Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

57:20457 Bailey, Adrian J. A longitudinal analysis of the migration of young adults in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA9012124. 1989. 160 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research is an investigation of the migration of young adults in an explicitly longitudinal context. Research on migration has traditionally centered on identifying the reasons why people move. That approach is enlarged in this research by shifting the emphasis to investigations of why individuals remain at particular locations for greater or lesser intervals of residence....[A] conceptual model [is developed that] incorporates four...sources of population heterogeneity: employment factors, mobility constraints, life-cycle factors, and the acquisition of human capital. The model is constructed to emphasize the role of migration history for influencing the duration of the sojourn through these sources of population heterogeneity." The geographical focus is on the United States.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Indiana University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(12).

57:20458 Bonaguidi, Alberto. Methodology perspectives on the study of population mobility. [Prospettive metodologiche nello studio della mobilita della popolazione.] 1990. 202 pp. Pacini Editore: Pisa, Italy. In Eng; Fre; Ita.
These are the proceedings of a conference on migration held in Pisa, Italy, October 13-14, 1988. The nine papers, which are in English, French, or Italian, are divided into three topics: concepts and data, transversal and longitudinal models, and migrations and the life cycle. The geographical focus is primarily on Italy and France.
Correspondence: Pacini Editore, Via A. Gherardesca, 56014 Ospedaletto, Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20459 Duley, Chris; Rees, Phil. Incorporating migration into simulation models. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 533, [1990]. iv, 30, [14] pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"The paper describes how migration processes were incorporated in a microsimulation model of small area populations [in the United Kingdom] that can be used to update census statistics. A new conceptual framework for handling the migration of households and independent individuals is developed. The probabilities input to the microsimulation model involve eclectic use of a wide variety of data sources and familiar models of migration."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20460 Green, Nancy L. Comparative history and the case of migration studies. [L'histoire comparative et le champ des etudes migratoires.] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 45, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 1,335-50, 1,490 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article examines the methodology of comparisons and the implicit choices that are made with regard to subject, unit of comparison and level of analysis. Although comparisons can help broaden our generalizations and make historical research more scientific, as Simiand argued, the comparative method is largely dependent on the construction of the comparative project itself. Migration studies furnish a useful field for examining three different types of comparative research: linear, convergent and divergent. In the end, we suggest that a multi-comparative study, at an intermediary level of analysis, can provide a new approach to migration studies, that combines the universalistic and particular aspects of the migration experience."
Correspondence: N. L. Green, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, EHESS, 44 rue de la Tour, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20461 Hamilton, Nora; Chinchilla, Norma S. Central American migration: a framework for analysis. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1991. 75-110 pp. Albuquerque, New Mexico. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to develop a framework for analyzing Central American migration that takes into account historical and contemporary dimensions, economic and political motivations, and domestic and international structures." This study is based on a review of the published literature.
Correspondence: N. Hamilton, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20462 Kupishevskii, M. Territorial differences in migration: measurement and conclusions for plotting models of demographic forecasts. [Territorial'naya differentsiatsiya migratsii: izmerenie i vyvody dlya sostavleniya modelei demograficheskogo prognoza.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 14, 1990. 51-5 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Ukr.
The author uses current registration and census statistics to forecast migration trends for Poland to the year 2038, applying the multivariate model developed by Rogers and Willekens.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20463 Kupiszewski, Marek. Measurement of migration in the modeling and forecasting of changes in the distribution and structure of population. [Pomiar migracji w modelowaniu i prognozowaniu zmian rozmieszczenia i struktury ludnosci.] Dokumentacja Geograficzna, No. 5, LC 89-127442. 1987. 78 pp. Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk: Wroclaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A multidimensional model developed along the lines proposed by Andrei Rogers is used to analyze migration trends in Poland and their impact on population distribution and structure. Data are from official sources and include data from both the population register and the census. The study examines the impact of applying the model to the different types of official migration data available, and the value of this approach to the analysis of migration for the forecasting of future migration trends.
Correspondence: Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Rynek 9, 50-106 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20464 Marmora, Lelio. Human rights and migration policies. [Derechos humanos y politicas migatorias.] Revista de la OIM sobre Migraciones en America Latina/IOM Latin American Migration Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, Aug-Dec 1990. 7-32 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20465 Minkov, Minko. Migration and migratory behavior. [Migratsiya i migratsionno povedenie.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 3-36 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The article considers theoretical and methodological peculiarities in studying...migration and migratory behaviour....The author makes use of the information obtained from [censuses and current demographic statistics for Bulgaria as well as] information from representative sociological studies....The author uses [a] mathematical model in modelling migration and migratory behaviour, emphasizing the need for a profound sociological study of the main stimuli which influence the migratory processes and the extent of their impact on individuals."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20466 Pissarides, Christopher A.; McMaster, Ian. Regional migration, wages and unemployment: empirical evidence and implications for policy. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 42, No. 4, Oct 1990. 812-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the extent to which regional disparities in economic prosperity are removed over time by migration in response to wage differentials and differences in unemployment rates. The study focuses on the United Kingdom during the period 1961-1982. The authors conclude that, although there is some evidence that the market mechanism can remove regional inequalities in economic prosperity, the process takes such a long time that other measures may be needed.
Correspondence: C. A. Pissarides, London School of Economics, Centre for Economic Performance, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20467 Rogers, A.; Belanger, A. The importance of place of birth in migration and population redistribution analysis. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb 1990. 193-210 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, U.S. Census data is used to examine further the importance of place of birth on migration streams and to trace the impacts of such 'native dependence' on age patterns of migration, multiregional life expectancies, and spatial population projections."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20468 Rosental, Paul-Andre. Conservation/break: a new pair for the analysis of migration. [Maintien/rupture: un nouveau couple pour l'analyse des migrations.] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 45, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 1,403-31, 1,490-1 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author proposes a new method for the study of migration that is based on the reference spaces chosen by migrants rather than on their physical movement from one place to another. "This approach leads to the distinction between two extreme types of migration: (1) as break, when the migrants' concerns center around their place of arrival, and (2) as conservation when they remain centered on their place of origin. In analyzing, for example, the intra- and inter-generational behavior of migrants, one can provide a methodological translation of these two notions. Applied to the Paris area at the end of the 19th century, this translation allows us to differentiate the migrants' modes of integration from their modes of non-integration, by linking them in particular to their regional origin."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20469 Schmidt, Elvira; Tittel, Gunter. Major trends in migration in the German Democratic Republic during the period 1981-1989. [Haupttendenzen der Migration in der DDR im Zeitraum 1981-1989.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 48, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1990. 244-50 pp. Cologne, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Major trends in internal migration and emigration from East Germany are examined for the period 1981-1989. Topics discussed include the age and sex structure of migration and regional differences.
Correspondence: E. Schmidt, Leninring 51, 0-1600 Konigs Wusterhausen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20470 Stonich, Susan C. Rural families and income from migration: Honduran households in the world economy. Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1991. 131-61 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The process of proletarianization that is occurring among the peasantry in developing countries associated with migration and working for wages in labor markets is analyzed. The data concern migration among rural farm households in southern Honduras since 1950 and were obtained in interviews undertaken in the field in the 1980s. The results show that migration has become a vital component of household survival strategies, because of the failure of any single activity to provide an adequate living. The significance of environmental constraints, population growth, and low returns to labor is noted.
Correspondence: S. C. Stonich, University of California, Department of Anthropology, Environmental Studies Program, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

