Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

57:20361 Allen, Douglas W. An inquiry into the state's role in marriage. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 13, No. 2, Mar 1990. 171-91 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The role of the state in the institution of marriage is explored. The author argues that government intervention in marriage is a means of avoiding large transaction costs between men and women. Such intervention is successful because marriage creates incentives that make private enforcement relatively costly and because marriages tend to be homogenous. The hypothesis is tested by examining U.S. state responses to changing divorce laws. The author concludes that such responses are consistent with the state increasing the social value of marriage by mitigating transaction costs.
Correspondence: D. W. Allen, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20362 Amoateng, A. Y. Sociodemographic correlates of the timing of family formation in Ghana. South African Journal of Sociology/Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Sosiologie, Vol. 21, No. 3, Aug 1990. 145-51 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng. with sum. in Afr.
"Using the 1979/1980 Ghana Fertility Survey, the effects of selected social and demographic factors on the timing of marriage were examined. Among the social and demographic factors examined were education, occupation, ethnicity, religion, family structure and birth cohorts. The findings showed the existence of early and universal marriage in Ghana despite the increasing tendency to postpone it. These patterns of family formation in Ghana are influenced by socioeconomic factors such as education, wage employment and urbanization."
Correspondence: A. Y. Amoateng, University of Transkei, Department of Sociology, Private Bag X1001, Umtata, Transkei, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20363 Bennett, Neil G.; Goldstein, Heidi; Abzug, Rikki. Spouse selection and marital instability. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 582, Sep 1989. 28, [9] pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"In this paper we test several hypotheses regarding the relationship between spouse selection and marital instability [in the United States]. The divergent world views, values, and expectations that differences in age, religion, and education bring to bear on a marriage appear to significantly undermine the viability of the relationship. Specifically, a woman who marries a man of a different religion, of lower educational achievement, or of a younger age is subject to a considerably higher likelihood of marital dissolution than her homogamously married counterpart. It is important to note that those who are part of heterogamous unions are a select group of relatively non-traditional individuals who may hold non-traditional views about the dominion of legal marriage. Therefore, they may be more apt to end such a traditional arrangement if it is unsatisfying to them."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20364 Bittles, Alan H.; Mason, William M.; Greene, Jennifer; Rao, N. Appaji. Reproductive behavior and health in consanguineous marriages. Science, Vol. 252, No. 5007, May 10, 1991. 789-94 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In many regions of Asia and Africa, consanguineous marriages currently account for approximately 20 to 50% of all unions, and preliminary observations indicate that migrants from these areas continue to contract marriages with close relatives when resident in North America and Western Europe. Consanguinity is associated with increased gross fertility, due at least in part to younger maternal age at first livebirth. Morbidity and mortality also may be elevated, resulting in comparable numbers of surviving offspring in consanguineous and nonconsanguineous families. With advances in medicine and public health, genetic disorders will account for an increased proportion of disease worldwide. Predictably, this burden will fall more heavily on countries and communities in which consanguinity is strongly favored, as the result of the expression of deleterious recessive genes. However, studies conducted in such populations indicate that the adverse effects associated with inbreeding are experienced by a minority of families."
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, University of London, King's College, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

57:20365 Borrajo Iniesta, Santiago. Marital disruption in Spain. [La ruptura matrimonial en Espana.] ISBN 84-7754-058-6. 1989. 199 pp. EUDEMA: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Trends in divorce in Spain are analyzed, based on a study of more than 1,200 divorces and legal separations. Trends in marital disruption in other countries are discussed, and their validity as a model for Spain's experience is considered. The empirical study on Spain covers types of disruption, duration of marriage, partners' ages at disruption, separation, litigation, number of children, premarital pregnancy, life-style of spouses after separation, women's employment, and occupational categories of partners.
Correspondence: EUDEMA, Fortuny 53, 28010 Madrid, Spain. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20366 Bracher, Michael. Explaining first marriage trends in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 7, No. 2, Nov 1990. 128-50 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper presents new estimates of Australian first marriage trends since the 1920s and then focuses on the recent period. Analysis of first marriage statistics shows that nuptiality decline actually began amongst the oldest potential marriers in the late 1960s, and then percolated down to the younger ages. An attempt to explain recent trends through Becker's economic theory of marriage proves unsuccessful. Nevertheless, time-series regression analyses indicate that over the last twenty years first marriage rates in Australia have followed major movements in economic factors, in particular employment status, and that neither normative change nor the economic rationality postulated by the economic theory of marriage needs to be invoked as the primary determinant of changing nuptiality."
Correspondence: M. Bracher, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian Family Project, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20367 Clark, Roger. Economic dependency and divorce: implications for the private sphere. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1990. 47-65 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper asserts a connection between economic dependency and divorce. It argues that, because dependency deprives women of equal access to the public sphere and because it confines them, through normative definition, to the private sphere, it reduces their likelihood of seeking divorce. The paper also argues, contrary to recent findings, that socioeconomic development should be linearly and positively associated with divorce. Data from 51 nations are examined and multiple regression analysis [suggests] considerable support for these arguments."
Correspondence: R. Clark, Rhode Island College, 600 Mount Pleasant Avenue, Providence, RI 02908. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20368 Cooney, Teresa M.; Hogan, Dennis P. Marriage in an institutionalized life course: first marriage among American men in the twentieth century. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 1, Feb 1991. 178-90 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Life-course researchers have linked variations in age at first marriage to such period conditions as educational and employment opportunities and military service requirements, and to intercohort variability in the availability of potential spouses. Little empirical evidence supports this claim. Also, it remains unspecified whether period and cohort factors directly influence the probability of marriage, or do so through their effects on individuals' school, work, and military experiences. Using individual-level data for native white [U.S.] men born between 1907 and 1953, matched with statistics on period conditions and cohort characteristics, we show that these macro-level factors have significant effects on the rate of first marriage. While a substantial portion of their impact is mediated through individuals' life-course experiences, there are persistent effects of institutional arrangements on timing of first marriage."
Correspondence: T. M. Cooney, University of Delaware, Department of Individual and Family Studies, 111 Alison Annex, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20369 Goyal, R. P. Marriage age in India. Studies in Economic Development and Planning, No. 50, ISBN 81-7018-528-9. LC 88-905481. 1988. xxii, 303 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Estimates of mean age at marriage are developed for males and females by rural and urban area for all the states of India. The data are from the 1971 and 1981 censuses, and the Hajnal estimating method is used. The author then discusses trends, policies, religion, caste, regional differences, and social, cultural, and economic factors affecting age at marriage, all in relation to the implications of enforcing the Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. This legislation was enacted to encourage marriage postponement in order to lower fertility.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing Corporation, 29/9 Nangia Park, Shakti Nagar, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20370 Guest, Philip. Marital dissolution and development in Indonesia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 24, 1991. 27 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this study we utilize World Fertility Survey data for the Indonesian islands of Java and Bali to establish the incidence of marital dissolution, to examine how the incidence has changed over time, and to analyze the covariates of the timing and probability of divorce. The findings suggest that declines in divorce can be largely attributed to development processes that have increased levels of educational attainment and resulted in later ages of marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 410).
