Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

57:20108 Adams, Owen. Life expectancy in Canada: an overview. [Esperance de vie au Canada: un apercu.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1990. 361-76 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article examines Canadian life expectancy trends and patterns from the 1920s to the present. Data are presented by region, sex, marital status and income. Comparisons between Canadian life expectancy and that of other industrialized countries are also made. Finally, the prospect for increasing Canadian life expectancy by lowering mortality rates for major causes of death is assessed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20109 Alho, Juha M. Effect of aggregation on the estimation of trend in mortality. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1991. 53-67 pp. Reading, England. In Eng.
"There are three approaches to analyzing and forecasting age-specific mortality: (1) analyze age-specific data directly, (2) analyze each cause-specific mortality series separately and add the results, (3) analyze cause-specific mortality series jointly and add the results. We show that if linear models are used for cause-specific mortality, then the three approaches often give close results even when cause-specific series are correlated. This result holds for cross-correlations arising from random misclassification of deaths by cause, and also for certain patterns of systematic misclassification....The results are illustrated with U.S. age-specific mortality: (1) analyse age-specific mortality data from 1968-1985. In some cases the aggregate forecasts appear to be the more credible ones."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 407).
Correspondence: J. M. Alho, University of Illinois, Institute for Environmental Studies, 1101 West Peabody Drive, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20110 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Trends in mortality of the Soviet population. Soviet Economy, Vol. 6, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1990. 191-251 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
A review of current mortality trends in the Soviet Union is presented. "Discussed are variations (by republic and over time) in life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality in the working ages. Analyzing trends since 1959, the authors highlight problems relating to the quality and interpretation of pertinent statistical data of Soviet origin. Distinguishing real trends from pseudotrends, they evaluate mortality differences among regions and illustrate a more favorable long-term trend in mortality than suggested by official figures...."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20111 Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George. Deprivation in infancy or in adult life: which is more important for mortality risk? Lancet, Vol. 337, No. 8740, Mar 2, 1991. 530-4 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt to determine the extent to which the ecological relation between infant and adult mortality rates reflects an ongoing geographic distribution of poor socioeconomic conditions, using data on infant mortality in England and Wales for 1895-1908 and on cause-specific mortality for those aged 65 to 74 in the period 1969-1973. "The strong simple correlations found between infant mortality...and adult mortality from various causes...were generally much attenuated or abolished by controlling for indices of present-day socioeconomic circumstances."
Correspondence: G. Davey Smith, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20112 Caselli, Graziella. The influence of cohort effects on differentials and trends in mortality. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 229-49 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author presents three approaches for measuring the influence of cohort effects on mortality trends and differentials. "In the presentation of these approaches, we will successively attempt to determine the long-term effects of the two world wars by using an empirical model based on the mortality variations from one age group to the next; to analyse the role of cohort effects in the mortality variations between different countries and between the sexes by using contour maps of mortality surfaces; [and] to measure the importance of cohort effects in the decline of adult mortality by means of a mathematical model separating age, period, and cohort effects." She uses data for Italy and France on mortality among males and females aged over 40 for the periods 1950-1952, 1960-1962, 1970-1972, and 1977-1979.
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 0016 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20113 Darby, S. C.; O'Hagan, J. A.; Kendall, G. M.; Doll, R.; Fell, T. P.; Muirhead, C. R. Completeness of follow up in a cohort study of mortality using the United Kingdom National Health Service Central Registers and records held by the Department of Social Security. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 1991. 65-70 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The aim was to evaluate and improve the completeness of follow up in a cohort study of mortality carried out using the U.K. National Health Service (NHS) Central Registers....This was a follow up study of U.K. servicemen who served abroad in the 1950s and 1960s, including those who participated in the U.K. atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes....The results presented include information about both deaths and emigrations...."
Correspondence: S. C. Darby, University of Oxford, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Gibson Building, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX6 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20114 Fridlizius, Gunnar. The deformation of cohorts: nineteenth century mortality decline in a generational perspective. Scandinavian Economic History Review, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1989. 3-17 pp. Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
Swedish mortality in the nineteenth century is analyzed by cohort. The author examines the hypothesis that nineteenth-century mortality contained a marked cohort element. He contends that the mortality record of an adult cohort depends to a high degree on the mortality pattern it experienced in childhood, "the consequence undoubtedly being that without a mortality decline during childhood, one cannot expect a decline at later stages of life." The results confirm the hypothesis, although the situation in Stockholm and other urban areas is less clear.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20115 Hernandez Bringas, Hector; Chavez Galindo, Ana M. Mortality in the state of Tabasco: trends and current levels. [La mortalidad en el estado de Tabasco: evolucion y niveles actuales.] 1987. 102, [12] pp. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Trends and current levels of mortality in the state of Tabasco, Mexico, are analyzed in relation to the age structure of the population as well as to the availability and quality of health services in the area. Sections are included on the provision of health services and social security; morbidity; general mortality; mortality by age group, including infant and maternal deaths; and mortality by size of locality, geographic region, and causes of death. An extensive methodological appendix is included.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, 306 Boulevard Emiliano Zapata, Col. Tlaltenango, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20116 Hibbard, Judith H.; Pope, Clyde R. Effect of domestic and occupational roles on morbidity and mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 7, 1991. 805-11 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the effect of labor force participation, occupational status and domestic roles on morbidity and mortality among women and men [in the United States] over a 15-year period....The study population was randomly selected from among members of a large HMO and were part of a household interview conducted in 1970-71....The findings show that for women there is some longevity advantage in paid employment. Overall, the combination of employment and domestic roles apparently poses no health threat to women, and may provide some advantage. Multiple roles are unrelated to mortality and morbidity outcomes among men."
Correspondence: J. H. Hibbard, University of Oregon, Department of School and Community Health, 122 Esslinger Hall, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20117 Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [STATEC] (Luxembourg). Trends and international comparisons of Luxembourg death rates by cause of death. [Evolution et comparaison internationale du taux de mortalite luxembourgeois par cause de deces.] Bulletin du STATEC, Vol. 36, No. 9, 1990. [30] pp. Luxembourg. In Fre.
Mortality trends in Luxembourg are analyzed for the period 1979-1988 by cause of death. Comparisons are made with other European countries, particularly Belgium, France, and West Germany.
Correspondence: Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, BP 304, 19-21 Boulevard Royal, 2013 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20118 Palloni, Alberto. Assessing the levels and impact of mortality in crisis situations. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 194-228 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to study the nature of population crises, to describe the techniques for measuring their intensity, and to assess the potential role that they play as a check on population growth....I present a model of the mechanisms leading to population crises....discuss the typical trajectory of demographic indicators immediately before, during, and immediately after a crisis....[assess] alternative measures of the intensity of population crises....[and] deal with the impact of population crises on prospective population growth and on selected aspects of the social structure."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20119 Pollard, John H. Cause of death and expectation of life: some international comparisons. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 269-91 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, the changes in expectation of life of selected populations over the 1970s are analysed. Comparisons between some of these populations are also made. Among the populations studied, Japan is an interesting example in that it represents a large population with one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Hungary is also unusual in that it is one of the few experiencing deteriorating mortality for most major causes of death, and, for males, a reduction in expectation of life at birth. Although the formulae employed in this chapter relate solely to the expectation of life at birth, the methods and formulae are readily adapted to expectations of life at other ages and indeed temporary expectations, which have been proposed as useful mortality indicators....The technique was applied to males and females over the 1970s in Australia, Belgium, England and Wales, Hungary, Japan, and The Netherlands."
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20120 Potter, Lloyd B. Proximate and nonproximate causes of racial life expectancy differentials in the U.S., 1970 and 1980. Pub. Order No. DA9016958. 1989. 207 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this study, life expectancy differences between blacks and whites and changes in these differences are examined for the U.S. and regions....[These] differences are examined for 25 metropolitan areas as they are influenced by racial socioeconomic differences through selected underlying causes of death. To arrive at the point where racial socioeconomic differences may be considered as they relate to racial life expectancy differences, several topics are reviewed. These include the concept of race as a topic of sociological analysis, biological assumptions made when conducting an aggregate level analysis of mortality, and epidemiological transition theory as it relates to levels and trends of cause specific mortality by race and sex."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(2).

57:20121 Rogers, Andrei; Gard, Kathy. Applications of the Heligman/Pollard model mortality schedule. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 30, 1991. 79-105 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The United Nations working manual for MORTPAK-Lite, a software package for demographic measurement, includes among its 16 computer programs a routine (UNABR) that graduates a set of age-specific probabilities of dying...for the standard set of five-year age groups into a set of single-year probabilities of dying. The graduation is effected with an eight-parameter 'law of mortality' known as the Heligman/Pollard model mortality schedule. Model mortality schedules...are useful in mortality analysis and forecasting. Several such applications are illustrated in this article: a historical time-series analysis, a forecasting application, studies of causes of death, spatial differences and sex-specific mortality disaggregated by race." The geographical focus is on the United States, England, and Australia.
