Volume 57 - Number 1 - Spring 1991

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

57:10222 Abulata, Mohamed F. Cohort fertility measures based on last closed birth interval (a stochastic model analysis). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 59-74 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The analytical approach proposed in this paper depends on modelling data on the last closed birth interval with the aim of estimating birth order-specific fecundability (fertility hazard) that can be used for inter-cohort fertility analysis." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10223 Acharya, Laxmi B. Age at first birth and its determinants in Nepal. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 851-87 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The major proximate determinants of age at first live birth are considered to be the age at puberty (menarche), age at the first marriage, contraception and pregnancy wastage before the first live birth and duration between marriage and consummation of marriage. The socio-economic and cultural variables influence the age at first live birth through these variables. In this paper, using the data collected in a sample survey conducted in 1976, the age at first live birth [and its determinants] among married women in Nepal, will be analysed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10224 Ahmed, Ferial A. El-K. The effect of child mortality on fertility and family planning practice. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 183-202 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The Theory of Demographic Transition suggests that fertility decline follows mortality decline and an improvement in social and economic conditions or modernization....The purpose of this paper is to examine this hypothesis by studying the effect of child mortality on fertility and family planning practice in Egypt utilizing the data from the Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey...1984."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10225 Al Najjar, Latifa M. Entry into sexual union and timing of first birth in Jordan. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 581-608 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The relationship between initiation of sexual union and timing of first birth among Jordanian women is examined. "The main objectives of this study can be set as follows: 1) to examine the trend in age at first marriage and its socio-economic variations, 2) to examine the trend in age at first birth and its differentials, [and] 3) to study the determinants of the first birth interval." Data are from the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10226 Arcury, Thomas A.; Williams, Belinda J.; Kryscio, Richard J. Birth seasonality in a rural U.S. county, 1911-1979. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1990. 675-89 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines birth seasonality in a rural U.S. county over the period 1911-1979. Data were taken from the complete series of birth certificates for the county population during this period....No birth seasonality was found for any decade during this century. The absence of a seasonal fertility pattern remained when all births were examined, and when such factors as ethnicity (only births to white mothers), occupation (only births to women married to farmers), and stillbirths were controlled singly and in combination."
Correspondence: T. A. Arcury, University of Kentucky, Center for Developmental Change, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10227 Arnold, Fred; Blanc, Ann K. Fertility levels and trends. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 2, Oct 1990. vi, 41 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to analyze fertility levels and trends in 25 developing countries which took part in the Demographic and Health Surveys program. In addition to various measures of current and past fertility, the report presents information on two of the components that determine fertility--age at first birth and infertility. The report uses standard recode data files [for 1986-1989] which were available at the time this report was prepared--for 13 African countries, 3 Asian countries, and 9 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean."
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10228 Assogba, L. N. Mensan. The status of women, family structures, and fertility: transitions in the Gulf of Benin. [Statut de la femme, structures familiales, fecondite: transitions dans le Golfe du Benin.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 14, ISBN 2-87762-015-8. Nov 1990. v, 28 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationships among women's status, family structures, and fertility are explored using data from a 1983 survey of 3,600 mothers, which was carried out in Lome, the capital of Togo. Women's status is defined as a multidimensional concept constructed from a selection of variables including socialization, socioeconomic characteristics, and aspirations and opinions concerning the family and fertility. The results indicate a trend in women's status toward individuality, which is related to increased education for women and urbanization. "Together with the change in women's status, family structure is also being modified. Women of modern status marry later and have fewer children than women of traditional status. It appears that status is an intermediate variable through which socio-cultural variables and socialization influence fertility decisions."
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10229 Bletzinger, Matthias; Walz, Uwe. Shadow price and income concepts in the economic theory of fertility. [Zum Schattenpreis- und Einkommensbegriff in der okonomischen Theorie der Fertilitat.] Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 206, No. 6, Dec 1989. 591-8 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper deals with endogenous shadow prices and therefore non-linear budget constraints with endogenous income. In contrast to the quantity-quality-models in the economic theory of fertility, here, these main features result from assumptions concerning home production technology. The distinction between observable and 'true' change in income is crucial. Only the latter is relevant for microeconomic decision calculus. The concept of superiority is related to true changes in income, in the case of children as well. Nonetheless the presented model is able to explain negative observable income effects with respect to the number of children."
Correspondence: M. Bletzinger, Universitat Tubingen, Abteilung Volkswirtschaftslehre, Insbesondere Wirtschaftstheorie, Mohlstrasse 36, D-7400 Tubingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10230 Brittain, Ann W. Migration and the demographic transition: a West Indian example. Social and Economic Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Sep 1990. 39-64 pp. Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
"Two problems of the Caribbean region are the large-scale emigration of ambitious and educated youth and sustained high birth rates. This study shows that for St. Barthelemy (French West Indies) migration rates positively influence birth rates. Crude rates of birth, death and emigration were calculated from 1880 through 1967. There was no statistically significant relationship between the death rate and birth rate. Instead, the probability of emigration accounted for 34 per cent of the variation in the crude birth rate, with increases in emigration being followed by increases in the birth rate five years later."
Correspondence: A. W. Brittain, University of Miami, Department of Anthropology, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10231 Cain, Mead T. Risk and fertility in a semi-feudal context: the case of rural Madhya Pradesh. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 19, 1990. 47 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the institutional context and determinants of fertility in two villages of Madhya Pradesh State [India]....Fertility is high in the two villages, and contraceptive prevalence is low....The analysis suggests that [the] feudal social order has a decisive effect on the fertility regime through two channels. First, it creates and perpetuates a relatively harsh environment of risk which, in turn, stimulates an extraordinary demand for insurance...[that] can be partially fulfilled by sons. Second, because of an aggressive policy of isolation and seclusion pursued by the dominant landlords, the village populations are relatively ignorant and insular, starved for information on a range of matters--including health care and contraceptive options--and lacking the public (or private) services that are potential sources of such information. An additional important factor underlying the high levels of fertility...is a low status of women and a relatively high degree of economic dependence...which creates a strong preference for sons and also produces a further barrier to the free flow of information."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10232 Calhoun, Charles A.; De Beer, Joop. Birth expectations and population forecasts: the case of the Netherlands. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 197-226 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter has introduced a new approach to modeling changing and uncertain birth expectations and applied it to data from the 1982 and 1988 Netherlands Fertility Surveys. Of particular interest was whether a multivariate model could be used to support the fertility assumptions underlying recent national population forecasts in the Netherlands. A bivariate ordered-probit model, based on latent variables for cumulative fertility experience and subjective birth expectations, was proposed as a means of addressing several issues relating to the analysis of discrete fertility outcomes....The importance of accounting for the effects of explanatory variables that differ by age was emphasized, and the empirical model included interaction terms for the impact of education, employment, and marriage on cumulative and expected fertility."
Correspondence: C. A. Calhoun, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10233 Chang, Kyung-Sup. Socialist institutions and family wealth flows reversal: an assessment of post-revolutionary Chinese rural fertility. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990. 179-200 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The study examines a hypothesis explaining the historical impact of socialist agricultural institutions on Chinese rural fertility. The implementation of collective agricultural management and socialization of traditional family relations under various types of socialist rural institutions are shown to have affected Chinese peasants' fertility by changing the 'intergenerational wealth flows' situation. To take into account the extraneous effects of economic conditions and family planning policy on rural fertility, statistical models are constructed which compute residual fertility fluctuations unexplained by these factors. By comparing the unexplained fluctuations of rural fertility with institutional changes that in varying degrees weakened the traditional sociopolitical and economic functions of family, we assess our hypothesis on the relation between macro institutional changes and fertility behavior of rural families."
Correspondence: K.-S. Chang, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10234 Chaudhry, Mahinder. Role of the social and cultural factors in human fertility in India. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 2, Winter 1990. 117-37 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of the paper is to examine the impact of...cultural and social practices and traditions on the changing fertility behaviour in India." Trends since the 1940s are analyzed, with a focus on the effects of changes in age at marriage, widowhood and remarriage, proportions married, induced abortion, postpartum infecundability and abstinence, son preference, and coital frequency.
Correspondence: M. Chaudhry, Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Political and Economic Science, Kingston, Ontario K7K 5L0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10235 Chen, Yen. An analysis of the fertility of Puerto Rican cohorts. Pub. Order No. DA9002913. 1989. 160 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper will utilize the 1982 Puerto Rican fertility survey data and conduct cohort analysis to show that more recent birth cohorts have different fertility patterns from the earlier birth cohorts....The study suggests that with rapid economic development on the island, changes in compositional variables such as education, female labor force participation and occupation, will lead to changes in fertility behavior."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(8).

57:10236 Cherlin, Andrew. Recent changes in American fertility, marriage, and divorce. In: World population: approaching the year 2000, edited by Samuel H. Preston. Jul 1990. 145-54 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This article discusses recent trends in fertility, marriage, and divorce in the period since 1965 in the United States. It describes briefly the sharp changes in patterns of births, marriage, informal unions, divorce, and remarriage. Very recent developments of note include the increasingly important place of cohabitation in the life course, the continuing postponement of marriage, and the rise in birth rates to women in their thirties. Explanations are examined that emphasize both the increased economic opportunities for women and the cultural shift toward a greater emphasis on individualism and self-fulfillment. In the concluding section, it is argued that concerns about fertility and the family in the years ahead will focus less on the number of children than on whether their upbringing and education will be adequate to meet the needs of a society with a relatively small labor force and a large dependent population."
Correspondence: A. Cherlin, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10237 Chiassino, Giuseppe; Papa, Onofrio. On seasonal variations in fertility in Italy. [Sulle fluttuazioni stagionali delle nascite in Italia.] Rassegna Economica, Vol. 54, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1990. 317-29 pp. Naples, Italy. In Ita.
The authors examine changes in seasonal variations in fertility in Italy from 1951-1960 to 1971-1980 using official data. Differences among regions are also analyzed. The effect of trends in the timing of marriage on seasonal variations in fertility is noted.
Correspondence: G. Chiassino, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Palazzo Ateneo, 70121 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10238 Chung, Sung-Ho. Socio-economic determinants of fertility behavior in Korea: a synthetic approach. Pub. Order No. DA8918966. 1989. 227 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to examine the socioeconomic and intervening determinants of fertility behavior in [the Republic of] Korea by developing and testing a model which links these factors to the use of deliberate fertility regulation and observed fertility. The conceptual framework applied here is based on the synthesis framework of fertility determination developed by Easterlin and Crimmins. The data come from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey, which was conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of New York at Albany.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10239 Cliquet, R. L.; Bosman, E.; Van Dongen, W. Decreasing fertility and changing relational behavior in the OECD member states. A brief overview of the background, effects and policy implications. [De dalende vruchtbaarheid en het veranderend relationeel gedrag in de OESO-lidstaten. Een bondige schets van de achtergronden, effecten en beleidsimplicaties.] Tijdschrift voor Sociale Wetenschappen, Vol. 34, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1989. 215-35 pp. Ghent, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The consequences and policy implications of recent demographic changes in the OECD member countries are examined at the individual, family, and national levels, with the focus on changes in fertility. The need for development of social and economic policies in response to demographic changes is noted, as well as the need to develop policies that might influence demographic trends. The authors conclude that the main policy dilemma concerns how to ensure that the quality of life of parents choosing to have more children is not adversely affected.
Correspondence: R. L. Cliquet, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinstudien, Nijverheidsstraat 35, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: New York Public Library.