57:20471 Ahlburg, Dennis; Levin, Michael J. The north-east passage: a study of Pacific Islander migration to American Samoa and the United States. Pacific Research Monograph, No. 23, ISBN 0-7315-0678-2. 1990. viii, 94 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, National Centre for Development Studies: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Migration patterns from the islands of Oceania to American Samoa and the United States are examined for the period 1960-1980. Migrants are described according to demographic, income, employment, and education characteristics and year of immigration. The economic impact of out-migration on the islands and the relatively low levels of return migration are considered.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Research School of Pacific Studies, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20472 Asis, Maruja M. B. To the United States and into the labor force: occupational expectations of Filipino and Korean immigrant women. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 118, ISBN 0-86638-136-8. LC 91-4467. Feb 1991. vii, 59 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This paper describes the occupational changes expected by Filipino and Korean women as they prepare for immigration to the United States. It examines how women's human capital endowments, life-cycle characteristics, and social resources in the destination affect their expectations about working; identifies the determinants of their occupational choices; and compares the occupational expectations of women with those of men. The 1986 Immigrant Pre-departure Assessment Surveys, conducted in Manila and Seoul, provided the data for this paper....The findings reveal that expecting to participate in the labor force was equally central to women and men even before they immigrated....[and that] women's work expectations were affected by more factors than men's work expectations."
Correspondence: East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20473 Baral, Lok R. Regional migrations, ethnicity and security: the South Asian case. 1990. ix, 194 pp. Sterling Publishers Private: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
An analysis of international migration among the countries of South Asia is presented. Particular attention is given to ethnic factors and to the political and security implications of these migrations for individual countries. The author concludes that control of international migration is beyond the capacity of the countries concerned, and that the lack of socioeconomic development and cooperation among the countries of the region is likely to exacerbate the problem in the future.
Correspondence: Sterling Publishers Private, L-10 Green Park Extension, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20474 Beach, Charles M.; Green, Alan G. Policy forum on the role of immigration in Canada's future. Policy Forum Series, No. 15, ISBN 0-88911-482-X. [1989]. vi, 102 pp. Queen's University, John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy: Kingston, Canada. In Eng.
This is a report on a conference held in Kingston, Ontario, in October 1988 concerning the role of immigration in Canada's future. The first session contains four introductory papers, one of which deals with Quebec's perspective. Also included are two papers on labor market adjustment and two papers on social adjustment. The fourth session was a panel discussion on objectives, levels, composition, and directions of future immigration.
Correspondence: Queen's University, John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20475 Berninghaus, Siegfried; Seifert-Vogt, Hans G. A temporary equilibrium model for international migration. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1991. 13-36 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the existence of temporary equilibria of migration with an overlapping generation structure and analyzes some of its properties. In the first part of the paper sufficient conditions for the existence of a temporary equilibrium of migration (in a given period) are given. In the second part some interesting properties of migration equilibria are analyzed. In particular the effects of differing degrees of information of the individuals on migration equilibria are investigated. Furthermore, it is shown that incomplete information alone suffices to induce migration flows even between countries that can be regarded as 'identical' from an economic point of view."
Correspondence: S. Berninghaus, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics, W-6800 Mannheim 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20476 Canada. Employment and Immigration Advisory Council (Hull, Canada). Immigration in the 1990s. [L'immigration au cours des annees 1990.] Mar 1991. 45, 49 pp. Hull, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"The following report, including recommendations on 'Immigration Levels in the 1990s', is the result of the Council's in-depth examination and review of available studies on the effect of immigration on...[Canada's] economy and society....This report is divided into seven sections and makes ten recommendations. The range of complex and often interrelated factors that impact on Canada's social, economic, and cultural fabric have to be carefully considered when dealing with future immigration levels. These comprise aging, the social environment, integration of immigrants, the composition of immigration classes, Quebec, immigrant concentration in big cities, and the environment and immigration."
Correspondence: Employment and Immigration Advisory Council, 165 rue Hotel de Ville, 3e etage, Phase II, Place du Portage, Hull, Quebec K1A 0J9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20477 Compton, Paul A.; Power, John. Migration from Northern Ireland: a survey of new year travellers as a means of identifying emigrants. Regional Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1991. 1-11 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Travellers leaving Northern Ireland's air and sea ports at the end of the New Year holiday period 1988 were contacted as a means of identifying potential out-migrants. The method proved to be highly cost effective and reasonably successful. One thousand individuals who had either lived or had been born in Northern Ireland but who were now residing outside the province were obtained from 1,702 traveller contacts. The paper discusses the problems surrounding the representativeness of this sample of emigrants and outlines possible strategies for their resolution. The more significant results of a brief questionnaire survey about migrant origins, destinations, characteristics, motivations and intentions are also presented."
Correspondence: P. A. Compton, Queen's University, School of Geosciences, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20478 Connell, John. Migration and development in the South Pacific. Pacific Research Monograph, No. 24, ISBN 0-7315-0668-5. 1990. xii, 199 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, National Centre for Development Studies: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This collection of...papers examines the changing context and impact of migration in eight different states in the [South Pacific] region, reviewing such issues as the brain or skill drain, remittances and investment, employment strategies of migrants, the impact of migration on inequality and uneven development and the overall relationship between migration and development. Migration is more closely linked to social issues, including education and suicide, than in many earlier discussions and there is also a strong emphasis on the historical evolution of structures of migration. The various papers demonstrate the great variety in the structure and impact of migration and recognize the tasks involved in incorporating such diversity into appropriate policy formation."
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Research School of Pacific Studies, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20479 de Beer, J.; Kuijper, H.; Noordam, R. Family reunification, family-formation migration, and return migration of Turks and Moroccans. [Gezinsherenigende, gezinsvormende en retourmigratie van Turken en Marokkanen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jan 1991. 38-49 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze migration patterns to the Netherlands from Turkey and Morocco for the period 1977-1989. Three distinct phases emerge: labor migration, family-reunification migration, and family-formation migration. The rise in migration from Turkey and Morocco during the second half of the 1980s is attributed to family-formation migration, which is defined as a member of the second generation marrying a partner from the country of origin.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20480 Dunlevy, James A. On the settlement patterns of recent Caribbean and Latin immigrants to the United States. Growth and Change, Vol. 22, No. 1, Winter 1991. 54-67 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"In this paper the settlement patterns of persons from each of eleven different Latin and Caribbean nations who received immigrant status [in the United States] in 1987 are considered. Regression analysis suggests that social and economic forces were important, but that specific factors influenced different nationalities differently. Evidence is also found for a lagged adjustment in the settlement process. Furthermore, the attractive effect of a previously settled migrant stock is estimated to be strong for every nationality."
Correspondence: J. A. Dunlevy, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20481 Galor, Oded; Stark, Oded. The impact of differences in the levels of technology on international labour migration. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1991. 1-12 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we analyze the patterns of international labor migration in a two-country world where one country's production technology is superior to that of the other country. We exploit an overlapping-generations model which enables us to trace the relevant dynamic considerations. We find that in the absence of international capital movements labor will migrate from the technologically-inferior to the technologically-superior country unless the stationary autarkic equilibrium is characterized by over-investment relative to the Golden Rule and the long-run elasticity of the interest rate with respect to the technological level is sufficiently large, in which case migration will be from the technologically-superior country."
Correspondence: O. Galor, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20482 Gorwaney, N.; Van Arsdol, M. D.; Heer, D. M.; Schuerman, L. A. Variations in fertility and earning patterns among immigrants in the United States, 1970-1980: assimilation or disruption? International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1990. 451-75 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper examines the assimilation of immigrants in familial and economic fields....Specific objectives are as follows: (1) to describe fertility and earning patterns among immigrants to the United States in 1970-1980, from several countries of origin, and (2) to describe some effects of assimilation, human capital, and the dual labor market perspectives on immigrant earnings." Findings vary in both fertility and economic categories for migrants depending on whether they are from developed or developing countries.
Correspondence: N. Gorwaney, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20483 Greenwood, Michael J.; Trabka, Eloise. Temporal and spatial patterns of geographically indirect immigration to the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1991. 93-112 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the little-studied phenomenon of indirect geographic migration to the United States, or the movement of persons whose country of last permanent residence differed from their country of birth. Over 8 million records of legal immigrants to the United States were studied for the period 1972-1987. Geographically indirect migration is shown to be important, amounting to as many as 86,136 persons during a single year. Primarily because of the dislocations of Southeast Asian refugees from their homelands and their subsequent admittance to the United States, indirect immigration increased during the 1980s. Moreover, again somewhat due to refugees, the patterns of geographically indirect movement changed during recent years. Political conditions in countries of birth appear to be important in explaining these patterns, as well as the age and skills of the indirect migrants themselves."
Correspondence: M. J. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20484 Hammar, Tomas. Democracy and the nation state: aliens, denizens and citizens in a world of international migration. Research in Ethnic Relations, ISBN 0-566-07100-2. 1990. viii, 226 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the political problems associated with large-scale, permanent, international migration. These include "on the one hand to what extent political rights should be given to those who are not formal citizens, and on the other to what extent and on what conditions formal citizenship should be given to foreign residents with a long period of residence." The geographical focus is on developed countries, particularly in Western Europe.
Correspondence: Avebury, Gower Publishing Company, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20485 Hanna, Joel M.; Fitzgerald, Maureen H.; Pearson, Jay D.; Howard, Alan; Hanna, JoAnn M. Selective migration from Samoa: a longitudinal study of pre-migration differences in social and psychological characteristics. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1990. 204-14 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In 1981 extensive questionnaire and interview data were collected on some 100 young Samoan adults. Five years later in 1986 we determined their whereabouts and divided the data in accordance with migration status. The answers of the 35 who had migrated in the intervening period were contrasted to those 65 who remained in [American] Samoa. The migrants differed in several distinct areas. Migrants reported a higher degree of peer-reliance as a personal adaptive strategy. Migrants also reported larger numbers of individuals in social support networks, a higher quality of support and more community involvement. They also report less expressive display of anger. Those who did not migrate reported a slightly better view of life in Samoa and abroad, as well as better relations with their friends and neighbors. These findings support a hypothesis that migrants are pre-selected to fit into migrant communities and do not appear to be misfits who are unhappy with life in Samoa."
Correspondence: J. M. Hanna, University of Hawaii, Department of Physiology, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20486 Hohn, Charlotte; Rein, Detlev B. Foreigners in the Federal Republic of Germany: German Society for Demography, twenty-fourth conference. [Auslander in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, 24. Arbeitstagung.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 20, ISBN 3-7646-1903-1. 1990. 168 pp. Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This publication contains papers presented at the 1990 meeting of the German Society for Demography. The conference focused on foreigners in West Germany. Papers are included on integration, assimilation, and the concept of a plural society; the process of integrating foreign workers; demographic trends among the foreign population in West Germany over the past 35 years; the legal framework for international migration in West Germany; foreigners in the labor market; policies toward foreigners in Europe; and Austria as a country of immigration.
Correspondence: Harald Boldt-Verlag, Am Alten Sportplatz 4, Postfach 1110, 5407 Boppard 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20487 Hopken, Wolfgang. The emigration of Turks from Bulgaria: past and present. Part 1: emigration from 1878 to 1951. [Die Emigration von Turken aus Bulgarien: Historisches und Gegenwartiges. Teil 1: die Emigration 1878 bis 1951.] Sudosteuropa, Vol. 38, No. 10, 1989. 608-37 pp. Munich, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Emigration trends among the Turkish minority population in Bulgaria are reviewed for the period 1878-1951. Seven phases of emigration are identified, and their causes are discussed.
Location: New York Public Library.