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20371 Guinnane, Timothy. Re-thinking the Western European marriage pattern: the decision to marry in Ireland at the turn of the twentieth century. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991. 47-64 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses Hajnal's model of historical European marriage patterns using data for Ireland at the beginning of the twentieth century. "John Hajnal's influential neo-Malthusian model of nuptiality in historical northwestern Europe makes economic conditions the regulator of the age at marriage and the proportion marrying, and so is in principle an economic theory of marriage. Yet because it over-simplifies the economic consequences of marriage for young adults, Hajnal's model cannot account for important differences in the incentive to marry implied by different economic and social environments. An alternative, non-Malthusian view of Ireland's nuptiality history suggests the need to integrate decisions by young adults about marriage into a broader appreciation of the consequences of marriage and permanent celibacy in concrete economic and social environments."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 376).
Correspondence: T. Guinnane, Princeton University, Department of Economics, 112 Fisher Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20372 Jones, F. L. Ethnic intermarriage in Australia, 1950-52 to 1980-82: models or indices? Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 1991. 27-42 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Gray has recently proposed a theory of intermarriage in which two factors jointly determine in-marriage rates among the members of different birthplace groups. These two factors are opportunity and preference. McCaa has since criticised Gray's proposal for failing to isolate the effects of group size (market representation) from those of preference. I present further arguments relevant to this discussion, and deploy log-linear models of in-marriage and bilateral exchanges to illustrate the advantages of a model-based approach." The geographical focus is on Australia.
For the article by A. Gray, published in 1987, see 54:10425. For the article by R. McCaa, published in 1989, see 55:20421.
Correspondence: F. L. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20373 Kertzer, David I.; Hogan, Dennis P. Reflections on the European marriage pattern: sharecropping and proletarianization in Casalecchio, Italy, 1861-1921. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991. 31-45 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors critically analyze John Hajnal's theories on historical European marriage patterns using data from a commune in Casalecchio, Italy, for the years 1861-1921. "Reviewed in light of evidence from the commune of Casalecchio, the Hajnal thesis and its subsequent reformulations are shown to be in need of modification. With respect to the 'Mediterranean marriage pattern' (postulated by Peter Laslett), the Casalecchio evidence shows a strong patrilocal tradition of postmarital residence but not a concomitant early female age at marriage, a large spousal gap, or a small proportion of people who never marry. Moreover, marriage age remained relatively high during the period of proletarianization and the proletarian segment of the community married at much the same ages as the most traditional sharecropping population. The relationship between the impact of industrialization and marriage age in particular is therefore more complex than has been hypothesized."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 376).
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Bowdoin College, Department of Anthropology, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20374 Liao, Cailian. Sociodemographic factors on the timing of marital formation and dissolution in China. Pub. Order No. DA9012757. 1989. 140 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using [the] 1985 China In-Depth Fertility Survey as [a] data source and [a] life course perspective as the theoretical framework, this study examines the effects of selected social and demographic factors on marital formation and dissolution in China. Among the sociodemographic factors examined are education, working status, urban/rural residence, marriage type, age at first marriage, age and time period. Findings show the existence of earlier marriage and higher marriage rates among women with lower education, who do not work, in the rural setting, with arranged marriages and during the earlier time periods, while higher divorce rates are observed among women with higher education, residing in the urban areas, with arranged marriages, marrying either below age 20 or above 25, aged below 22 at the survey and during 1951-65 and post 1980 periods."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brigham Young University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(12).

57:20375 Lynch, Katherine A. The European marriage pattern in the cities: variations on a theme by Hajnal. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991. 79-96 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the 'European Marriage Pattern' [as described by John Hajnal] in the cities of northwestern Europe in the early modern and modern periods. It shows the importance of heterogeneity in ways that the two features of the pattern--high age at marriage and high proportions single--were integrated in different types of urban economic settings and across various social groups. The study argues that while demographic consequences of the 'European Marriage Pattern' were of fundamental importance, the endurance of the pattern is also explained by its vitality as part of a widespread system of cultural values."
Correspondence: K. A. Lynch, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of History, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20376 Mare, Robert D.; Winship, Christopher. Socioeconomic change and the decline of marriage for blacks and whites. CDE Working Paper, No. 90-21, Jul 1990. 27, [4] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This chapter reports an investigation of the effects of trends in both labor market and educational statuses on trends in marriage rates since 1940 [in the United States]....Although employment status strongly affects whether men marry, recent declines in employment rates among young blacks are simply not large enough to account for a substantial part of the trend in their marriage rates....Our results suggest that one must go beyond socioeconomic factors to account for the drastic declines in marriage rates that have occurred during the last 30 years. Compared to their counterparts a generation ago, young persons of both races....are more likely to cohabit without marrying, want few or no children, and view the separation of childbearing from marriage as feasible and socially acceptable. These trends lead young adults to be more likely to view marriage with apprehension and skepticism....[and] create a climate of expectations that may, over cohorts and generations, contribute to the downward slide of rates of entry into marriage."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20377 Muhsam, Helmut. Social distance and asymmetry in intermarriage patterns. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3, Autumn 1990. v, ix, 307-24 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Three theories are proposed to explain differences in the frequency of intermarriage. They focus on the social aspects of choosing a marriage partner. The theories are tested using data from the United States, Brazil, and Israel.
Correspondence: H. Muhsam, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20378 Norton, Arthur J.; Miller, Louisa F. Remarriage among women in the United States: 1985. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 169, Dec 1990. 1-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper has presented a description of recent trends in remarriage for women in the United States....The focus has been on who is most likely to remarry among women whose first marriage ends in divorce or widowhood....The major findings in the paper indicate that remarriage is much more likely after divorce than after widowhood and that while characteristics like age, race, Hispanic origin, education, and presence of children have some role in determining remarriage prospects, age at divorce or widowhood exerts an overriding influence on the likelihood of remarriage."
Correspondence: A. J. Norton, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20379 Nowakowska, Barbara; Obraniak, Wlodzimierz. Urbanization and incidence of divorce in Poland. [Proces urbanizacji a natezenie rozwodow w Polsce.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/99, 1990. 87-105 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyses the intensity of divorce in different settlement units [of Poland] (villages--small towns--cities) and its spatial diversification....On the basis of the conducted analysis a general conclusion is drawn: the higher the level of urbanization, the higher the intensity of divorce....In the final part of the paper the authors emphasize the social consequences of divorce, i.e. social orphanhood of minors."