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20122 Rothenberg, Richard; Lentzner, Harold R.; Parker, Robert A. Population aging patterns: the expansion of mortality. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 2, Mar 1991. S66-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
U.S. mortality data from 1962 to 1984 are used to examine the validity of the mortality compression hypothesis, which suggests that although aging societies may be reaching a limit in average life expectancy, an increasing number of healthy individuals can expect to reach that age. The results "support the notion of compression only in its simplest sense. People are living longer and dying at older ages--a phenomenon that has been well appreciated for some time. The more specific notion of compression, wherein deaths cluster around some fixed limit or up against a fixed boundary, is not supported. What emerges instead is a more complex pattern of improved survival at every age, with a relative increase in the variability of age at death at the oldest ages. Though not presented in detail here, there is a strong suggestion that demographic factors are still in transition, since these phenomena are occurring at different rates for different subgroups of the population."
Correspondence: R. Rothenberg, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

57:20123 Toto, Jean P. An attempt to estimate mortality indicators using data from the 1984 general population census of the Congo: the example of the town of Brazzaville. [Essai d'estimation des indicateurs de mortalite a partir des donnes du recensement general de la population du Congo de 1984: cas de la ville de Brazzaville.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1989. 75-100 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author uses vital statistics data for Brazzaville, Congo, to show the extent of the underestimation of mortality in the 1984 census. It is shown that although this underestimation affects estimates of mortality, it does not significantly affect estimates of age-specific mortality. A method of estimating more accurate indicators of mortality by sex and age using the available vital statistics data is proposed. The main problems concern the underreporting of the deaths of male infants aged zero to five years.
Correspondence: J. P. Toto, Centre National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, B.P. 2031, Brazzaville, Congo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20124 Traikov, Dimitar. Analysis of seasonal fluctuations in deaths according to Wald's method for the period 1975-1985. [Analiz na sezonnite kolebaniya pri umiraniyata po metoda na Vald za perioda 1975-1985 g.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 109-19 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Seasonal variations in mortality in Bulgaria are analyzed for the period 1975-1985 using Wald's method. Other possible methods of analysis are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20125 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Mortality patterns, trends, differentials and life tables in African countries. No. ECA/POP/TP/90/3.2.2a, Dec 1990. 46 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This document presents data on morbidity, mortality levels and trends, life tables, and differential mortality in Africa. Particular attention is given to data for Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20126 Vallin, Jacques; D'Souza, Stan; Palloni, Alberto. Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828723-2. LC 90-30500. 1990. xi, 415 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume, originally published in French, contains a selection of 20 papers that were presented at an international seminar on methodologies for the collection and analysis of mortality data, which was held in Siena, Italy, in July 1986. The papers are grouped under three topics: "1. new and conventional approaches for collecting mortality data; 2. models and methods of analysis applied to mortality; [and] 3. methods for studying mortality differentials and causes of mortality."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20127 Van Reek, Jan. Mortality prognosis for the Netherlands until 2000: an application of Barrett's method. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1990. 71-8 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
Mortality trends by sex to the year 2000 are projected for the Netherlands using Barrett's loglinear method. "Male mortality due to malignant neoplasms of the respiratory system was also calculated by means of other [prognosis] methods."
Correspondence: J. Van Reek, University of Limburg, POB 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

57:20128 Lumbiganon, Pisake; Panamonta, Manat; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Pothinam, Somporn; Patithat, Noppadol. Why are Thai official perinatal and infant mortality rates so low? International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1990. 997-1,000 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We measured perinatal and infant mortality rates in a rural district of Thailand and compared them with the official statistics to assess accuracy. All births and infant deaths in a rural district of Thailand over a one-year period were surveyed. The corresponding official statistics were also collected. The mothers or the relatives of all stillbirths and infant deaths were interviewed about the registration of the stillbirths or infant deaths. The surveyed perinatal and infant mortality rates were 22.0 and 23.1 respectively. The under-registration of stillbirths was 100% and for infant deaths 45%. All the non-registered infant deaths were in situations in which the infant died before the registration of birth. These results document the degree and nature of under-reporting of perinatal and infant mortality in rural Thailand."
Correspondence: P. Lumbiganon, Khon Kaen University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 123 Friendship Highway, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20129 Miller, Jane E. Covariates and consequences of birth spacing. Pub. Order No. DA9015137. 1989. 382 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation investigates the relationships between birth spacing and perinatal health in Hungary, Sweden and the United States using data from the 1973 World Health Organization Study of Perinatal Mortality and the 1980 U.S. National Natality and National Fetal Mortality Surveys. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain the higher than average health risks associated with infants born shortly after the preceding birth--confounding by prematurity, maternal depletion, and selection. The results obtained here suggest that all three forces contribute to the association between short birth intervals and poor perinatal health....[and] that elimination of closely spaced conceptions could effect as much as a 5 to 10% reduction in the prevalence of low birth weight and neonatal mortality."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(1).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

57:20130 Akoto, Eliwo. Christianity and inequalities in infant mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Chistianisme et inegalites en matiere de mortalite des enfants en Afrique Noire.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 971-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The relationship between infant mortality and religion in Sub-Saharan Africa is explored using World Fertility Survey data for Cameroon, Ghana, and Kenya. "Infant mortality rates were found to be lower for children of Christian mothers; however, membership [in] a religious group was also associated with other indicators of health, social and economic factors (place of delivery, literacy, socio-occupational group). When these factors are taken into account together with religion, the correlation becomes weaker or disappears and the specific impact of religion on infant mortality rates is seen as negligible."
Correspondence: E. Akoto, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20131 Bamgboye, Elijah A. Dating estimates of infant and childhood mortality from child survivorship data with applications. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1990. 25-37 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper describes a new general formula developed for the time location of mortality levels when the original indirect method is used, in the relation to the childhood survivorship data. The result of application of the method to data from two countries yielded plausible estimates and close agreement with variant methods. The childhood mortality estimates can be translated to their [equivalent] infant mortality rates...from which infant mortality trends can be estimated." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: E. A. Bamgboye, King Saud University, Department of Community and Family Medicine, POB 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20132 Chaurasia, Alok. Routes to enhanced child survival in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 4, Jun 1989. 61-74 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Child survival levels in India are examined, with special attention given to geographic and socioeconomic differentials among states. Data for child survival and income by state are presented based on official statistics for 1985.
Correspondence: A. Chaurasia, Shri Shyam Sundar Institute of Public Cooperation and Community Development, Datia, Madhya Pradesh 475 661, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20133 Dackam Ngatchou, Richard. The education of mothers and the mortality of children in Africa. [L'education de la mere et la mortalite des enfants en Afrique.] Les Cahiers de l'IFORD, No. 2, ISBN 2-905327-12-X. Mar 1990. 160 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD]: Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
Some aspects of the relationship between the level of maternal education and infant and child mortality are examined. Specifically, the author questions the validity of some of the main indicators used to measure maternal education. He goes on to suggest some new definitions of maternal education, particularly concerning knowledge about health and nutrition, that might directly result in improved levels of infant and child mortality. The focus of the study is on developing countries, particularly in Africa, and use is made of data from a survey undertaken in Cameroon.
Correspondence: Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20134 Dackam Ngatchou, Richard. Why does measles kill in Tropical Africa? [Pourquoi la rougeole tue-t-elle en Afrique Tropicale?] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1989. 101-58 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author explores reasons why measles remains a major cause of infant and child deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa, while the disease is relatively benign in Europe. The study is based on a review of the published literature. The author concludes that malnutrition is only one of the reasons for this high rate of mortality.
Correspondence: R. Dackam Ngatchou, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20135 Egbagbe, Sikstus Sh. A. Infant mortality in the countries of Western Africa. [Detskaya smertnost' v stranakh Zapadnoi Afriki.] Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie, No. 7, 1989. 51-5 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The high infant mortality rates found in West Africa are analyzed using published WHO data. The author concludes that these mortality levels are a consequence of the relative lack of socioeconomic development in the countries of the region.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:20136 Fargues, Philippe. A promising source of data for measuring childhood mortality in Africa: maternity or pre-natal consultation registers: the case of Abidjan, 1980. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 157-77 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the use of maternity registers and prenatal or infant welfare consultation registers for measuring childhood mortality in Africa, based on the example of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. He examines "three types of data likely to be provided by these registers: 1. proportion of children dead by age of mother, all birth orders combined; 2. proportion of children dead among first and second preceding births (that is, last- and next-to-last born); [and] 3. distribution of dead children by age at death, all birth orders combined. We focus only on information involving preceding births and, therefore, excluding the current birth in the case of maternity registers and the last-born child (necessarily surviving) in the case of infant consultation registers."
