Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

57:20582 Balaci, M.; Copil, I. M.; Ghenciu, G.; Arcan, V. M.; Dinu, Liliana. Statistico-demographic investigations on the longevity of the Romanian population. II. Longevity and the process of demographic aging. Romanian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1990. 145-55 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Rum.
This is the second part of a two-part paper concerning longevity in Romania. In this part the authors examine "the extent to which levels of longevity reached in the Romanian counties over the period 1966 and 1968 were the result of...demographic aging; to this aim the nature and intensity of the relationship between the dynamics of longevity and demographic aging indices by county, sex and social background [were] correlatively analysed."
Part I of this paper is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Balaci, National Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20583 Balaci, M.; Copil, I. M.; Ghenciu, G.; Arcan, V. M.; Dinu, Liliana. Statistico-demographic studies on the [aged] population in Romania. I. Trends, specific features, territorial distribution. Romanian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1990. 45-64 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Rum.
This is the first part of a two-part paper concerning longevity in Romania. The population structure is described by sex, age, and geographical location for the years 1966 and 1988. The focus is on describing characteristics of the aged over 60 and the aged over 85. Data are from official sources.
Part II of this paper is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Balaci, National Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20584 Capocaccia, Riccardo; Caselli, Graziella. The resident population of the provinces of Italy by age and sex, 1972-1981. [Popolazione residente per eta e sesso nelle province italiane, anni 1972-1981.] Fonti e Strumenti, No. 2, 1990. 251 pp. Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
Population estimates are provided for Italy, its regions, and provinces for individual years from 1972 to 1981 by sex and five-year age groups. Data are from official sources, including the 1981 census.
Correspondence: Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Science Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20585 Chawla, Raj. Dependency ratios. Canadian Social Trends, No. 20, Spring 1991. 3-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Population projections by age are presented for Canada to the year 2050. The author focuses on demographic aging and the resulting dependency burden. Canada's dependency ratios are compared with those of other countries for the year 1987 and are projected to 2030. Data are from Statistics Canada.
Correspondence: R. Chawla, Statistics Canada, Household Surveys Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20586 Coale, Ansley J.; Caselli, Graziella. Estimation of the number of persons at advanced ages from the number of deaths at each age in the given year and adjacent years. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1990. 1-23 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this article the rate of increase of the population at each age is estimated from the rate of increase in the number of deaths, and in this way a close approximation of the number of older persons at each age is derived from the accurately recorded number of deaths in three consecutive years centered on the year in question. The method is illustrated by applying it to Sweden, England and Wales, and Italy."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20587 Kulkarni, P. M. Measures of aging: a proposed amendment. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1988. 273-7 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
A model for the measurement of aging proposed by Alaka Basu and Kaushik Basu is evaluated and some modifications are suggested. Data for India and Japan are used to illustrate the model.
For the article by Basu and Basu, which was published in 1987 and describes the model, see 54:20663.
Correspondence: P. M. Kulkarni, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20588 Marcoux, Alain. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 29, 1990. 32-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews differential urban and rural patterns of age and sex structures of the population and labour force in developed and developing countries, their determinants, and their linkages with agricultural and rural development issues. Typical urban and rural age structures are first examined....Labour-force age structures are considered next, showing that urban/rural differentials are of a similar nature in developed and in developing countries but that distortions are more accentuated in the latter. Next, the article addresses the subject of the aging of rural labour forces in developing countries and finds little evidence of it at the country level....Finally, the economic causes and consequences of rural-to-urban migration and labour-force structure differentials are briefly reviewed...."
Correspondence: A. Marcoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Population Programme, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 1-00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20589 Mitra, S. Long term demographic effect of a constant stream of immigration when the population is not reproducing itself. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1990. 497-508 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author describes the use of a model to investigate "the age composition of the stationary population resulting from a condition of below replacement fertility and a continuous stream of immigrants, the size of which for any age remain invariant over time....We have shown that the number dying among [migrants] is the same as the number of them entering over any time interval, and that is precisely how their stationarity is maintained." The geographical focus is on developed countries that are experiencing below-replacement fertility levels.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20590 Pilant, Michael; Rundell, William. Determining the initial age distribution for an age structured population. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 3-20 pp. Reading, England. In Eng.