Correspondence: B. Nowakowska, University of Lodz, Institute of Economics and Statistics, Narutowicza 65, 90-131 Lodz, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20380 Padhy, Pramod K. Levels, trends and determinants of female age at marriage in Orissa, 1961-81. IIPS Newsletter, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1990. 2-15 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper attempts to study the levels, trends and determinants of female age at marriage during 1961-81 in Orissa [India] at district level by residential background....The result shows...a considerable increase in female age at marriage in each of the two successive decades, 1961-71 and 1971-81....The variable percentage of female workforce in [the] non-agricultural sector seems to be [a] strong determinant of female age at marriage in Orissa." Data are from the 1961, 1971, and 1981 Indian censuses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20381 Paul, Christine. Divorces, 1989. [Ehescheidungen 1989.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1990. 837-40 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Statistics are presented on divorces in West Germany in 1989. Comparative data for earlier years and for East Germany are also provided. Topics covered include trends since 1950, regional differences, divorce rates, duration of marriage, age at divorce, and number of children involved.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20382 Reddy, P. H. Changing age at marriage in a south Indian village. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3-4, Jul-Oct 1990. 219-28 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A study of a village in south India reveals that in the younger age groups, the proportions of men and women who had never been married were lower in 1961 than in 1983. During the same period, there was an increase of one year in the singulate mean age at marriage of men and over 2 years in that of women. The mean age at marriage of men and women varied by marriage cohort, religion, caste and educational attainment."
Correspondence: P. H. Reddy, Population Centre, Bangalore 560 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20383 Reher, David S. Marriage patterns in Spain, 1887-1930. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991. 7-30 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author uses data for Spanish provinces to discuss the implications of John Hajnal's theories concerning historical European marriage patterns. "This analysis of provincial data considers both the timing of marriage and celibacy from 1887 to 1930. As expected, demographic and economic factors...exerted a substantial influence on nuptiality. Cultural patterns...also played a pivotal role. Intense nuptiality can be found in areas of high mortality, partible inheritance, balanced marriage markets, moderate out-migration by both sexes, low population density, and professions which facilitated marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 376).
Correspondence: D. S. Reher, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, School of Sociology, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20384 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; VandenHeuvel, Audrey. Cohabitation: a precursor to marriage or an alternative to being single. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1990. 703-26, 811, 813 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Using data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, the article compares noncohabiting singles, cohabitors, and married individuals in terms of such characteristics as marriage and childbearing plans, participation in the labor force, home ownership, and financial independence from parents. In almost all comparisons, the cohabitors are substantially more similar to the singles than to the married. The increased popularity of cohabitation can be viewed as another indicator of the long-term rise of individualism in modern society."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20385 Schlegel, A. Cultural concomitants of the onset of women's reproductive lives. Collegium Antropologicum, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jun 1990. 101-5 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
"Age of first marriage, when women usually begin their reproductive lives, affects female health, family size, and population growth. It is often assumed that women themselves decide when to marry, and therefore the emphasis in studying this question has been on factors affecting women such as education and female employment. This paper discusses the importance of the age at which daughters marry for the family and shows a relationship between household economic needs and the age at which parents allow or encourage their daughters to marry. The data come from a sample of 186 preindustrial societies from all parts of the world."
Correspondence: A. Schlegel, University of Arizona, Department of Anthropology, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA.

57:20386 Schoen, Robert; Thomas, Barbara. Religious intermarriage in Switzerland, 1969-72 and 1979-82. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1990. 359-76 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Patterns of marriage between Protestants and Roman Catholics in Switzerland during 1969-72 and 1979-82 are investigated using magnitudes of marriage attraction, measures that reflect the propensity to marry independent of population composition. The results show high levels of intermarriage, with religious differences becoming less salient in marriage choice. There is no evidence that the propensity to intermarry is influenced by 'minority group' effects."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20387 Segalen, Martine. Mean age at marriage and kinship networks in a town under the influence of the metropolis: Nanterre, 1800-1850. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991. 65-78 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author uses John Hajnal's model of historical European marriage patterns as a basis for a discussion of marriage patterns in Nanterre, France. She finds that "marriage patterns in nineteenth-century Nanterre show the economic and social influences of its proximity to Paris. Agricultural production was adjusted to the needs of the rapidly expanding metropolis, and the town's economy became diversified....The marriages of farmers were relatively young, but they retained the West European pattern of independent nuclear households. The strong influence of kinship networks is apparent in the strict social endogamy of farm couples. Artisans and workers, who had migrated into Nanterre, lacked the economic and social support provided by these kinship networks, and their marriages tended to be late."
Correspondence: M. Segalen, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 26 rue Boyer, F-75971 Paris Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20388 Suzuki, Tohru. Social intermarriages in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jan 1991. 14-31 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in intermarriages between people of different social classes delineated by educational status, occupation of father, and nationality are examined for Japan for the period 1960-1987.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20389 Tan, Poo Chang; Jones, Gavin W. Changing patterns of marriage and household formation in Peninsular Malaysia. Sojourn, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1990. 163-93 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"Based on surveys conducted among different ethnic groups in rural and urban settings in Peninsular Malaysia in 1981-82, this paper analyses changes in patterns of marriage and household formation among Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Aspects covered include social mixing before marriage, choice of spouse, comparison of spouses' characteristics, and place of residence after marriage. There are important cultural differences between the main Malaysian ethnic groups in matters related to marriage, but in many important respects, attitudes and practice are tending to converge...."
Correspondence: P. C. Tan, University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20390 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS] (London, England). Marriage and divorce statistics: historical series of statistics on marriages and divorces in England and Wales, 1837-1983. Series FM2, No. 16, ISBN 0-11-691322-3. 1990. vi, 129 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This volume contains data on marriages in England and Wales from 1837 to 1983 and on divorces from 1858 to 1983. "Other relevant available historical statistics have also been included, such as population estimates by age, sex and marital status since 1851; and statistics on new widowhoods and widowerhoods each year since 1939."
Correspondence: HMSO Publications Centre, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20391 Wils, Anne B. Period and cohort effects on divorce rates. Popnet, No. 18, Fall 1990. 11-6 pp. Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author analyzes the demographic dimensions of divorce. A model is developed to estimate "the isolated effects of marriage duration, marriage cohort, and divorce period...on divorce probabilities over time [using data for Austria, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland]....Crude divorce rates (divorces per 1,000 married couples) in the six countries for the period 1946-1984 are reviewed, followed by a very brief review of some of the literature on period and cohort effects in general, and divorce in particular. The [second] section describes the data. The third section presents and discusses the results."