57:10240 d'Armagnac-Mathias, Janine. Changes in the distribution of births throughout the day: a recent phenomenon. [La modification du rythme horaire des naissances: un phenomene recent.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 657-61 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Data from a historical study of a rural population in southwestern France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are used to examine changes in the distribution of births during the day.
Correspondence: J. d'Armagnac-Mathias, Universite de Bordeaux I, Institut d'Etudes Demographiques, 351 cors de la Liberation, 33405 Talence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10241 De Simoni, Alessandro. The recent evolution of fertility in Italy. An analysis of parity-specific fertility tables. [L'evolution recente de la fecondite italienne. Une analyse des tables de fecondite par rang de naissance.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1990. 123-36 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Using age- and parity-specific fertility tables, the author analyzes the evolution of fertility change in Italy. "The application of this 'multidimensional' (age and parity) approach shows how profound the fertility decline has been, the intensity of the decline being in some way 'hidden' by the impact of past evolution when traditional measures are used."
Correspondence: A. De Simoni, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10242 El-Nashashibi, Abla M. Determinants and consequences of age at first birth: the case of Syria, 1978. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 545-79 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present study attempts to examine the determinants and consequences of age at first birth in the Syrian context. The objectives of the study are: 1) to determine what factors have played important roles in influencing age at first birth, 2) to assess the change in the roles of demographic and socio-economic variables in influencing age at first birth over time, and 3) to investigate the extent to which age at first birth is associated with subsequent fertility and child mortality." Data are from the 1978 Syrian Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10243 Ellison, Peter T. Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: new hypotheses. American Anthropologist, Vol. 92, No. 4, Dec 1990. 933-52 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A series of eight hypotheses is presented, based on the results of current research, concerning the responsiveness of the human ovary to constitutional and environmental variables. These hypotheses are motivated by a theoretical position that seeks to understand human reproductive physiology as the product of natural selection....Together, these hypotheses provide for two, non-exclusive theories of facultative modulation of female reproductive effort. One theory views ovarian function as responsive to the prospects for positive reproductive outcome as these may be affected by maternal age, maturation, energy balance, and activity level. The second theory views ovarian function as responsive in a similar way to the need to maintain long-term maternal energy balance."
Correspondence: P. T. Ellison, Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10244 Elwan, Ann E. Fertility in urban squatter settlements in Jordan: a microeconomic analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8923677. 1989. 147 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A population of low-income urban squatter households in Amman [Jordan], many of whom are migrants, is used to investigate the degree to which fertility has been affected by exposure to the influences of an urban environment. The data are provided by two surveys, carried out in 1981 and 1985, before and after a substantial upgrading program was carried out. The program included the provision of physical and social infrastructure (paved roads, piped water and sewerage, electricity, community centers, and women's training centers, etc.). The aspects of fertility...investigated [are]...cumulative fertility [and]...contraceptive use....The picture that emerges is that, for the main part, the households studied either still have a large desired family size, possibly due to cultural factors not included in the analysis...or that their altered perceptions regarding number of children have not yet been translated into lower fertility."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(10).

57:10245 Engelen, Theo L. M. On historical roots of contemporary demographic problems. In: Emerging issues in demographic research, edited by Cornelius A. Hazeu and Gerard A. B. Frinking. 1990. 301-5 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses the historical implications of assessing demographic trends, specifically fertility decline in the Netherlands. The use of historical demography in the study of current demographic problems is emphasized.
Correspondence: T. L. M. Engelen, Catholic University of Nijmegen, Department of Economic and Social History, Comeniuslaan 4, POB 9102, 6500 HC Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10246 Feeney, Griffith; Lutz, Wolfgang. Distributional analysis of period fertility. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 169-95 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The authors outline and illustrate possibilities for fertility trend analysis, with a focus on "the distribution of children over all women and the estimates that can be derived from parity-specific period information...." Data from the German Democratic Republic and Austria are applied to models "to illustrate their potential for assessing distributional consequences of currently observed fertility behavior." Conclusions are applicable to observing fertility trends and the effect of pronatalist policies on fertility behavior in developed countries.
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10247 Friedlander, Dov; Schellekens, Jona; Ben-Moshe, Eliahu. The transition from high to low marital fertility: cultural or socioeconomic determinants? Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 39, No. 2, Jan 1991. 331-51 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In the present article we analyze, mainly through regressions, three aspects of marital fertility transitions in the 600 districts of England and Wales: pretransition marital fertility levels, the timing of their decline, and the rates of their decline. The aim is to assess the relative importance of cultural, demographic, and socioeconomic variables in explaining the transitional process from relatively high to relatively low marital fertility levels in England and Wales. In addition, we attempt to evaluate the independent effect of diffusion forces which, according to some of the studies outlined above, played a major role in the spread of marital fertility decline within cultural boundaries....The analysis in this study is based on nineteenth-century census and vital registration data."
Correspondence: D. Friedlander, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:10248 Hasan, Amal F. M. Age at first marriage and fertility in Egypt, 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 281-308 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of the research was to assess the extent to which later age at first marriage is associated with lower fertility and the influence of social background on age at first marriage as well as on fertility among a sample of ever married women in Egypt." Variables considered include place of residence, employment and educational status of husband and wife, and age difference between husband and wife. Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10249 Hern, Warren M. Individual fertility rate: a new individual fertility measure for small populations. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 102-9 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Fertility measurement in small preindustrial societies is hampered by small numbers and the lack of some essential data. Most measures of fertility are collective and require large enough populations to permit grouped data analysis. Existing individual measures of fertility are often unsatisfactory. This paper presents a new measure of individual fertility, the Individual Fertility Rate (IFR), which is constructed by dividing parity by reproductive span in years and multiplying the product by 100. The result is a number which may be used as a dependent individual or cumulative variable to study the effects of health and socioeconomic factors on fertility." The geographical focus is on Peru.
Correspondence: W. M. Hern, University of Colorado, Department of Anthropology, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10250 Jia, Zhongke. Fertility patterns of mainland China and Taiwan. Pub. Order No. DA9005598. 1989. 267 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation research first describes fertility variations among China's provinces and counties. Secondly, it examines the relationship between socioeconomic development and family planning efforts with fertility. Thirdly, it compares Taiwan's fertility patterns with those of mainland China. Finally, it discusses these findings in light of theoretical and policy implications. The data are drawn from China's 1982 population census and Taiwan's statistics yearbooks and demographic [fact] books."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(9).