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20137 Florez, C. Elisa; Hogan, Dennis P. Women's status and infant mortality in rural Colombia. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1990. 188-203 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the effects of maternal demographic characteristics and social and economic statuses on infant mortality in rural Colombia. Demographic characteristics include the age of the mother, parity and length of preceding interbirth interval, and sex of infant. Measures of women's status at the time of birth include education, wage labor and occupation, economic stratum, place of residence, and whether the mother is living with a husband. The life history data for the study (involving 4,928 births) were collected in 1986 from a representative sample of two cohorts of women resident in rural central Colombia. Overall differentials in infant mortality by measures of women's status are small and are in good part associated with the differing reproductive behaviors of the women and variations in breastfeeding practices."
Correspondence: C. E. Florez, Los Andes University, Center of Studies in Economic Development, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20138 Forbes, Douglas; Frisbie, W. Parker. Spanish surname and Anglo infant mortality: timing and cause of death differentials over a half-century. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 12.04, 1990-1991. 42 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Using a half-century of death records from San Antonio/Bexar County, Texas, we examine the timing and cause structure of Spanish surname and Anglo infant mortality. Our findings indicate that despite the substantial disparities between ethnic-specific infant mortality rates in the early years of the study, there have been consistent declines in overall, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality for both groups, as well as a major convergence of infant mortality rates between Spanish surname and Anglo infants. Further, we demonstrate that the convergence is of relatively recent origin and due primarily to shifts in postneonatal mortality. Finally, we examine the transition reflected in the cause structure of ethnic-specific infant mortality and show that the convergence was largely the result of reductions in deaths from exogenous causes. Implications for research into the 'epidemiologic paradox' are discussed."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20139 Gubhaju, Bhakta B. Child mortality and survival in South Asia--Nepalese perspective. ISBN 81-7035-097-2. 1991. xv, 214 pp. Daya Publishing House: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author investigates reasons for the high infant and child mortality rates in Nepal, using data from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey. Chapters are included on levels and trends of infant and child mortality; regional, socioeconomic, and demographic differentials in infant and child mortality in rural Nepal; determinants of infant and child mortality in rural areas; rural-urban differentials and their determinants; and data sources and methodology. "Education of the mother is found to be an important determinant of child survival....The importance of the combined effect of maternal age and parity is also demonstrated...."
Correspondence: Daya Publishing House, 1302 Vaid Wara, Nai Sarak, Delhi 110 006, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20140 Harpending, H. C.; Pennington, R. Age structure and sex-biased mortality among Herero pastoralists. Human Biology, Vol. 63, No. 3, Jun 1991. 329-53 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this article we describe and analyze infant and childhood mortality among the Herero and related Mbanderu people of northwestern Botswana....We first describe the age and sex composition of the population. We show how traces of history persist in the age structure and how features of the age structure suggest hypotheses about fertility and mortality that can be tested with independent data....We next discuss a model of asymmetric helping between opposite sex siblings. This model suggests hypotheses about patterns of mortality; we test these predictions and find weak support for our model. Finally, we use logistic regression and a likelihood ratio test inductively to identify correlates of male and female mortality in our data and to test for heterogeneity among mothers in the survival of their children." The data were collected during the course of an ethnographic survey and fieldwork carried out in 1986; some attention is paid to the differences between ethnographic and demographic data collection and analysis.
Correspondence: H. C. Harpending, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20141 Haub, Carl; Yanagishita, Machiko. Infant mortality: who's number one? Population Today, Vol. 19, No. 3, Mar 1991. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Alternative ways of ranking countries concerning infant mortality rates are considered. The authors suggest that "our analyses of infant mortality should pay less attention to national rankings and focus more closely on causes of death and higher risk groups by poverty, ethnicity, and residence."
Correspondence: C. Haub, Population Reference Bureau, Information and Education Department, 777 14th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20142 Inoussa, N. The impact of age misreporting on the measurement of levels of infant and child mortality in a medium-sized town in Cameroon (Sangmelima). [Incidence de la mauvaise declaration de l'age sur la mesure des indices de la mortalite infantile et juvenile dans une ville moyenne du Cameroun (Sangmelima).] Serie Villes Moyennes, Vol. 1, No. 2, ISBN 2-905327-10-3. Jan 1990. 159 pp. Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD]: Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
Data from the 1985 census of Sangmelima, a town of some 19,600 inhabitants in Cameroon, are used to assess the impact of age misreporting on the analysis of mortality, particularly on infant and child mortality. Consideration is given both to the effects of errors in reporting the child's age and to errors concerning the mother's age.
Correspondence: Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20143 Kent, George. The politics of children's survival. ISBN 0-275-93723-2. LC 90-7578. 1991. xi, 204 pp. Praeger: New York, New York. In Eng.
"A major purpose here is to see how social context affects children's mortality....What are the social and political roots of the high levels of children's mortality throughout the world?...The argument here is that the problem of children's mortality, which is symptomatic of underdevelopment, arises out of widespread powerlessness. The remedies therefore should center on strategies of empowerment." Chapters are included on overall patterns of child mortality; individual and household factors; the child survival and development movement; criticisms of child survival programs; child survival and food, poverty, war, repression, and population dynamics; alternative social systems; children as a form of human capital; motivations for the support of child survival work; national development; localized multiparity planning; and laws and institutions of aiding child survival.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20144 Lee, C. H. Regional inequalities in infant mortality in Britain, 1861-1971: patterns and hypotheses. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 1991. 55-65 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper long-run changes in infant mortality for 55 regions of Great Britain are examined [for the period 1861-1971]. A diverse pattern of change, substantially different from the familiar aggregate trend of stability before 1900, followed by general decline, was revealed. In some regions, those with the lowest infant mortality rates, there was improvement from the 1860s, while elsewhere rates increased. Hence several measures of inequality indicated divergence between regional rates from the late nineteenth century to a peak inequality in 1921/31, followed by convergence towards equality. Econometric analysis of these variations in regional inequality suggests that density of housing occupancy, and industrialisation were important factors. Housing density was particularly important in the relatively slow decline in infant mortality in twentieth-century Scotland as compared to England and Wales."
Correspondence: C. H. Lee, University of Aberdeen, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, Aberdeen AB9 1FX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20145 Nobile, Annunziata. Recent trends in infant mortality in developed countries. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1990. 79-107 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper examines the progress of infant mortality in the primary developed countries after 1960. A strong decrease of the phenomenon was measured everywhere although its intensity was independent of the starting levels. The most rapid decline occurred in Japan and several countries in southern and northwestern Europe. The slowest decline occurred in the Soviet Union. In some countries, such as Romania, Czechoslavakia and the United States, short term fluctuations interposed themselves on the declining trend. The differences in mortality between the two sexes were generally reduced in those populations with low infant mortality, while the opposite happened in the case of most of the others."
Correspondence: A. Nobile, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Departimento di Scienze Demografia, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20146 Paul, Bimal K. Factors affecting infant mortality in rural Bangladesh: results from a retrospective sample survey. Rural Sociology, Vol. 55, No. 4, Winter 1990. 522-40 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this paper is to assess the relative contribution of different socioeconomic and environmental factors affecting infant mortality in a rural area of Bangladesh. Data from detailed interviews with 1,787 women of reproductive ages were collected and analyzed....Birth interval and contraceptive use emerged as the strongest correlates of infant mortality. In addition, landholding size, birth of preferred sex, mother's age, and prior pregnancy loss had significant effects on infant mortality. The analysis suggests that...infant mortality could be reduced by altering the spacing of births and avoiding births at early reproductive ages. A positive impact on infant mortality could also result from improvements in economic conditions."
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20147 Preston, Samuel H.; Haines, Michael R. Fatal years: child mortality in late nineteenth-century America. NBER Series on Long-Term Factors in Economic Development, ISBN 0-691-04268-3. LC 90-45129. 1991. xxi, 266 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
This is an overview of child mortality in the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Data are based on the census of 1900 and estimations derived from that data. The first chapter concerns the social, medical, and economic factors influencing child mortality. The second chapter focuses on estimates of child mortality during the late nineteenth century, including an analysis of the estimation technics and their reliability. Next, the authors address differentials in child mortality according to social, economic, and residential factors and analyze the relative importance of these distinguishing factors. Finally, U.S. child mortality at the turn of the century is compared with that of England and Wales for the same time period, and with contemporary child mortality levels in developing countries.