57:20488 Jacobsen, Chanoch; Bronson, Richard. Emigration from Israel 1950-1981: a simulation study. Israel Social Science Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1988-1989. 52-62 pp. Beersheba, Israel. In Eng.
"Using our mathematical model of a general theory of normative regulation, we have reproduced over 80% of the variance in the cumulative percentages of emigrants [from Israel], as well as the yearly percentages from 1950 to 1981. These results suggest that, except for a limited period following the 'Six-Day War' of 1967, no situation-specific explanations are needed to account for the trends in emigration from Israel, and the phenomenon can be adequately accounted for by the general theory of normative regulation in modern industrialized societies. Some practical conclusions to mitigate the process are drawn from these findings."
Correspondence: C. Jacobsen, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, Haifa 32000, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

57:20489 Kedelski, Mieczyslaw. Demographic fiction in Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany (a study in international migrations). [Fikcja demograficzna w Polsce i RFN (ze studiow nad migracjam zagranicznymi).] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/99, 1990. 21-55 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the reliability of migration statistics from Poland. "The relevant statistical sources used by the Central Statistical Office of Poland have been described and [compared] with the Ministry of Interior Statistics. Furthermore, the statistics of migration between Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany have been reconstructed on the basis of Statistisches Bundesamt estimates. The Polish statistics have also been [compared] with those of major receiving countries of Polish emigration (Austria, Sweden, USA, Canada and Australia). In conclusion the author finds...that the official Polish statistics reflect only a half of the actual number of permanent emigrants from Poland."
Correspondence: M. Kedelski, Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu, Pracownia Demometrii, Marchlewskiego 146/150, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20490 King, Russell; McGrath, Fiona; Shuttleworth, Ian; Strachan, Alan. Irish on the move. Geography Review, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1989. 23-7 pp. Deddington, England. In Eng.
Trends in emigration from Ireland over time are reviewed. "During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries overseas migration to the United States and seasonal harvest migration to Britain were the main types of movement, but over the past 100 years the Irish have developed a special affinity for settling in British towns. Although the outflow was halted for a time during the 1970s, when return migration took over, the 1980s have seen a renewal of the exodus. This time, however, the character of the flow has changed from predominantly low-skill construction and factory workers to embrace better-educated emigrants, including many graduates. This shift reflects Ireland's changing position in the international market for labour."
Correspondence: R. King, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Department of Geography, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

57:20491 Kraly, Ellen P.; Warren, Robert. Long-term immigration to the United States: new approaches to measurement. International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1991. 60-92 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The United Nations has recommended the measurement of types of international migration using demographic criteria, including length of stay and purpose of travel. Information systems at the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) have the potential to provide a basis for documenting these demographic characteristics, in particular, length of stay of temporary migrants to the United States. This article analyzes these characteristics of selected categories of nonimmigrant aliens. The results of the analysis are used to produce series of estimates of alien immigration that conform more closely to the U.N. recommended definitions and better represent demographic concepts of long-term immigration. A strategy for measuring emigration of aliens from the United States using INS information systems is also described."
Correspondence: E. P. Kraly, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20492 Lefebvre, Alain. International labour migration from two Pakistani villages with different forms of agriculture. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1990. 59-89 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This paper is an analysis of the socio-economic situation of two Punjabi villages [in Pakistan]. It makes an attempt to explain why the villagers of these rural places have to seek work abroad. The first part of the paper deals with the agricultural conditions, the non-agricultural activities available to the villagers, and the budgets of different social categories found in the villages. The second part examines the effects of the process of migration on the young people. It particularly discusses the profile of the migrant, the problems faced by him before his departure, the remittances and their utilization, and the impact of emigration upon women's economic role in the villages and upon the traditional social conflicts. The important conclusion of the paper is that these villagers cannot ensure their social, economic, and cultural reproduction."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20493 Logan, Ronald. Immigration during the 1980s. Canadian Social Trends, No. 20, Spring 1991. 10-3 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
International migration to Canada during the 1980s is examined. The author discusses the migrant population in terms of size, origin, destination, and age. Data are from Statistics Canada.
Correspondence: R. Logan, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20494 Martin, Philip L. Labor migration in Asia. International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1991. 176-93 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand)....The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...."
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20495 Martin, Philip L. The unfinished story: Turkish labour migration to Western Europe, with special reference to the Federal Republic of Germany. ISBN 92-2-107292-4. 1991. xiv, 123 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This study examines the migration of workers from Turkey to Western Europe, primarily West Germany, over the past 30 years. "There are three major components: an assessment of the effects of emigration on the migrants themselves and on the Turkish economy and society; a reassessment of the contributions of Turks to host nations and their integration into these societies; and a prediction as to how much emigration there might be from Turkey early in the twenty-first century if Turks had freedom of movement rights in the EC [European Community]." The study is based on both the published literature and interviews with some 150 key informants.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20496 Mitra, S. Effect of emigration on other demographic measures. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1988. 278-88 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Two models that measure the demographic impact of emigration on the country of origin are proposed. Elements considered include life expectancy of emigrants and natives, age at migration, and fertility variables. Data from 1985 Canadian life tables are used to illustrate the model.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20497 Natale, Marcello. Foreign immigration in Italy: levels, characteristics, and prospects. [L'immigrazione straniera in Italia: consistenza, caratteristiche, prospettive.] Polis, Vol. 4, No. 1, Apr 1990. 5-40 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"After a careful scrutiny of direct and indirect sources on immigration, the author presents a weighed estimate of foreign presence in Italy disaggregated at the regional level. The estimate is based on the analysis of several sources and on a number of plausible hypotheses which can be drawn from them....The article highlights the importance of information on those immigrants 'regularized' on the basis of law no. 943 of 1986. From the analysis, carried out separately for two components (working permits and unemployment registrations), it clearly [demonstrates] the way in which non EEC foreign labour enters the Italian economic system and how it is heavily influenced by the weakness of the market in the Southern regions."
Correspondence: M. Natale, Via Massaciuccoli 51, 00199 Rome, Italy. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20498 Olea, Hector A. The economics of undocumented immigration: Mexican participation in the U.S. labor market. Pub. Order No. DA9012846. 1988. 176 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study addresses the impact of Mexican illegal immigration on the U.S. labor market. It constitutes a first step towards developing rigorous structural econometric models that empirically analyze undocumented labor force dynamics....According to the empirical results, Mexican undocumented immigration may be viewed as a transitory phenomenon. Individuals switch back and forth between Mexico and the U.S. reacting not only to income differentials, but also to social, family and economic attachments in their home-communities."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Rice University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(12).