57:10251 Johnson, Patricia L.; Wood, James W.; Weinstein, Maxine. Female fecundity in highland Papua New Guinea. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 26-43 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we apply a stochastic model of the determinants of fecundability (the monthly probability of conception) to endocrinological data collected among the Gainj, a tribal population in highland Papua New Guinea. Based on previous research, the Gainj are known to have age patterns of ovarian function that differ markedly from the Western norms. When account is taken of the late menarche, early menopause, and long ovarian cycles that appear to characterize Gainj women, mean apparent fecundability across the female reproductive span is reduced by about 27 per cent...and the mean waiting time to next apparent conception is increased by just over one month. Thus, despite the fact that Gainj women differ from Western women with respect to reproductive physiology by as much as or more than any other known population, the demographic impact of these differences appears to be slight."
Correspondence: P. L. Johnson, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10252 Kaloyanov, Todor. Analysis of the influence of social status on fertility of women in Bulgaria. [Analiz na vliyanieto na sotsialnoto polozhenie varkhu plodovitostta na zhenite v NRB.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1988. 33-40 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author studies the influence [of] the social status of women upon their fertility during first marriages [in Bulgaria]. The study has been made by means of the structural-factor analysis which is based on conventional one-dimensional and two-dimensional moment distributions. The degree of variations is determined by the integral coefficient of structural differences, the mean arithmetic value, the standard deviation, coefficients of asymmetry and excess. The author discusses: 1) the changes in the structure of various categories of women according to social groups, 2) the changes in the separate structures for each of the social groups of women according to the number of live-born children during the 1965-1985 period. The method of filtering variables is used to control the influence of the important demographic factor 'duration of marriage'." Data are from the censuses of 1965, 1975, and 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10253 Keyfitz, Nathan. Subreplacement fertility: the third level of explanation. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 235-46 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Several social and economic explanations for below-replacement fertility in developed countries are presented. The author discusses these in light of possible policy measures to encourage fertility.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10254 Klinger, Andras. Survey of recent fertility trends and assumptions used for projections. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 147-67 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"In this survey chapter, my task is to summarize recent fertility changes in developed countries and from this, comparing existing forecasts, [to] outline and discuss possible future trends in fertility." Total fertility rates for 1950-1985 and completed cohort fertility for birth cohorts from 1900, 1930, and 1955 are presented. Results reveal that at present, fertility in all developed countries except Ireland, Poland, and the Soviet Union is at below-replacement levels.
Correspondence: A. Klinger, Central Statistical Office, Department of Population Statistics, Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10255 Komlos, John. Fertility and proto-industrialization in Bohemia. Continuity and Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, Dec 1990. 473-5 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This note is a brief examination of the relationship between proto-industrialization and fertility in the village of Zerezicz...Bohemia, at the turn of the nineteenth century....One aspect of the theory of proto-industrialization is the notion that the availability of non-agricultural by-employment had a profound effect on reproductive behaviour within the family, because the previously binding constraint on employment opportunities within the agricultural sector dissolved in its wake."
Correspondence: J. Komlos, University of Pittsburgh, Department of History, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10256 Krishnan, Vijaya. A causal approach to the study of fertility and familism. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 59-68 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper has focused on two distinct but related issues: (1) the extent to which demographic-background variables, including religiosity, independently affect fertility and (2) the extent to which these variables influence fertility through the intervening variable of familism. In general, the results indicate that regardless of the nativity of women, women who define themselves through traditional female roles are likely to bear more children than women who do not. The effect of familism on fertility is relatively stronger among immigrant women. Among structural factors, religiosity is the most important and education is the second most important factor directly influencing expected family size, regardless of nativity....The model of fertility analyzed in this paper is a potentially useful framework for understanding the fertility behavior of couples in modern societies." Data from a 1973-1974 Canadian survey are used to test the model.
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10257 Kuga, Kiyoshi; Urai, Ken. On the economic theory of fertility. ISER Discussion Paper, No. 192, Aug 1989. 32 pp. Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research [ISER]: Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
"The fertility theory of [the] Becker-Barro (1988) type is studied under the realistic assumption that the set of selectable fertility rates is finite. A head of a dynastic family decides the fertility plan of his dynasty while maximizing the dynastic utility function. The original Becker-Barro model with the set of continuum fertility rates has a steady state. We will first show by way of example that there is no steady state choice of fertility rate. A society composed of dynastic families has, however, a steady state of asset distribution with a steady social fertility rate though individual choices vary from generation to generation. We will show that such a socially steady fertility equilibrium exists within the class of bounded additive set functions on the levels of asset bequeath, and show that this state is the time average of distributions over generations in the asymptotic sense."
For the study by Gary S. Becker and Robert J. Barro, see 56:30199.
Correspondence: Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 6-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10258 Lee, Mei-lin. Fertility tempo and fertility transition in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 13, Aug 1990. 145-66 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in total fertility rates from 1900 to 1980 in Taiwan are examined. A model is utilized to analyze completed cohort and period fertility and to describe changes in the mean age of fertility and in completed fertility that have led to a fertility transition.
Correspondence: M.-l. Lee, Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning, P.O. Box 1020, Taichung 400, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10259 Li, Bohua. Levels, trends and determinants of fertility in China: 1973-1987. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1990. 3-16 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article...[describes] changes in the fertility rates in 28 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China during the 15-year period from 1973 to 1987 using data from the 1982 One-per-Thousand Fertility Sampling Survey and the 1988 Two-per-Thousand Fertility and Birth Control Sampling Survey. It also summarizes some characteristics of fertility changes in those areas, and evaluates the family planning work being carried out in those areas. It concludes that, although there is considerable potential for further fertility decline in some of the areas, a more realistic goal for China might be to strive to reach the replacement level of fertility as soon as possible and maintain it at that level."
Correspondence: B. Li, China Population Information and Research Centre, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10260 Livi Bacci, Massimo; Breschi, Marco. Italian fertility: an historical account. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1990. 385-408 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This article presents a brief synthesis of our knowledge about the evolution of fertility in Italy. The late start of the demographic transition in Italy, compared with other countries of western Europe, was due to the persistence of high mortality levels and Italy's particular vulnerability to fluctuations and crises up until the 1870s. This situation prevented fertility limitation, which had been practiced in small areas and groups earlier in the nineteenth century, from spreading among the rest of the population until the end of century. Once underway, fertility limitation spread from the Central-North to the South, from west to east, and from urban to rural areas. As a consequence of this process, a peak of variability in Italian fertility patterns was reached during the 1930s, when areas and categories with very low fertility levels coexisted with others in which natural fertility still prevailed."
Correspondence: M. Livi Bacci, University of Florence, Department of Demography, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10261 Lockwood, Matthew. The economics of fertility and the infertility of economics: theory and demographic reality in Africa. Ld'A-QEH Development Studies Working Paper, No. 12, Sep 1989. 42 pp. Queen Elizabeth House: Oxford, England; Centro Studi Luca d'Angliano: Turin, Italy. In Eng.
"The paper critically reviews explanations of fertility behaviour in neoclassical economics, the theory of wealth flows, and functionalist Marxism. It is argued that all share the common defect of imposing a form of explanation, based on decision or function, which is not compatible either with survey data on fertility change in Africa, or with what is known about peoples' own perception of fertility in many African countries. Alternative explanations which highlight communal fertility controls are suggested. These are based on analysis of the proximate determinants and changes in the structure of social institutions supporting the determinants, such as breast feeding, marriage and postpartum taboos on intercourse. As a corollary, a new role for economic explanation at a macro- or meso-level, rather than a micro-level, is outlined. Finally, implications for population policies in Africa are explored."
Correspondence: Queen Elizabeth House, 21 St. Giles, Oxford OX1 3LA, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10262 Mahmud, Simeen. Exploring the relationship between women's work and fertility: the Bangladesh context. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1988. 99-113 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this paper is to try to trace out the paths through which women's employment, in the Bangladesh context, could lead to changes in desired family size through its impact on women's status, their economic dependence on men and the value they place on children. Section II describes the work-fertility related issues as they prevail in Bangladesh; Section III attempts an overview of the relationship between women's work and fertility mainly drawing upon literature for developing countries; Section IV presents a conceptual framework for studying this relationship in the Bangladesh situation, together with a model for testing the hypotheses; and Section V concludes the discussion."
Correspondence: S. Mahmud, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Population Division, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10263 Mattei, Hernando. Marital fertility and family formation in Puerto Rico. Pub. Order No. DA9005624. 1989. 193 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines the process of family formation in Puerto Rico using data from the 1982 Fertility and Family Planning survey. We present a life table analysis of the timing of the formation stage of the family life cycle and the pattern of birth spacing. The analysis of the socio-economic differentials of age at marriage and age at first birth reveals substantial differences according to the levels of education and work experience of the women. We find that during the 15 years before the survey, there have been substantial reductions in the transition probabilities beyond the second birth. In spite of these reductions the average length of intergenesic intervals remains short."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(9).

57:10264 McKusick, David R. Economic determinants of child spacing in small U.S. families. Pub. Order No. DA8923723. 1989. 219 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes economic determinants of the length of the interval from marriage to first birth and from first to second birth among women in the United States between 1968 and 1980....The positioning of births within the woman's childbearing years is seen as a function of current and expected family income, costs of childrearing and the couple's preference for children compared to other sources of gratification. The data set for this study is the Survey of Young Women from the National Longitudinal Survey."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(7).

57:10265 Menard, Scott. Cross-national models of fertility, family planning, and development: testing for reciprocal effects. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 25, No. 2, Summer 1990. 60-90 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Cross-national models of fertility, family planning, and development commonly assume that there are no reciprocal effects between fertility and other variables in the model, and when path models are used, that there are no reciprocal or nonrecursive effects among any set of variables in the model. The present study test for nonrecursiveness using two-wave panel data, and finds that nonrecursive effects are present among variables commonly used in models of fertility, family planning, and development. In addition, the pattern of relationships found has implications for the explanation of the relationship between mortality and fertility in demographic transition theory."
Correspondence: S. Menard, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Campus Box 442, Boulder, CO 80309-0442. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10266 Mturi, Akim J. The effects of infant and child mortality on birth intervals in Kenya. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 685-707 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study attempts to explore the effects of infant and child mortality on birth intervals in Kenya. The basic hypothesis is that infant and child mortality shortens the length of birth intervals due to both biological as well as behavioural effects, and consequently increases the number of children ever born per woman....Data used in this study come from the 1977/78 Kenya Fertility Survey (KFS) which was conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey (WFS) programme."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10267 O'Keeffe, Janet E. Starting a second family: the effect of children from a husband's prior marriage and the payment of child support on birth expectations in women's first and second marriages. Pub. Order No. DA8813374. 1988. 266 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines whether women whose husbands have previously been married have lower fertility than those whose husbands were not previously married, using 1982 U.S. data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. The author analyses "the relationship between birth expectations and husbands' characteristics--prior marital status, age at current marriage, children, and the payment of child support." The results indicate that for women in first marriages, children from previous marriages had little impact on fertility. "For women in second marriages, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the negative relationship between a husband's prior marital status and birth expectations is spurious....Factors that are important in predicting childbearing in women's second marriages are: the husband's and wife's age at current marriage, the wife's parity at remarriage, the age of her youngest child at remarriage and her earnings."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Los Angeles.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(7).

57:10268 Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw. The timing of births during the onset of the fertility transition in Ghana. Pub. Order No. DA9000760. 1989. 210 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using data from the Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS) 1979/80, this study examined the timing of births [and birth intervals] in Ghana during the onset of the fertility transition. The main objective was to determine the influence of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and community conditions on the patterns of childbearing in the country."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brigham Young University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(8).