"This paper deals with an inverse problem in age-structured population dynamics; the recovery of an unknown initial age distribution. We attempt to recover this function from overposed data which consists of either the total population over a time interval equal to the maximum life span of the species or the age structure of the population at a fixed later time. Existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence of the initial distribution function on the data are addressed. Some numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the feasibility of recovery using the methods of the paper."
Correspondence: M. Pilant, Texas A and M University, Department of Mathematics, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20591 Russell, Cheryl. On the baby-boom bandwagon. American Demographics, Vol. 13, No. 5, May 1991. 24-7, 30-1 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
An analysis of the baby boom generation in the United States is presented. This cohort now heads 44 percent of the nation's households; 60 percent of these households include children under the age of 18. The discussion includes data concerning age distribution of heads of households, marital status, family size, home ownership, and income. It is based on the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey of March 1990.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20592 Sadhu, Kanan K. Age and sex composition of a slum population of Delhi. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 3, Mar 1989. 46-50 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The age and sex composition of a slum in Delhi, India, is examined. The author emphasizes the role migration plays in determining the demographic structure of this low-income population.
Correspondence: K. K. Sadhu, C-2/2B, Lawrence Road, New Delhi 110 035, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20593 Taeuber, Cynthia M. Statistical handbook on women in America. ISBN 0-89774-609-0. LC 90-41624. 1991. xvii, 385 pp. Oryx Press: Phoenix, Arizona. In Eng.
"This statistical handbook illustrates in detail changes in American women among different generations. It reports their numbers, characteristics, socio-economic conditions, employment and education status, health aspects, and the possibilities for their future." The data for the 437 statistical charts and tables included are reproduced from U.S. federal government publications. The most recent data are for March 1990, and they are presented in historical context where possible.
Correspondence: Oryx Press, 4041 N. Central at Indian School Road, Phoenix, AZ 85012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20594 Young, Christabel. How serious is the ageing problem and what can be done about it? Working Papers in Demography, No. 18, 1990. 27 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Current and projected trends in demographic aging in Australia are analyzed. Separate consideration is given to the long-term influence of the baby-boom cohort, the proportion of the population that is elderly, fertility, limits to population growth, and the proportions of the population that are young and of working age. Some policy recommendations are made, and the need to maintain replacement-level fertility is stressed.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20595 Yu, Ting. Age structure transition of China's population: regional differentials and implications for development policy. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1990. 17-34 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article discusses why age structure transition is an important dimension of population to be considered in national development strategy. Further, it compares the process of age structure transition of China's population with the experience of other Asian countries. It shows regional differentials of age structure transition within China and discusses resulting policy issues."
Correspondence: T. Yu, University of Hawaii, Department of Geography, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20596 Yu, Yeun-chung. The demography of disability. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 30, 1991. 61-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines selected demographic characteristics of disabled persons. It analyses the general levels of disablement in various countries and compares their age and sex compositions. Since variations in methods of data collection and classification among countries have contributed greatly to the differences in the measurement of levels of disablement, this paper discusses the need for common approaches to collection, classification, tabulation and analysis so as to improve understanding of the issues of disability."
Correspondence: Y.-c. Yu, U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Demographic and Social Statistics Branch, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

57:20597 Kislyi, A. E. Correlation of the sex ratio: economic needs and traditions. [Sootnoshenie chislennosti polov: ekonomicheskie potrebnosti i traditsii.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 14, 1990. 119-31 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Ukr.
"Reasons [for] sex disproportions [among the] mature population are studied as based on archeological, ethnographical and other sources." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20598 Mayer, Peter J. Inheritance of longevity evinces no secular trend among members of six New England families born 1650-1874. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 49-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study investigated the historical trend in resemblance between first-degree relatives for age at death. Data from genealogies of six New England families (N = 13,656) were divided into nine 25 year birth cohorts, 1650-1874, to test the hypothesis that familial influence on human longevity has changed during the past 300 years....[The] results support a genetic component to lifespan even though the majority of variation in human longevity is not explained by genetic factors."
Correspondence: P. J. Mayer, State University of New York, Health Science Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brooklyn, NY 11203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20599 Ness, Roberta. Adiposity and age of menarche in Hispanic women. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 41-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present study examined relationships between several anthropometric data and age at menarche in 2,494 women aged 25 to 74 years from the [U.S.] Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Early menarche was similarly related to adiposity as measured by body mass index....These analyses describe the relationship between early maturation and overall adiposity in three distinct Hispanic groups and reject a specific association between menarche and central body fat distribution."
