Volume 57 - Number 3 - Fall 1991

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

57:30037 Korcelli, Piotr; Potrykowska, Alina. Redistribution of the elderly population in Poland: regional and rural-urban dimensions. Geographia Polonica, No. 54, 1988. 121-38 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The present paper looks into spatial patterns of the elderly population and the recent configurations of elderly migration in Poland....Compared with other countries in Europe, the ageing of the population of Poland is neither very advanced nor particularly rapid. However, spatial concentration of the elderly population, as well as specific patterns of its redistribution, generate a number of policy issues on the regional and local level. Such problems range from the provision of specialized services to the maintenance of housing and the utilization of farmland."
Correspondence: P. Korcelli, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

57:30038 Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. The process of urbanization in Africa (from the origins to the beginning of independence). African Studies Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, Apr 1991. 1-98 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is a review of the history of urbanization in Africa based on the published literature. The author first attempts to clarify the definitions, concepts, and theories that have been used in the study of African urbanization. Next, she divides the urbanization that has occurred into identifiable periods. In the third and final section, she examines the forms of urban change that have occurred since the end of the nineteenth century.
Correspondence: C. Coquery-Vidrovitch, Universite de Paris VII, 2 Place Jussieu, 75221 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:30039 Cui, Gong-hao. The processes, characteristics and tendencies of urban development in China. GeoJournal, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, May-Jun 1990. 25-32 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Urban spatial distribution in China since 1949 is discussed. The effects of national policies, development planning, and economic development on urban growth are considered.
Correspondence: G.-h. Cui, Nanjing University, Department of Geo- and Ocean-Sciences, 11 Hankou Road, Nanjing, China. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:30040 Geyer, Hermanus S. Implications of differential urbanization on deconcentration in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area, South Africa. Geoforum, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1990. 385-96 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Population migration and differences in urbanization patterns in South Africa are examined. "Indications are that the Blacks--a low-income group--are increasing proportionally, while the Whites--the highest-income group--are diminishing proportionally in the inner core zone of the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal Triangle metropolitan area (PWV), and vice versa in the other zones....Study results presented in this paper reiterate [inadequacies of government policies] and stress the need for changes in the present official spatial policy for the PWV."
Correspondence: H. S. Geyer, University of Potchefstroom, Department of Town and Regional Planning, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:30041 Ginatempo, Maria; Sandri, Lucia. The Italy of the cities: urban populations from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance (thirteenth to sixteenth century). [L'Italia delle citta: il popolamento urbano tra Medioevo e Rinascimento (secoli XIII-XVI).] ISBN 88-7166-011-0. 1990. 292 pp. Le Lettere: Florence, Italy. In Ita.
This is a demographic history of urbanization in Italy from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. Three periods in the demographic development of Italian cities are identified: rapid growth during the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries; the demographic crisis of the early fifteenth century; and the period of relative stability beginning in the early sixteenth century. Much of the emphasis is on regional differences in urban population trends.
Correspondence: Casa Editrice Le Lettere, Costa S. Giorgio 28, 50125 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30042 Granasztoi, Gyorgy. Urbanization of the Danube region (from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century). [A dunai terseg varosodasa (XVI-XVIII. szazad).] Demografia, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, 1989. 157-87 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines urbanization in the Danube region of Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary from 1500 to 1828. Citing the rise of Vienna and the dominance of a few large cities, he notes the contrasts between these urban areas and the region's small towns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30043 Mironov, B. N. Russian cities 1740-1860: demographic, social, and economic development. [Russkii gorod v 1740-1860e gody: demograficheskoe, sotsial'noe i ekonomicheskoe razvitie.] ISBN 5-02-027273-6. 1990. 272 pp. Nauka: Leningrad, USSR. In Rus.
The demographic, social, and economic development of Russian cities from 1740 to 1860 is studied. Aspects considered include changes in urban population size; demographic processes in Russian cities; the social structure and social mobility of the Russian urban population; and the development of the urban economy and changes in the structure of urban employment. The impact of a decline in the percentage of agrarian cities and of increased trade and currency relations is analyzed. Differences in the tempo of urbanization in Russia and in Western Europe are also noted.
Correspondence: Nauka, Leningradskoe Otdelenie, Mendeleevskaya Liniya 1, B-34, 199034 Leningrad, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:30044 Mironov, Boris. Russian cities between West and East (1750-1850). [Les villes de Russie entre l'occident et l'orient (1750-1850).] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 705-33, 758 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Urbanization trends in Russia from 1750 to 1850 are reviewed. The author notes that the pace of urbanization declined over this period, in contrast to trends in Europe. This is explained by the nature of Russian industrialization, which occurred later in Russia and was more diffused in that it occurred in the countryside as well as in the cities. The article is translated from the original Russian.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30045 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Urbanization and spatial distribution of cities and the population in Morocco. [Urbanisation et repartition spatiale des villes et de la population au Maroc.] May 1991. 75, [5] pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Urbanization trends in Morocco are analyzed based primarily on data from censuses of 1960, 1971, and 1982. Chapters are included on the changing definition of urban areas over time; urban trends in large, medium-sized, and small towns; and differences in spatial distribution within cities and in the geographical distribution of urban areas.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30046 Muscara, Calogero. Italian urban geography: counterurbanization versus peripheral development. Urban Geography, Vol. 12, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 363-80 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the second in a planned series of three articles presenting an overview of Italian urban geography since World War II. It is translated from the original Italian.