57:10269 Petroska, Blaga. Low and high fertility among the Macedonian population of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. [Niskiot i visokiot natalitet kaj makedonskoto naselenie vo SR Makedonija.] ISBN 86-15-001561-1. LC 90-162283. 1989. 156 pp. Misla: Skopje, Yugoslavia. In Scc.
This is an analysis of trends in fertility in the Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, based on data from a survey carried out between 1982 and 1985. The first chapter concerns fertility determinants and trends and includes sections on the characteristics of reproduction, the biology of reproduction, and changes in mortality. The second chapter examines family characteristics and the norms of family growth. The third chapter is about family planning. A final chapter looks at population trends and appropriate fertility policies.
Correspondence: Misla, Bulevar Partizanski odredi 1, 91000 Skopje, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10270 Pick, James B.; Jones, Glenda L.; Butler, Edgar W.; Nag, Swapan. Socioeconomic influences on fertility in the Mexican borderlands region. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, Vol. 6, No. 1, Winter 1990. 11-42 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"This paper examined effects of various socioeconomic variables on fertility for selected samples of municipios in the border region of Mexico. A theoretical model of Mexican borderlands fertility is mostly confirmed by regression analysis of 1980 census data. An improved model is suggested." The major results indicate that literacy is a major factor influencing the reduction in fertility, male and female labor force participation have significant and opposite effects on fertility, and unemployment generally lowers fertility.
Correspondence: J. B. Pick, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10271 Podhisita, Chai; Kunstadter, Peter; Kunstadter, Sally L. Evidence for early fertility transition among the Hmong in northern Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jan 1990. 137-55, 239-40 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
This is an analysis of fertility levels among the Hmong, a tribe in northern Thailand. The focus is on the effects of socioeconomic development and local resource constraints on reproductive behavior. Data are from 1987 household surveys.
Correspondence: C. Podhista, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Nakhonchaisri, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10272 Prinz, Aloys. Endogenous fertility, altruistic behavior across generations, and social security systems. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1990. 179-92 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The present paper explores the impact of an intergenerational externality on private fertility decisions, under a pay-as-you-go social security system. The analysis is performed in the framework of a steady state growth model, with overlapping generations. To explain why households have children, altruism between parents and children is assumed. Surprisingly, the effects on altruism are not symmetric. The private fertility decisions are optimal only if children 'love' their parents, because children then make private transfers at exactly the right level."
Correspondence: A. Prinz, Freie Universitat Berlin, Institute of Public Finance and Social Policy, Boltzmannstrasse 20, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10273 Reinis, Kia I. The impact of the proximate determinants of fertility: evaluating the Bongaarts and Hobcraft-Little methods of estimation. Pub. Order No. DA8920356. 1989. 75 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis evaluates the Bongaarts and Hobcraft-Little methods of estimating the impact of the proximate determinants of fertility." The author emphasizes the variations yielded in fertility estimation when intermediate variables are considered.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10274 Ribakovski, Leonid; Zakharova, Olga. Socioeconomic determinants of the birth rate and possibilities for regulating fertility behavior. [Sotsialno-ikonomicheskata determiniranost na razhdaemostta i vazmozhnostite za regulirane na reproduktivnoto povedenie.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1988. 22-32 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Fertility trends in the USSR over the course of the twentieth century are analyzed. The authors first examine the impact of contraception and abortion on the birth rate. Next, they consider the relationship between infant and child mortality and fertility. They also investigate the impact of other intermediate variables on fertility, including the employment of women. The effect of the change from a largely rural to an industrial economy is also analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10275 Roenneberg, Till; Aschoff, Jurgen. Annual rhythm of human reproduction: I. Biology, sociology, or both? Journal of Biological Rhythms, Vol. 5, No. 3, Fall 1990. 195-216 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Reasons for seasonal variations in human reproduction are examined using data that consist of more than 3,000 years of monthly birth rates from 166 different regions around the world. The variables studied include "amplitude, phase of maximum and minimum, phase and length of the time span when rates are above the annual mean..., and the steepest upward slope...of the curve fitted to the rates. The waveform of the annual rhythm is characteristic for geographical regions (e.g., unimodal or bimodal) and persists as such for many years." In most countries, rates of reproduction are highest around the spring equinox. "In many populations, the rhythm has changed in recent years, specifically in amplitude and phase. The phase of the rhythm depends on latitude, with a 6-month difference between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres....In spite of the many social influences on timing of conceptions, we conclude that the seasonal component in human reproduction is based on biological factors."
For Part 2, also published in 1990, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: T. Roenneberg, Universitat Munchen, Institut fur Medizinische Psychologie, Goethestrasse 31, 8000 Munich 2, Germany. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10276 Roenneberg, Till; Aschoff, Jurgen. Annual rhythm of human reproduction: II. Environmental correlations. Journal of Biological Rhythms, Vol. 5, No. 3, Fall 1990. 217-39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Seasonal variations in human conception rates are examined using data for over 3,000 years of monthly births from around the world and correlated with photoperiod, monthly averages of daily hours of sunshine, minimum and maximum temperature, and humidity. "Our results show for the first time on a global scale that photoperiod, as shown for many animals, may also influence the physiology of human reproduction....Temperature also appears to be a major influencing factor. Conception rates are above the annual mean at temperatures between 5 and 20 [degrees centigrade], and temperature extremes decrease the probability of conceptions. In regions with cold winters and moderate summers, the number of conceptions correlates positively with temperature; close to the equator, where winters are more moderate than the hot summers, this correlation is negative....The influence of photoperiod is dominant before 1930, whereas the impact of temperature dominates in later years. With industrialization, people are increasingly shielded from both photoperiod (by indoor work) and temperature (by heating and air conditioning), which may explain the deseasonalization of the human conception rhythm."
For Part 1, also published in 1990, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: T. Roenneberg, Universitat Munchen, Institut fur Medizinische Psychologie, Goethestrasse 31, 8000 Munich 2, Germany. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10277 Ryder, Norman B. What is going to happen to American fertility? Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 433-54, 609, 611 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Periodic changes of direction in this century have made any forecast of [U.S.] fertility hazardous. Arguments are advanced for rephrasing the forecast model to correspond to the language of analysis, by abandoning the period orientation and describing cohort reproduction as progression from parity to parity, interval by interval....Because of inadequacy of the knowledge base, substantive elaboration of the forecast model would be ill-advised at present. It would seem judicious to look only a short distance ahead, revise often, and perform an autopsy on each forecast failure, a task for which the recommended procedure is well-suited."
Correspondence: N. B. Ryder, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10278 Sander, William. More on the determinants of the fertility transition. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 52-8 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, the effect of economic variables on the demand for children in the United States in 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980 is examined. Support is provided for the hypothesis that the earning ability of women is an important determinant of fertility." Data are from official U.S. sources.
Correspondence: W. Sander, DePaul University, Department of Economics, Chicago, IL 60604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10279 Sarma, R. S. S. A synthetic cohort approach to estimation of age at entry into reproduction from childlessness data. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 37-57 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
A model is developed utilizing data for currently married nulliparous women to estimate the age pattern of entry into reproduction. Data from Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are used to test the model.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10280 Sivamurthy, M. Estimating ASFR using CEB data when fertility might have been changing: a further note. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 13-36 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The aim of the present investigation is to explore the possibility of using the CEB [children ever born] data for estimating ASFR [age-specific fertility rates] for studying the trend of fertility over time. The method is applied to the CEB data from the censuses of...five African countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10281 Stevenson, J. C.; Everson, P. M. Initiation of fertility decline in Kansas-Nebraska Mennonites and North American Hutterites. Collegium Antropologicum, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jun 1989. 17-24 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
"The cultural context of fertility decline between Kansas-Nebraska Mennonites and North American Hutterites is compared with respect to three variables: a) the shift from familial to capitalist modes of production, b) mass education, and, c) ideology. Both groups migrated in the 1870's to North America as politically and ideologically united farm communities, but the more liberal Mennonites soon adopted individualistic farming practices, modernized farm machinery in the 1890's and experienced fertility decline by the early part of this century; whereas Hutterites maintain separate communities from the parent culture to this day, modernized machinery in the 1930's and did not experience a fertility decline until after 1970. However, in both communities, modernization and a more restricted economic climate led to a perception of limited occupational opportunities for offspring and triggered the declines in fertility."
Correspondence: J. C. Stevenson, Western Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Bellingham, WA 98225. Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10282 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Population Division (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). An analysis of birth intervals using life table methods and examples from selected African countries. [Analyse des intervalles de naissances par la technique de la table d'eventualite (life table) a l'aide d'exemples empruntes a certains pays africains.] Pub. Order No. ECA/POP/TP/90/2[2.1(a)]. Sep 1990. 28 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Fre.
The report concerns the use of life table methods for the study of birth intervals. The first section considers problems of data quality. The life table method and its application to this kind of analysis are explained and applied to World Fertility Survey data for Cameroon, Kenya, and Senegal in order to analyze fertility trends.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10283 Viet Nam. National Committee for Population and Family Planning (Hanoi, Viet Nam). Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey, 1988. Nov 1990. xviii, 97 pp. Hanoi, Viet Nam. In Eng.
The results of the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey carried out in Viet Nam are presented. This was a nationwide, representative sample survey collecting data on fertility, family planning, and child and maternal health, which covered 4,172 women aged 15 to 49. Chapters are included on nuptiality and breast-feeding, fertility, contraception, fertility preferences, and infant and child mortality. The results indicate that fertility is declining, age at marriage is increasing, and breast-feeding is almost universal. However, there seems to be a significant gap between contraceptive awareness and contraceptive usage, which combined with fertility preferences, indicates a large unmet need for family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10284 Vishnevsky, Anatoli. Demographic revolution and the future of fertility: a systems approach. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 257-70 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author discusses demographic behavior and future fertility trends "in a more complex and multidimensional context. I apply what can be called the system-historical approach....In the framework of the system-historical vision of demographic reality, we deal with a specific subsystem of society--the demographic system. This system is relatively independent, and contains its own stable internal environment. Its behavior is explained in terms of self-organization and goal-directedness."
Correspondence: A. Vishnevsky, Institut Sotsial'no-Ekonomicheskikh Problem Narodonaseleniya, Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10285 Westoff, Charles F. The return to replacement fertility: a magnetic force? In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 227-33 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author examines social and economic trends that are relevant to the decline in fertility that has occurred in developed countries during the past century. He also assesses the impact of social change on future levels of reproduction.
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10286 Wineberg, Howard. Intermarital fertility and dissolution of the second marriage. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 75, No. 2, Jan 1991. 62-5 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between intermarital fertility and dissolution of the second marriage. The main question answered is does disruption of the second marriage vary by whether or not a woman has had either an intermarital birth or a birth within seven months of remarrying. The analysis is done separately for whites and blacks....The data source for this study is the June 1985 Current Population Survey...."
This article originally appeared in the July 1990 issue of Sociology and Social Research with the final two paragraphs inadvertently omitted.
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10287 Wood, James W. Fertility in anthropological populations. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 19, 1990. 211-42 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"In this review I draw upon statistical demography and, to a lesser extent, reproductive endocrinology to formulate a coherent strategy for investigating fertility and reproduction in anthropological populations. The object, it must be emphasized, is not to reduce anthropology to demography or endocrinology, but rather to acquaint anthropologists with a powerful set of tools with which they can address issues of anthropological interest." The author first discusses the concept of natural fertility. Next, he summarizes the most significant generalizations concerning variations in fertility among preindustrial societies using the concept of proximate determinants developed by John Bongaarts. Finally, he outlines an alternative approach that might be more suited to the analysis of such fertility variations.
Correspondence: J. W. Wood, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10288 Wymelenberg, Suzanne. Science and babies: private decisions, public dilemmas. ISBN 0-309-04140-6. LC 90-35111. 1990. v, 174 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"At its Annual Meeting, October 19-20, 1988, the Institute of Medicine devoted a daylong symposium to 'Advances in Reproductive Biology: Implications for Research, Application, and Policy Development.' This book...draws on that meeting of experts. It describes the state of our understanding of human fertility and allied issues, such as teenage pregnancy and prenatal care....The book concludes with chapters highlighting ethical concerns raised by interventions in human reproduction and public policy issues...." The focus is on the United States. Chapters are included on reproductive health issues, infertility, social and legal barriers to contraception, adolescent pregnancy and parenthood, prenatal care, developments in reproductive research, ethical and social aspects of new reproductive technologies, and areas for policy development.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10289 Yazaki, Lucia M. Conference on the Transition of Fertility in Latin America: Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 3-6, 1990. IUSSP Newsletter/Bulletin de Liaison, No. 40, Sep-Dec 1990. 39-62 pp. Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a report of a conference on the transition of fertility in Latin America, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in April 1990. "The main objective of the seminar [was] to study in depth the nature, causes and consequences of the fertility transition in the countries of the region, with particular emphasis on recent developments and the current situation." The seminar consisted of seven sessions covering an overview of the fertility transition, patterns of fertility change, determinants of fertility change, factors related to fertility behavior, the consequences of fertility decline, fertility in Argentina, and a panel discussion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10290 Yimamu, Enemanachew. Problems of selecting a plausible fertility measure for Addis Ababa (based on the 1984 census data). International Statistical Review/Revue Internationale de Statistique, Vol. 58, No. 3, Dec 1990. 191-200 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper the 1984 Population and Housing Census data of Addis Ababa was analyzed in order to determine an acceptable fertility level for the city. The wide variation in the range of estimates poses a lot of problems when it comes to selecting the 'true' or closest to the 'true' value. The plausible level of fertility arrived at eventually for the city was in the neighbourhood of TFR=6."
Correspondence: E. Yimamu, Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia, P.O. Box 30433 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10291 Zanev, Petar. Birth rate in Bulgaria (1975-1985). [Razhdaemostta v NR Balgariya (1975-1985).] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1988. 3-21 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in fertility in Bulgaria over the period 1975-1985 are analyzed. The author first describes the decline in fertility that has occurred during this period and then analyzes the causes of the decline. Economic, social, and psychological factors are considered, and an attempt is made to rank them in order of importance.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

