Volume 57 - Number 1 - Spring 1991

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

57:10391 Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman I. Marriage patterns, trends and timing in northern and urban Sudan. Pub. Order No. DA8922455. 1989. 230 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Changes in marriage age of both sexes in Sudan are examined for the period 1973-1979. A trend toward rising age at marriage is "centered around the role of education, urbanization and male out migration. All affect age at first marriage positively. In particular, education greatly influenced age at first marriage for both sexes."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(7).

57:10392 Bledsoe, Caroline. Transformations in Sub-Saharan African marriage and fertility. In: World population: approaching the year 2000, edited by Samuel H. Preston. Jul 1990. 115-25 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines current changes in African marriage, with particular reference to their implications for fertility. Ethnographic data are combined with data on marriage trends to examine the social dynamics by which people attempt to employ marital status and parenthood to their advantage. The data primarily concern Sierra Leone, but the analysis concerns Sub-Saharan Africa in general. The analysis "shows that female education exacerbates inequities between de facto polygynous women who previously would have lived together, shared household resources, and acknowledged each other as cowives. These new forms of polygyny, however, hold an important key to explaining why polygyny and high fertility still proliferate. Men sustain the costs of polygyny and of high fertility in large part by marginalizing low-status women, usually those with the least education, as outside wives and their children as outside children."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10393 Bloom, David E.; Bennett, Neil G. Modeling American marriage patterns. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 85, No. 412, Dec 1990. 1,009-17 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article investigates the application of the three-parameter, Coale-McNeil marriage model and some related hyperparameterized specifications to data on the first marriage patterns of American women. Because the model is parametric, it can be used to estimate the parameters of the marriage process for cohorts that have yet to complete their first marriage experience. Empirical evidence from three surveys is reported on the ability of the model to replicate and project observed marriage behavior. The results indicate that the model can be a useful tool for analyzing cohort marriage data and that recent cohorts are showing relatively strong proclivities to both delay and forego marriage. Consistent with earlier work, the results also indicate that education is a powerful covariate of the timing of first marriage and that race is a powerful covariate of its incidence." Data are from the U.S. Current Population Survey for 1976 and 1985 and Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth for 1982.
Correspondence: D. E. Bloom, Columbia University, Department of Economics, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

57:10394 Boulton, Jeremy. London widowhood revisited: the decline of female remarriage in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Continuity and Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, Dec 1990. 323-55, 317, 319-20 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This essay examines widowhood in seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century London. Using exceptionally detailed parish register evidence, predominantly from the poor suburban parish of Stepney, East London, between 1617 and 1718, it establishes that the proportion of remarrying brides was extremely high in the early seventeenth century but fell substantially thereafter. The essay argues that changing marital opportunities produced by an alteration in the sex ratio of the capital's population, rather than improvements in female employment prospects or rising adult life expectancy, are likely to best explain the decline. The author also suggests that changing attitudes to remarriage on the part of both men and women might also explain some of the observed fall."
Correspondence: J. Boulton, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10395 Bozon, Michel. Women and age difference between spouses: domination by consent. II. Modes of entry into adult life and perception of the partner. [Les femmes et l'ecart d'age entre conjoints: une domination consentie. II. Modes d'entree dans la vie adulte et representations du conjoint.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 565-602 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This is the second part of a study on age differences between spouses in France and is based on a 1984 survey of some 3,000 individuals living with a partner. This part concentrates on entry into first union. It shows that whereas women who leave school at a young age tend to enter unions at a young age with men who are older and established in their occupations, women who have higher education or pursue a career on their own tend to choose men of their own age. The differences in the selection criteria for a partner between these two groups of women and between men and women are analyzed.
For Part 1, also published in 1990, see 56:40354.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10396 Bumpass, Larry L.; Martin, Teresa C.; Sweet, James A. The impact of family background and early marital factors on marital disruption. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1991. 22-42 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
Data from the National Survey of Families and Households for 1987-1988 are used to explore methodological and substantive issues concerning marital dissolution in the United States. "The analysis finds that marital disruptions are seriously underreported by males, making the analysis of male marital histories problematic. Also, the potential impact of reconciliations on the estimates of recent marital disruption based on separation is explored; no upward bias is likely to result from the inclusion of separations that may subsequently reconcile. The impact of a wide variety of factors on the risk of marital disruption is examined using proportional hazard techniques. Among them are included parental background factors, respondent's characteristics at the time of marriage, differences in spouses' characteristics, and joint activity statuses of marital partners in the first year of marriage. The risk of marital disruption is highest among women with young age at marriage, low education, a cohabitation history, and those whose spouse has been married previously. Parental family disruption affects marital stability primarily through age at marriage and cohabitation. Religious and educational heterogamy and male unemployment reduce marital stability."
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10397 Burch, Thomas K. Remarriage of older Canadians: description and interpretation. Research on Aging, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1990. 546-59 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"The remarriage experience of Canadian men and women aged 55 and over at time of survey are described using data from the Canadian Family History Survey, carried out in 1984 by Statistics Canada. Data pertain to approximately 1,300 women and 1,100 men. Remarriage is put in the context of total life cycle experience by means of a simple decomposition of the lifetime probability of remarriage. The analysis highlights the greater exposure of women to remarriage (due to high rates of widowhood) but their lower remarriage rates compared to men. The sex differential in remarriage remains when age at dissolution is controlled." Geographic differentials are discussed.
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10398 Chiswick, Carmel U.; Lehrer, Evelyn L. On marriage-specific human capital: its role as a determinant of remarriage. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1990. 193-213 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the determinants of the likelihood and timing of remarriage for women: which characteristics of women and their first unions are conducive to quick remarriage and which are associated with low remarriage probabilities?...By analyzing the role of transferable marriage-specific capital as an asset, the present paper suggests a reinterpretation of past results and shows that such human capital constitutes an important component of women's gains from remarriage....[It] studies the determinants of remarriage separately for white and black women. The effects of the duration of first union and the presence of children from that union on remarriage probabilities are found to differ by race, results which can be interpreted within the context of the model developed here." Data from the 1982 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth are used to test the model.