Correspondence: R. Ness, H.U.P., Emergency Department, Ground Floor, Silverstein, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20600 Oberg, Sture. Spatial mapping of sex ratios. Popnet, No. 18, Fall 1990. 5-10 pp. Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author describes the use of a computer mapping process, the overlapping reference areas technique, to produce maps depicting the geographical distribution of sex ratios in Sweden using official data. Factors affecting sex ratios are discussed, including life expectancy, sex ratio at birth, trends in household formation, and geographic imbalances.
Correspondence: S. Oberg, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20601 Rodrigues de Areia, M. L. On explaining biased sex ratios in human populations. Current Anthropology, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1990. 186-7 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent article by Daniela F. Sieff concerning the causes of biased sex ratios in human populations. Attention is given to the reliability of the available data on which calculations of sex ratio are based. Observations on the Portuguese historical experience are also included.
For the article by Sieff, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. L. Rodrigues de Areia, Universidade de Coimbra, Instituto de Antropologia, Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20602 Sieff, Daniela F. Explaining biased sex ratios in human populations: a critique of recent studies. Current Anthropology, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1990. 25-48 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Recent studies attempting to test evolutionary explanations of biased sex ratios in human populations are here critically reviewed. It is suggested that closer attention to a broad range of ecological and social factors that may affect differential investment in sons and daughters might contribute to better evolutionary understanding of the patterns observed." The geographical focus of the study is worldwide.
Correspondence: D. F. Sieff, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: New York Public Library.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

57:20603 Abeysinghe, Tilak. On testing Easterlin's hypothesis using relative cohort size as a proxy for relative income: an analysis of Canadian data. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1991. 53-69 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Measures of Canadian fertility (total fertility rate and fifteen-year age-specific fertility rate...) and relative cohort size (population aged 30-64 years divided by population aged 15-29 years) show a close co-movement between 1940 and 1976 but record a marked departure since then. The application of cointegration techniques to these series (1921-1988) shows that they do not form an equilibrium relationship even over the period 1940-1976. Contrary to the expected relationship between relative cohort size and relative income, income data by age groups show that there is no tight relationship between them. The absence of an equilibrium relationship between relative cohort size and fertility, therefore, does not necessarily imply that Easterlin's hypothesis is false."
Correspondence: T. Abeysinghe, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20604 Al-Qudsi, Sulayman S.; Shah, Nasra M. The relative economic progress of male foreign workers in Kuwait. International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1991. 141-66 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"A human capital framework is utilized to examine the economic progress of nine nationality groups of foreign workers [in Kuwait] using data from the 1983 national Labor Survey. The sources of earnings' variations of particular interest to us included different degrees of education and experience transferability, occupational affiliation and ethnic background. In general, the results derived from the analysis suggest that 1) foreign workers achieve a discernible economic progress as their residence lengthens; 2) the rate of economic progress varies depending on worker's education, home and Kuwait-specific experience, occupational status and ethnic background; and 3) about one third of the earnings inequality is due to unexplained factors including discrimination."
Correspondence: S. S. Al-Qudsi, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20605 Bianchi, Suzanne; McArthur, Edith. Family disruption and economic hardship: the short-run picture for children. Current Population Reports, Series P-70: Household Economic Studies, No. 23, Jan 1991. iv, 32 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study augments existing research on the relationship between family structure and the economic well-being of children by focusing on the immediate repercussions of a parental departure from the household. Three questions are addressed: What happens to household income at the time a father leaves the household and in subsequent months? To what extent is the income loss associated with the departure of a father alleviated by either public assistance or child support payments from the absent parent? What changes occur in the labor force participation of the mother?" The data concern the United States and are from the 1984 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20606 Butcher, Kristin F.; Card, David. Immigration and wages: evidence from the 1980's. American Economic Review, Vol. 81, No. 2, May 1991. 292-6 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper presents new evidence on the effects of immigration, based on changes in the distributions of wages in 24 major [U.S.] cities during the 1980's....We...concentrate on measuring the effects of immigration at the lower tail of the wage distribution. In particular, we ask whether recent declines in the real earnings of the least-skilled workers in the U.S. economy are related to immigration. Our empirical analysis reveals large differences across cities in the relative growth rates of wages for low- and high-paid workers. Nevertheless, these differences bear little or no relation to the size of immigrant inflows."