57:10292 Bondarskaya, G. A.; Darskii, L. E. Women's marital status and fertility. [Brachnoe sostoyanie zhenshchin i rozhdaemost'.] In: Demograficheskie protsessy v SSSR, edited by A. G. Volkov. 1990. 28-57, 209 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"This article deals with the concepts of marital and non-marital, legitimate and illegitimate births from both the demographic point of view and civil registration practice in the USSR. Dynamics and differentiation of non-marital fertility levels in the USSR as a whole and in some regions are analyzed [and] compared with the levels of marital fertility. Heterogeneity of non-marital fertility categories [and the] impact on population reproduction [are] discussed as well as some necessary measures for the improvement of fertility [data collection,] taking into consideration the expansion of consensual marriages."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10293 Caldas, Stephen J.; Pounder, Diana G. Teenage fertility and its social integration correlates: a control theory explanation. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 10, No. 4, Oct 1990. 541-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses control theory to explain teenage fertility in one [U.S.] southeastern state. Control theory explains deviance from societal norms in terms of weak social bonding or integration. An important assumption of the study is that teenage parenting violates American parenting norms, and can thus be conceptualized as deviant behavior. Consequently, this study hypothesizes that teenage fertility should covary with measures of social integration. This study uses data from 64 parishes in Louisiana, and the results suggest that measures of social integration (i.e., divorce rates, percentage of population living alone, and personal alienation) are significant predictors of teenage fertility in nonurban settings and explain approximately 53% of the variance in teenage fertility. However, among urban parishes, socioeconomic status is the only significant predictor of teenage fertility, explaining almost 44% of its variance."
Correspondence: S. J. Caldas, Louisiana State University, Administrative and Foundational Services, 111 Peabody Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10294 Chui, Tina W. L.; Trovato, Frank. Ethnic variations in fertility: microeconomic and minority group status effects. Population Research Laboratory Research Discussion Paper, No. 72, Dec 1990. 23 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"In this study, the cumulative fertility of Chinese and Portuguese minority groups in Canada are compared with that of the British. We hypothesized that the influence of relative income on fertility would be negative for the Chinese and positive for the Portuguese. It was found that the effect of this variable is negative for both minority groups, but very small. Concerning opportunity costs, our prediction of an inverse effect on childbearing was supported for both groups....The Portuguese have an above average observed family size, while the Chinese show a below average fertility in relation to the British." Other variables examined included educational and occupational status, religion, and culture.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10295 Damiani, Paul; Masse, Helene. A study of departmental differences in fertility. [Etude des distributions departementales de la fecondite.] Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Vol. 131, No. 2, 1990. 68-78 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, we analyse the distributions by French 'department' of an index of fertility, at different [censuses] from 1861 to 1982. We find that they are [the] sum of two normal distributions. We infer that there are two populations with a fertility of youth for the one and a fertility of older [people] for the other. From these results, we define an index of evolution of fertility linked with the probability of coincidence between experimental and theoretical structures of population."
Correspondence: P. Damiani, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10296 Golata, Elzbieta. Studies on geographical fertility differentials in Poland. [Studia nad terytorialnym zroznicowaniem plodnosci kobiet w Polsce.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 322, 1990. 297 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes age-specific fertility differentials in Poland by voivodship for the years 1978-1979 and 1983-1984, with results presented separately for rural and urban women. The results indicate that "for high values of [the] total fertility rate, the distribution of maternity age is flattened and moderately asymmetric with high average age of females at delivery. Decrease in total fertility is connected with the decrease in the values of [the] arithmetic mean and determinant, increase in concentration and asymmetry of maternity modal age."
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10297 Gutmann, Myron P. Denomination and fertility decline: the Catholics and Protestants of Gillespie County, Texas. Continuity and Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, Dec 1990. 391-416, 318, 320-1 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This article is a study of religious fertility differentials in Gillespie County, Texas, between 1850 and 1910....The results show that Protestants (Lutherans and Methodists) had significantly lower fertility than Catholics, and began to limit their fertility earlier....The results also show that the convergence of Protestant and Catholic fertility in the United States, often seen in twentieth-century data, had begun much earlier. The conclusions of the article suggest that the long process of convergence of Protestant and Catholic fertility, which was not complete until the 1970s, had more to do with the appearance of regular waves of mostly Catholic immigrants than to a long process by which Catholics very gradually came to have fertility like that of Protestants."
Correspondence: M. P. Gutmann, University of Texas, Department of History, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10298 Ismail, Mona M. M. The relationship between fertility and internal migration in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 145-82 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"An attempt is made to examine...changes in the levels and patterns of fertility among [migrants and nonmigrants in Egypt] and their differentials, taking into consideration various socio-economic and demographic factors which influence fertility....The main data source for this research is the Egyptian Fertility Survey (EFS) which was undertaken in 1980 as a part of the World Fertility Survey Programme."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10299 Jones, Gavin W. Fertility transitions among Malay populations of Southeast Asia: puzzles of interpretation. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 507-37, 610, 612 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Fertility trends among Malay populations of Southeast Asia raise questions about alternative theories of fertility decline. Singapore Malays, urbanized and the wealthiest among the populations under review, reached replacement-level fertility in 1975. Indonesians, the least urbanized and lowest-income group, have experienced substantial declines in fertility. The Malays of Peninsular Malaysia have had lesser fertility declines than the Indonesians, and their fertility rose over an eight-year period following 1978. All of these Malay populations have experienced rising income....But the political and institutional settings differed. Elements of demand theory, diffusion theory, and institutional approaches need to be invoked in explaining these fertility trends."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10300 Joyce, Theodore J.; Mocan, Naci H. The impact of a ban on legalized abortion on adolescent childbearing in New York City. NBER Working Paper, No. 3002, Jun 1989. 27 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to forecast the change in adolescent childbearing among New York City residents following a ban on legalized abortion. With monthly data on the number of births to white and black adolescents from January, 1963 to December, 1987 we used an interrupted time-series analysis to estimate the change in adolescent childbearing that followed the liberalization of the New York State abortion law in 1970. We found the level of births to black adolescents living in New York City fell 18.7 percent between 1970 and 1971....The level of white births fell 14.1 percent....The absolute value of the percentage changes in births between 1970 and 1971 were applied to the forecasted number of monthly births in 1988 and 1989. If legal abortion had been inaccessible to New York City adolescents beginning January 1, 1988, there would have been 2,143 black and 1,067 white unintended births to teenagers in the first two years of a ban."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10301 Mamas, Si Gde Made. Regional fertility differentials and trends in Indonesia: a multilevel analysis. 1989. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Fertility trends and regional differentials in Indonesia are examined using "fertility estimates from the 1971 Population Census, the 1976 Intercensal Population Survey, the 1980 Population Census and the 1985 Intercensal Population Survey...."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Hawaii.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(8).

57:10302 Miller, Brent C.; Moore, Kristin A. Adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy, and parenting: research through the 1980s. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 4, Nov 1990. 1,025-44 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"As the 1990s begin, research and policy interest in adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy, and parenting continues at a high level, both because these behaviors are critical in the process of family formation and because their precocious timing often makes them problematic for the individual and for society. Research from the 1980s is summarized on the topics of adolescent sexual activity, contraception, abortion, marriage, adoption, and childrearing. Research about the antecedents of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior is emphasized because they are the key risk factors in adolescent pregnancy. Advances in data and methods are discussed, and research gaps are highlighted."
Correspondence: B. C. Miller, Utah State University, Department of Family and Human Development, Logan, UT 84322-2905. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10303 Parkerson, Donald H.; Parkerson, Jo A. "Fewer children of greater spiritual quality": religion and the decline of fertility in nineteenth-century America. Social Science History, Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring 1988. 49-70 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
The relationship between religion and fertility in nineteenth-century United States is explored using data from the 1885 city directory of St. Charles, Illinois. The authors suggest that women belonging to pietistic sects rather than to liturgic sects tended to have lower fertility. They conclude that cultural and religious factors that helped women play a central role in the decision-making process facilitated the fertility decline that occurred.
Correspondence: D. H. Parkerson, East Carolina University, Department of History, Greenville, NC 27858. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10304 Rao, K. Visweswara; Balakrishna, N. Some correlates of fertility. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 11, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1988. 64-82 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Determinants of fertility differentials in India are examined. Factors considered include nutritional status, health, socioeconomic status, infant mortality, and literacy. Comparisons are made between a selection of Indian states for which suitable data are available and a selection of countries around the world.
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai Osmania P.O., Hyderabad 500 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10305 Rundquist, Franz-Michael; Brown, Lawrence A. Migrant fertility differentials in Ecuador. Geografiska Annaler, Series B: Human Geography, Vol. 71B, No. 2, 1989. 109-23 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
This study employs a geographer's approach to the analysis of the effects of migration on fertility in a developing country using data from Ecuador. The effect of different levels of development in places of origin and destination is emphasized. Separate consideration is given to nonmigrants, permanent migrants, return migrants, and repeat migrants. "Initially, a conceptual framework for the study is presented, followed by a discussion of data and expected relationships. Analytically, between category fertility differentials are first related to migrant category characteristics. In a second step, multiple regression is used to analyze individuals in each migrant category with respect to the combined influence of personal and contextual attributes on fertility. A summary and concluding observations [complete] the paper."
Correspondence: F.-M. Rundquist, University of Lund, Department of Geography, Solvegatan 13, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10306 Warren, Charles W.; Goldberg, Howard I.; Oge, Linda; Pepion, Donald; Friedman, Jay S.; Helgerson, Steven; La Mere, Edward M. Assessing the reproductive behavior of on- and off-reservation American Indian females: characteristics of two groups in Montana. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 69-83 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The reproductive behavior of two groups of American Indian females is compared with that of other ethnic groups in the United States. "Using data from the 1987 Montana American Indian Health Risk Assessment, we found that the fertility of American Indians in Great Falls and on the Blackfeet Reservation was similar to blacks in the U.S. and relatively high when compared with fertility of whites in the United States. The influence of the direct determinants of fertility (nuptiality, contraceptive use, and lactation) was very different for the populations examined in this study." Comparisons are made of age at first sexual intercourse, breast-feeding, family planning, and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Program Evaluation Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10307 Wineberg, Howard. Variations in fertility by marital status and marriage order. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 256-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Analysis of data from the June 1985 [U.S.] Current Population Survey reveals that although marriage continues to be an important setting for childbearing, the strength of this relationship varies considerably by the mother's race, education and age at first birth. The largest proportion of white births occurs during first marriages, with the next largest group made up of premarital births; that pattern is reversed for black births. The proportion of births occurring during second marriages is twice as high among whites as among blacks; however, intermarital childbearing is more common among blacks than among whites."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, School of Urban and Public Affairs, Center for Population Research and Census, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10308 Yadava, K. N. S.; Yadava, G. S. Socioeconomic factors and effect on fertility of husband-wife separation due to migration. Biology and Society, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1990. 139-44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the migrant and non-migrant fertility differentials in a rural area of India, taking into account caste, economic and educational factors. While the separation of husband and wife due to the migration of the husband is the main cause of fertility reduction among the migrant group its effect varies according to the economic status of the couple and the wife's education....The data for this study come from a sample survey of Rural Development and Population Growth...conducted during March-October, 1978, in eastern Uttar Pradesh in India."
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