Correspondence: C. U. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Box 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10399 Christensen, Bryce J. The retreat from marriage: causes and consequences. Family in America Research Series, ISBN 0-8191-7897-7. LC 90-42278. 1990. x, 170 pp. University Press of America: Lanham, Maryland/London, England; Rockford Institute, Center on the Family in America: Rockford, Illinois. In Eng.
This is a report on a conference titled The Retreat from Marriage, held in Rockford, Illinois, in May 1989. The report contains the four major papers presented at the meeting and a summary of a discussion focusing on changes in marital patterns in the United States. The papers concern current trends in nonmarital fertility and divorce, the social and cultural meaning of contemporary marriage, the ultimate costs of the retreat from marriage and family life, and the future of marriage in modern America.
Correspondence: University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10400 Colemen, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H. Remarriage and stepfamily research in the 1980s: increased interest in an old family form. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 4, Nov 1990. 925-40 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Nearly all the existing empirical work on step-families has been published in the last decade. This review first describes the demographic context for this work and then surveys research on stepchildren, remarriage, and stepfamily functioning [in the United States]. Problems in the extant research are identified, and attention is given to areas that need to be explored in the future. Explicit and implicit theories that guided remarriage and stepfamily research in the '80s receive special emphasis. The review closes with suggestions regarding the direction of future theory in these areas of research."
Correspondence: M. Coleman, University of Missouri, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, 28 Stanley Hall, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10401 Darskii, L. E.; Il'ina, I. P. Normalization of nuptiality in the USSR. [Normalizatsiya brachnosti v SSSR.] In: Demograficheskie protsessy v SSSR, Edited by A. G. Volkov. 1990. 6-28, 209 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The authors calculate a series of nuptiality tables for hypothetical cohorts of males and females in the USSR, based on the results of several sample surveys. It is shown that variations in nuptiality levels over the past 100 years for the country as a whole and for most regions are related to sex ratios, with war losses and excess male migration having a large impact on nuptiality patterns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10402 DellaPergola, Sergio. Recent trends in Jewish marriage. Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics Occasional Paper, No. 1989-07, 1989. 38 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
The author analyzes nuptiality trends in contemporary Jewish communities in selected countries. Socioeconomic and cultural differences among the countries are considered as factors affecting Jewish marriage patterns. The propensity of Jews to marry, divorce rates, and family and household composition are described. The author specifically analyzes marriages between Jews and non-Jews, and marriages that result in one partner converting to or from Judaism.
Correspondence: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Mount Scopus Campus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10403 Dorbritz, Jurgen. Marital status tables for the German Democratic Republic: period and cohort analysis of marriages of single persons and divorces. [Familienstandstafeln fur die DDR: Eheschiliessungen Lediger und Ehescheidungen in der Perioden- und Kohortenmessung.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 65, 1990. 76 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The author presents period and cohort tables of first marriages and of divorces for East Germany and describes the methodology used in constructing them. The tables cover first marriages in 1971, 1980, and 1987; first marriages for the birth cohorts of 1952 to 1963; marriage duration in 1981; and divorces among the marriage cohorts of 1970 to 1981. The nuptiality tables for first marriages are presented separately for men and women.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10404 Gaulin, Steven J. C.; Boster, James S. Dowry as female competition. American Anthropologist, Vol. 92, No. 4, Dec 1990. 994-1,005 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Boserup (1970) views dowry as a payment made by women to guarantee future support for them and their children under circumstances where their own contributions to subsistence are relatively small. We call this the labor-value model. Here, building on the polygyny threshold theory from behavioral ecology (Orians 1969), we view dowry as a reproductive tactic used by prospective brides and their kin to attract the wealthiest bridegrooms. Our model predicts dowry in stratified, nonpolygynous societies where the desirability of wealthy males is not reduced by diversion of resources to additional wives and their children. We call this the female-competition model. We use discriminant analysis to test both these models on the 1,267 societies of the Ethnographic Atlas. While both models perform better than chance, the female-competition model is clearly superior."
Correspondence: S. J. C. Gaulin, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Anthropology, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10405 Haberlova, Vera. Adolescence and nuptiality. [Dospivani a snatecnost.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1990. 332-6 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines nuptiality in Czechoslovakia, with a focus on the socioeconomic conditions contributing to the timing of life-cycle events.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10406 Ho, Fung Chu; Johnson, Ronald C. Intra-ethnic and inter-ethnic marriage and divorce in Hawaii. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 44-51 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The present paper will bring up to date information concerning intra-ethnic and inter-ethnic divorce rates and will contrast data derived from marriage data having to do with all marriages as opposed to resident marriages (one or both members of the spouse pairs are residents) as each set of marriage data relates to divorce (resident only) data. Further, this paper will provide an explanation for a significant portion of the variance in resident marriage/divorce rates across different combinations of husbands and wives of Hawaii's five major racial/ethnic groups--persons of Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian/part Hawaiian, and Japanese ancestry."
Correspondence: F. C. Ho, Loyola University, Department of Psychology, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10407 Jensen, Peter; Smith, Nina. Unemployment and marital dissolution. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1990. 215-29 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the effects of unemployment on the probability of marital dissolution. Based on panel data for a sample of Danish married couples, we estimate a dynamic model for the probability of marital dissolution where we take into account the possible effects of unemployment for both spouses. We also control for other factors such as education, age, presence of children, place of residence, health and economic factors. The empirical results show that unemployment seems to be an important factor behind marital instability. However, only unemployment of the husband has an effect, and this effect is immediate."
Correspondence: P. Jensen, University of Aarhus, Institute of Economics, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10408 Korra, Antenane. Marriage patterns and differentials in Ghana 1979/80. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 709-40 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study has been to portray the marriage patterns and differentials in Ghana. The study has also examined the dynamics of nuptiality that prevailed in the country." Data are from the 1979-1980 Ghana Fertility Survey. Economic development, changes in women's status, urbanization, and geographic location are examined as they contribute to variations in marriage age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10409 Kuklo, Cezary. Marriage in pre-industrial Warsaw in the light of demographic studies. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1990. 239-59 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The study describes the marriages contracted in the Holy Cross parish, one of the largest parishes in pre-industrial Warsaw. On the basis of the eighteenth-century parish registers of marriages, baptism and burials, taxation documents and population censuses, an attempt is made to establish the proportion of full celibaterians, the social and territorial origin of the newlyweds, their age, the duration of marriage and widowhood, the time when the marriages were contracted and their frequency in the largest urban agglomeration of pre-industrial Poland. The data are examined on the basis of reconstituted marriages in two subperiods: the late Saxon (1740-1769) and the Enlightenment (1770-1799)."