Correspondence: A. B. Wils, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20392 Woortmann, Klaas; Woortmann, Ellen F. Love and celibacy in the universe of peasantry. [Amor e celibato no universo campones.] Textos NEPO, No. 17, 1990. 105 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
This is a comparative study of marriage and celibacy among peasant societies around the world. The authors conclude that the concept of love is not a major factor affecting matrimonial choices in such societies. "There is a widespread preference for near marriage, either within the hamlet or with consanguines. Such a preference is closely related to inheritance patterns, as is also celibacy. Both marriage (alliance) and celibacy (condition for further alliance) are socially constructed as practices of social reproduction."
Correspondence: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

57:20393 Bhagat, R. B. Characteristics of the family and female age at marriage. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 4, Jun 1989. 22-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This study makes an attempt to explore the relationship between certain characteristics of the family such as female headship rate and family types, in relation to female age at marriage at the state level for India." Data are from the 1971 census of India.
Correspondence: R. B. Bhagat, Maharshi Dayanand University, Department of Geography, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20394 Boyd, Monica. Immigration and living arrangements: elderly women in Canada. International Migration Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1991. 4-27 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The foreign-born elderly in Canada include persons who immigrated as young adults but have now grown old, as well as persons who have immigrated late in life, usually under the auspices of family reunification....This article examines variation in living with family among the elderly by age-at-immigration groups. Previously married elderly women who arrived as children or as young adults are less likely than other groups, including the native born, to live with family. The percentage living with family instead of living alone or with a nonrelative is highest for women immigrating at age 65 or later. Socioeconomic correlates of these patterns are examined."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 484).
Correspondence: M. Boyd, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20395 Burguiere, Andre. The French Revolution and the family. [La Revolution Francaise et la famille.] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 46, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 151-68, 234 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the impact of the French Revolution on the family in France. He notes that although the French expected the Revolution to implement changes in the relations among the state, the family, and the individual, some of these expectations were incompatible. As a consequence, a large measure of continuity with the Ancien Regime can be seen in Revolutionary legislation concerning the family.
Correspondence: A. Burguiere, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Centre de Recherches Historiques, 54 Boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20396 Cai, Wenmei; Qiu, Peiling; Song, Jing'an. A survey report: the changes in family structure in three villages of Changpin county. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 120-32 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
Using data from annual surveys of households in three rural villages in China for the period 1980-1988, the authors analyze the dynamics of family size and structure, number of households, population size, generational structure of households, and marital status and living arrangements of the elderly.
Correspondence: W. Cai, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20397 Castleton, Anne; Goldscheider, Frances K. Are Mormon families different? Household structure and family patterns. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 93-109 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The effects of religion and the cultural emphasis on individualism on family structure and female sex roles are examined for the U.S. state of Utah. Female age at marriage, parity, divorce rates, and female household headship rates are analyzed and compared with those for California and Rhode Island. Results indicate "a clear difference...between Utah (Mormons) and Rhode Island (Catholics) in the ways their religious traditionalism links to marital family roles...compared with other family roles....Further, there was a considerable difference between the two communities in their response to the rapid changes in family roles of the last two decades."
Correspondence: A. Castleton, University of Utah, Communications Department, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20398 Christian, Patricia B. Nonfamily households and housing among young adults. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 57-73 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The author "focuses on nonfamily living arrangements [in the United States] in the contexts of opportunities and constraints facing young men and women. We shall investigate the determinants of the rise in nonfamily households, testing whether it is due at least in part to normative changes in the family...or simply to increases in economic opportunity that have allowed the realization of a constant demand for solitary or non family living....An important consideration in the analysis will be the extent to which the availability and affordability of housing have an additional effect on patterns of living arrangements in 1980, beyond changes in the incomes of individuals and the preferences of families." Individual characteristics including education and migrant status as well as regional factors such as the cost of rental housing and unemployment are found to have a strong impact on living arrangements.
Correspondence: P. B. Christian, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20399 Cochrane, Susan; Kozel, Valerie; Alderman, Harold. Household consequences of high fertility in Pakistan. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 111, ISBN 0-8213-1726-1. LC 90-22877. 1990. 44 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In the present paper, we shall review the existing evidence on the household consequences of high fertility in developing countries with special reference to Pakistan and analyze household data from two Pakistani surveys. This paper will examine both the health and economic consequences of high fertility." The impact of large family size on health, child schooling, family employment, income, and savings is examined. Differentials according to sex and geographic factors are presented.
Correspondence: World Bank, Publications Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20400 Coppee, Isabelle. The size of households in large cities and departments. [La taille des menages dans les grandes villes et les departements.] INSEE Resultats: Demographie-Societe, No. 7, ISBN 2-11-065913-0. Dec 1990. 84 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in household size in France over the course of the twentieth century are analyzed using census data. The analysis is presented separately for towns over 50,000 inhabitants and for departments.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20401 Council of Europe (Strasbourg, France). Household structures in Europe: report of the select committee of experts on household structures. Council of Europe Population Studies, No. 22, ISBN 92-871-1796-9. 1990. 128 pp. Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This volume contains data pertaining to household composition during the period 1950-1980 for the 21 member countries of the Council of Europe. The focus of the report is on changes in family composition, household size, marriage and divorce patterns, and fertility. "The most important socio-demographic changes within the last three decades with regard to the size and the structure of households and families were the following: decrease in nuptiality; increase in the divorce rate; decline in the number of children in marriages; increase in the number of consensual unions; [and] increase in the number of one-person households, in particular owing to the increase in the share of older people living alone and of young people leaving their parents' home relatively early."
Correspondence: Council of Europe, Publications and Documents Division, F-67006 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20402 Croll, Elisabeth J. The aggregate family: households and kin support in rural China. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 239-57 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author examines trends in rural family structure in China since the economic reforms of 1980. She notes the likely emergence of a new family form called the aggregate family. "The new and emerging family form is...made up of a number of households related by close kin ties which develop new forms of association or co-operation based on economic and socio-political links and exchanges."
Correspondence: E. J. Croll, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Senate House, London WC1E 7HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20403 Da Molin, Giovanna. The family in the past: family structure in the Kingdom of Naples in the modern era. [La famiglia nel passato: strutture familiari nel Regno di Napoli in eta moderna.] Saggi e Ricerche, No. 1, 1990. 207 pp. Cacucci Editore: Bari, Italy. In Ita.
This is an analysis of trends in family characteristics in southern Italy from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. Data are from the state and church archives of the Kingdom of Naples. The author describes changes in family and individual life cycles, the process of family formation, and changes in age at marriage. The relations between family type and such factors as family income and occupation of head of household are explored. Particular attention is given to the agricultural community and to the role of servants and others in the family who were not related to it by blood.