57:10309 Akam, Evina. The measurement of infertility and sub-fertility. [La mesure de l'infecondite et de la sous-fecondite.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 15, ISBN 2-87762-016-6. Dec 1990. 39 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This publication consists of two separate papers by the same author. The first is concerned with the indicators required in two methods used to measure infertility, one based on the proportion of childless women in a given population, the other deriving from the age-specific fertility rates calculated for that population. The second paper suggests a different approach to the study of sub-fertility based on the concept of the velocity of the constitution of a family, which can explain more accurately the dynamics of the process leading to the level of fertility observed in a given population. These concepts are illustrated using data from various countries.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10310 McFalls, Joseph A. The risks of reproductive impairment in the later years of childbearing. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 16, 1990. 491-519 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"A notable feature of the present baby bust in the United States is that substantial proportions of women are delaying much of their childbearing until relatively late in their reproductive lives. One concern about this delayed childbearing is that many women may end up either childless or with fewer children than they desire, owing to reproductive impairment. This paper reviews evidence concerning the decline of reproductive ability with age. The findings can be distilled into two main facts. First, the proportion of women with low reproductive ability increases steadily from age 15 to age 50. Second, this rise is moderate until the mid-30s when it begins to increase more sharply. While the current consensus is that mostly healthy women in their late thirties have a good prospect of giving birth to a healthy infant, a substantial minority of postponers will end up childless or with fewer children than they desire, due to reproductive impairment as well as to social causes."
Correspondence: J. A. McFalls, Villanova University, Sociology Department, Villanova, PA 19085. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

57:10311 Modvig, Jens; Schmidt, Lone; Damsgaard, Mogens T. Measurement of total risk of spontaneous abortion: the virtue of conditional risk estimation. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 132, No. 6, Dec 1990. 1,021-38 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The concepts, methods, and problems of measuring spontaneous abortion risk are reviewed. The problems touched on include the process of pregnancy verification, the changes in risk by gestational age and maternal age, and the presence of induced abortions. Methods used in studies of spontaneous abortion risk include biochemical assays as well as life table technique, although the latter appears in two different forms. The consequences of using either of these are discussed. It is concluded that no study design so far is appropriate for measuring the total risk of spontaneous abortion from early conception to the end of the 27th week. It is proposed that pregnancy may be considered to consist of two or three specific periods and that different study designs should concentrate on measuring the conditional risk within each period. A careful estimate using this principle leads to an estimate of total risk of spontaneous abortion of 0.33."
Correspondence: J. Modvig, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Institute of Social Medicine, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:10312 Mosher, William D.; Pratt, William F. Fecundity and infertility in the United States, 1965-88. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 192, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1250. Dec 4, 1990. 9 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This report "presents the first national estimates of trends in the fecundity status of all women of reproductive age in the United States, regardless of marital status, and trends in the use of infertility services....The data for 1976, 1982, and 1988 are from Cycles II, III, and IV of the National Survey of Family Growth....The data for 1965 are from the National Fertility Study....Interviews were conducted with 8,450 women...[and] focused on the respondent's fecundity (or physical ability to have children); past and current use of contraception; dates and outcomes of pregnancies, if any; marriages; use of family planning and infertility services; and a wide range of social, economic, and demographic characteristics."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10313 Prado, Consuelo. Report on the natural interruption of pregnancy related to menarche in the population of Madrid. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1990. 691-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"All cases of spontaneous abortion which were registered between June 1982 and June 1984 in the Ciudad Sanitaria de la Paz have been studied in Madrid, [Spain] (n=1,259). Together with the women who had miscarriages, a control sample of women (n=1,016) of similar socioeconomic status and ages was analyzed. The main aim of this study is the analysis of the link between the age of menarche and the incidence of miscarriage....Our results demonstrate that the average age of menarche is earlier in the sample of women who have a miscarriage."
Correspondence: C. Prado, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Biology Department, Madrid 28049, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

57:10314 Ahmed, Ghyasuddin; Liner, Elsa C.; Williamson, Nancy E.; Schellstede, William P. Characteristics of condom use and associated problems: experience in Bangladesh. Contraception, Vol. 42, No. 5, Nov 1990. 523-33 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Data from 1983 Bangladesh Condom User Survey...are analyzed for patterns of condom use and various problems directly influencing their effectiveness....Patterns of use are related to differences in source of supply through public, free or private-priced systems, differences in urban or semi-rural place of residence, and differences in perceptions of men or women. The problem with condom use most often identified by the respondents was breakage."
Correspondence: G. Ahmed, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10315 Ahmed, Yosr A.-F. The dynamics of contraception in rural and urban Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 253-79 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of contraceptive use, separately, in the urban and rural areas of Egypt. In particular, emphasis will be given to differentiate between the two areas with respect to the dis-continuation of use of the contraceptive methods. The study also tries to differentiate between sources of dis-continuation of using contraceptives, such as [safety], unreliability, etc." Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10316 Aird, John S. Slaughter of the innocents: coercive birth control in China. ISBN 0-8447-3703-8. LC 89-77305. 1990. vii, 196 pp. AEI Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the coercive nature of the national family planning program in China. "The account of recent developments in family planning in China given in this volume is based mainly on Chinese sources, particularly those that show what policies, instructions, exhortations, and models the central authorities transmit to the provincial and lower levels and those that indicate how the central directives are being carried out. Limited credence has been accorded to what Chinese spokesmen say to foreign audiences about their family planning program, which often differs from what they tell their own people." The author concludes that "the Chinese family planning program is being carried out against the popular will by means of a variety of coercive measures. Despite official denials and intermittent efforts to discourage some of the more extreme manifestations, since the early 1970s if not before, coercion has been an integral part of the program." Furthermore, he suggests that "foreign organizations and individuals that indiscriminately laud the Chinese program or provide financial or technical assistance for any aspect of it place themselves in the position of supporting the program as a whole, including its violations of human rights."
Correspondence: AEI Press, American Enterprise Institute, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10317 Akhter, Halida H. Predictors of contraceptive continuation among urban family planning acceptors of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1987. 101-19 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Predictors of contraceptive continuation among urban family planning acceptors in Bangladesh are analyzed. Factors considered include age, parity, educational status, family size desired, contraceptive method chosen, and duration of method use. Data are from a survey covering the period 1974-1980.
Correspondence: H. H. Akhter, Bangladesh Fertility Research Programme, 3/7 Asad Avenue, Mohammadpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10318 Amatya, Ramesh N. Comparative analysis of the transition to deliberate fertility control and its links to modernization in seven Asian nations. 1989. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using the Easterlin-Crimmins (E-C) framework, this study comparatively analyzed the transition to deliberate fertility control and its links to modernization in seven Asian nations (Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and [the Republic of] Korea)....The study indicated the importance of both the motivation for fertility control and regulation costs in the transition to deliberate fertility control."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Southern California.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10319 Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (San Salvador, El Salvador); United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). El Salvador: National Survey of Family Health (FESAL-88). [El Salvador: Encuesta Nacional de Salud Familiar (FESAL-88).] Mar 1989. 164 pp. San Salvador, El Salvador. In Spa.
This report contains final information on demographic trends, family planning, and maternal and child health in El Salvador from the 1988 National Survey of Family Health. The survey involved 3,579 women of reproductive age forming a nationally representative sample. Comparisons are made with the results of previous surveys carried out in 1978 and 1985. Data are included on contraceptive usage, rural and urban fertility, contraceptive methods chosen, and infant mortality.
Location: New York Public Library.