Correspondence: C. Kuklo, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10410 Lichter, Daniel T. Delayed marriage, marital homogamy, and the mate selection process among white women. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 4, Dec 1990. 802-11 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examines patterns of mate selection and marital heterogamy among [white] women who delay marriage until after age 30. A guiding hypothesis is that the shrinking pool of eligible males magnifies the competition for spouses among older never-married women and contributes to a shift to atypical or nonnormative marriage markets. Consistent with theoretical expectations, data from the 1980 [U.S.] Census Public Use Microdata Sample reveal that delayed marriage is associated with age hypergamy, entry into the marriage market of previously married men, and educational status hypogamy. Although nonmarriage is an option increasingly taken by older women, another demographic alternative has been to expand the field of potential marital partners through increased marital heterogamy."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10411 Lichter, Daniel T.; LeClere, Felicia B.; McLaughlin, Diane K. Local marriage markets and the marital behavior of black and white women. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 4, Jan 1991. 843-67 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"A basic premise of this study is that national marriage rates are played out across local marriage-market areas that define female opportunities for marriage. Using local area data from the newly released 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample (D file), the article provides a direct test of several alternative explanations of U.S. marital behavior and of black and white differences in marriage rates. The analysis reveals that (a) local economic opportunities (including welfare) for females, spouse availability, and urbanization contribute significantly to spatial variations in female marriage rates, (b) the local supply of economically 'attractive' males plays an especially large role in the marital behaviors of U.S. black and white women, and (c) racial differences in marriage-market conditions accentuate, but do not explain completely, black-white differences in U.S. marriage rates."
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 392).
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:10412 London, Kathryn A. Cohabitation, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage: United States, 1988. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 194, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1250. Jan 4, 1991. 8 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Recent nuptiality trends in the United States are analyzed using data on women surveyed in the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth. Separate consideration is given to cohabitation, marriage patterns, dissolution of first marriage, and remarriage. Most of the analysis is presented separately for blacks and whites.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10413 Lye, Diane N. The rise of divorce in developed countries since 1960: a comparative study of law, opportunity and values. Pub. Order No. DA8922558. 1989. 511 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The divorce rate has risen sharply in all western countries since the late 1960s. This study investigates the causes of the trend and the sources of variation in divorce rates between countries. Age specific divorce rates are presented for fifteen countries from 1960 to 1984....Three explanations for the upward trend are examined: changing divorce laws, rising economic opportunities and shifting family values."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(7).

57:10414 Minkov, Minko. Marriage rate, divorce rate, and the development of the Bulgarian family. [Brachnost, brakorazvodnost i razvitie na Balgarskoto semeistvo.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1989. 3-15 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines the new forms of consensual union that are becoming increasingly prevalent in Europe and their detrimental effects on the reproduction of generations and socialization. "Using data from the sociological study conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1977 and the data obtained in the latest population census in 1985, the development of the Bulgarian family and influence of [these] new social relations under socialism are investigated." Particular attention is given to trends in marriage and divorce rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10415 Mulder, Monique B. Kipsigis women's preferences for wealthy men: evidence for female choice in mammals? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1990. 255-64 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
Factors affecting the choice of a male mate in a polygynous society are examined using data on the Kipsigis people of Kenya. "This paper has two aims: first, to test whether Kipsigis women prefer wealthy men by examining the sequence of marriages among a group of pioneers...who established a settlement in the territory of their enemies (1930-1949); second, to determine whether women suffer reproductively as a result of polygynous marriage."
Correspondence: M. B. Mulder, University of California, Department of Anthropology, Davis, CA 95616. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10416 Otero, Hernan. A critical approach to endogamy: considerations resulting from the reconstruction of French families (Tandil, 1850-1914). [Una vision critica de la endogamia: reflexiones a partir de una reconstruccion de familias francesas (Tandil, 1850-1914).] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 5, No. 15-16, Aug-Dec 1990. 343-78 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Marriage patterns of French immigrants in Tandil [Argentina] are analyzed on the basis of birth and wedding data obtained from local registers using the Louis Henry model to establish the pattern for the whole immigrant group and not restricted to legally wed couples. The study of marital choices is not fully valid unless also the continuity of practices developed at origin as well as composition of the group and patterns of arrival are taken into account. Two main conclusions are presented: the link between [endo-]/exogamic behaviour and the type of migration (individual or chain migration) and the higher exogamy in rural areas."
Correspondence: H. Otero, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, IHES, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10417 Punpueng, Sureeporn. Nuptiality in Thailand: an analysis based on the 1980 population census data. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jan 1990. 175-83, 241-2 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"The focus of this paper has been the study of female mean age at marriage and its relationship with socio-economic and demographic variables. The analysis was undertaken for each region of Thailand....Though each region is different in its own way, the sex-ratio was found to be an important influence on [marriage age] in all regions except in the South....If the government wishes to implement a policy designed to contribute to the reduction in population growth through increasing the age at marriage then a promising area for intervention may be the employment of women outside the agricultural sector."
Correspondence: S. Punpueng, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Nakhonchaisri, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10418 Relethford, John H. Effect of population size on marital migration distance. Human Biology, Vol. 63, No. 1, Feb 1991. 95-8 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The author studies the relationship between population size and marital migration distance. He hypothesizes that "small populations draw mates from a relatively local gene pool and that larger populations draw mates from a relatively larger gene pool....The purpose of this article is to test the hypothesis that migration distance increases with population size in populations ranging in size from 500 to 3,000. The data used in this study consist of marriage records from four towns in Massachusetts during the period 1740-1849...."