Correspondence: K. F. Butcher, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20607 Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo. Earnings differences among blacks in America. Social Science Research, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1991. 93-108 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
Data from the 1980 U.S. census are used to examine earnings differences among blacks. The results show that "native black males in America have earnings that are 5% higher than their foreign born counterparts....The findings are that even though foreign born blacks have better earnings-related attributes than their native counterparts, the foreign born encounter a significant cost since the [return] they receive to these earnings attributes work to their disadvantage with respect to earnings."
Correspondence: F. N.-A. Dodoo, Tulane University, 220 Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20608 Easterlin, Richard A.; Macdonald, Christine; Macunovich, Diane J. How have American baby boomers fared? Earnings and economic well-being of young adults, 1964-1987. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1990. 277-90 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The authors analyze the economic well-being of the baby boom generation in the United States, covering the period 1964-1987. "[The paper first] draws a formal analytical distinction between the labor market circumstances of the baby boomers, on the one hand, and their achieved living levels after taking account of demographic effects of labor market conditions, on the other....Second, in assessing the economic well-being of a birth cohort--baby boom or pre-baby boom--it takes account of all members of the cohort, whether or not they are in families, and, if in families, whether or not the family is headed by a member of a person's own birth cohort."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 394).
Correspondence: R. A. Easterlin, University of Southern California, Department of Economics, Los Angeles, CA 90098-0253. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20609 Horioka, Charles Y. Why is Japan's household saving rate so high? A literature survey. ISER Reprint Series, No. 150, 1990. [43] pp. Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research [ISER]: Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
"This article surveys the literature on household saving in Japan and reviews the evidence concerning the various factors that have been suggested as possible causes of Japan's high and rising household saving rate. Conceptual differences and deficiencies, the age structure of the population (especially the low proportion of the aged), the bonus system, and the rapid rate of income growth are found to be among the most important factors."
Correspondence: Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 6-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567, Japan.

57:20610 Horioka, Charles Y. Why is Japan's private saving rate so high? ISER Reprint Series, No. 145, 1989. [33] pp. Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research [ISER]: Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
The author analyzes "the determinants of inter-country differences in private saving rates...using data from the period of 1975-1984 for twenty-one OECD countries. It is found that Japan's exceptionally high private saving rate is due to the peculiarities of the age structure of its population--the much lower ratio of the aged and the somewhat lower ratio of the young. The rapid aging of the Japanese population will cause the private saving rate to decline moderately until 1989 and much more sharply thereafter, becoming negative by about the year 2012."
Correspondence: Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 6-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567, Japan.

57:20611 Jensen, Leif. Secondary earner strategies and family poverty: immigrant-native differentials, 1960-1980. International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1991. 113-40 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article studies immigrant-native differentials in the ability of secondary earners (family earners other than the family head) to lift families out of poverty. Using both descriptive and multivariate techniques to analyze the 1960, 1970 and 1980 U.S. Census Public Use Samples, it compares immigrant and native families among four key race groups: white, black, Hispanic and Asian. It is shown that the ameliorative impact of secondary earners is greater for immigrant than native families; that this generalization holds for whites, blacks and Hispanics but not Asians; and that the immigrant advantage in ameliorative effects vis-a-vis natives declined noticeably over the 1960-1980 period for all but Asian families. The implications of these results for the overall trend in poverty among immigrants is discussed."
Correspondence: L. Jensen, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20612 Lombard, Marc. An examination of income distribution in Australia, 1983-1989. School of Economic and Financial Studies Research Paper, No. 340, ISBN 0-85837-733-0. Mar 1991. 23 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
Since the Labor Government came into office in Australia in 1983, economists have noted economic changes toward "greater market freedom and the reappraisal of the values of privatisation, commercialisation, deregulation and competition....The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the above-mentioned changes have had a direct effect on income distribution in Australia....Along with the examination of income distribution in general, and the effects of taxation on higher and lower income groups, the paper also looks at the changes in the female share of national income, over the...period [1983-1989]...as well as changes in the relative shares of different types of income for high income earners."
Correspondence: Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20613 Owens, Emiel W. Poverty functions and the aged population. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1990. 57-65 pp. Bradford, England. In Eng.
