 1990. 250 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(9).

57:30135 Barell, Vita; Habersham, Nava; Ruder, Avima; Lusky, Ayala; Chetrit, Angela; Zadka, Pnina. Socio-demographic characteristics of infant mortality based on data for 1977-1980. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 871, 1990. 43, li pp. Central Bureau of Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Health: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng. with sum. in Heb.
Trends in infant mortality in Israel are analyzed for the period 1977-1980. The publication includes for the first time both univariate and multivariate analyses of infant mortality data. The univariate analysis concerns both Jews and non-Jews, whereas the multivariate analysis concerns Jews only.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Prime Minister's Office, P.O.B. 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30136 Becerra, Jose E.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Atrash, Hani K.; Perez, Nilsa. Infant mortality among Hispanics: a portrait of heterogeneity. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 265, No. 2, Jan 9, 1991. 217-21 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study has the following objectives: (1) to compare the infant mortality risks (IMRs) among Hispanics with those among non-Hispanic blacks and whites in the United States, (2) to measure IMRs stratified by birth weight, age at death, and maternal birthplace among different Hispanic groups, and (3) to suggest strategies to reduce infant mortality tailored to specific ethnic groups." Data are from the 1983 and 1984 National Linked Birth and Infant Death data sets.
Correspondence: J. E. Becerra, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Mailstop C06, Pregnancy and Infant Health Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30137 Bennett, David. Patterns of infant mortality in post-war Ontario: the role of environmental factors. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 431-7 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the spatial variations of infant mortality in the province of Ontario, Canada, from 1945 to 1984. The author thinks that inequalities in infant mortality correlate with variations in socioeconomic environments. Some possible future research is outlined."
Correspondence: D. Bennett, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30138 Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Kim. Mothers' education and survival of female children in a rural area of Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1991. 253-64 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper it is investigated whether the positive effect of mothers' education on child survival is similar for boys and girls in Matlab, Bangladesh. The study is based on [the] follow-up of 7,913 live births that occurred in the study area during the whole of 1982. The five independent variables included in the analysis are: sex of children, mother's education, mother's age at the time of birth, household economic condition, and health programme block. Hazard analysis shows that the positive effect of mother's education on child survival is different for boys and girls. For boys, a change in mother's education from no schooling to 1-5 years resulted in reducing the predicted risk of death by 45 per cent, while for girls the reduction came to only seven per cent. Similarly, a change in mother's education from no schooling to six or more years of schooling resulted in a reduction of risk of 70 per cent for boys, while for girls it was only 32 per cent."
Correspondence: A. Bhuiya, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30139 Bicego, George; Chahnazarian, Anouch; Hill, Kenneth; Cayemittes, Michel. Trends, age patterns and differentials in childhood mortality in Haiti (1960-1987). Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1991. 235-52 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the trends, patterns and differentials in childhood mortality in Haiti between 1960 and 1987 with data from three surveys and one census....The results indicate that a slow decline in childhood mortality has occurred since 1960 for the country as a whole. Neonatal survival has shown impressive gains, especially in rural Haiti. Post-neonatal mortality has not, however, declined at the same rate. Mortality between the ages of one and five years has declined at about the same pace as infant mortality, maintaining consistency with model patterns of mortality change. The overall national decline in child mortality appears to have consisted of two phases. The first occurred in rural Haiti during the late 1960s and early 1970s and was due largely to a fall in neonatal mortality. The second phase of the decline was concentrated in Port-au-Prince, and seems to have affected all ages of childhood."
Correspondence: G. Bicego, Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21245. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30140 Bourne, Katherine L.; Walker, George M. The differential effect of mothers' education on mortality of boys and girls in India. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jul 1991. 203-19 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this study we consider whether the influence of a mother's education is the same on her daughters and her sons in a society which often treats them differently. Median-polish technique was used with data from the 1981 Census of India to determine the relative effect of mothers' education on mortality of boys and girls in childhood. It was found, as expected, that improved mothers' education reduced mortality at all ages below five years for both sexes. Further, the effect was found to be greater on girl than on boy children, particularly in the northern states. The effect of mothers' education was much greater than that of rural or urban residence. Previous research on the relationship between mothers' education and child mortality in India and elsewhere is discussed, as are possible underlying reasons for the differential treatment of boys and girls, and why it may be altered by education of the mother."
Correspondence: K. L. Bourne, Jianguomenwai Diplomatic Apartments, 2-1-143 Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30141 Costa, Nilson do R.; Duarte, Cristina M. R. Notes for an evaluation of social policies: infant mortality trends in recent decades. [Notas para avaliacao de politicas sociais: a tendencia da mortalidade infantil nas ultimas decadas.] Dados, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1989. 241-55 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The impact of basic public, urban sanitation policies on the Brazilian standard of living during the 1970's and 1980's is analyzed. It is shown how broadened access to water and sewer in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo produced useful results which can be measured using public health indicators. In developing this thesis, the behavior of infant mortality rates during this period is discussed. The paper then proposes: (1) to re-interpret common theses on the Brazilian government's structural incapacity to offer social policies which will have an impact on the population's quality of life and (2) that infant mortality rates should be used more cautiously when analyzing the economic, political, and social consequences which 'economic crises' may have on the living conditions in some regions of Brazil. The fundamental thesis is that infant mortality rates do not respond mechanically to variations in general economic indicators, such as the minimum wage, because they are previous to the mediation of sectorial public policies."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:30142 Curtis, Sian L.; McDonald, John W. Birth spacing and infant mortality in Brazil. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 343-52 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the models of Hobcraft et al. (1985) for neonatal and post-neonatal mortality are replicated and extended using data from the 1986 Brazil Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)....This survey provided the first opportunity to analyse the relationship between birth spacing and child mortality in Brazil based on birth history data." The survey was conducted among 5,892 women aged 15 to 44 years during the period from May to August 1986. "The effects of birth spacing on neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in Brazil were found to be very consistent with models based on data from other South American countries. The model for neonatal mortality simplified to three significant variables, whereas the model for post-neonatal mortality included four significant interactions."
For the article by Hobcraft et al., see 52:10197.
Correspondence: S. L. Curtis, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton S09 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30143 Dackam Ngatchou, Richard; Van der Pol, Hendrik. Mother's educational status and mortality: a critical evaluation. [Niveau d'instruction de la mere et mortalite: une evaluation critique.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jun 1988. 25-47 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The authors examine results from a survey on infant and child mortality (Enquete sur la Mortalite Infantile et Juvenile) in Yaounde, Cameroon, in an attempt to establish why the relationship between a mother's educational status and the mortality of her child was not straightforward. They conclude that this relationship is complicated by additional factors, such as mother's ethnic group.
Correspondence: R. Dackam Ngatchou, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30144 Gaigbe Togbe, Victor. Seasonality and causes of infant deaths in Yaounde. [Saisonnalite et causes de deces infantiles a Yaounde.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 2, Dec 1988. 97-126 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
Data from a survey on infant and child mortality carried out in Yaounde, Cameroon, between 1978 and 1981 are used to examine seasonal variations in mortality. The results indicate that infant mortality is higher during the long dry season and the shorter rainy season, (approximately January-July), and that the main cause of death is measles.
Correspondence: V. Gaigbe Togbe, Institut National de la Statistique et de l'Analyse Economique, Unite d'Analyse et de Formation Demographique, B.P. 323, Cotonou, Benin. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30145 Gomes, Joaquim; Fernandes, Manuel A.; Indi, Francisco; da Gama, Mariano S.; Sami, Jorge; Aaby, Peter. Malnutrition and infant mortality in the regions of Tombali, Cacheu, Oio, Biombo, and Gabu. [Malnutricao e mortalidade infantil nas regioes de Tombali, Cacheu, Oio, Biombo e Gabu.] Boletim de Informacao Socio-Economica, Vol. 5, Sep 1989. 11-44 pp. Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. In Por.
Selected data on infant mortality and infant and child malnutrition in Guinea-Bissau are presented for five regions. The data concern the period 1980-1987.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:30146 Gray, Ronald H.; Ferraz, Elenice M.; Amorim, Maria S.; de Melo, Lilian F. Levels and determinants of early neonatal mortality in Natal, Northeastern Brazil: results of a surveillance and case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1991. 467-73 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"An institution-based surveillance and nested case-control study was conducted in Natal, Northeastern Brazil to estimate the level and determinants of early neonatal mortality....In addition to prematurity and low birthweight, the main risk factors associated with early neonatal death were maternal smoking, complications during pregnancy or intrapartum, and inadequate antenatal care. The associations were weaker for prepregnancy factors such as single marital status or low maternal body weight, and no significant associations were observed with socioeconomic status. These findings suggest that in the population, efforts to reduce early neonatal death should focus on improved maternal care and the prevention of prematurity."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30147 Gule, Gugulethu Z. Childhood mortality in Swaziland: levels, trends, and determinants. Pub. Order No. DA9101164. 1990. 240 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(8).

57:30148 Hein, Herman A.; Burmeister, Leon F.; Papke, Kathryn R. The relationship of unwed status to infant mortality. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 76, No. 5, Nov 1990. 763-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We studied the impact of unwed status on infant mortality in the state of Iowa, where obstetric and newborn care is readily accessible. Our purpose was to document the extent of the contribution of unwed status to infant mortality and to compare unwed gravidas with their married counterparts....Our data encompassed a 10-year period (1977-1986) during which the incidence of infant deaths occurring in offspring of unmarried women was significantly greater than expected. The unwed population commonly consisted of younger, poorly educated, primigravid women who frequently did not seek prenatal care. We suggest that personal factors inherent in this group of women may be more operative than lack of access to perinatal care in determining pregnancy outcome."