For a related study, published by the same author in 1986, see 53:10737.
Correspondence: J. H. Relethford, New York State Department of Health, Division of Epidemiology, Injury Control and Disability Prevention Programs, Empire State Plaza, Corning Tower Room 621, Albany, NY 12237. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10419 Rettaroli, Rosella. Age at marriage in nineteenth-century Italy. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1990. 409-25 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The family forms found in central and northeastern Italy in the nineteenth century contrasted sharply with those found in the south, with complex forms generally characterizing the former areas and nuclear forms predominating in the latter. Early marriage and a neolocal form of household formation prevailed in most of the south, while later marriage and multi-nuclear households were common in the north. These are linked to differences in the economic systems of these different areas, but also to cultural differences."
Correspondence: R. Rettaroli, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10420 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; Khalifa, Nadia K. Cohort nuptiality in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 309-34 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper provides a detailed series of first marriage probabilities and an examination of historical data of first marriage according to age and sex. Egyptian censuses and vital registration records are used to calculate age-specific first marriage rates for single year birth cohorts from 1920 through...early 1965 for females, and from 1916 through...early 1961 for males, and for individual calendar years from...early 1935 through 1979."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10421 Sharpe, Pamela. Literally spinsters: a new interpretation of local economy and demography in Colyton in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Economic History Review, Vol. 44, No. 1, Feb 1991. 46-65 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author investigates reasons for observed changes in the number of marriages and baptisms and in female age at marriage in Colyton, England, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. She "aims to extend the demographic analysis already carried out for the parish of Colyton in Devon and to place it in a social and economic context. The author has linked additional records of the parish such as poor relief documents to the original reconstitution. The most important addition to the present interpretation of Colyton's past is the discovery of a low sex ratio. This is associated with domestic industry in the town. It resulted in a distinctive socio-economic community structure."
Correspondence: P. Sharpe, University of Essex, Local History Centre, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10422 Siman de Betancourt, Aida V. Consensual unions in Puerto Rico: its determinants and fertility consequences. Pub. Order No. DA8914471. 1988. 122 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines three major aspects of consensual unions in Puerto Rico. First, using an exchange theory framework, what are the characteristics of women (and their partners) entering consensual rather than legal unions? Second, using the proximate determinants of fertility framework, in the first three years, do consensual or legal unions produce more births? And third, what characteristics of women in consensual unions are associated with the likelihood of legalization." Findings reveal that consensual unions lasting under three years negatively affected fertility. However, as the duration of the union increased, fertility also increased.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(3).

57:10423 Spasovska, Lilyana. Celibacy as a personal and social problem (results from a sociological study). [Bezbrachieto kato lichen i sotsialen problem (rezultati ot sotsiologichesko izsledvane).] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1988. 79-105 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines trends in celibacy in Bulgaria using data from a sample study of 1,015 never-married individuals aged 25-60, which was carried out in Vidin district in 1987. "The author analyses the causes for celibacy as defined by the people themselves, their attitude to the value of marriage and to such phenomena as extra-marital cohabitation and [unmarried] mothers, their attitudes to marriage, the reaction of the family environment to celibacy, [and] the need for some help from society in finding an appropriate mate."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10424 Stone, Lawrence. Road to divorce: England, 1530-1987. ISBN 0-19-822651-9. LC 90-32565. 1990. xxvii, 460 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the evolution of divorce laws in England, focusing on the period from the Restoration of 1660 to 1857, the date of the passage of the first divorce law. Emphasis is placed on the process through which divorce changed from being an extremely rare event in early modern England to a common and frequently occurring event today. Data are from a number of English legal records. "The first purpose of this book is...to identify and explain the extraordinary laxity and ambiguity of the English laws of marriage which endured up to 1753, and the equally extraordinary strictness of the laws of separation and divorce which lasted until 1857....The last chapter of this book traces the story of the divorce revolution of the last hundred years from the first breach in the barrier in 1857 to the situation today....The second and parallel objective of this book is to trace the slow, irregular, and tentative evolution of moral values concerning relations between the sexes in England, and the consequent shift from concepts of patriarchy to those of sexual equality."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10425 Thornton, Arland. Influence of the marital history of parents on the marital and cohabitational experiences of children. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 4, Jan 1991. 868-94 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article examines the influence of mothers' marital histories on the cohabitational and marital experiences of their children....The evidence suggests that the children of mothers who married young and were pregnant at marriage entered into their own marital and nonmarital unions significantly earlier than others. The experience of parental marital dissolution increases children's nonmarital cohabitations but has little effect on their marriages. While no single causal mechanism can easily account for all of the empirical data, the combination of different attitudes toward marriage, nonmarital sex, and cohabitation can account for the empirical findings." This study is based on data from a 23-year U.S. panel study of mothers and children in the Detroit metropolitan area.
Correspondence: A. Thornton, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:10426 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Patterns of first marriage: timing and prevalence. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/111, 1990. xiii, 327 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study of patterns of first marriage is a follow-up to an earlier publication entitled "First Marriage: Patterns and Determinants", which focused primarily on conceptual and theoretical issues. This study "deals with types of family systems and types of marriage in different cultures, with the terminology and definitions of marital status and with statistical problems encountered in identifying and enumerating different marriage forms in various cultural contexts. Furthermore, a major part of that publication is devoted to an overview of selected theories and hypotheses concerning interrelations between first marriage behaviour and its social, economic, demographic and cultural determinants."
For the earlier study referred to, published in 1988, see 54:20487.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10427 Vella, Frank; Collins, Sean. The value of youth: equalizing age differentials in marriages. Applied Economics, Vol. 22, No. 3, Mar 1990. 359-73 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to present a model of constrained utility-maximizing behaviour which is able to explain several features of marriage. The model predicts that individuals meet in the marriage market and trade characteristics, in which they are relatively well endowed, to obtain characteristics in which they are less well endowed. The model implies a positive age differential in favour of the husband due to biological differences. This differential is shown to be attenuated by differences in earnings capacity and human capital investments. The model also has implications for dynamic aspects of marriage and provides an explanation for the secular increase in females' age of first marriage and difficulty experienced by females in the post thirty-year age group in finding suitable partners. An examination of unit record data on residents of metropolitan California from the 1980 United States Census reveals systematic patterns in the data are consistent with the theory."