This article examines trends in poverty among the elderly in the United States from two perspectives. "First, we are interested in changes that took place in the magnitude, characteristics and incidence of poverty within this sector, as a result of the functioning of the economy as well as the poverty programme during the past decade. Our second primary objective is to present analytical models of the severity of poverty and use these models to describe techniques that might be employed in evaluating ways of alleviating poverty in one category of the aged poor where it seems most acute and most intractable, i.e. aged women living alone."
Correspondence: E. W. Owens, University of Houston, 4600 Gulf Freeway, Houston, TX 77023. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20614 Rogers, Carolyn C. The economic well-being of nonmetro children. Rural Development Research Report, No. 82, Mar 1991. iv, 43 pp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report analyzes the economic well-being of [U.S.] children living in families with at least one parent present, comparing children in nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) areas with those in metropolitan (metro) areas. The primary source of data is the March 1988 income and demographic supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Several indicators of economic well-being, including the poverty status of the family, the ratio of family income to need, and the receipt of both cash assistance and noncash benefits, are examined. Demographic and family characteristics of children along with socioeconomic characteristics of their parents, are analyzed to provide a comprehensive profile of the various factors in the family environment that influence the economic realities children experience."
Correspondence: ERS-NASS, P.O. Box 1608, Rockville, MD 20849-1608. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20615 Williams, Donald R. Structural change and the aggregate poverty rate. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 1991. 323-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper measures the extent to which recent increases in the aggregate poverty rate are attributable to the changing distribution of employment across industries. We decompose the total poverty rate change over the 1976-1983 period into components attributable to changes in employment shares and changes in the incidence of poverty within industries. Our results show that the poverty rate increase resulted primarily from the decline in employment rates in general and from increases in the incidence of poverty within all industries, rather than from the shift of employment opportunities between sectors. The growth of service sector employment in particular has not contributed to the increased incidence of poverty in the United States."
Correspondence: D. R. Williams, Kent State University, Department of Economics, Kent, OH 44242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

57:20616 Myers, Dowell. Housing demography: linking demographic structure and housing markets. ISBN 0-299-12550-5. LC 90-50094. 1990. xvii, 317 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This book consists of 13 papers selected to bridge the gap between the separate analysis of population data and housing data in the United States. The approach is interdisciplinary, involving demography, economics, geography, sociology, and urban planning. A major objective of the book is theory building. The papers are grouped under three main headings: linking housing characteristics with household composition, life course and cohort models of housing choice, and housing consumption among the elderly.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin Press, 114 North Murray Street, Madison, WI 53715. Location: New York Public Library.

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

57:20617 Early, John D.; Peters, John F. The population dynamics of the Mucajai Yanomama. ISBN 0-12-227680-9. LC 89-17756. 1990. xv, 152 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This volume investigates the population dynamics of a group of Yanomama Indians, a foraging/horticultural group in northern Brazil, from their first permanent contact with representatives of the 'outer world' in 1958 to 1987....Part One...consists of three chapters which describe the Mucajai Yanomama, discuss the population dynamics of the precontact period, and give an overview of the 28-year postcontact period. In Part Two, each demographic variable (fertility, mortality, migration) is analyzed to understand its cultural antecedents as well as its magnitude and age-sex structure....Part Three...explains the change of size and age-sex structure of the Mucajai population in the postcontact period [and]...examines how the changed population structure has, in turn, affected the practice of some Yanomama cultural patterns. Part Four...concludes the analysis by comparing its results with those of other Yanomama groups."