Correspondence: H. A. Hein, University Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Pediatrics, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30149 Hereward, Mark C. An investigation of the seasonality of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA9026573. 1990. 343 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(5).

57:30150 Katz, Jorge; Maciera, Daniel. Infant mortality and the functioning of markets of neonatal care. A case study of Argentina. [Mortalidad infantil y el funcionamiento de los mercados de atencion neonatal. Un examen del caso argentino.] Desarrollo Economico, Vol. 30, No. 118, Jul-Sep 1990. 173-98 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The authors examine trends in neonatal mortality in Argentina. The focus is on the organization and functioning of multiple markets, both public and private, of medical assistance services. They discuss problems of quality and organization of neonatal services, as well as the lack of control of results on the part of the social works system.
Correspondence: J. Katz, U.N. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Oficina de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:30151 Keuzeta, J. J.; Merlin, M.; Josse, R.; Mouanda, V.; Kouka Bemba, D. Infant morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Central Africa. [Morbidite et mortalite infantiles par maladies diarrheiques en Afrique Centrale.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jun 1988. 69-87 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The authors summarize the results of a series of surveys carried out in five Central African countries (Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Congo, Gabon, and Chad) concerning the prevalence of mortality from and treatment of infant diarrhea in children under five years of age. They note that infant diarrhea is the second most common cause of death among such children. The need for the development of oral rehydration treatment is stressed.
Correspondence: J. J. Keuzeta, OCEAC, BP 288, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30152 King, Margaret; Gartrell, John; Trovato, Frank. Early childhood mortality, 1926-1986. Canadian Social Trends, No. 21, Summer 1991. 6-10 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The authors investigate trends in early childhood mortality in Canada from 1926 to 1986. "Since early in the century, deaths among young children have decreased dramatically as a proportion of all deaths in Canada. This is mainly because of a significant drop in the mortality rate of children under 5 years old. Over the same period, deaths from infectious diseases have been largely brought under control in Canada and non-infectious diseases and conditions have replaced them as the major cause of death in early childhood."
Correspondence: M. King, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30153 Kleinman, Joel C.; Fingerhut, Lois A.; Prager, Kate. Differences in infant mortality by race, nativity status, and other maternal characteristics. American Journal of Diseases of Children, Vol. 145, No. 2, Feb 1991. 194-9 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nativity status (native vs foreign born) and other maternal characteristics (age, parity, education, and marital status) on infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality among white and black mothers. The design of this nonrandomized cohort study was based on birth and death certificates. The setting involved live births among U.S. residents...in 1983 and 1984....Combining the several categories of risk factors into three broad maternal risk groups, there was a near-doubling of black and near tripling of white infant mortality rates between the low and high levels of maternal risk. We concluded that if the infant mortality rate in the low-risk groups could be achieved by the moderate- and high-risk groups, there would be a 30% reduction in infant deaths within each race."
Correspondence: J. C. Kleinman, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Analysis, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 1080, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30154 Klonecki, Jerzy. Territorial differences in infant mortality by communes in Poland, 1982-1984. [Zroznicowanie terytorialne umieralnosci niemowlat w gminach w Polsce, 1982-1984.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/99, 1990. 117-40 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Regional differences in infant mortality among 49 Polish voivodships are analyzed. The focus is on the rural population for the period 1982-1984. The influence of different standards of living around the country on levels of infant mortality is noted.
Correspondence: J. Klonecki, Academy of Economics, Marchlewskiego 146/150, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30155 Koenig, Michael A.; Fauveau, Vincent; Wojtyniak, Bogdan. Mortality reductions from health interventions: the case of immunization in Bangladesh. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1991. 87-104, 201, 203 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using data from rural Bangladesh, the authors estimate potential mortality reductions resulting from immunization programs, a cornerstone of most child survival initiatives. They demonstrate that while immunization programs will significantly reduce mortality during ages 1-4 years, their ability to influence mortality during the initial months of life is limited. The results illustrate the potential and the limitations of current child survival strategies for reducing mortality in settings similar to Bangladesh."
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30156 Kuate Defo, Barthelemy. The causes of infant and child mortality in Yaounde. [Les causes de la mortalite infanto-juvenile a Yaounde.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 2, Dec 1988. 65-95 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
Infant and child mortality in Yaounde, Cameroon, are analyzed using data from a survey carried out between 1978 and 1981. The importance of infectious and parasitic diseases is noted, particularly measles.
Correspondence: B. Kuate Defo, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30157 LaVeist, Thomas A. Simulating the effects of poverty on the race disparity in postneonatal mortality. Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 11, No. 4, Winter 1990. 463-73 pp. South Burlington, Vermont. In Eng.
"This paper examines the degree to which the substantial race disparities in postneonatal mortality [in the United States] are a function of race disparities in the prevalence of poverty. The analysis specifies a race-specific model of postneonatal mortality. The model is then manipulated to allow for a simulation of the impact of reducing black poverty on the postneonatal mortality race disparity. It is concluded that racial postneonatal mortality differentials may be addressed by remedies which need not be explicitly medical intervention (e.g. effective policy that reduces disparities in socioeconomic status)."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30158 Majumder, Abul K. Breast-feeding, birth interval and child mortality in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 297-312 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the effects of breast-feeding and birth intervals on infant mortality in Bangladesh. Data are from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey, conducted between December 1975 and March 1976 among 6,513 ever-married women. The author finds that there is "little evidence that breast-feeding is the intermediate factor through which birth intervals influence child survival in Bangladesh. Preceding birth interval, subsequent pregnancy and breast-feeding duration each have an independent influence on early mortality risk. Within a specific interval the risk of dying decreases with [an] increase in duration of breast-feeding, and also with an increase in the time between the index birth and the next pregnancy."
Correspondence: A. K. Majumder, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, University Post Office, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30159 McCracken, Stephen D. A multi-level sociodemographic analysis of early childhood mortality in Brazil. Pub. Order No. DA9031654. 1990. 458 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(6).

57:30160 Myoung, Jae-Il. Demographic analysis of the determinants of postneonatal mortality in the U.S.: inferences from risk specific infant mortality. Pub. Order No. DA9020791. 1990. 76 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at City University of New York.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(3).

57:30161 O'Toole, Josephine; Wright, Robert E. Parental education and child mortality in Burundi. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 255-62 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between parental education and child mortality in Burundi using data collected in the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey. Proportional hazards models are estimated to examine this relationship, while holding constant other known child mortality determinants. Parental education proves to be a key factor in explaining differences in child mortality, the effect of maternal education being particularly strong compared to paternal education."
Correspondence: J. O'Toole, University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30162 Partin, Melissa R. An investigation of mechanisms explaining excess female mortality during infancy and childhood in Bangladesh: evidence from the World Fertility Survey data. CDE Working Paper, No. 90-125, 1990. 33 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Using data from the World Fertility Survey, the author provides evidence of excess Bangladeshi female mortality in the early years of life. The author examines various factors that may contribute to excess mortality among young Bangladeshi females, including possible preference given to male children in length of breast-feeding, hospitalization and health care, and allocation of food. The author concludes that males are not generally breast-fed longer than females, but that young males are much more likely to receive hospitalization and health care.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30163 Pebley, Anne R.; Amin, Sajeda. The impact of public health interventions on sex differentials in childhood mortality in rural Punjab, India. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 24, 1991. 39 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of a public health intervention program on sex differentials in health and mortality during childhood, and investigates a hypothesis about the pattern of discrimination against girls, in the Ludhiana District of Punjab state in northern India. Among the different health service packages offered as part of the experimental design, those including nutritional services seem to have been more successful in reducing excess female mortality....The results also indicate that, consistent with earlier research, girls with surviving older sisters had higher mortality rates after their first month of life. Contrary to earlier research, however, boys with surviving older brothers also have higher mortality rates, at least between the ages of 1 and 3 years. We conclude that these effects for boys and girls cannot be attributed to problems associated with larger family size, since the number of older siblings of the opposite sex (regardless of survival status) does not generally appear to be related to children's chances of survival."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30164 Pyle, Gerald F. Regional inequalities in infant mortality within North Carolina, USA. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 439-45 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Infant mortality rates in the state of North Carolina are analyzed by geographical region, race, and socioeconomic status. County-level data are used for the periods 1976-1980 and 1983-1987. "In general, a 'U-shaped' curve with high innercity infant mortality, lower rates in decentralized small towns and suburbs followed by higher rates once again in areas that are simultaneously poor, black and rural explains regional aspects of this social problem in North Carolina."
Correspondence: G. F. Pyle, University of North Carolina, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Charlotte, NC 28223. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30165 Ridder, Geert; Tunali, Insan. Analysis of related durations: a semi-parametric approach with an application to a study of child mortality in Malaysia. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. PRC 90-1, Nov 1989. 40 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper we specify a Proportional Hazards model which allows for correlation between related durations through a common fixed-effect. We rely on the Cox Partial Likelihood estimator which admits time-varying regressors under certain conditional independence assumptions. The method is illustrated with a study of child mortality. The data we employ were previously analyzed by R. Olsen and K. Wolpin in the 1983 volume of Econometrica. Our reexamination offers tests of the parametric assumptions Olsen and Wolpin rely on, as well as tests of our own parameterization and of endogeneity of the regressors." The data used are from a study conducted in Malaysia.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 375).