Correspondence: Cacucci Editore, Via Cairoli 140, 70122 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20404 De Vos, Susan. Extended family living among older people in six Latin American countries. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 3, May 1990. S87-94 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined and compared demographic and urban/rural residence underpinnings to people 60 and over living in an extended family household in six Latin American countries. Household samples of the World Fertility Survey gathered in the middle 1970s were used, as was a combination of crosstabular and logit techniques. We found that, in contrast to Western countries, a majority of the elderly population lived in extended family households. This was more likely in the Dominican Republic than in Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, or Peru, which was, in turn, more likely than in Mexico. However, such differences were most apparent among the married, not the unmarried. In all countries, unmarried people were more likely to live in extended family households than were married people. Among unmarried elderly, the likelihood was greater for women than for men. Contrary to initial expectations, neither urban/rural residence nor age among the elderly themselves tended to be important."
Correspondence: S. De Vos, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

57:20405 Duncan, Greg J.; Rodgers, Willard. Lone-parent families and their economic problems: transitory or persistent? In: Lone-parent families: the economic challenge. 1990. 43-68 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]: Paris, France. In Eng.
The living arrangements and economic status of children in the United States are examined using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a household longitudinal survey covering the period 1968-1984. The authors first review longitudinal patterns of living in one- and two-parent families by race. They also explore links between the absence of a parent during childhood and the economic status of children. Some attention is given to other factors that put children at economic risk and to the long-term consequences for children who live at least a portion of their childhood without both parents.
Correspondence: G. J. Duncan, University of Michigan, Survey Research Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20406 Ermisch, John; Jenkins, Stephen; Wright, Robert E. Analysis of the dynamics of lone parenthood: socio-economic influences on entry and exit rates. In: Lone-parent families: the economic challenge. 1990. 69-90 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"This chapter analyses the flows into and out of lone parenthood by British women, using demographic and work histories of over 5,000 women. A large part of the study focuses on the dynamics of lone parenthood among mothers who had been married at least once, and who constitute the vast majority of lone parents in Great Britain." The data are from the 1980 British Women and Employment Survey and concern some 800 of the 5,320 women aged 16-59 who have been single parents at least once during their lives. The authors develop a simple model of the dynamics of single parenthood. "We then estimate models which allow the rates of inflow to and outflow from lone parenthood to vary with the characteristics of a woman, including the period of time during which she is exposed to the risk of an event occurring. The latter analysis focuses on an important sub-group of potential lone mothers, namely, those who have been married at least once."
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 2 Dean Trench Street, Smith Square, London SW1P 3HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20407 Ermisch, John. Demographic aspects of the growing number of lone-parent families. In: Lone-parent families: the economic challenge. 1990. 27-41 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]: Paris, France. In Eng.
"This chapter describes the trends regarding lone-parent families, examines related traditional demographic rates, and, in general, indicates the demographic context in which their growth in numbers has occurred. Next basic concepts and definitions are introduced, followed by a discussion of the lone-parent group--their numbers and the trends in selected OECD countries; the underlying demographic rates primarily responsible for their increase, and their demographic characteristics. Brief comments on future trends conclude the chapter." The geographical focus is on developed, market-economy countries.
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 2 Dean Trench Street, Smith Square, London SW1P 3HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20408 Goldscheider, Calvin; Jones, Mali B. Living arrangements among the older population: constraints, preferences, and power. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 75-91 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
Types of living arrangements among the elderly in the United States are described. Consideration is given to autonomy and dependence, proportion living in one-person or two-person households, proportion residing with others over age 50, and proportion who are household heads. Broader sociological concerns about ethnic communities and family changes are also addressed.
Correspondence: C. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20409 Goldscheider, Frances K. Children leaving home and the household economy. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 111-25 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
Patterns in departure from the parental home and their relationship to child's educational status and family economy are examined and compared for ethnic and religious communities in the U.S. state of Rhode Island. The greatest contrast is seen between Jewish families, whose children have a high level of education and economic support, and Portuguese families, whose children receive little subsidy for higher education, remain at home longer, and contribute extensively to the family economy.
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20410 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Goldscheider, Calvin. Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows. Social Inequality Series, ISBN 0-8133-7856-7. LC 89-35687. 1989. xvii, 200 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"The focus of this volume is on the way the family economy is being shaped both by changes in living arrangements and in intergenerational financial flows....We address issues of variations in these processes in the United States, particularly differences among ethnic, racial, and religious communities. We focus on Blacks and Hispanics but also examine variation among Hispanics, Asian Americans, and religious groups (including Mormons and Catholics)....Nine [previously unpublished] research studies are presented, which all analyze household and family patterns emerging around 1980....The studies investigate the socio-demographic factors lying behind the new patterns of family and household structure, with particular emphasis on variation and change among ethnic, racial, and religious subpopulations." Studies concerning Israel and Japan are included for comparative purposes.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20411 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Goldscheider, Calvin. Ethnicity and the new family economy: synthesis and research challenges. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 185-97 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This is an overview of the shifts in family structure, household economy, and living arrangements among ethnic groups in the United States. The authors review recent research and raise questions concerning such changes in the family life cycle.
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20412 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Fisher, Zara. Household structure and living alone in Israel. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 147-61 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze "the changing family patterns associated with modernization by examining ethnic differences in family living arrangements in Israel in 1972, focusing in particular on the likelihood of living alone or with unrelated adults." They find that "group level differences in family living patterns are strong and salient [and]....result from group adjustments to long-term change in social structure....This result argues strongly for a conclusion that there are strong, normatively-based forces underlying living arrangements decisions, leading to variation over time and between groups at the same time."
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20413 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Goldscheider, Calvin. The new family economy: residential and economic relationships among the generations. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 1-16 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a collection of studies on changes in family economy among minority groups in the United States. The article provides an overview of the shifts in family structure and intergenerational financial exchanges and their relationship to ethnic variations.
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20414 Gonnot, Jean-Pierre; Vukovich, Gabriella. Changes in family and cohabitation conditions in 14 industrialized countries. [A csaladi es egyuttelesi viszonyok valtozasa tizennegy fejlett orszagban.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 69, No. 3, Mar 1991. 189-214 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The purpose of the study is to review some of the demographic trends which have substantial influence on social security budgets. Thus the authors deal with nuptiality and...[divorce] with changes in family and household structures...[and] especially with one-person households and one-parent families." Data are from 12 selected countries of Europe plus Canada and the USSR. The general trends observed include a decline in nuptiality, increasing age at marriage, high and increasing divorce rates, and an increase in consensual unions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20415 Gu, Jiantang. Household structure in contemporary China. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 92-106 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The various types of households in modern China are analyzed. Included are the age and sex distributions of heads of household, nationality differences, rural-urban differences, and generational structures. Data are from the 1982 National One-per-Thousand Population Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: J. Gu, Beijing College of Economics, Population Research Institute, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20416 Gysi, Jutta. Family forms in East Germany. [Formy rodziny w NRD.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1989. 25-49, 164, 169 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author reviews family characteristics in East Germany. Although the nuclear family remains the norm, increases in second marriages, divorces, and consensual unions are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20417 Hanada, Kyo. Coresidence of family members and in-home care of the aged. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jan 1991. 32-48 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Household structure and coresidence patterns of family members in Japan are investigated. Households are analyzed for age, marital status, and familial relationships. The author also examines home care of the aged and the relationship of the care giver to the aged person.