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20148 Ristrini; Budiarto, Wasis. Breast-feeding and the survival of children. [Menyusui dan kelangsungan hidup anak.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 17, No. 34, Dec 1990. 51-65 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of breast-feeding on child survival and nutrition in Indonesia is analyzed. The authors examine the effects on infant mortality of trends toward alternative methods of infant feeding.
Correspondence: Ristrini, Departemen Kesehatan R.I., Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pelayanan Kesehatan, Surabaya, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20149 Sullivan, Jeremiah M. The collection of mortality data in WFS and DHS surveys. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 48-63 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Prior to 1970, reliable information on infant and childhood mortality was available for only a few countries in the developed world. Since 1970, the availability of data on this area has expanded rapidly [to include developing countries] and will continue to do so until 1990. This change is due primarily to two large-scale survey programmes: the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). This chapter describes the mortality data collected in both....The objectives of WFS and DHS are reviewed....the mortality data collected by WFS and DHS are compared....[and] the analytical potential of those data is discussed."
Correspondence: J. M. Sullivan, Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Box 866, American City Building No. 400, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20150 Tiwari, Hemant. Estimation of decline in the infant mortality rate in India due to fertility reduction. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 5, Sep 1989. 57-63 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to assess the amount of reduction in infant mortality levels in India, if births of higher order and those occurring to older and very young mothers are reduced. This would not only help reduce fertility but would also result in a reduction of infant and child mortality levels."
Correspondence: H. Tiwari, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

57:20151 Coale, Ansley J.; Li, Shaomin. The effect of age misreporting in China on the calculation of mortality rates at very high ages. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 1991. 293-301 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"When mortality rates by age are calculated from recorded deaths and enumerated populations, rates at higher ages are typically in error because of misstated ages. Mortality rates for China in 1981 have been calculated from the number of deaths in 1981 in each household recorded in the 1982 census, and from the census population back-projected one year. Because age was determined from date of birth, and because persons of the Chinese culture have very precise knowledge of date of birth, the mortality rates even at high ages should be unusually accurate. This expectation is fulfilled for most of China, but severe misreporting of age is found in a province that contains a large minority of a non-Han nationality, which lacks precise knowledge of date of birth. Although the province contains only 1.3% of China's population, male death rates above age 90 for all of China are distorted seriously by the erroneous data from this location."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20152 Condran, Gretchen A.; Himes, Christine L.; Preston, Samuel H. Old-age mortality patterns in low-mortality countries: an evaluation of population and death data at advanced ages, 1950 to the present. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 30, 1991. 23-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Age misreporting has impeded the development of model patterns of old-age mortality. An intercensal cohort method was used to evaluate the consistency of population age distributions and death registration data for 18 low-mortality countries from 1950 to 1985. The evaluation has focused on a comparison of the consistency of census and death registration data for open-ended cohorts for intercensal periods, using census and registration data classified by single years of age....Data from the countries examined appear consistent until advanced ages, where most English-speaking countries show a pattern of inconsistency, suggesting that similar age misreporting occurred in both the census population age distributions and the death registration data."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 432).
Correspondence: G. A. Condran, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20153 Ewbank, Douglas C. Evaluation of model life tables for East Africa. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 178-93 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I apply a simple model of the age pattern of mortality to indirect data on child and adult mortality to derive new information about the age pattern of mortality in East Africa....Given that the data used in this paper provide only indirect evidence of the age pattern of mortality, it is not possible to use...more sophisticated models. Therefore, I have applied a modified version of Brass's two-parameter model which is sufficiently sophisticated to incorporate the maximum amount of information that can be extracted from the available data....The discussion begins with the age pattern of adult mortality since both the model and the results for adult mortality are simpler than the model and the results for child mortality."
Correspondence: D. C. Ewbank, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20154 Ho, Suzanne C. Health and social predictors of mortality in an elderly Chinese cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 133, No. 9, May 1, 1991. 907-21 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A total of 1,054 Hong Kong Chinese subjects aged 70 years or over were recruited into a cohort study to investigate the relation between social support and health outcomes. More than 30 social, health, and behavioral characteristics were recorded as baseline information when the study began in 1985....The mortality patterns of Hong Kong and of the studied cohort closely resemble that of Western developed countries with cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular diseases as the leading causes of death. Besides sex and place of residence (whether living in the community or in homes for the elderly), the independent predictors of mortality included five baseline variables: being single or widowed, limited ability in activities of daily living, smoking habit, low body mass index, and poor self-evaluated health status."
Correspondence: S. C. Ho, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Community and Family Medicine, 4th Floor, Lek Yuen Health Center, Shatin, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20155 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric. Cross-sectional estimates of active life expectancy for the U.S. elderly and oldest-old populations. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 3, May 1991. S170-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Estimates are made of active life expectancy for the U.S. elderly and oldest-old populations using data from the 1982 and 1984 National Long Term Care Surveys. In the calculation of active life expectancy a multivariate analysis of 27 measures of functioning was used to define scores to decompose total life expectancy by type and level of disability. These analyses showed significant differences in active life expectancy for males and females. Though a higher proportion of male life expectancy at age 65 was 'active,' females had larger absolute amounts of active life expectancy. By age 85, in contrast, males had a higher absolute amount of active life expectancy. In addition, calculations were performed with the disability associated with cognitive impairment eliminated in order to illustrate the sensitivity of active life expectancy to changes in morbidity."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

57:20156 Timaeus, Ian M. Estimation of mortality from orphanhood in adulthood. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 1991. 213-27 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper extends earlier research into methods for estimating adult mortality from information on the recent incidence of orphanhood. It presents a series of regression coefficients for estimating female and male mortality from synthetic cohort data on the subsequent orphanhood of those who had a living mother or father at exact age 20. Such information can be obtained either where questions about parental survival have been asked in two inquiries or by asking retrospectively about dates of orphanhood in a single survey. Although the method is somewhat sensitive to errors in the reporting of ages and dates, it is a promising source of up-to-date estimates of adult mortality that are free from bias due to the underreporting of the orphanhood of young children ('the adoption effect')." The method is applied to data from Peru, Malawi, and Uganda.
Correspondence: I. M. Timaeus, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

57:20157 Anson, Jon. Model mortality patterns: a parametric evaluation. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 1991. 137-53 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A parsimonious description is sought of the differences between life tables belonging to different model families, and the relationship between them. By using a broad range of empirical tables it is shown that only two, orthogonal, pieces of information, level and shape, are required to differentiate between them, and that most recognized model families form statistically distinguished clusters along the shape dimension. Men's and women's patterns lie in the same order of shape, but models for women are consistently more rectangular than their counterparts for men. Possible reasons are suggested, as well as lines for further inquiry." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J. Anson, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Social Work, POB 653, Beersheba 84105, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20158 Coale, Ansley; Guo, Guang. The use of new model life tables at very low mortality in population projections. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 30, 1991. 1-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"New model life tables have been calculated...modifying the regional model life tables by Coale, Demeny and Vaughan published in 1983....The purpose of the present article is not to repeat the description of the construction of the tables but to provide a systematic procedure for their use in projecting mortality into the future in low-mortality populations. The new model life tables incorporate age patterns of mortality that conform quite closely to the patterns in the lowest mortality populations yet on record and present extrapolated schedules that include systematic extensions of recent changes in age-specific mortality rates."
For the work by Coale et al., published in 1983, see 49:30180.
Correspondence: A. Coale, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20159 Hsieh, John J. Construction of expanded continuous life tables--a generalization of abridged and complete life tables. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 103, No. 2, Mar 1991. 287-302 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This article extends the abridged life-table method developed by the author, and scheduled for publication in the near future. "It generalizes the conventional discrete (abridged and complete) life tables into a continuous life table that can produce life-table functions at any age and develops a unified method of life-table construction that simplifies the disparate laborious procedures used in the traditional approach of constructing abridged and complete life tables. A set of precise procedures based on the complete cubic spline for the main body of the table and a mortality law for advanced ages is developed for estimating the basic and nonbasic life-table functions from a given mortality schedule. The proposed method can also produce more life-table functions than other existing methods. The method is illustrated with Canadian data."
Correspondence: J. J. Hsieh, University of Toronto, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

57:20160 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 43rd abridged life tables (April 1, 1989-Mar 31, 1990). Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 266, Jan 21, 1991. 27 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Life tables for Japan are presented by sex for the period 1989-1990 by five-year age groups and single years of age.