For the study by Olsen and Wolpin, published in 1983, see 49:40240.
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30166 Simoes, Celso C. da S.; de Oliveira, Luiz A. P.; Becker, Roberto A.; Ortiz, Luiz P.; Szwarcwald, Celia L.; de Castilho, Euclides A.; Pinto, Cynthia B.; Victoria, Cesar G.; Barros, Fernando C.; Medici, Andre C. A statistical portrait of mothers and children in Brazil: infant mortality and health in the 1980s. [Perfil estatistico de criancas e maes no Brasil: mortalidade infantil e saude na decada de 80.] ISBN 85-240-0318-9. 1989. 129 pp. Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica [IBGE]: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
This publication contains seven papers by different authors on aspects of infant mortality and health in Brazil during the 1980s. Topics covered include the relationship between infant mortality and social change, and causes of infant deaths. Case studies are included on Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Ceara.
Correspondence: Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt 166, 20021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30167 Sjoberg, Orjan. Infant mortality in Albania: an interim report. Sudosteuropa, Vol. 39, No. 11-12, 1990. 709-18 pp. Munich, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author utilizes newly available data on age-specific mortality in Albania in "an attempt to fill in some of the existing gaps in time series on, and general understanding of, post-[World War II] Albanian infant mortality patterns....In summary, we find a significant reduction of infant mortality....Despite the improvements, Albania finds itself in the bottom range by European standards...."
Correspondence: O. Sjoberg, Stockholm School of Economics, Department of International Economics and Geography, P.O. Box 6501, S-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30168 Weeks, John R.; Rumbaut, Ruben G. Infant mortality among ethnic immigrant groups. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1991. 327-34 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using linked birth and infant death records for the San Diego [United States] metropolitan area for the period 1978-85, infant mortality rates (IMRs) were calculated for Indochinese refugee groups from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in comparison with other ethnic groups....Indochinese refugees as a group had an IMR below that for non-Hispanic Whites and substantially below that for Blacks. In general, IMRs for Indochinese refugees were similar to those for other Asian groups."
Correspondence: J. R. Weeks, San Diego State University, International Population Center, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30169 West, Keith P.; Pokhrel, R. P.; Katz, Joanne; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Shrestha, Sharada R.; Pradhan, Elizabeth K.; Tielsch, James M.; Pandey, M. R.; Sommer, Alfred. Efficacy of vitamin A in reducing preschool child mortality in Nepal. Lancet, Vol. 338, No. 8759, Jul 13, 1991. 67-71 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the mortality of preschool children in Nepal is analyzed. "A randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled community trial of 28,630 children aged 6-72 months was carried out in rural Nepal....After 12 months, the relative risk of death in the vitamin-A-supplemented compared with the control group was...equivalent to a 30% reduction in mortality....The reduction in mortality was present in both sexes...at all ages...and throughout the year....The reduction in mortality risk was not affected by acute nutritional status....Thus, periodic vitamin A delivery in the community can greatly reduce child mortality in developing countries."
Correspondence: K. P. West, Wilmer Eye Institute 120, Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30170 Wilkins, Russell; Sherman, Gregory J.; Best, P. A. F. Birth outcomes and infant mortality by income in urban Canada, 1986. [Issues de grossesse defavorables et mortalite infantile selon le revenu dans les regions urbaines du Canada en 1986.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 7-31 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Official 1986 data on birth outcomes and infant deaths for 25 metropolitan areas in Canada are analyzed. "Births, infant deaths and census population data were...used to calculate rates of infant mortality, low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), prematurity, small for gestational age (SGA), and total fertility. The results are presented by neighborhood income quintile group...and by the mother's age, parity...marital status and country of birth, as well as by [metropolitan area]....Percentage of low income in the neighborhood of residence was strongly and consistently related to measures of unfavorable birth outcomes."
Correspondence: G. J. Sherman, Health and Welfare Canada, Health Protection Branch, Childhood Diseases and Injuries Section, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30171 Williams-Thomas, Gwyneth. Disease and inequalities in infant and child mortality in rural Kenya. Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 2, Dec 1988. 23-33 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the usefulness of cause of death data in investigating differentials in child mortality in two areas of rural Kenya....The purpose of the investigation...was to provide insights into the large disparity in infant and child mortality across rural Kenya and in particular, between two districts representing respectively the highest and lowest mortality areas." The results show how diseases, particularly malaria, combine with social, economic, and environmental factors to cause the differences in mortality observed. They also show that even incomplete vital statistics on causes of death can be useful in analyses of this type.
Correspondence: G. Williams-Thomas, 27 Cressy Road, Cardiff CF2 5BE, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30172 Williams, Naomi. Infant and child mortality in urban areas of nineteenth century England and Wales: a record-linkage study. Pub. Order No. BRDX90280. 1989. 348 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Liverpool.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(6).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

57:30173 Alter, George. Trends in United States old age mortality, 1900-1935: evidence from railroad pensions. PIRT Working Paper, No. 13, Oct 4, 1989. 35, [17] pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
The author investigates old-age mortality trends in the United States from 1900 to 1935. "The evidence presented here supports the conclusion that an increase in old age mortality did occur in the early twentieth century. Data from three sources will be described: vital registration from the death registration area of 1900, the Pennsylvania Railroad Pension Fund, and an investigation of all railroad pensions by the Federal Coordinator of Transportation."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30174 Delbes, Christiane; Gaymu, Joelle. French mortality among the aged: toward a leveling of geographical disparities? [La mortalite francaise aux grands ages: vers un nivellement des disparites geographiques?] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 447-57 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Geographical disparities in mortality in France among the population over age 65 are described. Consideration is given to sex factors and to changes in life expectancy. Data are for the period 1962-1982.
Correspondence: C. Delbes, Fondation Nationale de Gerontologie, 49 rue Mirabeau, 75016 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30175 Dunnell, Karen. Deaths among 15-44 year olds. Population Trends, No. 64, Summer 1991. 38-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Death rates for most age and sex groups of adults [in England and Wales] have been declining throughout the century. Since the mid-1980s, death rates among young men and women aged 15-44 have stopped declining. This article aims to explain why. It looks first at the effect of changing age structure on death rates. Second it compares for five-year age-groups of men and women the actual numbers of deaths in 1987-89 from the main causes with the expected numbers based on the 1984-86 rates. The pattern of increases and decreases in various causes of death is described."
Correspondence: K. Dunnell, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Medical Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30176 Imaizumi, Yoko. Mortality in the elderly population aged over 40 in Japan, 1947-1988. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 1, Apr 1991. 40-57 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The death rates at ages over 40 in Japan were analyzed using Japanese Vital Statistics for 1947-1988. Secular changes in the death rate and the age-specific death rate were analyzed according to sex and major causes of death. Twelve major causes of death were as follows: (1) malignant neoplasms, (2) heart disease, (3) cerebrovascular disease, (4) pneumonia and bronchitis, (5) accidents and adverse effects, (6) senility without mention of psychosis, (7) suicide, (8) chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, (9) nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis, (10) hypertensive disease, (11) diabetes mellitus and (12) mental disorders....The mean age at death increased 50 years [over] the last 38 years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30177 Kannisto, Vaino. Geographical differences in the mortality of the elderly in Finland since the 1850s. [Vanhusten alueelliset kuolleisuuserot Suomessa 1850-luvulta alkaen.] Sosiaalilaaketieteellinen Aikakauslehti, No. 27, 1990. 417-25 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality data for the elderly in Finland are compared for geographical differences between the east and the west. The author utilizes simulated data from 1853 to 1878 to evaluate mortality in the past and compare it to the present, which indicates high levels of male mortality from heart disease in eastern Finland. "The historical evidence is compatible with the view that the causes of the high premature mortality in Finland are to be found in diet and smoking and perhaps also in genetics."
Correspondence: V. Kannisto, Campo Grande 1-6-D, 1700 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30178 Udjo, E. O. Adult mortality from information on orphanhood and widowhood among the Kanuri of Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 155-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides information on the levels and trends in male and female adult mortality among the Kanuri of north-east Nigeria. Analysis of reports of orphanhood and widowhood suggests moderately high levels of mortality....The data were collected from a single round retrospective survey [of over 10,000 individuals] carried out in the area by the author, between July and September 1982."
Correspondence: E. O. Udjo, University of Maiduguri, Department of Sociology, PMB 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

57:30179 Canada. Statistics Canada. Canadian Centre for Health Information (Ottawa, Canada). Life tables, Canada and provinces, 1985-1987. [Tables de mortalite, Canada et provinces, 1985-1987.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 2, No. 4; Suppl. 13, Pub. Order No. 82-003S. 1990. 58 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Life tables for Canada and the provinces are provided using official data for the period 1985-1987. The tables are presented by single year of age and by sex.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30180 Malaysia. Jabatan Perangkaan (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). Abridged life tables, Peninsular Malaysia, 1981-1987. [Jadual hayat ringkas Semenanjung Malaysia, 1981-1987.] Feb 1990. [4], viii, 45 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng; Mal.
Life tables by sex and ethnic group are presented for Peninsular Malaysia for the period 1981-1987.