Correspondence: K. Hanada, 3-2-3-105 Tomisato, Kashiwa, Chiba 277, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20418 Hernandez, Luis L. Nonfamily living arrangements among black and Hispanic Americans. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 17-37 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
Changes in the constraints and preferences affecting nonfamily living arrangements among Hispanics and African Americans are explored. The impact of modernization, shifts in kinship patterns and value orientation, and income fluctuations are examined. The author finds that "there are racial and ethnic variations in family norms and preferences for living alone."
Correspondence: L. L. Hernandez, Yale University, School of Law, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20419 Hess, Steven C. The effect of employment and welfare on family structure: explaining the time trend of female-headed families. American Economist, Vol. 34, No. 1, Spring 1990. 76-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author critically reviews various hypotheses that have been put forward in order to explain the rise in the number of female-headed single-parent families among both blacks and whites in the United States. Specifically, regression of time series data is used to examine the relative effects of welfare benefits, male and female employment rates, and changing social values.
Correspondence: S. C. Hess, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20420 Hoffmann-Nowotny, H. J. Family and kinship forms in the twenty-first century. [Familien- und Beziehungsformen im 21. Jahrhundert.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1990. 16-38 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in marriage patterns and family and household characteristics in Europe are discussed. The author forecasts further developments in these areas based on macro-sociological theory. Predicted changes include the decreasing popularity of marriage and remarriage, an increase in childlessness and one-parent families, and the extinction of the traditional nuclear family. The individual is seen as the basic unit of society in the twenty-first century.
Correspondence: H. J. Hoffmann-Nowotny, Universitat Zurich, Sociologisches Institut, Ramistrasse 69, CH-8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20421 Kanjanapan, Wilawan. The Asian-American traditional household. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 39-55 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes differences in living arrangements among various ethnic groups of Asian Americans. Consideration is given to type of household; family characteristics, including family extension; nonfamily living; age and sex factors; and the effect of assimilation on the values of Asian immigrants. Significant ethnic diversity is found.
Correspondence: W. Kanjanapan, Academia Sinica, Institute of American Culture, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20422 Kennedy, Finola. Family, economy and government in Ireland. ESRI General Research Series, No. 143, ISBN 0-7070-0106-4. Jan 1989. xv, 176 pp. Economic and Social Research Institute [ESRI]: Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"This study provides an analysis of family change in the context of economic development and government policy in Ireland during the past 50 years, that is the period since the Irish Constitution of 1937, which confers special recognition on the family, was promulgated." Topics covered include household composition, marriage patterns, marriage breakdown, fertility, adoption, abortion, infant mortality, family planning, and the elderly. The focus is on the impact on the family of the tax-benefit regime and public expenditure programs. Elements of family policy in the future are outlined.
Correspondence: Economic and Social Research Institute, 4 Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20423 Kojima, Hiroshi. Intergenerational household extension in Japan. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 163-84 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
Determinants of intergenerational household extension in Japan are discussed. The effects of industrialization, child's financial status, and child's attitudes toward living with parents are considered.
Correspondence: H. Kojima, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20424 Kono, Shigemi. Changes in the family life cycle and the issues of the three-generation household in Japan. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 146-65 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author analyzes family life cycles for Japan using data from various sources for the period 1935-1980. The focus is on trends in three-generation households and care of the elderly, in the face of prospects for further prolongation of life and its increasing physical and economic burden on the family.
Correspondence: S. Kono, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20425 Latten, J. J.; Vermunt, J. K. Young and single in the 1980s and 1990s. [Jong en alleenstaand in de jaren '80 en '90.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 4, Apr 1991. 27-39 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In the Netherlands increasing numbers of young people who leave their parents' home choose to live alone. This behavioural change dates back to the 60s....[and] is based on general social changes which are not restricted to the Netherlands....Based on the Netherlands Fertility Survey '88...[a model is developed that] indicates that emancipation-indicators strongly affect the choice of young women to live alone. These are: participation in education, educational attainment and participation in the labour market. The number of young women living alone in the year 2000 has been calculated on the basis of forecasts of the education- and labour-market participation...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20426 Ma, Xia. Changes in family and population reproduction in China. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 58-81 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author reviews the changes in family size, structure, and functions resulting from the drastic social and economic transition that has occurred in China since 1949. A discussion from a socialist perspective addresses factors affecting fertility preference and reproductive behavior, as well as the increased number of households, the decline in family size, changes in family relationships, and the number of generations living in the family household.
Correspondence: X. Ma, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20427 McDonald, Peter. The costs of children: a review of methods and results. Family Matters, No. 27, Nov 1990. 18-22 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The author "examines the difficulties of estimating the direct costs of children, arguing that the cost of a child is not an objective fact but varies according to tastes and preferences, and the amount of money parents have to spend on their children." The geographical focus is on Australia.
Correspondence: P. McDonald, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 300 Queen Street, Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20428 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Are Australian families like others? Working Papers in Demography, No. 17, 1990. 31 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Trends and patterns of some major dimensions of family change in Australia are briefly compared to those of six other countries--Canada, U.S., U.K., France, Italy, and Sweden--for the period since 1950....The economic, cultural and public policy forces that make for broad cross-national similarities in family patterns are discussed." Consideration is given to marriage rates, consensual union, divorce rates, extramarital fertility, and the proportion of one-person households.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20429 Moore, Kristin A.; Stief, Thomas M. Changes in marriage and fertility behavior: behavior versus attitudes of young adults. Youth and Society, Vol. 22, No. 3, Mar 1991. 362-86 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
The authors examine the extent to which current trends in marriage and family behavior are supported by the attitudes and values of young people in the United States. Data are from the 1987 wave of the National Survey of Children. Differences among blacks and whites are reviewed. Topics considered include early sexual activity, pregnancy, abortion, and family disruption. The authors conclude that the attitudes and values of young people toward the family as an institution are positive.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20430 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Households: socio-demographic variables. [Menages: variables socio-demographiques.] Etudes Demographiques, 1990. 347 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This study concerns households in Morocco and is based on official data. Chapters are included on the expenditures of urban households according to place of origin; household consumption; female employment, marital status, and fertility; rural-urban migrants and labor force participation; the characteristics and conditions of the elderly; marriages and divorces in Rabat, 1987; and marriages and divorces in Casablanca, 1987.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Avenue Maa El Ainine, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20431 Muhsam, H. V. The domestic cycle: conceptual problems and empirical data. International Review of Modern Sociology, Vol. 19, Spring 1989. 87-99 pp. De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
"The concept of domestic cycle is well established in anthropological research. However, three aspects have never been empirically studied: (i) the prevalence of several different domestic cycles in the same society and their relative frequency; (ii) the reconstitution of domestic cycles on the basis of short-term follow-up observations; and (iii) the application of the concept to Western society. Here, a method is proposed which is shown on the basis of an example from an Indian village, to be able to make a contribution to the solution of some [problems] connected with (i) and (ii). This can be considered as a first step toward tackling problem (iii) by indicating the required data and encouraging their collection."