For a previous report in this series, see 56:20150.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20161 Rudnitskii, E. P. Methodological problems of studying length of life among the population of the Ukraine. [Metodicheskie problemy izucheniya prodolzhitel'nosti zhizni naseleniya Ukrainy.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 14, 1990. 44-50 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Ukr.
The author critically analyzes methodological issues involved in studying length of life among the population of the Ukrainian SSR. Abbreviated life tables are constructed for the periods 1896-1897, 1926-1927, 1938-1939, and 1948-1949.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20162 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1988. Volume II, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1104. Mar 1991. 19 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
These are the official U.S. life tables for 1988. They include abridged life tables by race and sex, number of survivors at single years of age by race and sex, expectation of life at single years of age by race and sex, and retrospective life tables and retrospective length of life by race and sex from 1900.
For the 1987 U.S. life tables, see 56:20152.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

57:20163 Balarajan, R. Ethnic differences in mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in England and Wales. British Medical Journal, Vol. 302, No. 6776, Mar 9, 1991. 560-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Differences in mortality from ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in England and Wales are analyzed by country of birth. Data are from official sources and concern the periods 1970-1972 and 1979-1983. The results indicate that there were significant differences in mortality from these causes by ethnic group in the 1980s. However, mortality from both causes declined over the period studied, particularly among ethnic groups with lower mortality from ischemic heart disease during the 1970s.
Correspondence: R. Balarajan, University of Surrey, Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Guildford GU2 5XH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20164 Caselli, G.; Duchene, J.; Egidi, V.; Santini, A.; Wunsch, G. A matter of life and death: methodologies for the life history analysis of adult mortality. Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 151, ISBN 2-87209-116-5. Oct 1990. 39 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we shall examine an approach to differential mortality in adulthood based on the assumption that death is the outcome of one's whole life history, made up of the time spent in different states which gradually lead the individual to contract a disease (or to have an accident) and eventually to die....The following parts of this paper will therefore deal with the basic assumptions underlying our approach, and the conceptual framework adapted to the main groups of medical causes dealt with." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20165 Fernando, Dallas F. S. Differential mortality and fertility in Sri Lanka by ethnic group. Biology and Society, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1990. 215-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using data from the publication by the Registrar-General [of Sri Lanka] of deaths by age, sex and ethnic group for the census year 1981, as well as births by maternal age and ethnic group for the same year, this study examines variation in mortality by ethnic group over the post-war period. It also examines differential fertility by ethnic group over the same period in the light of new data that have become available."
Correspondence: D. F. S. Fernando, 40/3 Elie Lane, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20166 Fix, Alan G. Changing sex ratio of mortality in the Semai Senoi, 1969-1987. Human Biology, Vol. 63, No. 2, Apr 1991. 211-20 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Among the Semai Senoi, a Malaysian Orang Asli ('aboriginal') population, women experienced higher mortality than males in the decades before 1969. This differential occurred in all age classes older than 15 years so that the sex ratio progressively increased with age. A recent (1987) restudy of the Semai population found that sex-specific differential mortality is much reduced. A comparison of the 1969 and 1987 life tables shows a sharp shift in the sex ratios of mortality for the post-15-year-old age classes...so that male and female expectations of further life at age 15 are now nearly identical....Analysis of sex-specific causes of death for the pre-1969 population suggests that maternal mortality is the major cause of the excess female deaths. The reduced number of maternal deaths seems largely due to better health care, particularly the availability of hospital services."
Correspondence: A. G. Fix, University of California, Department of Anthropology, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20167 Foigt, N. A. Socioeconomic aspects of regional differences in mortality among the rural population of working age. [Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie aspekty regional'nykh razlichii v smertnosti sel'skogo naseleniya trudosposobnogo vozrasta.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 14, 1990. 108-11 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Ukr.
"Regional differences in the life duration of [the] able-bodied rural population [in the Ukrainian SSR] are briefly analyzed. [The] mortality rate of this population is considered in connection with labour conditions in agriculture."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20168 Kunitz, Stephen J. Public policy and mortality among indigenous populations of Northern America and Australasia. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1990. 647-72, 810-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article argues that the differences in the mortality experiences of the indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States are accounted for largely by the presence or absence of treaties, and the ways in which they have been interpreted. Where treaties have been signed, they have given indigenous people a claim in law to a variety of benefits, including the provision of health services, a claim that is difficult to make in the absence of a treaty. The differential availability of services accounts for differences in the timing of declines in mortality due to infectious diseases, as well as in death rates. It does not seem to account for differences in the incidence and prevalence of manmade and chronic conditions, the causes of which remain largely unknown. The varying degrees of success of different kinds of health programs in reducing mortality from infectious disease raise questions about the most effective ways to provide services in societies with vast differences in health status, wealth, and cultures."
Correspondence: S. J. Kunitz, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20169 Ladbrook, Denis. Sex differentials in premature death among professionals. Part II. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 7, No. 2, Nov 1990. 89-115 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
[The author] "explores two hypotheses proposed to explain a reversal of the sex differential in mortality which appears in the 1968-72 death rates of Wisconsin [United States] professionals. The first hypothesis proposes that the observed effect is attributable to differentials in the distribution of behavioural risk factors for leading cause of death....The second hypothesis posits that the effect may be due to differentials in occupational variables which have systematic gender-divergent outcomes. Occupational levels, tasks, environments and careers all have the potential for such effects. The overall conclusion of the study is that health is systematically related to the quality of support and other conditions in the two major micro-environments for living: work and home."
For Part 1 of this article, published by the same author in 1990, see 56:40168.
Correspondence: D. Ladbrook, Curtin University of Technology, School of Social Work, Bently WA 6102, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20170 Leclerc, Annette; Lert, France; Fabien, Cecile. Differential mortality: some comparisons between England and Wales, Finland and France, based on inequality measures. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1990. 1,001-10 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Inequalities in mortality between social classes or socioeconomic groups were compared in three European countries, using similar sources of data from large national cohort studies. People registered at a census in 1971 (1975 for France) or a sample of them, were followed until 1980 to 1981. The Gini coefficient, a measure widely used in economics, allowed the comparison of various situations involving different numbers and group sizes. It was applied to age groups 35-44, and 45-54 for men only. According to this measure, inequalities were of the same order in England and Wales and Finland, and greater in France. Differences between the three countries concerning the principal causes of death leading to inequalities were cardiovascular diseases in England and Wales, accidents and cardiovascular diseases in Finland, and cancer and cirrhosis in France."
Correspondence: A. Leclerc, INSERM U.88, 91 Boulevard de l'hopital, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20171 Lopez Rios, Olga; Wunsch, Guillaume. The health care system and spatial differences in mortality: a covariance structure model. Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 155, ISBN 2-87209-132-7. 1991. 14 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The extent to which differential mortality in Mexico can be attributed to regional differences in the health care system is explored. The authors note that "causal analysis of demographic phenomena needs to consider various problems: the level of analysis, the temporal precedence of causes over effects, the passage from concepts to indicators, [and] the methods of statistical analysis. In this paper, we examine possible determinants of spatial mortality differentials in Mexico, on the basis of a path analytic model with latent variables. The model is fitted using the LISREL procedure, taking account of the problems mentioned above."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20172 Mare, Robert D. Socio-economic careers and differential mortality among older men in the United States. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 362-87 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The goals of this chapter are: (a) to describe socio-economic mortality differences among adult males in the United States; (b) to examine the effects of socio-economic differentiation early in life on the timing of mortality in later adulthood; (c) to obtain estimates of socio-economic effects that are relatively free from biases due to health-related selection into socio-economic positions; (d) to illustrate a strategy for estimating the effects of several dimensions of socio-economic statuses at multiple periods of life; (e) to show the value to mortality analysis of longitudinal data that are gathered for other purposes; and (f) to illustrate modern methods of survival analysis in the study of social differences in the timing of death."