Correspondence: F. Vella, University of Rochester, Department of Economics, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10428 Waite, Linda J.; Lillard, Lee A. Children and marital disruption. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 4, Jan 1991. 930-53 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Children constitute the prime example of 'marital-specific capital,' a resource worth substantially more inside a marriage than outside it. This article examines the effect of children on marital stability [in the United States], using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics....The results indicate that firstborn children increase the stability of marriage through their preschool years. Other children increase marital stability only when they are very young. Older children and children born before marriage significantly increase chances of disruption."
Correspondence: L. J. Waite, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:10429 White, Lynn K. Determinants of divorce: a review of research in the eighties. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 4, Nov 1990. 904-12 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This review encompasses work published in the 1980s that concerns the causes of divorce [in the United States]. Substantive findings are reviewed under three broad headings: macrostructure, demographics and the life course, and family process. Trends in methods, samples, and theory are also reviewed. This decade's research on divorce is characterized by bigger and better data sets, more sophisticated research techniques, and a growing body of conclusive empirical findings in the areas of demographic and life course factors. Relatively neglected areas include theory and family process. The review ends with recommendations for future research."
Correspondence: L. K. White, University of Nebraska, Department of Sociology, Lincoln, NE 68583-0745. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10430 Yang, Wen Shan. Race/ethnicity and components of marital instability in the U.S., 1960 to 1980: a log-linear analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9005698. 1989. 339 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines race/ethnicity differences in marital status in the United States from 1960 to 1980. In particular, it develops an ethnic stratification theory on marital instability to examine the extent and nature of marital problems among Anglos, Blacks, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans from both cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. Cultural and structural determinants of marital instability patterns embraced in race/ethnicity, current age, age at first marriage, and education are assessed to examine the magnitudes and changes in marital instability among racial/ethnic groups from 1960 to 1980."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(9).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

57:10431 Achil'dieva, E. F. Urban families with more than two children. [Gorodskaya mnogodetnaya sem'ya.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 9, 1990. 72-9 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The socio-demographic characteristics of large families in urban areas of the USSR are analyzed using data from a survey carried out by the Institute of Sociology of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The data concern 425 families in two districts of Moscow with three or more children.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10432 Banda, Jeremiah. Value of children, well-being, and family size in Zambia. Pub. Order No. DA9001597. 1989. 318 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The study examines factors that contribute to family size preferences [in Zambia]. In particular, it explores the relative impact of perceived economic value of children on family size preferences. In addition, the study explores the relationship of some life concerns with perceived life quality of parents and children....Major findings from the study suggest that the perceived value of children's economic contribution to parents is directly related to family size preferences." Data are from a 1987 survey that included 3,473 respondents.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(8).

57:10433 Barbagli, Marzio; Kertzer, David. An introduction to the history of Italian family life. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1990. 369-83 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The "historical context necessary for understanding Italian family life from the early nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century is outlined in this introduction. Italy's backward economy and its political fragmentation in the first half of the nineteenth century is detailed, the major economic differences among various parts of the country are discussed, and the geography of Italian family forms is described. Changes in family form and demographic behavior are sketched, and the recent development of Italian family historiography is examined. Finally, an overview of the contributions made by the articles in this special issue is provided."
Correspondence: M. Barbagli, University of Bologna, Department of Sociology, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10434 Blanc, Ann K.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Women's childrearing strategies in relation to fertility and employment in Ghana. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 16, 1990. 50 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines childrearing strategies of Ghanaian women over the life cycle in relationship to fertility and employment. The practice of fostering as a childrearing option is explored in detail. The data used are from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the 1979/80 Ghana Fertility Survey....Child fosterage is shown to be an institution in which all types of women participate--educated and uneducated, urban and rural, those employed in modern and traditional occupations. It is also shown to be a childcare strategy that is used to respond to shifts in childrearing responsibilities over the life cycle and to changes in life circumstances, such as migration, divorce, and widowhood....The growing importance of the cash economy and rising aspirations for children may threaten the traditional autonomy of Ghanaian mothers by raising the costs of children and increasing women's dependence on the earnings of others."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 429).
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10435 Bloss, Thierry; Frickey, Alain; Godard, Francis. Cohabiting, decohabiting, and recohabiting: the routes followed by two generations of women. [Cohabiter, decohabiter, recohabiter: itineraires de deux generations de femmes.] Revue Francaise de Sociologie, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1990. 553-72, 670-4 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
The process of leaving the parental home on reaching adulthood is analyzed using data for two cohorts of French women, those born in 1947 and those born in 1959, who were surveyed in 1986. Two alternative ways of establishing adulthood are considered, namely, marriage and the achievement of an academic or professional qualification. The tendency of unmarried adult women to return to the family home is considered.
Correspondence: T. Bloss, GERM-CEROM, 2 rue de la Charite, 13002 Marseille, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10436 Bracher, Michael; Santow, Gigi. The family histories of Australian women. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1990. 227-56 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper exploits retrospective life-history data to examine changing age-specific patterns of co-residence of Australian women between the ages of 20 and 59 years at interview in 1986. Overlaying histories of leaving home, marital unions and childbearing, we identify cohort changes in the time spent before leaving the parental home, in transition between leaving home and forming a conjugal union, in times spent in union and times spent with children. Our analyses show that, despite massive recent declines in fertility and nuptiality, and a greater diversity in living arrangements, the nuclear family of couple and children remains the most common household unit and is unlikely to lose its pre-eminence in the near future."