Correspondence: Academic Press, 1250 Sixth Avenue, San Diego, CA 92101. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20618 Garcia, Jesus M.; Montgomery, Patricia A. The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1990. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 449, Mar 1991. iii, 34 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States....In addition, the report highlights changes in selected characteristics of Hispanics since 1982." Data are primarily taken from the March 1990 supplement to the Current Population Survey.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20619 Harmsen, C. N.; van der Heijdt, J.; Prins, C. J. M. Dutch residents of Surinamese and Antillean origin, January 1, 1990. [In Nederland woonachtige personen van Surinaamse en Antilliaanse origine, 1 januari 1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 4, Apr 1991. 17-26 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data on persons of Surinamese and Antillean origin living in the Netherlands are presented and analyzed. "On 1 January 1990 244 thousand persons of Surinamese origin, i.e. with Surinamese nationality, born in Suriname or one or both parent(s) born there...[and] 84 thousand persons of Antillean (including Aruba) origin resided in the Netherlands....The number of males in the population of Surinamese or Antillean origin is about the same as the number of females, which is the same as in the Netherlands as a whole. Differences appear in the age composition and marital status of the population." The spatial distribution of both groups is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20620 Maffioli, Dionisisa; Sonnino, Eugenio. Being born, getting married, and dying as a foreigner in Italy. [Nascere, sposarsi, morire stranieri in Italia.] Polis, Vol. 4, No. 1, Apr 1990. 41-69 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Some demographic characteristics of Italy's foreign-born resident population are examined using official data. "An analysis of multiple correspondences has been applied, on the one hand, to births of children with at least one foreign parent and, on the other hand, to all those born of both African parents. In the first case a number of situations have been found--concerning above all parents of different nationality and mainly regarding the high proportion of children born outside marriage and delays in the nuptial and reproductive calendar--which can be probably ascribed to the perturbations caused by immigration to family life. In the second case indications have been detected of the existence of some risks for the babies (low weight at birth, high [natal] mortality) of weaker groups of immigrants."
Correspondence: D. Maffioli, Via Brennero 44, 00141 Rome, Italy. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20621 Prins, C. J. M. Partial enumeration by nationality and country of birth, from municipal population registers, January 1, 1990. [Registertelling naar nationaliteit en geboorteland, 1 januari 1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jan 1991. 18-37 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics carried out an enumeration from municipal population registers as of January 1, 1990. Data concern municipality of residence, age, sex, marital status, country of birth, father's and mother's country of birth, and nationality. The purpose of this report is to present statistics on the characteristics and proportion of foreigners and the native-born in the Netherlands and to determine the country of origin of the nonnative population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20622 Prins, C. J. M. Residents of Turkish and Moroccan origin in the Netherlands, January 1, 1990. [In Nederland woonachtige personen van Turkse en Marokkaanse origine, 1 januari 1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 3, Mar 1991. 13-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data on persons of Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands are presented and analyzed. "On 1 January 1990 207 thousand persons of Turkish origin were living in the Netherlands....Most fathers (203 thousand) and mothers (199 thousand) were born in Turkey. The majority (185 thousand) was still Turkish national. On the other hand, one third was born in the Netherlands, thus belonging to the second generation. With respect to the Moroccan population...more or less the same conclusions apply....[although] among the Moroccan population the percentage of Dutch nationals (11%) is higher than among the Turks (7%)." Data are included concerning the age distribution and fertility of both groups.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20623 Schmelz, Uziel O.; DellaPergola, Sergio; Avner, Uri. Ethnic differences among Israeli Jews: a new look. Jewish Population Studies, No. 22, ISBN 965-222-215-1. 1991. 204 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry: Jerusalem, Israel; American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Year Book: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
Differences in ethnic characteristics among Jews living in Israel are studied. Separate sections are included on immigration, population size and structure, residential distribution, interethnic marriage, fertility, educational attainment, and voting behavior. The emphasis is on behavioral patterns among the different ethnic groups. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Hebrew University, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20624 Tamayo Lott, Juanita; Felt, Judy C. Studying the Pan Asian community. Population Today, Vol. 19, No. 4, Apr 1, 1991. 6-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines the population size, dynamics, natural increase, and income of what is described as the Pan Asian population of the United States. "This population is extremely diverse, giving rise to the term 'Pan Asian,' which encompasses immigrants from Asian and Pacific Island countries and native-born citizens descended from those ethnic groups." Data are from official U.S. sources, including the census and current population surveys.
Correspondence: J. Tamayo Lott, Tamayo Lott Associates, 717 Springloch Road, Silver Spring, MD 20904. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20625 Willems, P.; Deschamps, L.; Pauwels, K. Population totals by nationality and age as at January 1, 1988. Part 2: a selection of Flemish nationalities. [Bevolkingsaantallen naar nationaliteit en leeftijd op 1 januari 1988. Deel 2: een selectie van Vlaamse gemeeten.] CBGS Werkdocument, No. 63, 1990. 204 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Dut.
Estimates of the population of selected Flemish municipalities in Belgium for 1988 are presented. The focus is on the foreign population; the data are presented by country of origin and by age.
Correspondence: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 4 de Verdieping, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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