Correspondence: Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia, Wisma Statistik, Jalan Cenderasari, 50514 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30181 Tas, R. F. J. Cohort life tables for the Netherlands by age and sex derived from observations during the period 1860-1989. [Generatie-overlevingstafels naar geslacht en leeftijd afgeleid uit waarnemingen over de periode 1860-1989.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 6, Jun 1991. 15-26 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Cohort life tables for the Netherlands based on data from the period 1860-1989 are presented. Consideration is given to trends in age-specific mortality, comparisons of life expectancy in successive cohorts at different ages, and improvements in infant and child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30182 Willekens, F. J. Life table analysis of staging processes. In: Life histories and generations, edited by Henk A. Becker. 1991. 477-518 pp. Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, ISOR: Utrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with life table analysis of repeatable events. Following an introduction to life table analysis, the author applies the methodology to the study of both fertility and migration, using data for the Netherlands.
Correspondence: F. J. Willekens, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, POB 955, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

57:30183 Ahmad, Sultan. Trends and regional differentials in mortality in Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, 1988. 27-34 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"Data collected in [the] 1974 Bangladesh Retrospective Survey of Fertility and Mortality were used to study the trends and differentials in regional mortality in Bangladesh....The study revealed no appreciable change in mortality during the period 1960-1973 in Bangladesh. The average infant mortality rate was found to be between 141-149 per 1,000 and expectation of life at birth between 47.5-47.9 years during the period. No significant differential in mortality measured either by infant mortality or expectation of life at birth was noticed among the four regions."
Correspondence: S. Ahmad, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30184 Ahmed, G.; Das, A. M.; Shastri, G. N.; Shahidullah, M.; Brunborg, H.; Ahmed, Z. Sex differentials in morbidity and mortality in rural Botswana and Bangladesh, 1986-87. Rural Demography, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, 1988. 59-72 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper analysed the morbidity and mortality patterns by sex in two contrasting societies, Botswana and Bangladesh. The analysis indicates that females are likely to have higher incidence of morbidity than the males, but the mortality rate is found to be higher among males although morbidity precedes mortality. This was found to be true in both the societies. High morbidity and mortality is more pronounced in infancy and early childhood among males. Some neglect of female children in early ages (5-9)...[is] indicated by the Bangladesh data. The very high prevalence of female morbidity in summer in Botswana demands further study and understanding."
Correspondence: G. Ahmed, University of Botswana, Department of Demography, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30185 Beiran, I.; Ore, L.; Epstein, L. Mortality trends among Jewish and non-Jewish men in Israel, 1960-82. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1991. 36-42 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"Until 1975 in Israel the mortality rates in men [aged 25 and over] were higher in Jews than non-Jews. Since then the relationship has been reversed with higher rates in the non-Jewish group. The three main causes of death in the two groups were heart disease, cancer and cerebrovascular disease (CVA). Death rates from [these causes]...can partially explain the reversal in total mortality rates in 1975. A comparison of the data of Israeli men with those of Israeli women shows that the mortality rates of the non-Jewish population of both sexes have changed dramatically over the last decade. These findings have important implications for the planning of further research and for priority determination in health care planning."
Correspondence: I. Beiran, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Family and Community Health, 32 000 Haifa, Israel. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30186 Berin, Barnet N.; Stolnitz, George J.; Tenebein, Aaron. Mortality trends of males and females over the ages. PIRT Working Paper, No. 17, Dec 1989. 19 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
"Mortality trends of males and females are examined from the beginnings of the human species until the present. Data up to the nineteenth century are presented to indicate that male survival rates were higher than female survival rates. Data for the twentieth century indicate that the trends have reversed; reasons for this reversal are discussed. Future projections of mortality rates and population sizes for females and males, based on [U.S.] Social Security Administration projections, are presented. The social, political, and economic implications are discussed."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30187 Caudill, William W. Mortality as a measure of spatial and social disparities in development: a Venezuelan case study. Pub. Order No. DA9021183. 1989. 199 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Florida.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(3).

57:30188 Chauvire, Yvan. Inequalities of life expectancy in the central part of the Paris agglomeration. [Les inegalites en matiere de mortalite a Paris et dans la petite couronne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 47-53 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines differences in life expectancy among residents of the central part of the Paris agglomeration. A strong link is found between socioeconomic factors and life expectancy.
Correspondence: Y. Chauvire, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Geographie, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30189 Cislaghi, C.; Braga, M.; Danielli, A.; Luppi, G. An analysis of the spatial association between cancer mortality and risk factors: the role of the geographical scale. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 407-16 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng; Fre.
Using mortality data for municipal regions in Italy, the authors analyze the importance of geographical scale in assessing the spatial distribution of mortality and risk factors. "Random iterating partitions of the total area in progressively smaller sub-areas has been proposed as a non-parametric method for exploring spatial phenomena. The results generated by this method for all the partitions considered, can be finally used to identify the aggregation level at which the correlation between the risk factor and the damage indicator reaches the maximum."
Correspondence: C. Cislaghi, Universita di Milano, Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30190 Cohen, Aron. Geographical dynamics of mortality in Spain. [La dynamique geographique de la mortalite en Espagne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 135-41 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in mortality and life expectancy are examined and compared for the provinces of Spain. Levels of industrialization, risk factors, and sex factors are considered.
Correspondence: A. Cohen, Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Geografia Humana, Campus Universitario de Catuja, 18072 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30191 Compton, Paul A. Excess male mortality in Eastern Europe: a spatial perspective. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 479-92 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Patterns of mortality and excess male mortality in Eastern Europe are examined and compared with those in Western Europe. "Causes of death specifically associated with rising male mortality are most forms of circulatory disease, lung cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and road traffic accidents, while the broader influences include cultural and economic backwardness, a poorly developed medical and health infrastructure and the trauma of having to survive in Marxist-Leninist societies."
Correspondence: P. A. Compton, Queens University, School of Geosciences, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30192 Courbage, Youssef. Excess mortality among Muslim women in Yugoslavia: Islam or the Mediterranean culture? [Surmortalite feminine chez les Musulmans de Yougoslavie: Islam ou culture mediterraneenne?] Population, Vol. 46, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 299-325 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Abundant and reliable data provide an excellent opportunity to study sex-age specific mortality rates among Moslems in Yugoslavia. Profiles differ considerably between the two main Moslem communities in Yugoslavia: the Moslem nationals (often called the 'Bosnians') and the Albanians. Among Albanians excess mortality of females was (and remains) high in childhood and used to be high during the womens' reproductive period, though it has now practically disappeared. This contrasts with the situation among Muslim nationals....The cultural differences between Muslim nationals and Albanians, rather than their common religion identity, further explain the high mortality rates among women in the latter community. The relative isolation of the Albanians of Yugoslavia and the remote situation of Kosovo, have tended to keep Mediterranean traditions alive, such as the exclusion of women from certain activities, which are the principal [causes of] excess mortality."
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30193 Creton, Dominique; Pringle, Dennis. Regional variations in mortality in the Republic of Ireland. [Variations regionales de la mortalite en Republique d'Irlande.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 113-25 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper describes the intraregional variations of mortality per sex in the Republic of Ireland. The zones of low mortality tend to be located in the less urbanized regions with the lowest level of economic development, whereas the [zones] of high mortality are in the most affluent and urbanized areas....Studies at an intraurban level put forward a relation between mortality and social class....The paper ends with a concise discussion [of] potential explicative factors."
Correspondence: D. Creton, Universite de Lille I, Laboratoire de Geographie Humaine, Batiment 2, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30194 Daroczi, Etelka. Urban/rural disparities in male surmortality in Hungary. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 493-9 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Rural-urban differentials in excess male mortality in Hungary are explored. Geographical patterns, settlement size, and occupational status are considered.
Correspondence: E. Daroczi, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Regional Studies, P.O. Box 527, 1538 Budapest 114, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30195 Decroly, Jean-Michel; Grimmeau, Jean-Pierre. Variations in age-specific mortality among Belgian communes. [Variations intercommunales de la mortalite par age en Belgique.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 75-83 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors present results of an analysis of age-specific mortality in the smallest administrative units into which Belgium is divided. They examine regional differences, particularly between Flanders and Wallonia; rural-urban differences; the impact of varying ease of access to health facilities on mortality; the effect on mortality of educational status; and the effect of the presence of homes for the elderly.
Correspondence: J.-M. Decroly, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 246, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30196 Heins, Frank. Regional disparities in mortality: the case of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 101-11 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines intercounty mortality differentials 1979-1981 in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its objectives are the presentation and analysis of regional mortality patterns by sex, age group and cause of death....The statistical relationships between population density as a general socio-economic indicator and different sex and age specific mortality rates are studied. They were found to vary considerably by causes of death, [specifically] motor vehicle accident and lung cancer mortality."
Correspondence: F. Heins, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30197 Hohn, Charlotte; Pollard, John H. Analysis of mortality in the two parts of Germany in the years 1976-1986. [Analyse der Sterblichkeit in beiden Telen Deutschlands in den Jahren 1976 bis 1986.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, 1990. 355-81 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Differences in mortality by sex, age, and causes of death are compared for the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic for the period 1976-1986. Disparities in life expectancy between the two countries are attributed to differences in death reporting, specifically concerning causes of death in the German Democratic Republic.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30198 Kemper, Franz-Josef; Thieme, Gunter. Regional disparities of mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 93-100 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents an ecological analysis of mortality differences in the [Federal Republic of Germany] on the basis of the 75 planning regions. In addition to life expectancy at birth for males and females selected age-specific mortality rates are studied, ranging from infant mortality and premature mortality of persons at working age to old age mortality....The results show that variables from different explanatory dimensions (economic situation, level of education, marital status, amenities and tourism, net migration, medical care) hold significant effects."