Correspondence: R. D. Mare, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20173 Nair, Cyril; Nargundkar, Mukund; Johansen, Helen; Strachan, Jill. Canadian cardiovascular disease mortality: first generation immigrants versus Canadian born. [Mortalite attribuable aux maladies cardiovasculaires au Canada: premiere generation d'immigrants et personnes nees au Canada.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990. 203-28 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
The authors compare the cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates of various migrant groups to Canada with those of native-born Canadians. Data are from the Canadian census and the Canadian Mortality Data Base for the period 1951-1988. "Overall, lower CVD mortality rates were found for first generation Canadians from Latin America, China and South Asia; higher rates are indicated for those from Scandinavia and Africa. The rates for North America are similar to those found for Eastern and Western Europe. Between two five-year time periods (1969-73 and 1984-88), CVD mortality rates generally were found to decrease, except for immigrants from Africa (age 35+). The rates were consistently higher for males than for females."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20174 Nam, Charles B. Mortality differentials from a multiple-cause-of-death perspective. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 328-42 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The...purpose of this chapter is...to indicate how results vary when alternative cause-of-death measures are used to portray demographic differentials in mortality. The sections of the chapter which follow include a brief examination of the history of cause-of-death conceptualization and classification, summary of the literature about multiple-cause-of-death approaches, review of alternative measures based on a multiple-cause-of-death framework, illustrations of differential mortality analysis comparing alternative cause-of-death approaches, and discussions of a future research agenda and possible strategies for implementing it." The approaches are illustrated with regard to differential mortality, using U.S. data on deaths in Florida in 1980.
Correspondence: C. B. Nam, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20175 Potter, Lloyd B. Socioeconomic determinants of white and black males' life expectancy differentials, 1980. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 1991. 303-21 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Epidemiological transition theory suggests that two populations existing under disparate socioeconomic conditions would have different life expectancies as the result of cause-of-death differences. The effect of racial socioeconomic differentials on the total racial life expectancy differential are examined as they act through specific cause-of-death differentials. Results suggest that residential isolation of blacks has a strong effect on the total life expectancy differential as it acts through the racial homicide differential. The racial unemployment difference also has a strong effect on the total differential as it acts through the racial heart disease differential. Implications of the findings for reducing life expectancy differentials are discussed....The mortality data used in this analysis are taken from the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics mortality detail tapes for 1979 and 1980....Deaths of males ages 0 to 85+ (in five-year age groups) are aggregated by race (black and white) for 16 underlying causes of death...."
Correspondence: L. B. Potter, Fordham University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20176 Rogers, Richard G.; Powell-Griner, Eve. Life expectancies of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 10, 1991. 1,151-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This research employs the National Health Interview and the National Mortality Followback Surveys to calculate life expectancies by age and sex for white nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers in the United States in 1986. In general, life expectancies are higher for never smokers than for former smokers, and higher for former smokers than for current smokers. Heavy smokers have lower life expectancies than persons with all other smoking statuses; indeed, compared to never smokers, heavy smokers at age 25 can expect at least a 25% shorter life. Gender differences in life expectancies were found to persist even with the elimination of smoking. Differences in life expectancy by sex thus appear to be due, in part, to cigarette smoking, but also to occupational, environmental, and sociodemographic factors."
Correspondence: R. G. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program and Department of Sociology, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20177 Sharma, R. D.; Michalowski, M.; Verma, R. B. P. Mortality differentials among immigrant populations in Canada. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 4, Dec 1990. 443-50 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Mortality among different groups of migrants to Canada is compared with that of native-born Canadians and with trends in the migrants' countries of origin, using data for the period 1981-1985. Results show that life expectancy at birth among migrants in Canada is generally higher than that of the populations at place of origin and destination.
Correspondence: R. D. Sharma, Ministry of Treasury and Economics, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20178 Shlomowitz, Ralph. Differential mortality of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the Pacific labour trade. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 7, No. 2, Nov 1990. 116-27 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Quantitative evidence is presented on the differential mortality suffered by Indian and Pacific Island labour migrants on Fiji's plantations between 1883 and 1919, and by Japanese, Chinese and Pacific Island labour migrants in the phosphate mines on Ocean Island and Nauru between 1913 and 1940. Pacific Island labour migrants suffered much higher death rates than Asian labour migrants, due, it is suggested, to their much greater vulnerability to newly introduced infectious diseases."
Correspondence: R. Shlomowitz, Flinders University of South Australia, Department of Economic History, Bedford Park SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20179 Tabutin, Dominique. Excess female mortality in Northern Africa from 1965 to the present. [La surmortalite feminine en Afrique du Nord de 1965 a nos jours.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 152, ISBN 2-87209-099-1. 1991. 26 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Recent trends in excess female mortality in the countries of Northern Africa are analyzed, focusing on Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. The author notes that even though life expectancy in the region has reached 64 years or more, pockets of excess female mortality persist, particularly at the youngest ages.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20180 Valkonen, Tapani; Martelin, Tuija; Rimpela, Arja. Socio-economic mortality differences in Finland, 1971-85. Tutkimuksia/Undersokningar/Studies, No. 176, Dec 1990. 103 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study, which was conducted jointly by the Central Statistical Office of Finland and the Department of Sociology at the University of Helsinki, was to describe socio-economic differences in mortality and related changes in Finland during the period 1971-85. Two socio-economic variables were used side by side in the study, namely occupational class and level of education, together with family structure in the case of children. Since the breakdown of causes of death and the method of forming occupational classes vary in different age groups, the study covers three age groups separately. Chapter 2 deals with children (aged 5 to 14), Chapter 3 concerns the 'middle-aged population' (35-64), and Chapter 4 examines the 'elderly population' (60 and above)....Each chapter presents data on total mortality and major causes of death."
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20181 Vartiainen, Erkki; Dianjun, Du; Marks, James S.; Korhonen, Heikki; Guanyi, Geng; Ze-Yu, Guo; Koplan, Jeffrey P.; Pietinen, Pirjo; Guang-Lin, We; Williamson, David; Nissinen, Aulikki. Mortality, cardiovascular risk factors, and diet in China, Finland, and the United States. Public Health Reports, Vol. 106, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 41-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Mortality, cardiovascular risk factors, and diet were compared in Tianjin province, People's Republic of China; in North Karelia Province, Finland; and in the United States as a whole." Comparisons are made by sex and age.
Correspondence: E. Vartiainen, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, SF-00280 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

57:20182 Bolumar, Francisco; Vioque, Jesus; Cayuela, Aurelio. Changing mortality patterns for major cancers in Spain, 1951-1985. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1991. 20-5 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality trends for main cancer sites in Spain from 1951-1985 are presented. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 were computed using the direct method. The Spanish population of 1970 was used as the standard. Age-standardized mortality rates for total cancer showed a marked increase among men throughout the period of study. This can be attributed mainly to the increase in lung cancer mortality...which was only partially balanced by a reduction in the stomach cancer mortality....Among women the increase in total cancer is lower overall. It occurred mainly during the 1950s and thereafter the trend has remained stable and even declined in recent years. Lung cancer mortality rates among women have remained fairly stable and stomach cancer followed the same pattern as for men. Breast cancer mortality increased constantly during the period...but it was not until 1978 that it became the leading cause of cancer mortality among women."
Correspondence: F. Bolumar, Universidad de Alicante, Division de Medicina Preventiva, Departamento Salud Communitaria, Apdo. 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20183 Brouard, Nicolas. Classification of developed countries according to cause-of-death patterns: a test of robustness during the period 1968-1974. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 250-68 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In a recent paper...we defined a typology of countries with low mortality according to causes of death....In this chapter I will attempt to confirm the validity of the typology...by testing its robustness on a set of developed countries during and after 1968. The study uses all available WHO mortality data for developed countries where the deaths by cause are classified according to the Eighth and Ninth Revisions of the International Classification of Disease. The first year is usually 1968 and the last is 1984 and thus the study covers a period of roughly 15 years. I shall also try to assess the robustness of the method by analysing geographical variations within one country."
For the earlier paper by Brouard and A. Lopez, published in 1985, see 51:30211.
Correspondence: N. Brouard, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20184 Chackiel, Juan. Studies of causes of death in Latin America: the current situation and future perspectives. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 343-61 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates reasons for the lack of studies on causes of death in Latin America. "In this chapter I analyse several of [these] issues..., evaluate their current position, and speculate on their future situation in Latin America. I also propose a number of areas of study which appear to be in greatest need of development. In particular, I will consider: (a) the quality of death registers by causes and other general aspects related to the treatment of basic information, (b) the use of data on causes of death for determining their contribution to the change of general mortality, and (c) possible improvements in projections of mortality that rely on information on causes of death."
Correspondence: J. Chackiel, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20185 Dietz, Vance J.; Novotny, Thomas E.; Rigau-Perez, Jose G.; Shultz, James M. Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and direct health care costs for Puerto Rico, 1983. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1991. 77-86 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The authors report the impact of smoking upon health in Puerto Rico for the year 1983. Using a microcomputer spread-sheet program that calculates smoking-attributable disease impact, they estimated that 2,468 deaths were attributable to smoking. This represented 11.5% of all deaths on the island in 1983 and resulted in approximately 19,445 years of potential life lost (YPLL). It appears that cigarette smoking caused U.S.$55.9 million in direct health care expenditures for Puerto Rico in 1983, an amount equal to 10% of the island's yearly expenditures on health."