57:20499 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Migration: the demographic aspects. Demographic Change and Public Policy, ISBN 92-64-13439-5. 1991. 77 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"In order to disentangle some of the underlying technical relationships between migration and population growth and to gather a number of relevant facts about the demographic effects of past migration movements as well as the current policy stance of OECD Member countries, a meeting of national experts was held at the OECD in November 1988. The main contributions to and findings of this meeting are reported in this volume. Its principal objective is...to provide tentative answers to the following questions: i) To what extent have past migration flows affected demographic variables? ii) What migration hypotheses are actually used in official population projections and what migration flows would hypothetically be required to achieve certain demographic objectives? iii) What is the current attitude and policy stance of Member countries with regard to the explicit consideration of demographic aspects in the design of long-term migration policies?"
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20500 Ostby, Lars. International migration to Norway 1989: report for the Continuous Reporting System of Migration of OECD (SOPEMI). [Internasjonal flytting til Norge: en rapport til OECD Continuous Reporting System of Migration (SOPEMI).] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 90/24, ISBN 82-537-3020-9. 1990. 82 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Olso-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng; Nor.
This document, which is in English with an appendix in Norwegian, is the report from Norway to the OECD Continuous Reporting System on Migration (SOPEMI) for 1989. It consists of chapters on migrant flows over the course of the 1980s and future prospects, foreign residents and nationals resident abroad, the employment of foreigners, settlement in the host country, and return migration.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20501 Parmenter, Brian R.; Peter, Matthew W. Two papers on the economics of immigration. IAESR Working Paper, No. 3/1990, ISBN 0-85833-111-X. Feb 1990. 25 pp. University of Melbourne, Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research [IAESR]: Parkville, Australia. In Eng.
This report contains two papers on the economic effects of international migration to Australia. In the first article, the first author assesses two Australian studies on the long-term impact of immigration on economic welfare and finds their results inconclusive. In the second paper, the authors examine a study on the long-run effects of immigration on income, and again stress the need for care in interpreting these effects.
Correspondence: University of Melbourne, Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20502 Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G. Immigrant America: a portrait. ISBN 0-520-06894-7. LC 89-20444. 1990. xxiii, 300 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors present an overall picture of immigration in the United States. The first chapter describes migrant characteristics and countries of origin. The following chapters explore points of destination, patterns of settlement, and the formation and function of new ethnic communities in urban areas; the incorporation of immigrants in the U.S. economy; immigrant politics; psychological aspects of immigration; the learning of English; and the origins of illegal immigrants.
Correspondence: University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20503 Roy, Delwin A. Development policy and labor migration in the Sudan. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1989. 301-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Both temporary and permanent labor migration from the Sudan are examined. The author discusses economic, political, and policy reasons for large-scale out-migration during the 1970s of professionals and agricultural workers. Consideration is also given to the impact of remittances on the economy and the importance of development policy in curbing future labor migration flows and improving the Sudan's economy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

57:20504 Sassen, Saskia. Migration in a world economy. Revue Francaise d'Etudes Americaines, No. 41, Jul 1989. 277-89 pp. Nancy, France. In Eng.
The role of labor migration in the current global economy is examined, particularly its relation to the increasing internationalization of production. Attention is given to the development of production for export in several developing countries by means of direct foreign investment and international subcontracting by developed countries. The author also discusses the development of major cities such as New York and Los Angeles as nodes for the control and management of the global economic system.
Correspondence: S. Sassen, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20505 Totev, Anastas. Outer and inner migration of the population of Bulgaria. [Vanshna i vatreshna migratsiya na naselenieto na Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 113-20 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes trends in international migration in Bulgaria for the period 1880-1980. It is concluded that the published data, which show a net population loss of about 410,000 people over the course of the century, do not account for a huge inflow of illegal immigrants during the period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20506 Turpin, Dominique. Immigrants and refugees in the Western democracies--challenges and solutions. [Immigres et refugies dans les democraties occidentales--defis et solutions.] ISBN 2-7178-1799-9. 1989. 319 pp. Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille: Aix-en-Provence, France; Economica: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Montpellier, France, April 27-29, 1987, on questions concerning immigrants and refugees in the countries of Western Europe. The first part contains three papers on how France has coped with the problem. The second part describes the experience of other European countries, including West Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Switzerland. A third part examines the experience of Scandinavia, Canada, and the United States. The final two parts contain papers on the human and legal rights of migrants and refugees.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille, 3 avenue Robert-Schuman, 13628 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 1, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20507 Vernez, Georges; Ronfeldt, David. The current situation in Mexican immigration. Science, Vol. 251, No. 4998, Mar 8, 1991. 1,189-93 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"By 1988, the Mexican-origin population of the United States had grown to 12.1 million, largely from recent, sharp increases in immigration. The policy concerns raised by this phenomenon have been influenced by some perceptions that available research contradicts. Today most Mexican immigrants come to stay, about half are female, and they have increasingly less schooling compared to the native-born population and other immigrants. Nationally, they do not cause adverse economic effects for native-born workers and, across generations, their language and political assimilation is proceeding well. They put greater demands on education than on other public services."
Correspondence: G. Vernez, RAND Corporation, Program for Research on Immigration Policy, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

57:20508 Widgren, Jonas. International migration and regional stability. International Affairs, Vol. 66, No. 4, Oct 1990. 749-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The growing concern of governments around the world with trends in immigration is examined. The author notes that the recent political changes in Eastern Europe were precipitated by the mass movement of people from East to West. He also looks at the probable future trends in international migration pressures from developing to developed countries. "This article looks at some of the causes and consequences of international migration and sets out some of the policy questions that Northern and Southern governments will need to address if mass migration movements are to be absorbed and contained. Uncontrolled mass migration, it argues, could threaten social cohesion, international solidarity, and peace."
Location: New York Public Library.

57:20509 Young, Christabel M. Changes in the demographic behaviour of migrants in Australia and the transition between generations. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 1991. 67-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The main aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the demographic and socio-economic experience of members of different ethnic groups converges to the experience of the total Australian-born population. To do this, the fertility and mortality of major birthplace groups in Australia are compared with levels of fertility and mortality in the country of origin, and in the total Australian population. Also considered is the extent of in-marriage, ages at leaving school and proficiency in the English language. The changing character of the ethnic group through out-marriage and the emergence of an increasingly larger Australian-born component is also discussed....Census figures and registration statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics are the main [sources] of the data...."
Correspondence: C. M. Young, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20510 Zinnes, Clifford F. Essays on international migration. Pub. Order No. DA9015191. 1989. 192 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
International migration to and from developing countries is examined. The author discusses migration policy and the effects of labor migration on the sending and receiving countries.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(1).