Correspondence: F.-J. Kemper, Universitat Bonn, Geographisches Institut, Meckenheimer Allee 166, D-5300 Bonn 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30199 Kikhela, Nzita. The filiation system: a factor affecting mortality in Africa? [Le systeme de filiation: un facteur de mortalite en Afrique?] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 2, Dec 1988. 7-21 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author examines whether the paternal or maternal filial relationship is related to mortality differentials in Africa. Neonatal mortality data are used in the analysis, which are taken from a 1981-1982 survey carried out in Kinshasa, Zaire, and from World Fertility Survey data for Cameroon, Ghana, and Kenya. The results show little difference in mortality between matrilineal and patrilineal societies.
Correspondence: N. Kikhela, Universite de Kinshasa, Departement de Demographie, BP 176, Kinshasa XI, Zaire. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30200 Kostrubiec, Benjamin. Structural dissimilarities and regional contrasts of mortality in France. [Dissemblances de structure et contrastes regionaux de la mortalite en France.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 37-45 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Regional differences in mortality in France are analyzed and compared for the years 1981-1983. Data are from official sources and are provided by age, sex, and cause of death by department.
Correspondence: B. Kostrubiec, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, Laboratoire de Geographie Humaine, Batiment 2, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30201 Kunst, Anton E.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Are regional mortality patterns in the Netherlands culturally determined? Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 85-91 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The analysis reported here aimed at finding clues to the explanation of the geographical pattern of mortality in the Netherlands. All-cause and cause-specific mortality will be related [to] a number of socio-demographic characteristics. This analysis will be carried out for two periods (1950-54 and 1980-84) in order to examine whether the role of socio-demographic characteristics [has] changed." The importance of cultural factors, particularly religion, is stressed.
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30202 Lopez Rios, Olga; Wunsch, Guillaume. Spatiotemporal methods for analysis of mortality. [Methodes spatio-temporelles pour l'analyse de la mortalite.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 393-402 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Methods for the study of regional differences in mortality have to take both space and time into account. The article points out some possible approaches, and several of the difficulties involved. The problem of spatial and serial autocorrelations has to be solved, as well as that of multicollinearity between time-dependent causal variables....The lags between causal variables and mortality have to be postulated, as well as the duration of exposure to the risk factors."
Correspondence: O. Lopez Rios, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30203 Miszewska, Barbara. Excess male mortality in Lower Silesia. [La surmortalite masculine en Basse Silesie.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 501-7 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Excess male mortality in Lower Silesia, Poland, is discussed. Sex differentials in cancer mortality are examined for a possible connection to environmental pollution.
Correspondence: B. Miszewska, Universytet Wroclawski, 1 Plac Universytecki, 50-137 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30204 Moller, Christian M. Numerical evaluation of Markov transition probabilities based on the discretized product integral. Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics Working Paper, No. 91, Dec 1990. 29 pp. University of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"This paper introduces a model that can give an explanation to the selection phenomenon for life-insured. The development of a policy is described by a time-inhomogeneous Markov process....The main results will be the following: (a) The mortality for a randomly chosen individual depends on duration since issue, and for fixed age the mortality increases with the duration. (b) The mortality among insured is generally lower than the mortality in the population. (c) One can argue for the existence of a selection period, which is a period where the effect of selection vanishes." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: University of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30205 Moller, Christian M. Select mortality and other durational effects modelled by partially observed Markov chains. Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics Working Paper, No. 90, Dec 1990. 29 pp. University of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"In a recent paper Norberg explained select mortality tables for insured lives by a simple Markov model where the lives are classified as insurable/not insurable and insured/not insured, and where no return is possible to previously visited states. The present paper extends the set-up and its results to more complex state spaces and patterns of transition, the key tool being the Kolmogorov backward differential equations."
Correspondence: University of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30206 Moser, Kath A.; Goldblatt, Peter O. Occupational mortality of women aged 15-59 years at death in England and Wales. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jun 1991. 117-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Occupational mortality differences among 77,081 women aged 15-49 living in England and Wales are analyzed for the period 1971-1981. "'Professional, technical workers, and artists' had significantly low mortality while 'Engineering and allied trades workers...' had significantly high mortality....A number of other cause specific associations...were suggested by the data...."
Correspondence: P. O. Goldblatt, City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30207 Noin, Daniel. The geographical study of mortality: assessment and problems. [L'etude geographique de la mortalite: bilan et problemes.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 367-76 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews recent literature and discusses methodological problems concerning the study of the geographical distribution of mortality. Data are primarily for France, with some comparative data for Europe.
Correspondence: D. Noin, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Geographie, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30208 Ore, L.; Tamir, A.; Beiran, I.; Epstein, L. Mortality trends among Jewish and non-Jewish women in Israel, 1960-1982. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1991. 30-6 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"The objectives of the present study were: To describe total mortality and selected cause-specific death rates among Israeli women aged [25 and over] from 1960-82; To compare total mortality rates between Jewish and non-Jewish Israeli women, aged [25 and over] from 1960-82; To compare mortality rates between Jewish and non-Jewish Israeli women...from 1962-82, in relation to the following specific diagnostic categories: total heart disease, total malignant neoplasms, [cerebrovascular disease] and total external causes of death, with special reference to motor vehicle accidents and suicide....Mortality data of the Jewish population in 1960-82 and the non-Jewish group 1969-82 were obtained from the annual 'Causes of Death' publication of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics."
Correspondence: L. Epstein, Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Department of Social Medicine, POB 1572, 91120 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30209 Pampalon, Robert. The geography of mortality in the province of Quebec. [Geographie de la mortalite au Quebec.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 215-21 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper proposes a schematic view of the spatial organization of mortality in the province of Quebec. It is based on an extended analysis of the 1974 to 1983 mortality data and several factors from the physical and the social environment." These include social class, metropolitan and suburban locations, occupations, and region within the province.
Correspondence: R. Pampalon, Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux du Quebec, 1075 Chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30210 Papa, Onofrio. Geographical differences in mortality in Italy, 1951-1981. [Les disparites geographiques de la mortalite en Italie 1951-1981.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 165-71 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Differential mortality patterns in regions of Italy are examined and compared. It is noted that the risk of mortality is higher in the northern industrialized areas. Differences in mortality by sex are also examined. Data are for the period 1951-1981.
Correspondence: O. Papa, Istituto di Scienze Demografiche e Sociali, Facolta di Economia e Commercio, Corso Cavour 181, 70121 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30211 Perron, Michel; Veillette, Suzanne; Rainville, Marc; Hebert, Gilles; Bouchard, Carmen; Tremblay, Camil; Otis, Jean-Claude. Social and spatial differentials in mortality in Saguenay (Quebec): evaluation of the use of the death register for microanalysis. [Differenciation sociale et spatiale de la mortalite au Saguenay (Quebec): validation d'un registre de deces pour des analyses a micro-echelle.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 223-34 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Excess mortality in Saguenay, Canada, is analyzed using data from regional death registers. The authors explore the socioeconomic, sanitation, and health conditions in the area. Implications for studying mortality differentials at the microlevel are discussed.
Correspondence: M. Perron, Groupe ECOBES, Cegep de Jonquiere, 2505 Saint-Hubert, Jonquiere, Quebec G7X 7W2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30212 Phillimore, Peter R.; Morris, David. Discrepant legacies: premature mortality in two industrial towns. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1991. 139-52 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Previous research has indicated that, while large parts of Middlesbrough and Sunderland [England] appear to be equally severely deprived, premature mortality in the early 1980s was substantially worse in Middlesbrough. Postcoded mortality data from 1975 to 1986 were assembled, to ascertain whether this disparity reflected a temporary or consistent difference between these two towns. In addition, to enable detailed consideration of differentials in premature mortality, data on cause of death for 23 cause-groups were assembled for the 6-year period 1978 to 1983. The results show that, throughout the 12-year period, death rates below the age of 65 years in Middlesbrough's poorer areas consistently exceeded death rates in comparable areas of Sunderland by a large margin. This disparity is demonstrated to affect both sexes and all age-groups below 65. Middlesbrough excess mortality was evident for most causes of death....Possible explanations for this wide difference are considered."
Correspondence: P. R. Phillimore, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies, Claremont Bridge, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30213 Picheral, Henri. Regional geography of the social inequalities of death from alcoholism. [Geographie regionale des inegalites sociales devant la mort d'origine alcoolique.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 511-20 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes regional variations in mortality according to social class. Data are for France and concern deaths caused by alcoholism.
Correspondence: H. Picheral, Universite P. Valery, GEOS, Atelier de Geographie de la Sante, 11 route de Mende, B.P. 5043, 34032 Montpellier Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30214 Potrykowska, Alina. Recent trends and spatial patterns of mortality in Poland. [Tendances et differenciation spatiale de la mortalite en Pologne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 201-13 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines regional mortality differences in Poland. "Areas with high death rates are mainly located in South-Western and central parts of the country. Low mortality is observed in the Eastern part of Poland....The present paper reports on testing of hypotheses as to the influence of socioeconomic variables on the death rate levels...with [a] rural-urban breakdown."
Correspondence: A. Potrykowska, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00 927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30215 Poulain, Michel. A methodology that facilitates the mapping of death levels in the absence of age-specific mortality data. [Une methodologie pour faciliter la cartographie des niveaux de mortalite en l'absence de donnees sur les deces par age.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 387-91 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality data for Western Europe are used to formulate a method for mapping life expectancies and mortality differentials in areas where age-specific mortality data are not available.