Correspondence: V. J. Dietz, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Prevention Services, Division of Immunization, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20186 Eysenck, H. J. Were we really wrong? American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 133, No. 5, Mar 1, 1991. 429-36 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Some aspects of the debate concerning the relation between smoking and mortality from cancer and coronary heart disease are considered by one of the participants in the original debate, which occurred primarily in the 1950s and 1960s. Comments are included by J. P. Vandenbroucke (p. 434) and Sander Greenland (pp. 435-6).
For a related article by Paul D. Stolley, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: H. J. Eysenck, University of London, Institute of Psychiatry, DeCrespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20187 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Kleinman, Joel C.; Godfrey, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Harry. Firearm mortality among children, youth, and young adults 1-34 years of age, trends and current status: United States, 1979-88. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 39, No. 11, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1120. Mar 14, 1991. 16 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to update and expand [a] previous report on firearm mortality [in the United States] focusing on firearm deaths associated with homicide, suicide, and unintentional injury...among children, youth, and young adults ages 1-34 years." The results show that "among young persons 15-24 years of age, firearm mortality has increased substantially since 1984. In particular, the homicide rate associated with firearms for black males ages 15-19 years more than doubled by 1988. Further, for young black males ages 20-24 years, the firearm homicide rate in 1988 was 1.6 times what it was in 1984."
For a previous report, published by Fingerhut et al. in 1989, see 55:40197.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20188 Franks, Peter J.; Adamson, Catherine; Bulpitt, Pauline F.; Bulpitt, Christopher J. Stroke death and unemployment in London. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 1991. 16-8 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between social factors and stroke mortality in the London [England] boroughs in both 1971 and 1981 in men and women aged between 45 and 74, and to compare changes in social conditions with changes in stroke mortality over this 10 year period." Particular attention is paid to changes in unemployment over time.
Correspondence: P. J. Franks, Hammersmith Hospital, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Epidemiology Research Unit, Du Cane Road, London W12 0HS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20189 Garenne, Michel; Fontaine, Olivier. Assessing probable causes of death using a standardized questionnaire: a study in rural Senegal. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 123-42 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the use of a standardized questionnaire to measure probable causes of death, using information based on "a comprehensive record of demographic events in a population of about 23,000 people in rural Senegal (Niakhar)....The questionnaires devised for this study benefited from the experience of other researchers working in similar conditions....Four draft questionnaires were tested on more than 200 cases among people living in the rural areas of Sine-Saloum in Senegal prior to the adoption of the final version of the questionnaire that is discussed [in the article]."
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, BP 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20190 Guibert, Remi. Could the coronary heart disease mortality rates decline be artefactual? Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 82, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 43-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The recent decline in Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) mortality rates [in Canada] has been attributed to reduction in risk factors and to improved management. In this article, we review whether artefacts of classification could have played a role as well. Knowledge and information on disease, competing causes of death, death certification accuracy and completeness, advancing age of the population with multiple conditions as well as death certificate coding practice could have affected secular trends of CHD mortality rates. However, the lack of noticeable shifts within the cardiovascular category or with another category makes it difficult for the CHD decline to be artefactual."
Correspondence: R. Guibert, Universite de Montreal, Faculte de Medecine, Groupe de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Sante, C.P. 128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20191 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). Survey of causes of death (rural): annual report 1988. Series 3, No. 21, Jul [1990]. 69 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is the twenty-first in an annual series of reports presenting results from a survey of causes of death in rural areas of India. The 1988 survey included 1,305 primary health center villages. The data concern mortality from 10 major causes of death and are provided by state, age, and sex.
For a previous report for 1987, see 56:10172.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, New Delhi 110 066, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20192 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). Survey of causes of death (rural): annual report 1989. Series 3, No. 22, Jan 1991. 54 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is the twenty-second in a series of annual reports presenting results from a survey of causes of death in rural India. The 1989 survey included 1,305 primary health centers reporting a total of 21,409 deaths. The data are presented for all India and states and concern mortality from the 10 major causes by age and sex. Separate data are included on maternal mortality.
For a previous report for 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, New Delhi 110 066, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20193 Kogevinas, Manolis. Longitudinal study: socio-demographic differences in cancer survival. Series LS, No. 5, ISBN 0-11-691289-8. 1990. xiii, 97 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
"This report uses data from the LS [Longitudinal Study] to describe patterns of survival after cancer registration, in particular differences in survival between groups with different social and demographic characteristics. The data are derived from the 1971 Census, the National Cancer Registration Scheme, from death registrations and from notifications of embarkations to the National Health Service Central Register at Southport....This report describes for the first time at a national level detailed survival patterns for England and Wales according to cancer site and variations according to housing tenure, social class, economic position, marital status and region of residence."
Correspondence: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, Publications Centre, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20194 Larsen, Ulla. Short-term fluctuations in death by cause, temperature, and income in the United States, 1930-1985. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1990. 172-87 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Disclosures that this decade has had the five hottest years ever recorded globally raise concern that extreme temperatures might be associated with higher mortality. An analysis of fluctuations in annual cause-specific deaths, seasonal temperatures, and annual income per capita in Massachusetts, Michigan, Washington, Utah, North Carolina, and Mississippi, 1930 to 1985, suggest that, on the contrary, a temperature increase throughout the year was associated with fewer deaths from all causes combined, including deaths from infectious diseases, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, and influenza....The only category of deaths showing no significant association was death from malignant neoplasms....Controlling for annual fluctuations in income per capita did not influence the relationship between temperature and mortality. There was evidence suggesting that the level of wealth ameliorated the fatal effects of extreme temperatures."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20195 Lessa, Ines. Productive years of life lost in Brazil due to cardiovascular mortality. [Anos produtivos de vida perdidos no Brasil, por mortalidade cardiovascular.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 110, No. 2, Feb 1991. 118-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on Brazilian Government official statistics for 1985, an estimate was made of the number of productive years of life lost due to cardiovascular premature mortality (ages 15 to 59). Data were corrected by the proportion of the population actually engaged in work activities during 1985....The average years of productive life lost per person were 12.5 for males and 13.4 for females." Differences by sex and by region are analyzed.
Correspondence: I. Lessa, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Rua Padre Feijo, 29-4o Andar, 40000 Salvador, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20196 Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P. A comparison of injury death rates in China and the United States, 1986. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 5, May 1991. 605-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Mortality rates from injury in the United States and China are compared for 1986. "The age-adjusted death rate from all injuries for China exceeds the rate for the U.S. (69.0 vs 61.3 per 100,000). The U.S. has higher death rates from motor vehicle crashes, fires, and homicide; China has greater mortality from drowning, poisoning, falls, and suicide. Especially noteworthy in China are the high drowning rates among young children and the elderly and the high suicide rates in rural areas among young adults and the elderly."
Correspondence: G. Li, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Injury Prevention Center, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20197 Matos, Elena L.; Parkin, Donald M.; Loria, Dora I.; Vilensky, Marta. Geographical patterns of cancer mortality in Argentina. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1990. 860-70 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality rates in 1980, for the major cancer sites, are presented for Argentina as a whole, and for the 22 provinces, the capital city, and the southern territories. In comparison with other countries, national mortality rates are high for oesophageal cancer and cancer of the larynx, and moderately elevated for cancers of the lung, colon, breast, and bladder in males....There were marked geographical variations, quite different in the two sexes, in the mortality from oesophageal cancer. It is suggested that, although some of these variations within Argentina may be related to ethnic differences and patterns of migration from neighbouring countries, for the majority the explanations must lie in different exposures to environmental or lifestyle factors, such as diet."
Correspondence: E. L. Matos, Instituto de Oncologia Angel H Roffo, Avda San Martin 4581, 1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20198 Menotti, A.; Keys, A.; Kromhout, D.; Nissinen, A.; Blackburn, H.; Fidanza, F.; Giampaoli, S.; Karvonen, M. J.; Pekkanen, J.; Punsar, S.; Seccareccia, F. Twenty-five-year mortality from coronary heart disease and its prediction in five cohorts of middle-aged men in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. Preventive Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1990. 270-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Five cohorts of men ages 40-59 [from Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy]...were examined and evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors in 1959-1960 and subsequently followed-up for mortality over the next 25 years. Age-adjusted death rates from coronary heart disease were highest in Finland (244 per 1,000), intermediate in The Netherlands (195 per 1,000), and lowest in Italy (122 per 1,000) with a twofold range between the extremes."