57:20511 Zodgekar, A. V. British emigrants to New Zealand: their motives and expectations. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1990. 427-41 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author presents the results of a 1983 mail survey of prospective migrants to New Zealand. The survey, which was conducted in Great Britain, was designed to obtain socioeconomic profiles of the migrants as well as information on their motives and expectations.
Correspondence: A. V. Zodgekar, Victoria University, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

57:20512 Amrhein, Carl G.; Flowerdew, Robin. The effect of data aggregation on a Poisson regression model of Canadian migration. In: The accuracy of spatial databases, edited by Michael Goodchild and Sucharita Gopal. ISBN 0-85066-847-6. 1989. 229-38 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines whether the national migration system of Canada described by a Poisson regression model exhibits any aggregation effects. The data concern migration flows among 260 regions of the country and were derived from income tax returns. The Poisson model used is an unconstrained gravity model in which migration between regions is predicted with an exponential function of the population of origin, the population of destination, and the distance between them.
Correspondence: Taylor and Francis, 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20513 Boukhemis, Kaddour; Zeghiche, Anissa. A review of the determinants of internal migration in Algeria: Constantine and Skikda. [Approche des determinants de la migration interne en Algerie: Constantine et Skikda.] Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord, Vol. 26, 1987. 419-31 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre.
Trends in internal migration in Algeria are analyzed for the period 1962-1977 using data from the 1977 census. The focus is on migration to metropolitan areas such as Constantine and Skikda.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20514 Bulusu, L. Internal migration in the United Kingdom, 1989. Population Trends, No. 62, Winter 1990. 33-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article presents the latest annual statistics of population movement within the United Kingdom, based on patient re-registration with NHS doctors. In 1989 there were 6 per cent fewer moves than in 1988, but movements were still well above the levels before 1986."
Correspondence: L. Bulusu, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Population and Hospital Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20515 Cole, John. Internal migration in Peru. Geography Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1989. 25-31 pp. Deddington, England. In Eng.
"E. G. Ravenstein proposed 'laws of migration' to explain the movement of population in the British Isles from data in the 1881 census. Here, migration in Peru is studied using data from the 1981 census to ascertain the extent to which Ravenstein's 'laws' hold for a different country at a different time....In conclusion, it is a salutory exercise to apply Ravenstein's seven laws and other findings to Peru and to see how, in a different environment a good time ago, someone could produce a model with wide applicability."
Correspondence: J. Cole, University of Nottingham, Human and Regional Geography, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

57:20516 de Coninck, Frederic. Spatial mobility on reaching adult age. [Passage a l'age adulte et mobilite spatiale.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1990. 377-97 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Starting with longitudinal data on two cohorts of women living in the Alpes-Maritimes [France] in 1982 (a sample of 1,500 women in total) we try to establish the role of the spatial distribution of opportunities at a number of key stages in the life cycle: marriage, birth of first child, making professional use of qualifications, confrontation of a situation of professional risk and professional mobility during the years immediately following the completion of studies. The underlying hypothesis is that control of social location often depends on the control of spatial location."
Correspondence: F. de Coninck, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, CERTES - Central IV, 1 rue Montaigne, 93 167 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20517 Del-Cid, Jose R. The spatial mobility of the population and regional economic specialization in Honduras. [Movilidad espacial de la poblacion y especializacion economica regional en Honduras.] Revista Centroamericana de Economia, Vol. 10, No. 29, May-Aug 1989. 45-66 pp. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. In Spa.
Internal migration patterns in Honduras are analyzed. The focus is on the relationships among spatial distribution, migration, and the country's economic activity. Data are from official sources, primarily the agricultural and population census of 1974.
Correspondence: J. R. Del-Cid, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, POB 3560, Tegucigalpa, D.C., Honduras. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20518 Gupta, A. K.; Arora, D. R.; Aggarwal, B. K. Sociological analysis of migration of agricultural labourers from eastern to north-western region of India. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 23, No. 4, Apr 1988. 429-45 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine rural-to-rural migration of agricultural workers from eastern to northwestern India. "The specific objectives of this study were: (a) to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant farm workers; (b) to explicate the causes of migration; (c) to analyse the impact of migration on the pattern of employment, wages, acculturation and interpersonal relations; and (d) to examine the socio-cultural and economic impact of migration on the migrants' families." Data are from a 1984-1986 survey.
Correspondence: A. K. Gupta, Punjab Agricultural University, Department of Economics and Sociology, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20519 Gutmann, Myron P.; Vetter, John E.; Joslyn, Gregory; Fliess, Kenneth H. Staying put or moving on? Ethnicity, migration and persistence in nineteenth century Texas. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 12.03, 1990-1991. 21, [14] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The authors examine the migration patterns, residential duration, and ethnic differentials in mobility among the populations of six rural Texas counties during the period 1850-1910. "Our research shows that several characteristics of individuals are important predictors of whether they will be present in the same county ten years later. Among these, ethnicity, occupation, relationship to head of household, age, and literacy are the most important, but there are ways in which several of these characteristics overlap. Ethnicity is related to occupation in our population, and it is also related to literacy. We attempt...to show separately the elements which affected persistence, and...to show how they worked together to shape an overall process of residential persistence and migration."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20520 Jessadachatr, Phitsanes. An economic analysis of interprovincial migration in Thailand. Pub. Order No. DA9019428. 1989. 196 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation investigates the causes of interprovincial migration in Thailand during 1975-80 for the country as a whole, migration within and between regions, out-migration from the Northeast, and in-migration into the Bangkok Metropolis and it sheds light on sex and age selectivity of migration. The findings indicate that gravity variables, especially distance and the destination population are the crucial determinants of migration. Out-migration increases with an increase in the destination wage level, but also decreases with a rise in the destination unemployment level."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(2).

57:20521 Johnson, James H.; Salt, John. Labour migration: the internal geographical mobility of labour in the developed world. ISBN 1-85346-120-2. 1990. viii, 215 pp. David Fulton Publishers: London, England. In Eng.
Some aspects of labor migration occurring within developed countries are examined in the 12 studies by various authors included in this book. The first part is concerned with the institutional frameworks within which labor migration occurs and includes studies on the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and France. The second part is concerned with decision making and how it is affected by information.
Correspondence: David Fulton Publishers, 2 Barbon Close, Great Ormand Street, London WC1N 3JX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20522 Kalchev, Iordan. Trends and features of the development of migratory processes in Bulgaria. [Tendentsii i osobenosti v razvitieto na migratsionnite protsesi v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 37-60 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in internal migration in Bulgaria from 1956 to 1985 are analyzed using census data. The author describes changes in the number of migrants and their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Variations in regional migration patterns and economic conditions affecting internal migration are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20523 Khomra, A. U. The role of ecological conditions in the structure of population migration factors. [Rol' ekologicheskikh uslovii v strukture faktorov migratsii naseleniya.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 14, 1990. 90-107 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Ukr.
"Determination of a role and place of ecological conditions in the structure of factors of...population migration is [discussed] based on the data from demographic and social-ecologic examination of migrants from towns with different ecological [situations]...." The study is based on data for the cities of Simferopol and Zaporozhye in the Ukrainian SSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20524 Kleysen, Brenda J. A flows-counterflows matrix accounting method for the analysis of internal migration: applications to Costa Rica, 1973 and 1984. Pub. Order No. DA9018006. 1990. 210 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines internal migration in Costa Rica in the periods 1968-1973 and 1979-1984 using a closed system of single-entry migration accounts. She discusses the spatial patterns of migration, population redistribution, rural-rural migration, and rural-urban migration.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(1).