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30216 Pulaska-Turyna, Beata. Geographical inequalities in mortality according to cause of death in Poland. [Les inegalites geographiques de la mortalite selon la cause de deces en Pologne.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 191-200 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality patterns by cause of death are explored for Poland. Variations among regions are noted and are attributed to differences in environmental pollution, housing and life-style, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and diet.
Correspondence: B. Pulaska-Turyna, Universite de Varsovie, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, ul. Dluga 44/50, 00241 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30217 Renard, Jean-Pierre. Worldwide excess male mortality: in search of scales and methodologies. [La surmortalite masculine dans le monde: a la recherche d'echelles et de problematiques.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 459-66 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a literature review of research and data on excess male mortality at the global level. Consideration is given to geographic distribution, problems of scale, and new methodologies.
Correspondence: J.-P. Renard, Universite de Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30218 Rosenwaike, Ira. Mortality of Hispanic populations: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in the United States and in the home countries. Studies in Population and Urban Demography, No. 6, ISBN 0-313-27500-9. LC 91-2. 1991. xvi, 221 pp. Greenwood Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles by different authors on mortality among Hispanics in the United States. "The purpose of this volume is to present a work of coherent research on the mortality patterns of the three largest Hispanic subgroups and, in the process, help dispel many anecdotal and romanticized notions about Hispanic health and illness....It uses mortality data on first generation Hispanics born in Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico in combination with selected statistics on Hispanics of all generations....It also draws on mortality data from the countries of origin....The studies presented here are divided into five basic categories: mortality in the countries of origin; comparative mortality among Spanish-origin groups in the United States; specific causes of mortality among Spanish-origin populations; analysis of mortality data based on surname statistics; and an overview of mortality among migrants to the United States as compared to patterns of death in the countries of origin."
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30219 Rychtarikova, Jitka; Dzurova, Dagmar. Geographical mortality disparities in Czechoslovakia. [Les disparites geographiques de la mortalite en Tchecoslovaquie.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 183-90 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Regional variations in mortality in Czechoslovakia are analyzed. Special consideration is given to levels of infant mortality and deaths among those over 40 years of age.
Correspondence: J. Rychtarikova, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Demography and Geodemography, Albertov 6, 12843 Prague 2, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30220 Sakamoto, Arthur. Gender differentials in poverty-mortality well-being. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 4, Winter 1990. 429-45 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper explores the application of a life table approach to the analysis of poverty [in the United States]. After reviewing trends in gender differentials in poverty and mortality, we investigate an indicator of poverty-mortality well-being. The rationale for this approach is that to some extent poverty and mortality are causally interrelated phenomena which are both fundamental to well-being. The empirical results indicate that females are expected to live more years in poverty than are males, but females are expected to live more years in nonpoverty as well. Although the gender differential in poverty rates has increased to the disadvantage of females, and although most of the greater poverty of females cannot be attributed to their greater longevity, the gender differential in poverty-mortality well-being has nonetheless not deteriorated to the disadvantage of women in recent decades."
Correspondence: A. Sakamoto, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: New York Public Library.

57:30221 Shipley, M. J.; Pocock, S. J.; Marmot, M. G. Does plasma cholesterol concentration predict mortality from coronary heart disease in elderly people? 18 year follow up in Whitehall study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 303, No. 6794, Jul 13, 1991. 89-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is a report on the results of an 18-year follow-up study of 18,296 males in London, England, to determine the effects of cholesterol levels on heart disease later in life. The authors conclude that "reducing plasma cholesterol concentrations in middle age may influence the risk of death from coronary heart disease in old age."
Correspondence: M. G. Marmot, University College, Department of Community Medicine, London WC1E 6EA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30222 Siampos, George. Methodological issues of observation and analysis of differential mortality based on census and registered deaths around the census date. In: International seminar on the socio-economic aspects of differential mortality. [1988?]. 278-318 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is one in a collection of papers from a seminar on the socioeconomic aspects of differential mortality held in Zamardi, Hungary, September 9-19, 1986. "The methodology of the study of socio-economic differentials of mortality, in the case that the available data are those of the census population and the registered deaths around the census [date], is examined in this paper. An accurate measurement requires a strict matching between deaths and population 'at risk.' Accordingly, the measurement of the accuracy of the available data is examined first, the correction of the data follows, then the rates and ratios and other derived indices are applied and, finally, these measures are used in cross-classifications of mortality by cause of death, by occupational group, by level of education and by region. The case of Greece is taken as an example."
For the complete proceedings of the seminar in which this paper appeared, see 54:40172.
Correspondence: G. Siampos, Athens School of Economics and Business, 76 Patission Street, Athens 104 34, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30223 Siampos, George S. Trends and future prospects of the female overlife by regions in Europe. Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1990. 13-25 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in the sex differential in life expectancy in twentieth-century Europe. "The magnitude of the sex differential in life expectancy at birth--which is the most convenient measure for summarising changes in the relative mortality of the sexes through the available national life tables...is set forth for each member country together with a geographic classification by regions...." The results indicate that a continuation of the widening of the difference favoring women will occur. Gains for both males and females will be quite small during the next century, however.
Correspondence: G. S. Siampos, Athens School of Economics and Business Science, 76 Patission Street, 104 34 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

57:30224 Surault, Pierre. Post-modernity and social inequalities in mortality. [Post-modernite et inegalites sociales devant la mort.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1991. 121-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in differential mortality by social class in France are analyzed using data from a variety of published sources. The author notes that the economic prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s allowed an expansion of the welfare state. This led to increased living standards for all strata of society which in turn tended to reduce mortality differentials. Since the oil crisis of 1973, however, an underprivileged section of society has emerged, characterized by unemployment, poverty, poor health, and drug abuse. The author suggests that this segment of the population may reproduce itself indefinitely, which will tend to increase socioeconomic mortality differentials.
Correspondence: P. Surault, Universite de Poitiers, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, 15 rue de Blossac, 86034 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30225 Thumerelle, Pierre-Jean; Thumerelle-Delannoy, Nicole. The geographical inequalities of mortality (II). [Les inegalites geographiques de la mortalite (II).] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 243 pp. Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie: Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng; Fre.
This is one of two special issues containing the proceedings of a symposium organized by the International Geographical Union in Lille, France, in April 1990. This volume contains papers on regional disparities in mortality. The 22 papers are divided into three sections: France, the other countries of the European Community, and other industrialized countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30226 Tonnellier, Francois. The evolution of geographical disparities in mortality in France since 1911. [Evolution des inegalites geographiques de mortalite en France depuis 1911.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1991. 29-36 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Determinants of regional differentials in mortality in France since 1911 are explored. Consideration is given to differences in industrialization, medical technology, hygiene, and life-style.
Correspondence: F. Tonnellier, CREDES, 1 rue Paul Cezanne, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30227 Trovato, Frank. Violent and accidental mortality among immigrants in Canada. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 81, May 1991. 52 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The author explores the effects of resettlement on the mortality rates of migrants, using data for Canada. "The results provide support for the importance of country of origin effects on immigrant suicide, but not on homicide and motor vehicle accidents. Income discrepancies are also a significant source of differences in the risk of dying from suicide, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. The strongest net effects on the cause-specific mortality rate was found to be associated with immigrant group membership. [The author hypothesizes] that this result reflects differences in the importance of the immigrant ethnic community as a source of social integration in addition to the effects of return migration selectivity."
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30228 Vallin, Jacques. When geographical variations of excess male mortality are inconsistent with the evolution of life expectancy. [Quand les variations geographiques de la surmortalite masculine contredisent son evolution dans le temps.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 467-78 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses data for Hungary, Italy, and France to analyze geographical variations in excess male mortality. Changes in life expectancy by sex and factors affecting mortality are discussed.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30229 Xiong, Yu. An analysis of the mortality of the ethnic minorities in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989. 43-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes mortality differences among ethnic minorities in China. Results show a decline since the 1950s, attributable to disease control, fertility decrease, changes in the age structure, and improvements in educational levels and life-styles.
Correspondence: Y. Xiong, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Studies, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing 100732, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30230 Zick, Cathleen D.; Smith, Ken R. Marital transitions, poverty, and gender differences in mortality. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 2, May 1991. 327-36 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Studies of the causes of marital status differentials in mortality have generally concluded that marriage serves to protect individuals from premature death. The analyses presented in this article extend this work by examining how recent marital transitions and associated levels of economic status affect mortality. With a health production model and micro-level data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics [for the United States], sex-specific proportional hazard rate models of death are estimated as a function of recent marital transitions and poverty status, as well as other sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicate that recent spells of poverty increased the hazard of dying for both men and women, while recent marital status transitions altered the hazard of dying only for men."
Correspondence: C. D. Zick, University of Utah, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, 228 Emery Building, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

57:30231 Andrian, Josiane. Suicide of the elderly: national and international comparisons (1976-1987). [Le suicide des personnes agees: comparaisons nationales et internationales (1976-1987).] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 565-72 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Suicide rates among the elderly in France are analyzed by sex and region. Comparisons are made with rates in other European Community countries.
Correspondence: J. Andrian, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRESCO, 59-61 rue Pouchet, 75017 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30232 Atrash, Hani K.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Lawson, Herschel W.; Franks, Adele L.; Smith, Jack C. Maternal mortality in the United States, 1979-1986. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 76, No. 6, Dec 1990. 1,055-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To understand better the epidemiology and to describe the causes of maternal death, we reviewed all identified maternal deaths in the United States and Puerto Rico for 1979-1986. The overall maternal mortality ratio for the period was 9.1 deaths per 100,000 live births. The ratios increased with age and were higher among women of black and other minority races than among white women for all age groups. The causes of death varied for different outcomes of pregnancy; pulmonary embolism was the leading cause of death after a live birth. Unmarried women had a higher risk of death than married women. The risk of death increased with increasing live-birth order, except for primiparas."