Correspondence: H. V. Muhsam, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20432 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hoofdafdeling Statistieken van Inkomen en Consumptie (Voorburg, Netherlands). Households 1985: social-demographic figures. [Huishoudens 1985: sociaal-demografische cijfers.] ISBN 90-357-0946-2. 1988. 58 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut.
Household characteristics in the Netherlands are analyzed using data from the census and other official sources, including a survey of housing needs in 1985-1986. The report describes changes in household type since 1986, such as the increase in one-person households and the decline in the number of families with more than five persons.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20433 O'Hare, William P. Gonna get married: family formation in rural areas. Population Today, Vol. 19, No. 2, Feb 1991. 6-7, 9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author explores differences between rural and urban U.S. cohorts in patterns of marriage and parenthood. Particular attention is paid to the impact of region and race. Data are from the High School and Beyond survey and represent the marital and reproductive behavior of over three million young people who graduated from high school in 1980 and were compared in 1986. Findings reveal a pattern of earlier marriage and parenthood for the rural population as compared with urban youth.
Correspondence: W. P. O'Hare, University of Louisville, Center on Population and Public Policy, Louisville, KY 40292. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20434 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Lone-parent families: the economic challenge. OECD Social Policy Studies, No. 8, ISBN 92-64-13303-8. 1990. 252 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This volume is the product of a conference held at the OECD in Paris France, in December 1987 on the growth of lone-parent families, the problems that have emerged, and their policy implications. The 11 papers, by various authors, are grouped into four parts, one of which is devoted to demographic trends over time and over the life cycle. Other parts focus on family law and child support, barriers to earnings, and public income maintenance policies. The geographical focus is on the developed, market-economy countries. A French-language version of the publication is also available.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20435 Palloni, Alberto; Lee, Yean Ju; Lamas, Luis. The effects of HIV/AIDS on family organization in Africa. CDE Working Paper, No. 89-21, Dec 1990. 36, [15] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper we explore the nature and assess the magnitude of selected effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on African families....We are mainly interested in the nature of the stress exerted on the family organization and its day-to-day functioning....We apply alternative procedures to evaluate the magnitude of the effects of mortality excesses due to HIV/AIDS under conditions approximating those found in Africa. We also examine the direction and magnitude of effects that are only indirectly related to excess mortality....We assess health consequences that have been rarely highlighted in the literature but that, we argue, are of potentially formidable significance....[We also] suggest a simple framework for the study of effects."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20436 Prioux, France. The family in developed countries: continuity and change. [La famille dans les pays developpes: permanences et changements.] Congres et Colloques, No. 4, ISBN 2-7332-4004-8. 1990. xi, 315, 22 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar on the new forms of family life that are evolving in the developed countries, held in Vaucresson, France, in October 1987 and organized by the IUSSP's Committee of Family Demography and the Life Cycle. The 19 papers are grouped under six topics: the family as a stage in the life cycle; cohabitation; one-parent and reconstituted families; toward a convergence in family size; the extended family, including coresidence and family relations; and those without families.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20437 Pryor, Edward T. Population ageing and social support: data developments in Canada. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 359-87 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author describes the situation in Canada in the 1980s regarding demographic and family changes, new data configurations being developed to analyze family networks, and support for the elderly. He refers to new national surveys that focus on the social issues related to aging.
Correspondence: E. T. Pryor, Statistics Canada, Census and Demographic Statistics Branch, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20438 Riche, Martha F. The future of the family. American Demographics, Vol. 13, No. 3, Mar 1991. 44-6 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author examines changes in family composition and size that have occurred in the United States during the last 20 years. The effects of socioeconomic status, divorce, remarriage, and educational opportunities within the changing families and households are discussed.
Correspondence: M. F. Riche, Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20439 Schulz, Reiner. Differences in the time management of gainfully employed women and the help received from their partner and/or children. [Unterschiede in der Zeiteinteilung von erwerbstatigen Frauen und deren Entlastung durch Partner und/oder Kinder.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1990. 207-35 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This is a report on first results of a survey on the time budgets of gainfully employed women which was initiated by the [German] Federal Institute for Population Research. A total of 3,000 women were interviewed who were divided into 10 groups, depending on the existence of a (conjugal) partner and one or more children, and broken down by age-groups of the children....[Information] on the activity pattern of the last working day, of Saturday and Sunday, [and] existing or personally felt stress factors were collected." Comparing single mothers and mothers living with a partner shows that "the existence of a (conjugal) partner does not very much influence the women's time budgets; however, there is less strain and fewer time constraints."
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20440 Schurer, Kevin. The analysis of longitudinal census data: an example from nineteenth century Essex. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 428-75 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author examines family and household structures in rural England for the period 1861-1891, using data from official censuses. He develops "an analytical framework for the investigation of households from census-type documents. In so doing [he] contrasts the results of a static analysis of households with a more dynamic profile of household development...." He concludes that the nuclear household, consisting of two parents and their offspring, was the predominant family structure.
Correspondence: K. Schurer, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20441 Shao, Qin; Hu, Minxia. The trend toward pluralization: family structure in contemporary China. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 107-19 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
Based on data from various surveys in China carried out in 1981 and 1982, the authors analyze family structures in selected urban and rural areas. Findings reveal that there has been a rapid rise in the number of nuclear families, stability in the numbers of extended families, and a near disappearance of joint families.
Correspondence: Q. Shao, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20442 Short, Kathleen S.; Garner, Thesia I. Living arrangements of young adults living independently: evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 169, Dec 1990. 11-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A cross-country comparison of the impact of socioeconomic factors on household formation by young adults in the 15-24 age group is presented. "Of those young people living independently (not in their parental homes), how do incomes from various sources affect their decision whether to live alone or with others? The sample did not include all persons in the 15-24 age group, only those living independently. A logit analysis of the living alone question was conducted using data from five countries (Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States) included in the LIS [Luxembourg Income Study] data base to determine whether differences across countries exist."