Correspondence: A. Menotti, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Rome, Italy. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:20199 Menotti, Alessandro; Keys, Ancel; Aravanis, Christ; Blackburn, Henry; Dontas, Anastasios; Fidanza, Flaminio; Karvonen, Martti J.; Kromhout, Daan; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Nissinen, Aulikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Punsar, Sven; Seccareccia, Fulvia; Toshima, Hironori. Seven countries study. First 20-year mortality data in 12 cohorts of six countries. Annals of Medicine, Vol. 21, 1989. 175-9 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
This is a preliminary report on total and coronary mortality in 12 cohorts from 6 countries studied over a 20-year period. Data are for 8,287 men aged 40 to 59 at entry examination from Finland, the Netherlands, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Japan. Risk factors including blood pressure, cholesterol levels, smoking, age, and nutrition are discussed as they affect heart disease and death from other causes.
Correspondence: A. Menotti, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome-Nomentano, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20200 Munoz-Perez, Francisco; Nizard, Alfred. Alcohol, tobacco, mortality. [Alcool, tabac, mortalite.] Population et Societes, No. 254, Feb 1991. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors review the current situation in France concerning mortality associated with the use of alcohol and tobacco. They note that mortality associated with smoking continues to increase, whereas alcohol-linked mortality is in decline. They also note that in 1985, one death in six was due to alcohol or tobacco use.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20201 Pugh, Helena; Power, Christine; Goldblatt, Peter; Arber, Sara. Women's lung cancer mortality, socio-economic status and changing smoking patterns. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 10, 1991. 1,105-10 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study were used to determine whether the conventional classification of married women by their husband's occupation under-estimates the extent of social differences in lung cancer among this group. Differences existed for social class measures but alternatives based on housing tenure and car access defined socio-economic differences wider than any other previously recorded for England and Wales: married women living in rented housing and without a car were two and a half times as likely to die from lung cancer than those in owner occupied housing with access to a car....[The data also suggest] that wide differences in mortality are likely to persist through the eighties and beyond."
Correspondence: C. Power, Institute of Child Health, Department of Paediatric Epidemiology, Child Health Monitoring Unit, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20202 Rosenberg, Philip S.; Gail, Mitchell H. Backcalculation of flexible linear models of the human immunodeficiency virus infection curve. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C: Applied Statistics, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1991. 269-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors present a regression approach to the backcalculation of flexible linear models of the HIV infection curve. They note that "because expected AIDS incidence can be expressed as a linear function of unknown parameters, regression methods may be used to obtain parameter and covariance estimates for a variety of interesting quantities, such as the expected number of people infected in previous time intervals and the projected AIDS incidence in future time intervals. We exploit these ideas to show that estimates based on maximum likelihood are, for practical purposes, equivalent to approximate estimates based on quasi-likelihood and on Poisson regression. These algorithms are readily implemented on a personal computer." These concepts are illustrated by projecting AIDS incidence in the United States up to 1993.
Correspondence: P. S. Rosenberg, National Cancer Institute, Biostatistics Branch, Executive Plaza North, Room 403, 6130 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20203 Shai, Donna. Cancer mortality in Cuba and among the Cuban-born in the United States: 1979-81. Public Health Reports, Vol. 106, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 68-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The Cuban-born population of the United States, enumerated at 608,000 in the 1980 census, has been little studied with regard to cancer mortality. Being older and rarely migrating back to Cuba, Cuban Americans present a good subject for comparative cancer mortality. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of cancer are compared in this paper for Cubans in Cuba, the Cuban-born in the United States, and all whites in the United States."
Correspondence: D. Shai, Villanova University, Department of Sociology, Villanova, PA 19085. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20204 Smith, Perry F.; Mikl, Jaromir; Hyde, Sue; Morse, Dale L. The AIDS epidemic in New York State. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, Suppl., May 1991. 54-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"New York State reported some of the first AIDS cases and has the highest number of cases in the nation, mostly from New York City. This report describes the AIDS epidemic statewide and compares it with the epidemic in the rest of the nation. It also compares data from the state's Newborn HIV Seroprevalence Study with AIDS surveillance data for women."
Correspondence: P. F. Smith, New York State Department of Health, Center for Community Health, AIDS Epidemiology Program, Albany, NY. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20205 Stolley, Paul D. When genius errs: R. A. Fisher and the lung cancer controversy. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 133, No. 5, Mar 1, 1991. 416-28 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"R. A. Fisher's work on lung cancer and smoking is critically reviewed. The controversy is placed in the context of his career and personality. Although Fisher made invaluable contributions to the field of statistics, his analysis of the causal association between lung cancer and smoking was flawed by an unwillingness to examine the entire body of data available and prematurely drawn conclusions. His views may also have been influenced by personal and professional conflicts, by his work as a consultant to the tobacco industry, and by the fact that he was himself a smoker." A comment by J. P. Vandenbroucke (pp. 426-7) and a reply by the author (p. 428) are included.
For related paper by H. J. Eysenck, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: P. D. Stolley, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, 220-L Nursing Education Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6095. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20206 Thornton, Russell; Miller, Tim; Warren, Jonathan. American Indian population recovery following smallpox epidemics. American Anthropologist, Vol. 93, No. 1, Mar 1991. 28-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The demographic impact of diseases introduced into American Indian populations following European contact is explored. The authors analyze the effects of diseases such as smallpox on gross mortality rates as well as on the age structure of mortality, the role of fertility in population change, and the interaction of fertility and mortality. They present simulations designed to clarify changes in American Indian population size following hypothetical episodes of smallpox.
Correspondence: R. Thornton, University of California, Department of Sociology, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20207 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost--United States, 1988. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 40, No. 4, Feb 1, 1991. 62-71 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"In this report, mortality data and estimates of smoking prevalence for 1988 are used to calculate smoking-attributable mortality (SAM), years of potential life lost (YPLL), and age-adjusted SAM and YPLL rates for the United States....Based on these calculations, in 1988, approximately 434,000 deaths and 1,199,000 YPLL before age 65 (6,028,000 before age 85) were attributable to cigarette smoking...."
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402-9235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20208 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. The causes of death in France, 1925-1978: reclassification according to the Eighth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 295-327 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Elsewhere, we proposed a method for reclassifying deaths according to two criteria, aetiology and anatomy....and we have [produced] an aetiological-anatomical reclassification of all deaths in France between 1925 and 1978....In proceeding with this study, we undertook an intermediate operation, which....was the reclassification of all deaths in France between 1925 and 1978 according to the Eighth Revision of the ICD [International Classification of Diseases]....This chapter describes the difficulties we encountered in the course of this intermediate stage and procedures we adopted for dealing with them. In section 1 we describe the problems in establishing consistency between successive revisions of the ICD; in Section 2 we outline the reconstruction of the complete statistical series based on the Eighth Revision of the ICD; and in Section 3 we discuss the treatment of ill-defined or unspecified causes of death."
For related studies by Vallin and Mesle, published in 1984 and 1988, see 51:10222 and 55:10209.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20209 Way, Peter O.; Stanecki, Karen. The demographic impact of an AIDS epidemic on an African country: application of the iwgAIDS model. CIR Staff Paper, No. 58, Feb 1991. xii, 69 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents the results of the application of the iwgAIDS mathematical model of the AIDS epidemic to data representative of a subSaharan African country. The primary focus of the study is the demographic impact of an AIDS epidemic, although other important implications are discussed." The results indicate that population will continue to grow in both rural and urban areas even with the AIDS epidemic. However, by the end of the 25-year period, the population will be about 5 percent smaller than projected in the absence of AIDS. By the end of the 25-year period, AIDS will reduce urban life expectancy by some 18 years.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20210 Welsch, H. Maternal mortality. [Mutterliche Mortalitat.] Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 245, No. 1-4, 1989. 321-8 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Trends in maternal mortality in East and West Germany, England and Wales, and Austria are examined for the period 1953-1987. Differences in the registration of maternal mortality in these countries are discussed.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:20211 Whittemore, A. S.; Gong, G. Poisson regression with misclassified counts: application to cervical cancer. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C: Applied Statistics, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1991. 81-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Errors in disease classification can give misleading inferences for covariate effects when the probability of error is itself related to the covariates. More accurate inferences are possible using supplemental data on both true and fallible disease counts at various covariate levels. We present a method for incorporating such supplemental data into disease rate regression and use it to show that, although observed intercountry differences in European cervical cancer mortality rates are exaggerated by errors in death certification, they are not completely explained by such errors." The data concern Belgium, England and Wales, France, and Italy.
Correspondence: A. S. Whittemore, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford, CA 94305-5092. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).


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