Correspondence: H. K. Atrash, Centers for Disease Control, Mailstop C 06, Division of Reproductive Health, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30233 Bah, Sulaiman; Jeng, Momodou S. Health concerns of reproducing mothers: recent approaches to the indirect estimates of maternal mortality and a framework for their reduction. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 91-3, Apr 1991. 16 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The paper first describes the measurement issues involved in maternal mortality studies and then discusses the different approaches to the measurement of maternal mortality. It concentrates on the indirect approaches appraising them in the light of their applicability to African data. The paper also proposes an alternative approach to the existing techniques of the indirect estimation of maternal mortality. The last part of the paper addresses approaches to the reduction of maternal mortality and proposes a framework for achieving that goal."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30234 Bhat, Mari. Mortality from accidents and violence in India and China. Center for Population Analysis and Policy Research Report, No. 91-06-1, Jun 1991. 81 pp. University of Minnesota, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Center for Population Analysis and Policy: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this paper we have analyzed...deaths caused by accidents and violence in China and India....The analysis reveals that for both males and females, the total volume of mortality from external causes is about the same in India and China. However, the specific causes of accidents and violence...[are] quite different in the two countries." While in rural China drowning and suicide are leading external causes of death, overall mortality for these and other causes in urban areas is nearly half that of rural regions. India shows a steady increase in mortality due to road accidents and homicide and a decline in fatal drownings. "The paper also discusses the probable factors underlying the levels, trends and patterns in these two countries and suggests some policy measures for the prevention of mortality from violent causes."
Correspondence: University of Minnesota, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30235 Boerma, J. Ties. Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: levels, causes and interventions. Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jun 1988. 49-68 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper existing data on maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa will be reviewed and crude estimates by country will be presented after making certain assumptions about the relationships between maternal mortality and overall levels of mortality and fertility. Causes and potential interventions will be discussed using a simplified framework on the causes of maternal mortality."
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, UNICEF, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Primary Health Care, P.O. Box 168, Ukunda, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30236 Bohm, Karin. Causes of death in 1989. [Sterbefalle 1989 nach Todesuraschen.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 1, Jan 1991. 49-53 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Information is presented on causes of death in West Germany in 1989, together with comparative data for earlier years since 1970. Special attention is given to suicide, including differences by sex, age, and type of method used. Statistics on suicide in East Germany are also provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30237 Cheuvart, B.; Ryan, L. Adjusting for age-related competing mortality in long-term cancer clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan 1991. 65-77 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Mortality related to causes other than the treated disease may have a significant impact on overall survival in long-term clinical trials. We present a model that adjusts for age-related competing mortality when cause of death is missing or only partially available. Through use of a piecewise exponential survival model, we extend relative survival methods to continuous follow-up data, allowing the competing mortality to differ from that of the general population by a scale parameter....Theoretical results are confirmed by simulations and illustrated with data from a clinical trial in colorectal cancer. This example also shows how age-related and disease-related mortality can be confounded in an analysis of overall survival. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the model."
Correspondence: B. Cheuvart, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30238 El-Haffez, Ghada. Maternal mortality in the Islamic countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. Population Sciences, Vol. 9, Jul 1990. 63-8 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
A program to reduce maternal mortality in the Islamic countries of the eastern Mediterranean region is discussed. "The paper advocates more emphasis on maternal health, women's participation in promotion of reproductive health, elimination of harmful practices, increase in female literacy, [and] underscores training and support for TBAs [traditional birth assistants] to assist safe delivery."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30239 Gage, Timothy B. Causes of death and the components of mortality: testing the biological interpretations of a competing hazards model. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1991. 289-300 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Biological interpretations of a competing hazards model intended to express the age pattern of mortality throughout the life span are evaluated using cause of death data. The model examined is the Siler model, which consists of three competing hazards, immature, residual, and senescent. The data employed are the worldwide sample of life tables and decremented life tables, that is, life tables with a cause of death eliminated, assembled by Preston et al....The results indicate that causes of death are accounted for by the model in a manner consistent with the biological interpretations of the hazard functions....It is concluded that the Siler model is a useful framework for studying historical and/or cross-national trends in mortality."
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30240 Garenne, Michel; Aaby, Peter. Pattern of exposure and measles mortality in Senegal. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 161, No. 6, Jun 1990. 1,088-94 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The present study was undertaken in a rural area of Senegal with the objective of studying variations in exposure and their impact on [acute measles] mortality. Two hypotheses were tested among secondary cases in a compound: (1) the closer the contact between a secondary case and its infection source case, the higher the mortality of the secondary case (more intense exposure) and (2) the more severe the infection of the infecting source case, the higher the mortality of the secondary case (more severe exposure), whether the infecting source case was itself index or secondary within the household." It is found that "differences in exposure may be a major determinant of child survival, both at time of acute disease and for the long term impact of measles infection."
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Harvard School of Public Health, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30241 Gazerro, Maria-Luisa; Secco, Giacomo; Corich, Beatrice; Inelmen, Emine-Meral. Geographical inequalities in cancer mortality in the metropolitan area of Venice-Padua. [Les inegalites geographiques de la mortalite par cancer dans l'aire metropolitaine Venise-Padoue.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 541-52 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Cancer mortality in the Italian region of Venice-Padua is examined. Differences among subregions by social and economic characteristics are discussed.
Correspondence: M.-L. Gazerro, Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Geografia, Via del Santo 26, 35123 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30242 Greenstreet, Miranda. Education and reproductive choices in Ghana: gender issues in population policy. Development, No. 1, 1990. 40-7 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The author makes the case for the development of adequate antenatal delivery care and family planning programs in order to reduce levels of maternal mortality, using the example of Ghana.
Correspondence: M. Greenstreet, University of Ghana, Institute of Adult Education, POB 25, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:30243 Hahn, Robert A.; Teutsch, Steven M.; Rothenberg, Richard B.; Marks, James S. Excess deaths from nine chronic diseases in the United States, 1986. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 264, No. 20, Nov 28, 1990. 2,654-9 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"To assess the extent of preventable, excess mortality from nine chronic diseases in the United States and Washington, DC, in 1986, we compared three measures of excess mortality: two measures of lowest achieved mortality and one measure of risk-eliminated mortality. To examine the effect of lowered mortality rates of the nine diseases, we compared mortality rates with life expectancy at birth in each state. Large differences among state rates of mortality from the nine diseases combined and large differences between state rates and lowest achieved and risk-eliminated mortality rate minima indicate that state mortality rates from the nine diseases might be substantially lowered and longevity increased."
Correspondence: R. A. Hahn, Centers for Disease Control, Mailstop G-34, Division of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30244 Jougla, Eric; Hatton, Francoise; Letoullec, Alain; Michel, Eliane. Geographical disparities in AIDS mortality in France. [Disparites geographiques de la mortalite par SIDA en France.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 533-40 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Geographical distribution of AIDS mortality in France has been studied on the basis of the national cause-of-death statistics period 1983-1989. AIDS mortality is very unequally distributed with two regions particularly affected (Paris region and PACA) [Provence-Alpes-Cotes d'Azur] and, inside these regions, two areas...stand out with especially high death rates: inner Paris and the department of Alpes-Maritimes....The dramatic increase of AIDS mortality in the period 1985-1986 has affected many regions but the trend since 1987 has varied between regions. Socio-demographic characteristics of deaths varied between [regions]."
Correspondence: E. Jougla, INSERM, SC8, 44 Chemin de Ronde, BP 34, Le Vesinet, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30245 Kawachi, Ichiro; Marshall, Stephen; Pearce, Neil. Social class inequalities in the decline of coronary heart disease among New Zealand men, 1975-1977 to 1985-1987. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1991. 393-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) among men of different social classes in New Zealand. "In 1975-1977, a gradient across social class was observed for both CHD and cerebrovascular disease mortality, with the lowest social classes experiencing the highest mortality. This study has now been repeated for the period 1985-1987....The overall age-standardized mortality rate from CHD declined over the ten-year period....Over the same period, however, the social class gradient for coronary mortality actually increased."
Correspondence: I. Kawachi, Wellington School of Medicine, Department of Community Health, P.O. Box 7343, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30246 Kidane, Asmerom. Mortality estimates of the 1984-1985 Ethiopian famine. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1990. 281-6 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In an attempt to estimate the magnitude of deaths due to the 1984-85 famine in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted among the resettled famine victims....The results suggest that as much as 700,000 excess deaths might have occurred...." Regional variations are noted as well as prefamine socioeconomic differentials among households. Differences in socioeconomic status did not affect mortality.
Correspondence: A. Kidane, University of Addis Ababa, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30247 LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lang, Janet; Scheer, Paul; Wallace, Robert B.; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan; Berkman, Lisa; Curb, J. David; Evans, Denis; Hennekens, Charles H. Smoking and mortality among older men and women in three communities. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 324, No. 23, Jun 6, 1991. 1,619-25 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors examine the claim that there is no relationship between smoking and mortality among the elderly. They investigate "the relation of cigarette-smoking habits with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular causes, and cancer among 7,178 persons 65 years of age or older without a history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer who lived in one of three communities: East Boston, Massachusetts; Iowa and Washington counties, Iowa; and New Haven, Connecticut....In both sexes, rates of total mortality among current smokers were twice what they were among participants who had never smoked....Our prospective findings indicate that the mortality hazards of smoking extend well into later life, and suggest that cessation will continue to improve life expectancy in older people."