Correspondence: C. Muscara, Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Pianificazione Territoriale e Urbanistica, 00192 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:30047 Poston, Dudley L.; Gu, Baochang. China's super-large cities: dominance and integration. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 199-207 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is mainly intended to survey the ecological structure, particularly the dominance and integration [of economic development], of 20 super-large cities in China. Most of the statistics used in this study come from the China Statistical Yearbook (1984), according to which all the 20 cities have a population of more than two million."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Cornell University, Department of Sociology, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30048 Pumain, Denise; Faur, Jean-Paul. Cities and regions in the European context. [Villes et regions au rendez-vous de l'Europe.] Population et Societes, No. 257, May 1991. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in urbanization in France are analyzed using data from the 1990 census. The authors identify two main trends: a general shift of population toward the major agglomerations coupled with a lowering of the population density in the most crowded urban areas.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30049 Pytel-Tafel, Ewa. Migration as a factor differentiating demographic structure of Polish towns. Geographia Polonica, No. 54, 1988. 109-120 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The author analyzes the major demographic differences among 803 towns in Poland in 1977. Emphasis is on the effects of migration.
Correspondence: E. Pytel-Tafel, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:30050 Shukla, Vibhooti; Berry, Brian J. L. The pace of Indian urbanization. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 23, No. 3, Jul 1991. 185-209 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
The authors apply a simple, supply driven model of urbanization in developing countries to Indian data for the period 1951-1981. "A modified version, adjusted for inter-regional migration, is then simulated for individual Indian states; the exercise confirms actual urban growth during 1971-81 to have been generally below that predicted by Tolley's model. Tolley's assumptions then are tested through an examination of the relationship between urban growth rates and translog indexes of intertemporal productivity growth. Finally, exploratory analysis of Tolley-model deviations in the various states is used to suggest directions for extending urban growth formulations for India. [The paper concludes] with a normative examination of policy implications."
Correspondence: V. Shukla, University of Texas at Dallas, School of Social Sciences, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:30051 Sjoberg, Orjan. Urban Albania: developments 1965-1987. In: Albanien im Umbruch. Eine Bestandsaufnahme, edited by Franz-Lothar Altmann. Untersuchungen zur Gegenwartskunde Sudosteuropas, No. 28, 1990. 170-223 pp. Oldenbourg Verlag: Munich, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This contribution sets out to describe Albania's urban system and its constituent parts during the past two decades, the objective being to provide background information and some general characteristics....The spotlight shall be on the urban sector as a whole and in relation to the total population as well as compared to the rural sector." Particular attention is paid to urban growth, urban systems and networks, and city management and urban life. An appendix is included describing the location, population, and economy of Albania's 67 towns as at March 1989.
Correspondence: O. Sjoberg, Stockholm School of Economics, Department of International Economics and Geography, P.O. Box 6501, S-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30052 Tian, Xueyuan. Reform and more flexible policies promote urbanization. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1989. 275-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Determinants of and patterns in urbanization in China are analyzed. The impact of government economic policies on the population structures of urban centers and their surrounding townships is explored, with a focus on the rapid population growth that occurred in these areas during the 1980s.
Correspondence: X. Tian, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Research, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30053 van der Woude, Ad; Hayami, Akira; de Vries, Jan. Urbanization in history: a process of dynamic interactions. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828679-1. LC 89-70901. 1990. xiv, 371 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume is the product of a seminar held in 1986 in Tokyo, Japan, on urbanization and population dynamics in history, organized by IUSSP's Committee on Historical Demography. It contains 19 papers by various authors selected from those presented at the seminar. An introduction examines the basic concepts, processes, and measurement problems and summarizes recent research findings. "Four principal areas of contemporary research on urbanization are covered: urban hierarchies and networks, urban-rural economic links, and migration and demographic patterns. The issues are discussed both in general terms and in the context of specific countries, cities and historical periods. New areas of analysis, such as the study of migration flows by age, sex or social group, and the comparative east-west approach of several of the chapters will serve to broaden the traditional scope of research and stimulate further work in the field."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30054 Wang, Thomas Ching-Chung. Basic needs (infant mortality rate) and urbanization: a comparison of less-developed countries, 1965-1985. Pub. Order No. DA9100990. 1990. 198 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Minnesota.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(8).