Correspondence: K. S. Short, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20443 Shuchman, Carol. Family transfers and household living arrangements among the elderly. In: Ethnicity and the new family economy: living arrangements and intergenerational financial flows, edited by Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider. 1989. 127-46 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"This research explores the economic relationships of the elderly with their families and, in particular, examines how private economic transfers between family members are influenced by an older person's living arrangements. We will present data on all income sources available to the elderly, with special attention to the interaction between public transfer income and family transfers." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: C. Shuchman, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20444 Tsakloglou, Panos. Estimation and comparison of two simple models of equivalence scales for the cost of children. Economic Journal, Vol. 101, No. 405, Mar 1991. 343-57 pp. New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper two simple models of equivalence scales for the cost of children were presented, estimated and their underlying assumptions were tested; those attributed to Engel and Rothbarth." The data are from the Greek Household Expenditure Survey undertaken in 1981-1982 and concern 1,669 households. "It seems likely that the Engel model probably overstates whilst the Rothbarth model may understate the 'true' cost of children."
Correspondence: P. Tsakloglou, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20445 Tu, Edward J.-C.; Liang, Jersey. Fertility, mortality, kinship structure and its aging implications in Taiwan. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 214-38 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
"The [aim] of this paper is to examine the effects of changes in fertility and mortality on the size of various kinship relationships in Taiwan and to investigate the extent to which different stages of population transition affect numbers and types of kin. Furthermore, this paper addresses issues related to the consequences of kinship structure in Taiwan, especially the role played by the family in providing old age support. In addition, policy concerns are discussed."
Correspondence: E. J.-C. Tu, State University of New York, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20446 Tuan, Chi-hsien; Yu, Jingyuan; Xiao, Zhenyu. The size of family and household in China: an analysis based on the 1982 census. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 22-57 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The authors analyze data from the 1982 census in China from the aspect of family size and structure. Their conclusions show an increasing number of nuclear family households and decreasing fertility replacing the traditional extended family and high fertility levels, influenced by urbanization and the size of available housing units. They also discuss the tradition of family care for the elderly and the future responsibilities of smaller families and the state.
Correspondence: C.-h. Tuan, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20447 Waldrop, Judith; Exter, Thomas. The legacy of the 1980s. American Demographics, Vol. 13, No. 3, Mar 1991. 33-8 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author discuss changes in American families and households in the 1980s by comparing data from the annual Current Population Survey for the years 1980-1990. Changes in population size, household size, household income, labor force participation, ethnic diversity, and spatial distribution of U.S. households are considered.
Correspondence: J. Waldrop, American Demographics, 127 West State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20448 Westoff, Charles F. Reproductive preferences: a comparative view. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 3, Feb 1991. vi, 27 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report analyzes and compares reproductive preferences in the 28 countries included in the first phase of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. Comparisons with data collected by the World Fertility Survey (WFS) conducted a decade earlier allow us to trace recent trends in some of these preferences. First, fertility norms are examined, that is, the desired or ideal number of children. Then the report looks at reproductive intentions, in particular the proportion of women who want no more children, and some of the associated demographic and social factors. Next, spacing intentions are analyzed and an attempt is made to infer the preferred length of the next birth interval....Desired fertility rates are then estimated....The report concludes by forecasting total fertility rates for each of the countries over the next five years."
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20449 Wilkie, Jane R. The decline in men's labor force participation and income and the changing structure of family economic support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 1, Feb 1991. 111-22 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article examines how changes since the 1960s in the labor force participation and income of men have affected the structure of family support [in the United States]. The proportion of families in which men are the sole breadwinner has declined from 42% to 15% since 1960. This trend is related to both the increases in older men leaving the labor force and the worsening economic position of younger men since the mid-1960s. The decline in the family-breadwinner role is greatest among men handicapped in the labor market by older age, low education, and minority status."
Correspondence: R. J. Wilkie, University of Connecticut, Department of Sociology, Storrs, CT 06268. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20450 Yang, Liuhong. The potential trends of development of families in the future--an analysis based on a survey in Jiaoxian county, Shandong province. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 133-45 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author examines trends in family size and structure in China and compares the ideal family size to actual size, using data from a 1986 survey of 508 households in one rural county. Contrasting these results with data for a suburban town, the preference for smaller families and fewer children in the urban setting is noted.
Correspondence: L. Yang, People's University of China, Institute of Sociology, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20451 Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Chunyuan; Peng, Songjian. Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach. ISBN 7-301-00993-3. 1990. 5, 475 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
This is a volume of papers presented at the First International Symposium on Family Structure and Population Aging in China, held at Peking University in October 1987. It consists of 23 papers by Chinese and foreign authors focusing on changes in family structure and family size connected with the aging of the country's population.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Peking University Press, Haidianqu, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20452 Zeng, Yi; Coale, Ansley J. Single-year age-specific net rates of leaving the parental home: the United States (1950-80), Sweden (1960-80), France (1962-75). In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 166-201 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
"This article tries to study the issues of home-leaving by providing estimated census-based single-year age-specific net rates of leaving home for males and for females in the United States, 1950-80 (both for all races and for white and non-white separately); Sweden, 1960-80; and France, 1962-75." The iterative intracohort interpolation method developed by Coale is used for the analysis.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20453 Zhang, Chunyuan. Family size and structure and their trends in China. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 82-91 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of changes in family size and household structure in China from 1911 to 1982. Aspects considered include the generational structure of the household and regional differentials in family size based on the 1982 census.
Correspondence: C. Zhang, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20454 Zheng, Guizhen. Family structure and welfare for the elderly in the municipality of Shanghai. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 413-27 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author briefly traces the changes in family size and structure in Shanghai, China, from 1949 to 1985. The increase in the number of nuclear families, the one-child policy, and general social and economic developments are discussed in light of the tradition of caring for the elderly within the family.
Correspondence: G. Zheng, Fudan University, Population Research Institute, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20455 Zhou, Qing. A preliminary analysis of rural family life cycle in China. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 202-13 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of differentials in the rural family life cycle among cohorts in China in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Changes over this time period are noted, particularly the impact of socioeconomic factors and government policies. Data are from China's 1982 One-per-Thousand Fertility Survey, statistical year books, and a household survey.
Correspondence: Q. Zhou, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20456 Zhou, Xiaozhen; Guo, Daping; Shen, Ding; Shi, Xilai. Neighbouring elastic family. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 258-67 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
"We propose a new type of family model [for China], the neighbouring elastic family, which may appear in the beginning of next century....In an ideal neighbouring elastic family, there are two nuclear units living [near each other]. One unit is the old couple and the other is the old couple's son and his wife with their two unmarried children. The structure of this elastic family is formed by two couples through the blood relation. The housing condition is very flexible, divided but not separated."
Correspondence: X. Zhou, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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