57:10320 Brophy, Gwenda. Unmet need and nonuse of family planning in Botswana. Population Today, Vol. 18, No. 11, Nov 1990. 6-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author analyzes current and potential unmet need and nonuse of family planning in Botswana by surveying contraceptive use and fertility desires of women in 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10321 Church, Cathleen A.; Rinehart, Ward. Counseling clients about the pill. Population Reports, Series A: Oral Contraceptives, No. 8, May 1990. 20 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP], Center for Communication Programs: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"[This] guide is designed to help front-line providers assess whether their clients are good candidates for the Pill and to help Pill users make correct pill-taking a part of their daily routine. The publication is packed with information about OCs--who should take pills, when and how to take them, what to do about side effects. It also offers valuable guidance on counseling techniques and sample dialogues that can be adapted for local use."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Center for Communication Programs, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10322 David, Paul A.; Sanderson, Warren C. Cohort parity analysis and fertility transition dynamics: reconstructing historical trends in fertility control from a single census. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3, Nov 1990. 421-45 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The Cohort Parity Analysis (CPA) method for the indirect measurement of the extent of marital fertility control makes use of parity distribution data of the kind reported, for specified marriage duration and marriage-age (or current age) groups of women, by a fertility census....It is possible to infer inter-cohort trends in the extent of fertility control...if one knows the time pattern of the adoption of control among the members of each cohort. It is shown in this paper that robust estimates of the intra-cohort diffusion pattern can be obtained from the census cross-section itself, by supplementing the basic assumptions of the CPA framework with a plausible assumption about the behaviour of the 'representative' controller in a given cohort. The estimation technique is illustrated by applications to data for married women in urban Eire from the Census of Ireland in 1911, and to native white married women in the U.S. South from the U.S. Census of 1910."
Correspondence: P. A. David, Stanford University, Department of Economics, Encina Hall, Stanford, CA 94305-6072. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10323 DeGraff, Deborah S. An economic analysis of the determinants of contraceptive use in Matlab, Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA8920522. 1989. 243 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research analyzes the determinants of contraceptive use in Matlab, Bangladesh using a microeconomic decision-making framework....[It] focuses on the role of an intensive family planning and health care services project in Matlab in contributing to the increase in contraceptive use. The study develops a theoretical model of contraceptive use behavior which is based on the assumption of rational decision-making and uses a household consumption/production expected utility maximizing framework."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10324 DeGraff, Deborah S. Increasing contraceptive use in Bangladesh: the role of demand and supply factors. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 65-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the determinants of contraceptive use in Bangladesh, focusing on the roles of demand for additional children and of family planning service supply. Data from the Matlab Family Planning Health Services Project are used to examine the contributions of these factors to the difference in prevalence of modern contraceptive use between the project area and a control area served by the government family planning and health programs. Results of multivariate analysis deriving from the Easterlin synthesis framework show the importance of family planning supply factors in reducing psychic and resource costs of fertility regulation and in activating latent demand for contraception. Demand for birth limiting and for birth spacing emerge as important explanatory factors; demand for birth spacing is greater in the project area, and both demand measures exert a stronger effect on contraceptive behavior in that area."
Correspondence: D. S. DeGraff, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10325 Donaldson, Peter J.; Tsui, Amy O. The international family planning movement. Population Bulletin, Vol. 45, No. 3, Nov 1990. 46 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors discuss worldwide trends in family planning over the past 30 years. They trace "the progression of this movement, from early opposition in developed, as well as developing countries, to the present day, when birth control is practiced by a slight majority of the world's women of childbearing age....International organizations played a crucial role in the spread of family planning by providing training for developing country professionals, funding actual family planning programs, and helping to evaluate programs. But the success of a country's family planning program also was dependent upon a national commitment, and often on a strong socioeconomic setting. The private sector has had a limited role except in some countries, notably in Latin America, but its involvement is likely to expand in the future. Also, as financial support from the United States and international organizations wanes, national governments will cover a larger share of the cost."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10326 Dwyer, Joseph C.; Haws, Jeanne M. Is permanent contraception acceptable in Sub-Saharan Africa? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 322-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine family planning service delivery as it affects acceptance of contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa. "The specific case of Kenya is mentioned, where improvements in the quality of sterilization services and increases in the number of institutions that can provide minilaparotomy under local anesthesia have led to an increase in the acceptance of sterilization. The authors maintain that the demand for all family planning methods does exist, and it is up to the donor agencies and family planning service providers to try to meet that demand by providing services that are efficient to providers while oriented to the clients' needs."
Correspondence: J. C. Dwyer, Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, International Programs Division, Africa Region, 122 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10168. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10327 Ferreira, Monica. An alternative methodological approach for studies in family planning. South African Journal of Sociology/Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Sosiologie, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1990. 48-58 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng. with sum. in Afr.
"An alternative to the methodological approach traditionally used in studies on family-planning practices was developed and applied in a retrospective investigation of the decision making of a sample of women [in South Africa] regarding their adoption of contraceptive sterilization. The approach is based on the premise of an interparadigmatic overlap and makes provision for integrating analytical levels and employing a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods in a research design....The results of the investigation showed the respondents' perceptions of the most important reasons for their decision to be sterilized. The findings provided insight into the interdependence of the sample's fertility behaviour and societal modernism within the particular institutional and socio-cultural setting." The data are from a survey carried out in the Cape Peninsula.
Correspondence: M. Ferreira, Human Sciences Research Council, Institute for Sociological and Demographic Research, Private Bag X41, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10328 Fleissig, Anne. Unintended pregnancies and the use of contraception: changes from 1984 to 1989. British Medical Journal, Vol. 302, No. 6769, Jan 19, 1991. 147 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This one-page article uses data from postal surveys to examine trends in unintended pregnancies and contraceptive practice in England and Wales between 1984 and 1989. The results indicate a rise in unintended pregnancies over the five-year period, particularly among women aged 20-24 who were using oral contraceptives.
Correspondence: A. Fleissig, Institute for Social Studies in Medical Care, 14 South Hill Park, London NW3 2SB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:10329 Gertsman, B. Burt; Gross, Thomas P.; Kennedy, Dianne L.; Bennett, Ridgely C.; Tomita, Dianne K.; Stadel, Bruce V. Trends in the content and use of oral contraceptives in the United States, 1964-88. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 1, Jan 1991. 90-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Drug marketing and physician survey data were used to examine trends in the use and hormonal content of oral contraceptives in the United States between 1964 and 1988. Retail prescriptions for oral contraceptives peaked at approximately 68 million in 1973 and have remained between 50 million and 60 million since 1981....The data demonstrate that oral contraceptive formulations in wide use today differ in hormone content from those of the past, when most of the major studies addressing the risks associated with oral contraceptive use were completed. There is therefore a need to determine the risks and longterm effects associated with these newer formulations."
Correspondence: B. B. Gertsman, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, HFD-733, Rockville, MD 20857. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10330 Hirsch, Ulrike; Nischan, P.; Ebeling, K. Use of contraceptives by middle-aged women in East Germany. [Zur Anwendung oraler Kontrazeptiva in der DDR bei Frauen mittleren Alters.] Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, Vol. 50, No. 7, Jul 1990. 538-41 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Contraceptive use among 1,214 middle-aged women participating in a hospital-based study in East Germany is analyzed. Differences in contraceptive methods chosen are noted by age, educational status, marital status, parity, and sex life. In particular, a preference toward oral contraception is noted among younger women.
Correspondence: U. Hirsch, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Bereich Medizin (Charite), Klinik und Poliklinik fur Onkologie, Schumannstrasse 20-21, DDR-1040 Berlin, Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10331 Hye, Hasnat A.; Quddus, M. Abdul. Community participation: case studies of population health programmes in Bangladesh. LC 89-904761. 1989. iii, 84, ii pp. Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development [BARD]: Comilla, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Two case studies of community participation in population and health programs in Bangladesh are presented. They concern Deedar cooperative and Sangraish.
Correspondence: Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development, Kotbari, Comilla, Bangladesh. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10332 Kabir, M.; Moslehuddin, M.; Howlader, Ali A. Husband-wife communication and status of women as a determinant of contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1988. 85-97 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to investigate the socio-economic status of women and to identify the factors that affect choice of contraception in rural Bangladesh." The data concern 425 women selected for interview who were living in Savar, located some 40 kilometers from Dhaka. The results emphasize the importance of husband-wife communication in decision-making about family size and contraceptive usage. The value of contacts with family planning workers is also noted.
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Jahangirnagar University, Department of Statistics, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10333 Ladipo, O. A.; McNamara, Regina; Delano, G. Ebun; Weiss, Eugene; Otolorin, E. O. Family planning in traditional markets in Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 311-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Operations research on the Ibadan Market-Based Distribution Project in Nigeria investigated the feasibility of a contraceptive distribution system using traders in the traditional markets to sell pills, condoms, and foaming tablets. Two hundred and thirty-five female and male traders were trained and supplied with contraceptives, malaria treatments, and oral rehydration salts to sell at low prices in 39 markets. This article presents findings from qualitative and quantitative research conducted in 1985-89 to determine if the sale of contraceptives in the marketplace is acceptable to participating traders and shoppers and to identify trader and market characteristics associated with sales volume."
Correspondence: O. A. Ladipo, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10334 Lema, V. M. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and knowledge of reproductive biology among adolescent secondary school girls in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 67, No. 2, Feb 1990. 86-94 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
Results of a 1986 survey of 1,751 adolescent girls aged 12-19 living in Nairobi, Kenya, are presented. The girls "were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaire to determine their knowledge on reproductive biology, sexual behaviour and its relationship to contraceptive practice in late 1986. 23.8% of all the girls had been or were sexually active at the time of the study. 94.5% of the sexually active girls had not [used] or were not using any method of contraception; while the rest, i.e. 5.5% were using mainly unreliable or risky methods of contraception. 1.7% of the sexually active girls admitted to [having] been pregnant at one time and had sought abortion. [The] majority of the girls displayed profound ignorance and misinformation regarding their reproductive biology and contraception."
Correspondence: V. M. Lema, P.O. Box 19329, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10335 Njogu, Wamucii. Trends and determinants of contraceptive use in Kenya. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 83-99 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study uses the 1977-1978 Kenya Fertility Survey and the 1989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey to examine trends and determinants of contraceptive use in Kenya. A substantial increase in contraceptive use occurred in Kenya over the decade. Yet although the increase was shared by all groups in the country, the amount of change differed greatly. A regression decomposition procedure revealed that shifts in population composition--that is, an increase in better educated women and in the proportion of women who want to cease childbearing--were the primary sources of aggregate change in contraceptive use."
Correspondence: W. Njogu, Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10336 Osler, M.; Riphagen, F. E. Contraception survey: Denmark 1988. Contraception, Vol. 42, No. 5, Nov 1990. 507-21 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In 1988, a survey was conducted [with] 1,033 women living in Denmark, whose ages ranged from 15 to 44 years. The main aims of the study were to identify the influence, if any, of demographic and socioeconomic factors on contraceptive use and to assess the women's knowledge of selected facts concerning their own fertility. The study's additional objectives were to gain insight into factors influencing communication on the subject of contraception, such as advice obtained from professional counsellors, general information dissemination and discussion between partners, and to investigate women's attitudes and opinions regarding contraceptive methods and their use. The results are discussed in relation to the findings of other studies on the use of contraceptives both worldwide and in a number of European countries."
Correspondence: M. Osler, University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10337 Pariani, Siti. Contraceptive discontinuation in East Java, Indonesia. 1989. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The present dissertation...[investigates] the sustained use of contraception among married women in East Java, Indonesia. Of key theoretical and substantive importance are two related issues. First, to what extent is the sustained use of contraception a result of the ability of women to choose their preferred method?...Second, to what extent is continued use influenced by the conformity of husbands' and wives' method preferences?" Data are from surveys conducted in 1987 and 1988.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Southern California.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(8).

57:10338 Potts, Malcolm; Rosenfield, Allan. The fifth freedom revisited: II, the way forward. Lancet, Vol. 336, No. 8726, Nov 24, 1990. 1,293-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This is the second part of a two-part article on how the provision of family planning services has changed over the last 25 years, with particular reference to developing countries. This part focuses on the future prospects for global population control. It examines breast-feeding trends, contraception, abortion, voluntary surgical contraception, management issues, resources, and AIDS. The authors conclude that the solutions are available if the decision is made to give family planning services the necessary priority.
For Part I, by the same authors, see 56:40298.
Correspondence: M. Potts, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:10339 Richardson, Mary R. Contraception and women of the third world: a question of reproductive autonomy. [La contraception et les femmes du tiers-monde: une question d'autonomie reproductive.] Cahiers de Recherche du GREMF, No. 33, ISBN 2-89364-035-4. LC 90-193855. 1990. 40 pp. Universite Laval, Groupe de Recherche et d'Echange Multidisciplinaires Feministe [GREMF]: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The author presents a socio-cultural analysis of the adoption of modern contraceptive technology by women in developing countries. She develops the hypothesis that the development of family planning programs and the distribution of contraceptives have occurred in response to political and economic objectives, and not necessarily to improve the health of women. The need to change such programs to reflect cultural factors in the countries concerned is stressed, rather than continuing programs that are heavily influenced by Western, male and medical concepts. Particular attention is given to the decentralization of contraceptive research and the need to involve users as active participants rather than as objects of research.
Correspondence: Universite Laval, Faculte des Sciences Sociales, Groupe de Recherche et d'Echange Multidisciplinaires Feministe, Bureau 2463, Pavillon Charles-De Koninck, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10340 Roscoe, Paul B. Birth-spacing in rural Yangoru, 1970-1987. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, Jun 1989. 123-7 pp. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. In Eng.
"This paper reports an attempt to use data derived from Department of Health Baby Books to gauge birth-spacing and its changes over the period 1970-1987 among the Yangoru Boiken of the East Sepik Province [of Papua New Guinea]. Although Yangoru Boiken society has changed considerably since World War II, the results reveal no significant change in birth spacing over this period."
Correspondence: P. B. Roscoe, University of Maine, Department of Anthropology, Orono, ME 04469-0158. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10341 Ruiz Jimenez, M. A.; Almenara Barrios, J.; Rodriguez Martin, A.; Fernandez Garcia, J. R. Use of contraceptive methods in the adolescent population. [Uso de metodos anticonceptivos en poblacion adolescente.] Revista Espanola de Pediatria, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 229-32 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze adolescent sexual behavior in Spain, using data on some 1,500 adolescents attending a clinic in Cadiz. The results indicate that "the average age to start a sexual life is 15.7 years old; the average time since the beginning of the relationship till they go to the Planning center is 10.7 months; 85.08% of the youth use no contraception method before the first gestation; [and] 91.05% didn't wish for pregnancy."
Correspondence: M. A. Ruiz Jimenez, Columela 2 duplicado, 1o derecha, 11001 Cadiz, Spain. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10342 Saleh, Omer M. Some implications of desire to cease childbearing on reproductive behaviour in Syria. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 515-44 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Currently married Syrian women were interviewed to determine the impact of their desire for no more children on reproductive behavior and contraceptive use. Data are from the 1978 Syria Fertility Survey and concern 4,487 women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10343 Suri, Kul B. Education attainment, modernization and fertility reduction--analysis of the family planning policy of India. Pub. Order No. DA8924467. 1989. 289 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study proposes a set of remedial changes in the philosophy and policies currently governing India's family planning program, in the organizational structure of that program, and in the way in which birth control information and services are delivered to India's people by that program. These recommendations are derived from the study's original research findings regarding the causal influence of certain developmental factors upon Indian fertility differentials....They reveal that the key segment of the Indian populace through which fertility may be depressed via higher literacy rates and the extension of formal education consists of reproductive-age women in general, and, most especially, reproductive-age women residing in the nation's rural areas."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Maryland at Baltimore.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(7).