57:30055 Weclawowicz, Grzegorz. Elderly people in the socio-spatial structure of some Polish towns. Geographia Polonica, No. 54, 1988. 139-49 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The spatial distribution of the elderly in selected towns in Poland is analyzed. Data are from the national census and primarily concern the years 1970 and 1978.
Correspondence: G. Weclawowicz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:30056 Yan, Xiaopei. The spatial dimension of Chinese urbanization. GeoJournal, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, May-Jun 1990. 13-23 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on four interrelated aspects of the spatial dimension of city development [in China]. Attention is paid initially to the basic geography of urbanization, before turning to an analysis of recent trends in the pattern of urbanization. Spatial biases throughout the present-day hierarchy are then investigated and, finally, the relationships between urbanization patterns and economic planning belts are considered."
Correspondence: X. Yan, Southwest China Teachers University, Department of Geography, Chongqing, China. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:30057 Yin, Wenyao. An approach to the relationship between the distribution of city population size and social economic efficiency. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1990. 37-49 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between urban population size and the socioeconomic efficiency of urbanization for small, medium, and large cities in China. The moderate and optimum distributions of population in urban areas are estimated.
Correspondence: W. Yin, Liaoning University, Population Research Institute, Shenyang, Liaoning, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

57:30058 Guillaume, Jacques; Soumagne, Jean. Population and rural societies in western and central-western France: socioeconomic inertia and transformation. [Populations et societes rurales dans l'ouest et le centre-ouest francais: inerties et mutations socio-economiques.] Travaux de Centre de Geographie Humaine et Sociale, Jul 1989. 143 pp. Universite de Poitiers, Centre de Geographie Humaine et Sociale: Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is the second of two volumes presenting the proceedings of a conference held in Poitiers, France, in March 1988, in honor of Jean Pitie. The 13 papers included in this volume are grouped under the topics of inheritances, rural and agricultural transformations, and comparative studies. The geographical focus is on France, with comparative studies concerning Germany and China.
For the first volume of these proceedings, published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Universite de Poitiers, Centre de Geographie Humaine et Sociale, 95 avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86000 Poitiers, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30059 Guillaume, Jacques; Soumagne, Jean. Population and rural societies in western and central-western France: the geo-demography of the countryside. [Populations et societes rurales dans l'ouest et le centre-ouest francais: geo-demographie des campagnes.] Norois, Vol. 35, No. 140, Oct-Dec 1988. [142] pp. Universite de Poitiers, Centre de Geographie Humaine et Sociale: Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is the first of two volumes presenting the proceedings of a conference held in Poitiers, France, in March 1988, in honor of Jean Pitie. The focus of the 11 papers included in this volume is on demographic trends in rural western France. The papers examine historical as well as current trends and concern topics such as demographic aging and migration.
For the second volume of these proceedings, published in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Universite de Poitiers, Centre de Geographie Humaine et Sociale, 95 avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86000 Poitiers, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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