Correspondence: M. Bracher, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian Family Project, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10437 Bulder, E. A. M. Household structures of elderly in the past: a case study of two Dutch communities in the period 1920-1940. NIDI Report, No. 13, ISBN 90-70990-23-7. 1990. ix, 48 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
Data from population registers are used to reconstruct the household structures of elderly people for two different regions of the Netherlands for the period 1920-1940, the primary objective being to identify the level of support the elderly received from their families. "The most important conclusion of our investigation is that regarding the regional variation in the Netherlands in the size and structure of households, and taking into consideration the influence of advancing age, the Dutch elderly were, in most cases, living independently, as the head (or wife of the head) of the household in which they were residing."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10438 Burr, Jeffrey A. Race/sex comparisons of elderly living arrangements: factors influencing the institutionalization of the unmarried. Research on Aging, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1990. 507-30 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"This article describes recent trends in the total institutionalization rates among unmarried, [elderly] Black and White populations, by sex. In addition, an analysis is provided that evaluates the individual attributes associated with the probability of institutionalization for these same groups in 1980. To accomplish these goals, U.S. Census data from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 Public Use Samples are employed. The evidence suggests convergence over time in age-standardized rates across both race and sex groups. Also, there is considerable consistency among the groups in the factors that predict the likelihood of being in a formal long-term care situation."
Correspondence: J. A. Burr, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10439 Devereaux, Mary S. Decline in the number of children. Canadian Social Trends, No. 18, Autumn 1990. 32-4 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The changing characteristics of the family in Canada over the period since World War II are analyzed using official data. The trend away from families with three or more children is confirmed.
Correspondence: M. S. Devereaux, Canadian Social Trends, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10440 Ermisch, John; Wright, Robert E. Welfare benefits and the duration of single parenthood. National Institute Economic Review, No. 130, Nov 1989. 85-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the contention that the provision of welfare benefits to single parents increases the number of single parents and the duration of single parenthood. Data are from the Women and Employment Survey, which collected marital, childbearing, and employment data from 5,320 women aged 16-59 in the United Kingdom in 1980. The results indicate that welfare benefits exercise no significant effect on the duration of single parenthood.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10441 Gerasimova, I. A. The influence of family socio-demographic structure on the level of well-being. [O vliyanii sotsial'no-demograficheskoi struktury sem'i na uroven' ee blagosostoyaniya.] In: Demograficheskie protsessy v SSSR, edited by A. G. Volkov. 1990. 77-89, 210 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"[Based] on the results of [a] sample family survey conducted in 1978-1980 [in the USSR] the author studies the interrelation of such features as demographic composition of family, its total income and employment status of its members by the stages of a family cycle. The influence of family age on the level and structure of family income is demonstrated. The necessity to combine...longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis for [the] study and forecast of socio-demographic family structure is [emphasized]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10442 Goldscheider, Frances K. The aging of the gender revolution: what do we know and what do we need to know? Research on Aging, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1990. 531-45 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"Cohorts who will become the elderly of the 21st century [in the United States] have been on the leading edge of the family revolution, the rapid growth of labor force participation among women, the tremendous rise in divorce and in childrearing out of marriage, and the overall decline in marriage and remarriage. Increasingly, the elderly will not be married or not in their first marriage. Research has focused on women and children as the sufferers from divorce, but in old age, as family relationships based on marriage and parenthood grow in importance, it is males who are at risk. This article presents a series of research findings that specify these risks."
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10443 Guinnane, Timothy. Coming of age in rural Ireland at the turn of the twentieth century. Continuity and Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, Dec 1990. 443-72, 319, 321-2 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper documents the process of coming of age in rural Ireland at the turn of the twentieth century....Emigration took large fractions, often majorities, of each birth-cohort in the period between the Great Famine and the First World War. Many young people leaving home left Ireland as well. Young people who remained in Ireland confronted its exceptional marriage and household-formation patterns: permanent celibacy in Ireland reached extreme levels at the end of the nineteenth century....The continuity of lineages on holdings, and the presence of unmarried siblings in rural households, implies that many young people quite literally never left home. These patterns are documented using a sample of rural households drawn from the Irish manuscript censuses of 1901 and 1911."
Correspondence: T. Guinnane, Princeton University, Department of Economics, 112 Fisher Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10444 Hareven, Tamara K. The history of the family and the complexity of social change. American Historical Review, Vol. 96, No. 1, Feb 1991. 95-124 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a survey of developments in the study of family history over the last 25 years. Consideration is given to the development of such studies in France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries. Topics considered include changes in family characteristics, households, the family life cycle, kinship networks, and the family's interaction with processes of social and economic change.
Correspondence: T. K. Hareven, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

57:10445 Himes, Christine L. Projected family status of the elderly: implications for long term care. Pub. Order No. DA9004789. 1989. 266 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research projects the likelihood that the future elderly [in the United States] will have either a surviving spouse or child available to provide care using multiple decrement life tables and component projection methods....[Findings reveal that] although the probability of an elderly person having surviving family members is likely to increase over time, the increase cannot be depended upon to significantly alter the level of use of institutional long term care."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(9).

57:10446 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Parent-child residential relationship and migration from the viewpoint of children. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 3, Oct 1990. 16-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"Facilitated by our previous macro-models, we analyzed the effects of children's characteristics on the residential relationship with parents using the data of the Second National Survey on Migration in Japan, 1986 conducted by [the] Institute of Population Problems. The characteristics studied here were children's age, birth order, marital status, sex, sib size, number of living parents, education and birth place." Comparisons are made of the age, sex, and marital status of children who leave the parental home and those who continue to reside with their parents.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10447 Hobbs, Frank; Lippman, Laura. Children's well-being: an international comparison. International Population Reports, Series P-95, No. 80, 1990. xi, 53 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents comparable data on the current status of children and youth under age 25 in each of these areas for the United States and other selected countries, providing a comparative perspective on the well-being of youth in the United States....International statistics on the status of children and families [are presented] in the following areas: basic demographic trends; family composition and marital dissolution; the economic status of children; health; education; labor force participation; and family formation. Broad indicators of the basic well-being of children and families based on national statistics are presented....At times, to ensure comparability and availability of data for as many countries as possible, recency of data has been sacrificed. However, projections illustrating future trends in basic demographic indicators are presented."
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10448 Hooimeijer, Pieter. Towards a spatial demography of housing. In: Emerging issues in demographic research, edited by Cornelius A. Hazeu and Gerard A. B. Frinking. 1990. 281-300 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The effects of demographic trends on changes in housing needs in the Netherlands are examined. Three specific areas are addressed: "(a) household development, (b) housing demand and residential mobility and (c) household relocation and spatial redistribution." Research methodology concerning these topics is discussed. A comment is included by William A. V. Clark (pp. 295-300).