57:20525 Krieg, Randall G. Human-capital selectivity in interstate migration. Growth and Change, Vol. 22, No. 1, Winter 1991. 68-76 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"Using Public Use Microdata Sample A from the 1980 United States Census, human capital measures are developed and used to test whether states experience human-capital migration that is significantly different from human migration. Strong evidence demonstrates that human-capital migration differs significantly from human migration. For example, Arkansas and Vermont are shown to have a net in-migration of people, but a net out-migration of human capital. Conversely, the data for Connecticut and Minnesota indicate a net out-migration of people and a net in-migration of human capital. This study suggests that traditional models of interstate migration mask the flow of human capital."
Correspondence: R. G. Krieg, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0129. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20526 Liaw, Kao-Lee. Interprefectural migration and its effects on prefectural populations in Japan: an analysis based on the 1980 census. QSEP Research Report, No. 265, Jun 1990. 36 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
The author analyzes internal migration data from the 1980 census of Japan to determine general effects and age-specific redistributions within prefectures. "The main findings are as follows. First,...interprefectural variation in population growth depended more strongly on inmigration, outmigration and net migration than on birth, death, and natural growth. Second, the migration process in Japan shared several general properties with those in Western developed countries, including that...the variation in net migration rate depended much more strongly on inmigration than on outmigration. Third, the redistributional potential of the migration of the 15-19 age group was strongest....Fourth, there were distinct age patterns in net migration rate among four types of prefectures: (1) metropolitan core, (2) suburban, (3) regional growth pole, and (4) peripheral rural...."
Correspondence: McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20527 Longino, Charles F.; Smith, Kenneth J. Black retirement migration in the United States. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 3, May 1991. S125-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The specific aim of this study was to extend the analysis of [U.S.] retirement migration patterns to older Blacks. The 1980 Census public use sample A provided the data for this analysis. Because of their strong initial southern settlement and their labor force out-migration patterns in this century, many older Black migrants are 'provincial return migrants' to the South, a migrant type that may decline among Blacks in the future. There is also a regional counterstream migration pattern among older Black migrants. Out-migrants in this stream from the South have elevated indicators of dependency. Suggestions are made for other related studies of Black retirement migration."
Correspondence: C. F. Longino, University of Miami, Center on Adult Development and Aging, P.O. Box 248092, Coral Gables, FL 33124-5270. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

57:20528 Mitchneck, Beth A. Geographical and economic determinants of interregional migration in the USSR, 1968-1985. Soviet Geography, Vol. 32, No. 3, Mar 1991. 168-89 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Interregional migration results in a regional redistribution of labor, essential under the current mismatch between the locations of labor and of natural resources and industrial capacity in the USSR. This study focuses on economic and geographical determinants of destination choice of migrants from 1968 through 1985. Particular emphasis is placed upon the relative effects of economic variables and quality of life factors and on the effect of gravity variables (i.e., distance and population size). The statistically significant results for the economic and gravity variables indicate the appropriateness of using Western theories to analyze migration in the Soviet context."
Correspondence: B. A. Mitchneck, Columbia University, Harriman Institute, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20529 Murayama, Yuji. Space-time analysis of internal migration in postwar Japan. Tsukuba Daigaku Jinbun Chirigaku Kenkyu/Tsukuba Studies in Human Geography, No. 14, 1990. 169-88 pp. Tsukuba, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in the spatial distribution of internal migration in Japan are analyzed over the period 1954-1987 using official data. The results show that migration closely follows the economy. Internal migration increased rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, peaked in 1971, declined until 1985, and has shown slight increases in 1986 and 1987. Spatial patterns show strong migration from rural areas to Tokyo and Osaka up to 1962. The period after 1962 reveals more movement to suburban locations within the Tokyo metropolitan area and a decline in migration to Osaka.

57:20530 Newbold, K. Bruce; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Characterization of primary, return and onward interprovincial migration in Canada: overall and age-specific patterns. QSEP Research Report, No. 262, May 1990. 41 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper uses the Public Use Sample of the 1981 Canadian census to study the overall and age-specific patterns of primary, return and onward migrations. The classification of these three types of migrations is based on the information on the province of birth and the provinces of residence in 1976 and 1981. To study the propensities of making out- and inmigrations, we use the out- and inmigration rates....To study the different effects of the three types of migrations, we use the net migration volumes. The main finding is that the major similarities and differences among the three types of migrations observed in the United States are also observable in Canada."
Correspondence: McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20531 Oberai, A. S.; Prasad, Pradhan H.; Sardana, M. G. Determinants and consequences of internal migration in India: studies in Bihar, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh. ISBN 0-19-562516-1. LC 90-900141. 1989. xii, 156 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The determinants and consequences of internal migration in India are explored. "A number of factors are considered and their interrelations with migration systematically analysed. These include...education, employment, technology and productivity, remittance flows and expenditure patterns, and housing and civic amenities....The authors conclude that rural-urban migration is often a desperate survival strategy and it would not be humane to attempt to stop it. Their analysis also shows that migration to urban areas generates some benefits for rural areas in terms of the inflow of remittances and their investment in raising productivity and incomes. These positive benefits, they argue, should not be overlooked while attempting to formulate population distribution policies."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20532 Raines, Gary A. Nonmetropolitan county net migration and industrial differentiation, 1960-1985. Pub. Order No. DA9010230. 1989. 185 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"An 'ecological theory of migration' is applied to the investigation of nonmetropolitan county net migration in the United States since 1960. The central premise tested is that differentiation in sustenance organization within counties is directly related to net migration. Differentiation is allocated into the components of: (1) intracommunity division of labor, and (2) intercommunity division of labor....Three measures of differentiation are created for each county at each time period. These are: (1) total differentiation, and its components, (2) local differentiation, and (3) functional differentiation. Using these measures, two regression models of net migration are compared....The most consistent feature of the pattern of findings over time is reduction in the utility of the models for describing net migration."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Cincinnati.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(11).

57:20533 Rudzitis, Gundars. Migration, sense of place, and nonmetropolitan vitality. Urban Geography, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 80-8 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this progress report, I will look at recent developments in models and theories relevant to nonmetropolitan migration and development [in the United States]. I will also focus on bottom up approaches and the importance of a sense of place in maintaining nonmetropolitan vitality. Finally, I will discuss the importance of a historical and regional approach when examining the continuing economic and social transformations of nonmetropolitan areas."
Correspondence: G. Rudzitis, University of Idaho, Department of Geography, Moscow, ID 83843. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20534 Saenz, Rogelio. Interregional migration patterns of Chicanos: the core, periphery, and frontier. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 1, Mar 1991. 135-48 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The internal migration patterns of Chicanos [in the United States] have been an overlooked topic. This study uses data from the 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample to examine the 1975-80 interregional migration flows of Chicanos between four regions: (1) core (southwest); (2) northwest periphery; (3) midwest periphery; and (4) frontier. The core experienced net outflow of Chicanos to the northwest periphery. However, among the Chicano core outmigrants, frontier migrants are the most selective socioeconomically."
Correspondence: R. Saenz, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20535 Saha, Tulshi. Migration in Bangladesh: its trend and determinants. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1988. 289-309 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses "three issues in explaining the interdistrict movement of people in Bangladesh in 1974-81. These issues are: (a) identification of factors of migration; (b) examination of relationship of the explanatory variables with migration; and (c) assessment of the relative importance of these factors....Of the nine explanatory variables used in the study, four were found to be significantly correlated with the interdistrict movement of people in Bangladesh. These variables include per capita gross district product, urbanisation level, previous migration status, and percentage of the 20-29 year old population, with the first two explaining about 86 per cent of the district variation."
Correspondence: T. Saha, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20536 Sakai, Hiromichi. Change in the sex ratio of migrants in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jan 1991. 1-13 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Sex ratio trends in internal migration in Japan are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20537 Serow, William J. Economic implications of retirement migration. Journal of Applied Gerontology, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1990. 452-63 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"This article provides an overview of some of the principal economic consequences of elderly migration, especially for areas of destination. Although precise measurement of these [is] not possible at the national level, we can offer some informed speculation. First, these areas benefit economically from the presence of younger elderly migrants who move at or shortly after the time of retirement. Second, these areas are spared the public costs associated with demand for much of the care and support services needed at the end of life."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20538 Stillwell, John; Rees, Philip; Boden, Peter. Geographical patterns of migration in Britain. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 543, [1991]. 19 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews changes that have occurred in population movement [in the United Kingdom] using a broad regional perspective (North versus South; Periphery versus Industrial Heartland versus Greater London versus the Rest of the South) and in terms of the metropolitan nature and population density of areas. What is abundantly clear is that the progress of the economy influences the overall level of migration and the rate of net loss from the North to the South, from metropolitan centres to region remainders and from high to low density areas....The paper also contains a number of insights into changing migration activity at more disaggregate spatial scales during the 1980s and describes a classification of FPC [family practitioner committee] areas based on mid-decade age-specific inmigration rates."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20539 Stillwell, John; Boden, Peter; Rees, Philip. Trends in internal net migration in the U.K.: 1975-1986. Area, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1990. 57-65 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A study of trends in net migration [in the United Kingdom] over the 1975-86 period using National Health Service data show that despite some hiatus in the years of severest recession, 1980-83, the pattern of net losses from Northern to Southern areas, from metropolitan to non-metropolitan, and from high density to low density areas continues into the mid-1980s, effecting a continuous dispersion of the population."
Correspondence: J. Stillwell, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20540 Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Instituto de Geografia (Mexico City, Mexico). Atlas of internal migration in Mexico. [Atlas de migracion interna en Mexico.] ISBN 968-837-353-2. 1988. [60] pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This publication presents over 250 maps and 50 tables concerning internal migration in Mexico from 1900 to 1980. Following a general overview of the country's spatial distribution, the maps focus on migration among the states of Mexico over the period 1950-1970. Separate sections are included on rural-urban migration and migration of the Indian-language population.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geografia, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, D.F., Mexico. Location: University of California Library, Davis, CA.