Correspondence: A. Z. LaCroix, Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, 1730 Minor Avenue, Suite 1600, Seattle, WA 98101-1448. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30248 Lage Davila, Agustin; Pardo Balmaseda, Nereida. Variables associated with the cancer mortality rate: a multiple regression analysis. [Variables relacionadas con la tasa de mortalidad por cancer: analisis por regresion multiple.] Revista Cubana de Salud Publica, Vol. 16, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1990. 139-49 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The preliminary impact of a national program adopted in 1986 in Cuba to reduce mortality from cancer is assessed. "This paper evaluates 19 variables for their correlation with the adjusted mortality rate. Three indicators: smoking, late diagnosis of breast cancer, and late diagnosis of prostatic cancer showed an association with the mortality rate. With them, a discriminant function that explains 44% of the variance of the adjusted mortality rate may be constructed."
Correspondence: A. Lage Davila, Instituto Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, Calle 29 y E, Vedado, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30249 Larcher, Pierre. Suicide in Beauce. [Le suicide en Beauce.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 573-6 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Suicide rates in Beauce, France, are discussed. Special consideration is given to the region's socioeconomic environment as a determinant.
Correspondence: P. Larcher, Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Service de la Valise, 37 quai d'Orsay, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30250 Loomis, Dana P. Occupation, industry, and fatal motor vehicle crashes in 20 states, 1986-1987. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 6, Jun 1991. 733-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To describe the occurrence of fatal motor vehicle crashes in the working-age population, a case-control study was conducted among persons 15-64 years old who died in 1986 or 1987 in any of 20 states [in the United States] reporting death certificate occupational data to the National Center for Health Statistics....Transportation-related occupations had more than the expected number of deaths for men...and women...as did managerial occupations...."
Correspondence: D. P. Loomis, University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, CB 7400, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30251 McCormick, Anna. Excess mortality associated with the HIV epidemic in England and Wales. British Medical Journal, Vol. 302, No. 6789, Jun 8, 1991. 1,375-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines excess mortality in England and Wales in relation to the HIV epidemic. The need for more accurate diagnosis and more complete reporting if the full extent of the epidemic is to be identified is noted.
Correspondence: A. McCormick, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30252 Menotti, A.; Keys, A.; Kromhout, D.; Nissinen, A.; Blackburn, H.; Fidanza, F.; Giampaoli, S.; Karvonen, M.; Pekkanen, J.; Punsar, S.; Seccareccia, F. All cause mortality and its determinants in middle aged men in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy in a 25 year follow up. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jun 1991. 125-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Results are presented from a 25-year study on mortality by all causes, which was conducted among five cohorts of men aged 40-59 years in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. "All cause mortality was highest in Finland...and lower in The Netherlands...and in Italy....The solutions of the multiple logistic function showed the significant and almost universal predictive role of certain factors, with rare exceptions. These were age, blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and arm circumference (the latter with a negative relationship)."
Correspondence: A. Menotti, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30253 Mesle, France. Geographical variations in mortality due to alcoholism: evolution between 1962 and 1982. [Geographie de la mortalite liee a l'alcoolisme: evolution 1962-1982.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 521-31 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in alcohol-related deaths in France from 1962 to 1982 are analyzed. Regional disparities and patterns at the national level are discussed.
Correspondence: F. Mesle, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30254 Motohashi, Y. Effects of socioeconomic factors on secular trends in suicide in Japan, 1953-86. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1991. 221-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Socioeconomic factors affecting suicide in Japan during the period 1953-1986 are analyzed. Changes over time by age and sex are identified, particularly in relation to changes in economic conditions and employment trends.
Correspondence: Y. Motohashi, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Department of Public Health, 5-45 Yushima 1-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30255 Ogunniyi, S. O.; Makinde, O. O.; Dare, F. O. Abortion-related deaths in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: a 12-year review. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1990. 271-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Cases of death due to abortions at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between January 1977 and September 1988 were reviewed. Abortion accounted for 12.5% of the maternal deaths and the majority (88.9%) were from illegal abortions. The majority (92.6%) of the patients were of low educational status. Both married women and single girls were involved."
Correspondence: S. O. Ogunniyi, Obafemi Awolowo University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perinatology, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30256 Rao, Keqin; Zhou, Youshang. A study of the pattern of deaths by diseases in major Chinese cities. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 181-97 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In research in recent years, the co-authors of this article have discovered that changes in PDD [patterns of disease and death] in urban and rural areas [in China] follow to a large degree an identical pattern except for a difference in the timing of these changes (approximately 5 to 10 years). This study is based on statistics obtained in 14 cities with a population of more than one million, complete registration systems and higher data reliability. It is intended to ascertain how the pattern of deaths by diseases changes, and to predict the tendency of such changes through dynamic research on such patterns in those cities." The authors analyze changes in specific causes of death and their impact on life expectancy in China.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30257 Relethford, John H.; Mahoney, Martin C. Relationship between population density and rates of injury mortality in New York State (exclusive of New York City), 1978-1982. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1991. 111-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The relationship between population density and rates of mortality from unintentional and intentional injuries is examined using mortality data from New York State (exclusive of New York City), 1978-1982. Records for 26,118 individuals with an underlying cause of death due to injury were assigned to population density quintiles based on residence of decedent at time of death. Mortality rates for each population density quintile were examined separately by sex and for 11 causes of injury death. Overall, injury mortality is highest in the most rural and most urban populations....The relationships observed here between injury mortality and population density are most likely due to concomitant variation with aspects of the physical and cultural environments, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and individual risk behaviors."
Correspondence: J. H. Relethford, New York State Department of Health, Injury Control Program, Tower Building Room 621, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12237. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30258 Shakhanina, I. L.; Ivlieva, O. M.; Narkevich, M. I. Mortality caused by infectious diseases in the USSR. [Smertnost' ot infektsionnykh boleznei v SSSR.] Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii, No. 8, 1990. 53-7 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"In recent decades infectious and parasitic diseases....constitute 2-3% of causes in the total morbidity structures in the USSR. The main causes of death among diseases...are tuberculosis (37%), acute enteric infections (30%), septicemia (11%), viral hepatitides (11%), meningococcal infection (4%), measles (2%). The main groups [affected] are children aged up to 2 years...."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30259 Sigfusson, Nikulas; Sigvaldason, Helgi; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Gudmundsdottir, Inga I.; Stefansdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Sigurdsson, Gunnar. Decline in ischaemic heart disease in Iceland and change in risk factor levels. British Medical Journal, Vol. 302, No. 6789, Jun 8, 1991. 1,371-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in mortality and morbidity due to ischemic heart disease in Iceland are analyzed over the period 1951-1988 using official data concerning Reykjavik, the capital city. The results show a significant decline in mortality from this cause over time, due primarily to a decreased incidence of myocardial infarction. The authors attribute this decline to a reduction in risk factors, including smoking, cholesterol, and blood pressure.
Correspondence: G. Sigurdsson, Reykjavik City Hospital, Department of Medicine, 108 Reykjavik, Iceland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:30260 Sutherland, John E.; Persky, Victoria W.; Brody, Jacob A. Proportionate mortality trends: 1950 through 1986. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 264, No. 24, Dec 26, 1990. 3,178-84 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article focuses on mortality trends in the United States from 1950 through 1986, with an emphasis on time trends in proportionate mortality of the six leading causes of death, comparing data from 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1986. We analyzed mortality data for the six leading causes of death--heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, injuries, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), and pneumonia and influenza--as well as mortality from perinatal conditions, since perinatal conditions had been among six leading conditions prior to 1970. This article also describes time trends in mortality rates within subcategories of heart disease and malignant neoplasms, together with the impact of coding changes on subtypes of heart disease."
Correspondence: J. E. Sutherland, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Department of Family Practice, PO Box 19230, Springfield, IL 62794-9230. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:30261 Thouez, Jean-Pierre; Joly, Marie-France; Bussiere, Yves; Bourbeau, Robert; Rannou, Andre. Geography of mortality by road accidents in Quebec, 1983-1988. [La geographie de la mortalite par accident de la route au Quebec, 1983-1988.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1990. 553-64 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality due to traffic accidents in Quebec, Canada, is studied. Risk factors and geographic distribution of the rate of such accidents are described. Data are from the Car Insurance Company of Quebec and concern the period 1983-1988.
Correspondence: J.-P. Thouez, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Geographie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30262 Winikoff, Beverly; Carignan, Charles; Bernardik, Elizabeth; Semeraro, Patricia. Medical services to save mothers' lives: feasible approaches to reducing maternal mortality. Programs Division Working Paper, No. 4, Mar 1991. 58 pp. Population Council, Programs Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper starts from the premise that many maternal deaths are not avoidable by traditional preventive health care that is, the availability of family planning programs to reduce unwanted pregnancies and good prenatal care to improve general health and nutritional status. The problem addressed here is that, in order to save a maximum number of mothers' lives, good quality medical services need to be available when emergencies leading to death are most likely to occur--near the time of labor and delivery. The organization of such maternity care and the content of the services to be offered are discussed in this paper....[The author focuses on] possible interventions to avoid each of the five major contributors to maternal mortality: hemorrhage, infection, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labor, and complications of poorly performed abortions." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.