Correspondence: P. Hooimeijer, University of Utrecht, Faculty of Geographical Science, PO Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10449 Itoh, Tatsuya. Recent trends and regional differences in the household formation system in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 3, Oct 1990. 35-48 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in household formation in Japan and the United States are examined using data for the years 1985 and 1988, respectively. Heads of households are characterized by age, sex, and marital status to evaluate nuclear or extended family formations. The author also includes a discussion of regional differences in household composition in Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10450 King, Miriam; Preston, Samuel H. Who lives with whom? Individual versus household measures. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990. 117-32 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Conceived of as a contribution to the methodological debate over the relative desirability of measuring living arrangements in terms of households or in terms of individuals, the study develops formal relationships between household characteristics measured among the set of households and those measured among the set of individuals. Empirical evidence is presented about what difference it makes to use households rather than individuals as the units of analysis, and some measurement tools are developed for analyzing components of change in the prevalence of particular living arrangements. The latter are illustrated with results from representative national samples of the U.S. population in 1910 and 1980."
Correspondence: M. King, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10451 Kojima, Hiroshi. Correlates of postnuptial coresidence in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 4, Sep 1990. 19, [5] pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author analyzes postnuptial coresidence in postwar Japan, using data from the National Fertility Studies of 1977 and 1982. He reviews the causes of formation and dissolution of coresidence and compares these with trends in other developed societies. Various factors affecting coresidence are examined, such as education, family size, overcrowding, wife's employment, and traditional customs.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10452 Kulu, Isik. Husbands as decision-makers in relation to family size: east-west regional differentials in Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 12, 1990. 41-64 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This study tries to serve two specific purposes for two of the five regions in Turkey which are thought to represent the extremes, i.e. the Eastern and Western regions: to explore the role of [the husband] in the family as a decision-maker and its relation to fertility [and] to try to reveal the differences between the East and the West in terms of socio-cultural factors. The data [come] from the 1988 Turkish Fertility and Health Survey."
Correspondence: I. Kulu, Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10453 Latuch, Mikolaj. Transformations of the family model. [Przemiany modelu rodziny.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1988. 85-103, 208, 213 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in family characteristics in Poland since World War II are analyzed, noting the impact that the decline in fertility has had on families. The author suggests that the development of an effective population policy designed to influence fertility is academic in the face of the current deteriorating economic conditions in the country.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10454 Martin, Linda G. Changing intergenerational family relations in East Asia. In: World population: approaching the year 2000, edited by Samuel H. Preston. Jul 1990. 102-14 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Intergenerational family relations in China, Japan, and South Korea are changing. Multigenerational coresidence and dominance of patrilineal relations are declining. In some ways, the diffusion of so-called Western values and practices that are in conflict with Confucian ideals parallels the earlier process of the Confucianization of Japan and Korea. The demographic changes that are influencing families are new, however, and East Asians of the future will have fewer but longer-lasting kinship relations. At the same time, population aging and the expected declining role of the family in elder care are causing growing concern among policy makers."
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10455 Mutchler, Jan E. Household composition among the nonmarried elderly: a comparison of black and white women. Research on Aging, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1990. 487-506 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"Differences in household composition between Black and White women have often been explained as resulting from differences in the resources of the two groups, particularly economic differences. A competing viewpoint holds that living arrangements reflect the cultural context within which life choices are negotiated. The purpose of this article is to assess the relative merits of these arguments. In this analysis, the extensive data available in the 1984 panel of the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation are employed. Indicators of health, kinship, income, and wealth are included in the analysis of living arrangements among Black and White women aged 55 and over."
Correspondence: J. E. Mutchler, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10456 Nelissen, Jan H. M. The microeconomic theory of household formation and dissolution: state-of-the-art and research proposals. In: Emerging issues in demographic research, edited by Cornelius A. Hazeu and Gerard A. B. Frinking. 1990. 127-80 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of the microeconomic theory of household formation and dissolution, with a geographical focus on the Netherlands. Microsimulation is utilized to analyze the impact of specific variables on demographic behavior, including fertility, marriage, consensual unions, separation, and leaving the parental home. Comments are included by John F. Ermisch (pp. 171-3) and Jozef M. M. Ritzen and Henrik P. van Dalen (pp. 175-80).
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Catholic University of Brabant, Faculty of Social Sciences, Hogeschoollaan 225, POB 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10457 Neupert, Ricardo F. An application of the Gompertz function to the analysis and projection of households by size class. [Uma aplicacao da funcao de Gompertz na analise e na projecao de domicilios por classes de tamanho.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 50, No. 193, Jan-Jun 1989. 101-20 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
A technique for representing the distribution of households by size class using the Gompertz function is introduced. "By extension, it may also be used to disaggregate, by size class, an available projection of the total number of households. The technique does not consider directly the dynamic aspects of the family life cycle, however, it has a methodological advantage: it makes use of information usually available in most census publications." The technique is illustrated using international data and data from the Brazilian censuses of 1960, 1970, and 1980. "Finally, the function is used to disaggregate, by size class, a recent projection of households for Brazil. The analyses show that, in fact, the Gompertz function is a consistent model to disaggregate the total number of households by size class. The methods may be useful as a base to develop models to estimate future housing needs according to the size of the dwellings."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10458 Osswald, Helena. Dowry, norms, and household formation: a case study from north Portugal. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990. 201-24 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The study uses a data base of 28 parishes in northern Portugal at the beginning of the seventeenth century to analyze the situation of young couples in terms of household composition, residential patterns, and inheritance rules. These matters are linked to cultural factors such as marital and generational relations and an attempt is made to explain the functioning of the conjugal fund and the roles of family members independent of the social and economic characteristics of the couples." The impact of factors such as dowry and property settlement rules, agricultural activities, occupational and socioeconomic status, and community networks is analyzed.