57:20541 Wagner, Michael. Spatial mobility over the life cycle: an empirical study of social determinants of migration. [Raumliche Mobilitat im Lebensverlauf: eine empirische Untersuchung sozialer Bedingungen der Migration.] ISBN 3-432-97801-4. 1989. 226 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
In this book, originally written as a dissertation, the author analyzes the extent to which migration in West Germany is affected by changes in the areas of education, employment, or family; by past migration history; and by current housing conditions. Differences according to distance and direction of migration are investigated. The study is based on 2,168 nationally representative life histories from the birth cohorts of 1929-1931, 1939-41, and 1949-1951.
Correspondence: Ferdinand Enke Verlag, P.O. Box 10 12 54, D-7000 Stuttgart 10, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20542 Witkowski, Janusz. Needs and internal migration in Poland. [Potrzeby a migracje wewnetrzne ludnosci w Polsce.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 31, No. 2-3, 1988. 119-41, 262, 272 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Problems associated with the study of internal migration in Poland since World War II are considered. The author suggests that in addition to the macroeconomic factors affecting migration that are usually studied, more attention needs to be given to microeconomic factors that influence the individual's decision to migrate. Psychological aspects of motivation to migrate deserve more consideration, as do levels of satisfaction with current place of residence.
Correspondence: J. Witkowski, Ul. Sosabowskiego 5 m 9, 03-983 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20543 Zhang, Shanyu. A significant shift of regional pattern of China's interprovincial migration. [1990]. 34 pp. East China Normal University, Population Research Institute: Shanghai, China. In Eng.
Internal migration patterns in China for the period 1975-1987 are analyzed. Origin and destination areas are identified and the spatial distribution of the population is discussed. Reasons for changes in internal migration are attributed to variations in economic development and political and social factors.
Correspondence: East China Normal University, Population Research Institute, Shanghai 200062, China. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20544 Zlatanova, Valentina. Predisposition to migration and adaptation. [Migratsionni naglasi i adaptatsiya.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 61-92 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Using migration data for Bulgaria from 1976 to 1985, the author attempts to identify the reasons why people migrate and to measure their level of adaptation and satisfaction after relocation. Results show that an improved living standard is the chief motive for migration, while living standards and social integration are the major indicators of satisfaction with the move.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

57:20545 Day, Lincoln H. Australia's obligation to refugees. Working Papers in Demography, No. 25, 1991. 17 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses Australia's current treatment of refugees and makes a case for increased support of such migrants. Consideration is given to the criteria for allocating assistance, social and policy limitations, and economic and environmental factors.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20546 Heins, J. J. F. Refugees and the third world. [Vluchtelingen en derde wereld.] Themabundel Ontwikkelingsproblematiek, No. 1, ISBN 90-73418-01-1. 1990. 103 pp. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Interfacultaire Commissie Ontwikkelingsproblematiek: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut.
This is a selection of eight papers by various authors on the international aspects of the refugee problem. Attention is given to the economic significance as well as to policy implications of refugee migration. Case studies are included from Africa and Asia to illustrate the psychological and social problems of refugees. Two chapters examine refugee policies developed by third-world countries. A final panel discussion looks at refugee policy in Europe as a consequence of the 1992 move toward integration in the Economic Community.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Interfacultaire Commissie Ontwikkelingsproblematiek, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20547 Lakatos, Miklos; Meszaros, Arpad. Main data on refugees. [A magyarorszagra menekulok fobb adatai.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 69, No. 2, Feb 1991. 101-14 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Data on refugees coming to Hungary between January 1, 1988, and March 31, 1990, are presented. The data concern refugee characteristics by country of origin, age, sex, language, occupation, and intended country of final destination.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20548 Ochovski, Stefan. Demographic aspects of the process of settlement structure in Slovakia. [Demografski aspekti na razvitieto na strukturata na razselvane v Slovakiya.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 78-89 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author discusses the development of the settlement system in the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia. He stresses the need to increase the supply of services to settlement centers rather than trying to increase population in such areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20549 Zemskov, V. N. Special settlers (based on NKVD-MVD USSR statistics). [Spetsposelentsy (po dokumentatsii NKVD-MVD SSSR).] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 11, 1990. 3-17 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is an analysis of the deportations and resettlements of major population groups that occurred in the Soviet Union in the Stalinist era from the late 1920s to the 1950s. The author focuses on those populations that were moved to special settlements rather than those forced into exile. The study is based on data from police and security service records. The author discusses the compulsory resettlement of the peasant landowners (or Kulaks) that took place in 1929 and describes subsequent resettlements in chronological order, concentrating on the size and destination of these migrations.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