Correspondence: H. Osswald, University of Porto, Faculty of Letters, Rua D. Manuel II, 4003 Porto Codex, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10459 Poschl, Hannelore. Singles--an attempt at a definition. ["Singles"--Versuch einer Beschreibung.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 10, Oct 1990. 703-8 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Information is presented on single people in West Germany, using data from the 1972-1989 microcensuses. Topics discussed include the number of one-person households; the percentage of the population living alone; and one-person households by sex, age group, marital status, labor force participation, income, and size of community.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10460 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; El-Tawil, Sahar I. A proposed integrated framework for studying family demography. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 91-114 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors propose an integrated framework for studying family demography. "The first [section] is devoted to the clarification of the concept of family demography, the main concern of the field and the unit of analysis. The next section is a demonstration of previous attempts to approach modeling the different relationships within the context of family demography using several techniques and different units of analysis. Some important applications are also presented. In the last section, we introduce an integrated framework which, we believe is capable of providing insights into the dynamics that relate the socioeconomic inputs to the household-setting outcomes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10461 Schultz, T. Paul. Testing the neoclassical model of family labor supply and fertility. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 25, No. 4, Fall 1990. 599-634 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The McElroy-Horney Nash-bargaining model of family demand behavior relaxes the restriction that nonearned income of husband and wife has the identical effect on family labor supply and commodity demands. This restriction of the neoclassical model of family behavior is tested for the determination of husband and wife labor supply and fertility based on the 1981 Socioeconomic Survey of Thailand. The neoclassical restriction is rejected for female labor supply and fertility. Another unexplored limitation of family demand studies, due to the sample self selection of intact marriages, is empirically treated through alternative estimation strategies. In this case, a more sharply focused theory of marital behavior is needed to identify family demand models."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 406).
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Economics Department, Box 1987, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

57:10462 Seltzer, Judith A. Legal custody arrangements and children's economic welfare. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 4, Jan 1991. 895-929 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article investigates the effects of legal custody arrangements on the amount of child support fathers pay after divorce [in the United States], contrasting the experiences of families in which parents share authority over children through joint legal custody and those in which mothers have sole legal custody. It argues that joint legal custody encourages similarities between the way divorced fathers and fathers in two-parent households invest in their children."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 421).
Correspondence: J. A. Seltzer, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:10463 Stevens, David A. New evidence on the timing of early life course transitions: the United States 1900 to 1980. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990. 163-78 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This article is a description and analysis of the timing of early life course transitions in the twentieth century. Using data from national microdata samples of the census for 1900, 1910, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980, the study investigates the timing of seven transitions to adulthood, relationships between pairs of transitions, and how changes in these patterns affected the behavior of several population subgroups. The results show that youth in the second half of the century made the transition to adulthood earlier and followed a more prescribed and compressed schedule of transitions than their early-twentieth-century counterparts. The period of greatest change came after the Second World War, but by 1980 the trend toward earlier and increasingly age-graded familial transitions appeared to have reversed. Between 1900 and 1980 there is also a homogenization of experience among subgroups."
Correspondence: D. A. Stevens, University of Michigan, Department of History, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10464 Trent, Katherine; Harlan, Sharon L. Household structure among teenage mothers in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 3, Sep 1990. 439-57 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Using individual-level data from the 1980 U.S. Census, this paper examines household structure among teenage mothers. A typology is developed for the common forms of household arrangements. Only a small percentage of teenage mothers head their own households; the majority live with others. The patterning of household structure is related to age, marital status, race, poverty, and school enrollment. The implications of these results for household transitions, social policy, and future research are discussed."
Correspondence: K. Trent, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10465 Trost, Jan. On becoming a family. Familjerapporter, No. 18, 1990. 28 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
The author considers the development of the concept of family. "We will look at some occurrences or events forming a family or reforming a family. We will take a look at marriage and cohabitation rates, first marriages or first cohabitation, remarriages or recohabitation, step families in previous times, 'step' families of today and tomorrow, birth rates, and 'illegitimacy' or children born by not married mothers. I will use [primarily] information from Sweden....[but will also] compare with other countries for us to see variations and common trends."
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, Family Study Center, P.O. Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10466 Unalan, Turgay. A comparative analysis of family size preferences in Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 12, 1990. 65-73 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This study aims at analyzing the trends in the mean desired family size in Turkey to see whether there are any changes in preferences over time and whether these preferences can be related to...fertility behaviour. The data [are] from three nationwide surveys [covering 1978-1988]....The results of this study imply that the use of preferences as an indicator of future fertility would be misleading since the family size preferences of women in Turkey are not stable and do not seem to [influence] their fertility behaviour."
Correspondence: T. Unalan, Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10467 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Household and family characteristics: March 1990 and 1989. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 447, Dec 1990. iv, 224 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report summarizes some of the important recent trends in household and family characteristics [in the United States], and provides detailed demographic data from the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey." Emphasis is on changes in the number and composition of households. The data are presented separately by race and Hispanic origin.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10468 Viazzo, Pier P.; Albera, Dionigi. The peasant family in northern Italy, 1750-1930: a reassessment. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1990. 461-82 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Northernmost Italy is a land of great ecological variability, providing a natural laboratory for examining the impact of environmental factors on demography and society. A sharp contrast between mountains and plains was reflected in sharp differences in land tenure and social structure. Differences in access to marriage and in household composition between upland and lowland communities are examined and the impact on family life of economic changes occurring over the period 1750-1930 [is] explored. Environmental factors are found to play a major role in determining the kind of demographic and family patterns that prevailed."
Correspondence: P. P. Viazzo, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10469 Wolf, Douglas A. Household patterns of older women: some international comparisons. Research on Aging, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1990. 463-86 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"Comparative analyses based on aggregate data have shown that the percentage of older women living alone has risen dramatically during recent decades, a pattern repeated in many European and North American countries. This article investigates the correlates of the decision to live alone, using individual-level data from five countries and a parallel analytic approach. The major categories of factors analyzed here are kin availability, financial resources, and disability and health status....Despite...similarities in individual-level correlates, there remain some differences across countries in the levels of single-person households, and these might be attributable to macrolevel forces such as housing and social welfare policies."
Correspondence: D. A. Wolf, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


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