57:20550 Balev, Ivan. Daily labor migration of the economically active population. [Vsekidnevna trudova migratsiya na ikonomicheski aktivnite litsa.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 93-102 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Daily labor migration in Bulgaria is examined based on changes in commuter trends between the 1975 and 1985 censuses. The focus is on the influence of selected socio-demographic characteristics of commuters, the effects on the economic potential of cities and villages, and possible future trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20551 Gocal, Teresa; Rakowski, Witold. Spatial and socio-demographic differences in commuting levels among rural populations. [Przestrzenne i demograficzno-spoleczne zroznicowanie nasilenia wyjazdow ludnosci wiejskiej do pracy.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1987. 101-43, 218, 224-5 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Regional differences in the intensity of commuting in Poland are analyzed. Separate consideration is given to commuting to urban areas, between villages, and from urban areas to the country. The characteristics of commuters are also analyzed by sex, age, occupation and educational status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20552 Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney; Guo, Shenyang. Temporary migrants in Shanghai households, 1984. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 1991. 275-91 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In China, temporary migration is defined as a change in place of residence without a concomitant change in household registration; such mobility therefore encompasses a more heterogeneous set of motivations than is usually subsumed under this heading in other nations. Because of China's strict control of permanent migration to large cities, temporary migration has become an important strategy for adjusting to economic changes and to effecting family reunification. The Shanghai Temporary Migration Survey of 1984 focused on one segment of temporary migrants, the 58% living in the households of permanent residents. Multinomial logistic regression suggests the heightened probability that close relatives of the household heads come to Shanghai to visit or to live, and nonrelatives to work. Regression on current and expected duration shows that many intended to stay for a year or more some for up to 20 years. Their presence in the city places added strains on infrastructure and raises questions about the continued efficacy of China's migration policies."
Correspondence: A. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20553 Goldstein, Sidney; Goldstein, Alice. Permanent and temporary migration differentials in China. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 117, ISBN 0-86638-137-6. LC 91-7663. Feb 1991. vii, 52 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Urban development and migration policies in China have greatly limited permanent migration to cities, especially to bigger ones. In recent years, however, largely as a result of economic reforms, temporary migration has become a major mechanism of population exchange. Data from the 1986 Survey of Migration in 74 Cities and Towns of China, sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Social Science, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the volume and direction of temporary movement, the reasons for it, and the sociodemographic differences between temporary and permanent migrants living in China's cities and towns....Overall, the findings indicate that temporary migration has come to complement and in some cases to substitute for permanent migration in allowing the Chinese population to cope with its rural labor surplus and to satisfy its strong desire for urban amenities."
Correspondence: East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20554 McHugh, Kevin E.; Mings, Robert C. On the road again: seasonal migration to a Sunbelt metropolis. Urban Geography, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 1-18 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Seasonal migration to Sunbelt locales in recreational vehicles (RVs) has emerged as a major form of cyclical movement among Americans and Canadians. Using Phoenix, Arizona, as a case study, this paper addresses three questions. Who participates in this lifestyle? What are their geographical and temporal patterns of migration? What are the distinguishing characteristics of RV resort communities? Results highlight that older Americans and Canadians are defining new lifestyles and forms of retirement living based on seasonal movement in RVs."
Correspondence: K. E. McHugh, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287-0104. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20555 Michalowski, Margaret. Foreign-born Canadian emigrants and their characteristics (1981-1986). International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1991. 28-59 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides estimates of levels and structures of recent return migration from Canada. Estimates are distinguished according to sex, period of immigration and place of birth of foreign-born emigrants. Special attention is paid to propensity to return. The impact of return migration on change of foreign-born populations is also evaluated."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 426).
Correspondence: M. Michalowski, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20556 Michev, Nikolai; Dimitrov, Emil. Reversible labor migrations in Bulgaria--development, evaluation, and problems. [Vazvratni trudovi migratsii v Balgariya--razvitie, otsenka i problemi.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 54-69 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors examine temporary labor migration in Bulgaria from both historical and current perspectives. They note that traditional seasonal migration in agricultural labor died out following the socialist reconstruction of the country. Reversible labor migration today consists largely of daily and nonseasonal commuting associated with industry, construction, recreation, and tourism.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20557 Rogers, Andrei. Return migration to region of birth among retirement-age persons in the United States. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 3, May 1990. S128-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study addresses some of the methodological difficulties one encounters in assessing the question of whether older persons display an increasing tendency to return to their state of birth after reaching retirement age. It reanalyzes previously studied data on the question and concludes that there is no indication that elderly people are more prone than nonelderly to 'return home' to their native state." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

57:20558 Butzin, Bernhard. Counterurbanization: spatial division of labour and regional life-cycles in Canada. Geographical Perspectives, No. 61, 1988. 6-14 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
"After a discussion of major concepts of counterurbanization, a narrow definition is proposed. Various demographic and socio-economic dimensions are analysed at different scales with special regard to the Canadian heartland. The basic hypothesis suggests a temporary weakening of urban growth dynamics: decentralization, thus, is a result of locational adjustment strategies, emerging during revolutions in basic technology. The corresponding 'filtering down' processes create a selective, interregional spread of labour. However, shift analytical time series indicate that the development capacity of core regions oscillates in a life-cyclical rhythm. Counterurbanization is expected to fade out with regional adjustment to basic technological transformation."
Correspondence: B. Butzin, Universitat Munster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 26, Munster, Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20559 Champion, A. G. Counterurbanization: the British experience. Geographical Perspectives, No. 61, 1988. 15-29 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
"A classification of relatively self-contained functional regions is used to test for the existence of counterurbanization in Great Britain. It is shown that population deconcentration from Metropolitan to Freestanding Britain was underway during 1961-71 and increased in magnitude in 1971-81....Reference to annual estimates of population, however, indicate that these counterurban shifts reached a peak in the early 1970s and that after the mid 1970s there was a significant narrowing of the range of growth rates along the metropolitan dimension. The early 1980s were characterized by a marked reduction in the rate of population loss from the larger metropolitan centres alongside a continuation of relatively rapid growth in the more rural parts of the country."
Location: New York Public Library.

57:20560 Haberkorn, Gerald. Port Vila: transit station or final stop? Recent developments in Ni-Vanuatu population mobility. Pacific Research Monograph, No. 21, ISBN 0-7315-0669-3. 1989. xiii, 162 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, National Centre for Development Studies: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This study examines the role of rural-urban migration in the rapid urbanization that has occurred in Vanuatu since 1967. The focus is on migration from Paama and Raga (North Pentecost). Data are primarily from the censuses of 1967 and 1979. "Rather than viewing mobility developments through time solely as the result of socio-economic change, this book emphasizes the ongoing interplay between mobility and structural transformations in source and destination areas, an interplay which causes a re-creation of new environments within which mobility occurs. It quickly becomes apparent that causes which facilitated and necessitated mobility in the 1950s and 1960s no longer assume the same significance in defining mobility in contemporary rural societies." A gradual trend from temporary to permanent migration to urban areas is identified.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Research School of Pacific Studies, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20561 Hugo, Graeme. Counterurbanization in Australia. Geographical Perspectives, No. 61, 1988. 43-68 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
"The present paper attempts to assess the extent of the non-metropolitan population turnaround [in Australia] during the 1970s and to estimate the magnitude of its components. It establishes the extent to which [it] has been a spatially concentrated phenomenon. It examines the patterns of migration between Australia's metropolitan and non-metropolitan sectors and the selectivity of the migration. The paper then assesses a range of explanations which have been put forward to account for the turnaround and speculates upon likely future patterns. Throughout there is an attempt to draw contrasts and similarities between patterns and processes in Australia and those in the United States."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, Flinders University of South Australia, School of Social Sciences, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20562 Husain, Imtiazuddin; Kiyani, Tanvir. On the industrialization of small towns in Pakistan. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1990. 51-62 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Migration to large metropolitan cities in Pakistan from rural areas and small towns has put enormous pressure on those cities and created many socio-economic and demographic problems. This article suggests that, in conjunction with other steps, many smaller towns should be developed and industrialized to ease the pressure on the larger cities, as has been done in other areas of the world."
Correspondence: I. Husain, National Institute of Population Studies, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20563 Kayser, Bernard. Rural renaissance in the United States: the viewpoint of a French geographer. Geographical Perspectives, No. 61, 1988. 77-88 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
The author provides a French perspective on the phenomenon of the turnaround migration that occurred in the United States during the 1970s. Some comparisons are made with the situation in France and elsewhere in Western Europe.
Location: New York Public Library.

57:20564 Kontuly, Thomas; Vogelsang, Roland. Changing age-selective gross migration streams and turnaround in the Federal Republic of Germany. Geographical Perspectives, No. 61, 1988. 30-42 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
"Age-specific migration changes between 1977 and 1980 reveal several modifications in the pattern of population redistribution in the Federal Republic and suggest a major alteration of the West German internal migration system. In 1980, both the 30 to 49...and the 50+ year olds move (in the net) out of densely populated regions and into sparsely populated areas. A net out-migration occurs from the large, densely populated urban regions with strong and contemporary economic bases as well as from areas with structural economic problems. Densely populated regions lose more migrants while sparsely populated areas retain additional potential movers. Diverse explanations are suggested for these age-selective migration changes."
Correspondence: T. Kontuly, University of Utah, Department of Geography, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20565 Nelson, Arthur C.; Dueker, Kenneth J. The exurbanization of America and its planning policy implications. Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, Winter 1990. 91-100 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"There is considerable evidence of continued population deconcentration in the continental United States. It has created, among other things, a new form of development, which we call exurbanization. In this paper we suggest the magnitude of exurbanization in both spatial and population terms, identify many of the reasons for the locational behavior of exurban households, and present some notable planning policy implications."
Correspondence: A. C. Nelson, Georgia Institute of Technology, 225 N Avenue NW, Atlanta, GA 30332. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20566 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Survey of migration into the Bangkok Metropolis, 1988. [1990?]. [vii], 53 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This publication is the fifteenth in a series of reports on the Survey of Migration into Bangkok. The 1988 survey was concerned with migration into Bangkok and the neighboring region. The data cover migrant characteristics, place of origin, reasons for migration, and labor force participation of migrants.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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