57:10344 Tan, Anthony. Contraceptive prevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia: 1976-1983. 1989. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this research was (1) to describe changes in contraceptive use and marital fertility in the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1976 to 1983 and (2) to explore the importance of socioeconomic development and family planning in these changes. Data were from two Indonesian government surveys, the 1976 Intercensal Population Survey and the 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Southern California.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10345 Thapa, Shyam; Wonga, Mary V.; Lampe, Philip G.; Pietojo, Harbandinah; Soejoenoes, Ariawan. Efficacy of three variations of periodic abstinence for family planning in Indonesia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 327-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents findings from a prospective multicenter study carried out in Indonesia that was designed to evaluate the efficacy of these three alternative guidelines for the practice of the cervical mucus method. More specifically, the report examines the study subjects' sociodemographic characteristics, evaluates the efficacy of the PA [periodic abstinence] methods practiced, and analyzes reason-specific discontinuation rates." Data are from 850 acceptors followed for a year.
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, Program Evaluation Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10346 Thapa, Shyam; Tsui, Amy O. Family planning needs and costs: Nepal, 1985-2000. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1990. 17-30 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article addresses three main questions: What level of family planning will be required to achieve [Nepal's] demographic target [of 2.5 children per woman by 2000]? Through the use of what contraceptive methods can the fertility target be achieved? And, how much will this effort cost? The results show that: (a) current contraceptive use will need to increase to 62 percent in order to achieve the fertility reduction target, (b) more focus by the family planning programme on the use of temporary methods would not necessitate a considerably higher level of overall contraceptive prevalence, and (c) the projected total cost could be as high as $US39 million annually a decade from now."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10347 Thuro, H. C.; Rabe, T.; Runnebaum, B. Background information from contraceptive behavior of abortion patients, indicating psychosocial factors in the creation of unwanted pregnancies. [Hintergrunde des Kontrazeptionsverhaltens von Abruptiopatientinnen als Hinweis auf psychosoziale Entstehungsbedingungen ungewollter Schwangerschaften.] Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, Vol. 49, No. 12, Dec 1989. 1,074-82 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Contraceptive practice among abortion seekers is analyzed using data on 269 patients interviewed at a private abortion clinic in Lindenfels, West Germany. "The results indicated three crucial points which influence contraceptive behaviour: social barriers, which affect indirectly the access to and the handling of contraceptives; psychic, mainly unconscious barriers, which counteract contraception; [and] an increasing distrust and rejection of modern medical contraception, especially in highly educated women."
Correspondence: H. C. Thuro, Roherbacher Strasse 22, 6900 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10348 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Statistical compendium on contraceptive prevalence and practice in African countries. Pub. Order No. ECA/POP/TP/90/1/1.2 (ii)(a). Aug 1990. vi, 255 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"The present publication is the first attempt by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa to put together scattered available information on contraceptive knowledge and use [in Africa]. This will form a data base that will be updated as new data become available." The information is presented separately by country. Data are from a wide range of sources, including the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS).
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10349 Vernon, Ricardo; Ojeda, Gabriel; Murad, Rocio. Incorporating AIDS prevention activities into a family planning organization in Colombia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 335-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA [a private family planning agency in Colombia] in two operations research projects....Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales."
Correspondence: R. Vernon, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10350 Wielandt, Hanne; Hansen, Unni M. Sexual behavior, contraception and unintended pregnancy among young females. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 68, No. 3, 1989. 255-9 pp. Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
This paper examines behavioral aspects of sexual maturity and contraceptive use among sexually active Danish teenagers. The authors state that a pause in an effective contraceptive often precedes an unintended pregnancy, pointing to the need for follow-up counseling when oral contraceptives are prescribed. Data concern 140 16-20 year-old Danish females admitted for abortion on Funen Island in 1985 and 1986.
Correspondence: H. Wielandt, Odense Sygehus, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, DK 5000 Odense, Denmark. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

No citations in this issue.

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

57:10351 Bongaarts, John; Mauldin, W. Parker; Phillips, James F. The demographic impact of family planning programs. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 17, 1990. 34 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In response to concerns about the adverse consequences of rapid population growth, family planning programs have been implemented in many developing countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of this programmatic approach on long-range population growth. The result of a new and hypothetical population projection indicates that in the absence of family planning programs the population of the developing world could be expected to reach 14.6 billion in the year 2010 instead of the 10 billion that is currently projected by the World Bank. Despite the apparent success of existing interventions, fertility control is far from complete, as many women continue to bear unwanted births....With perfect implementation of reproductive preferences the population size of the developing world in 2100 would be reduced by an estimated 2.2 billion below the current projection." Data are from the United Nations.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10352 Bongaarts, John; Mauldin, W. Parker; Phillips, James F. The demographic impact of family planning programs. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 299-310 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In response to concerns about the adverse consequences of rapid population growth, family planning programs have been implemented in many developing countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of this programmatic approach on long-range population growth. The result of a new and hypothetical population projection indicates that in the absence of family planning programs the population of the developing world could be expected to reach 14.6 billion in the year 2100 instead of the 10 billion that is currently projected by the World Bank....To assess the impact of...unintended childbearing a second hypothetical projection is made. With perfect implementation of reproductive preferences, the population size of the developing world in 2100 would be reduced by an estimated 2.2 billion below the current projection."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10353 Eisen, Marvin; Zellman, Gail L.; McAlister, Alfred L. Evaluating the impact of a theory-based sexuality and contraceptive education program. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 261-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A controlled field study involving 1,444 [U.S.] adolescent males and females 13-19 years of age was performed to compare a sexuality education program based on the health belief model and social learning theory with several publicly funded community-based and school-based interventions." Comparisons were made of the sexual behavior and contraceptive use of both males and females prior to and after attending the educational programs. "Programs of sexuality and contraceptive education as brief as 8-12 hours appear to help all participants increase their sexual and contraceptive knowledge [and] initiate and maintain relatively high levels of effective contraceptive use."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10354 Freedman, Ronald. Family planning programs in the third world. In: World population: approaching the year 2000, edited by Samuel H. Preston. Jul 1990. 33-43 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Most of the population of less developed countries (LDCs) now lives in countries with national family planning programs to reduce fertility and improve family welfare. Such programs are a new phenomenon. In some LDCs increasing birth-control practice and fertility declines occurred along with considerable social and economic development, but even there rapid changes among the disadvantaged masses are generally associated with strong family planning programs. Fertility has also fallen in some countries with only some development but with vigorous family planning programs. China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand are such cases. In such places as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, fertility generally remains quite high, apparently because of little development and traditional familial institutions. Even in these situations, however, there are examples of significant fertility declines, in some cases nationally and in other cases in intensive, high-quality pilot projects that have established the latent demand for family planning."
Correspondence: R. Freedman, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10355 Osheba, Ibrahim K. T. Births averted due to the gross impact of contraceptive use in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 203-16 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"It is the purpose of this study to...[estimate] the gross fertility impact of contraception in terms of the number of births averted and the reduction in the crude birth rate in Egypt in 1980, 1984, and 1988. The data used in this study come from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey..., the 1984 Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey..., and the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10356 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; Amin, Zeinab H. An evaluation of the impact of the Population and Development Project, based on data from the 1984 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 443-75 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author assesses Egypt's community-oriented Population and Development Project (PDP), initiated in 1977. They focus on the PDP's impact on knowledge, attitude, and family planning practice variables and on fertility by comparing geographic regions that are part of the project with those not participating. Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10357 Suyono, Haryono. Family planning in Indonesia: a successful community development programme. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1990. 4-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Successes of the Indonesian Family Planning Program from its inception in 1970 to the present are discussed, with a focus on its community development program.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

57:10358 Ahmed, Inas A. A. Motivation gap in contraceptive use in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 217-52 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper aims first to assess the existence of a real motivation gap in contraceptive use in Egypt and its characteristics. Then, it proceeds to examine the effect of the so-called, motivation gap on fertility. The paper would also try to examine the reasons for non-use of contraceptives among women who want no more children and the determinants of motivation to contraceptive use....The 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (ECPS) is the main source of data used in this study."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10359 Aly, Hassan Y.; Shields, Michael P. Son preference and contraception in Egypt. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 39, No. 2, Jan 1991. 353-70 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this article we investigate the impact of son preference on fertility in Egypt. We examine how the proportion of male children in a household affects contraceptive practices." Using data on 8,979 urban and rural households from the 1980 World Fertility Survey for Egypt, the authors develop a model that is based on contraceptive use rather than the number of children ever born or parity progression ratios. They discuss the underlying theory, the empirical model, and variables used. Results indicate that "son preference appears to be an important determinant of contraception and, hence, fertility in Egypt. Contraception increases dramatically at each parity as the number of sons increases. Indeed, the number of sons in the family appears to be the most important determinant of parity-specific probabilities of contraception."
Correspondence: H. Y. Aly, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:10360 Asikpata, Felix O. On the relationship between fertility attitudes and contraceptive behaviour: the case of Lesotho. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 649-83 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The broad objective of this study is to examine the relationship between fertility attitudes and the perceptions of and reactions to fertility regulation methods in Lesotho. Concomitantly the implications of the relationship for social status enhancement among Basotho women will be examined....Data for this study are obtained from the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey....The findings suggest that association exists between family size desires and the perceptions of and reactions to contraceptive method."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10361 Bongaarts, John. The measurement of wanted fertility. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 487-506, 609-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A review of existing approaches to the estimation of wanted fertility concludes that these measures typically contain an upward bias. An alternative methodology is therefore proposed to estimate wanted fertility from survey questions about women's desire to continue childbearing. This new methodology is applied to data from 48 surveys in developing countries. The results from this exercise indicate that in these populations on average 26 percent of fertility is unwanted, which is substantially more than estimates derived with other methods. The proportion unwanted apparently varies systematically over the course of the fertility transition: it is lowest at the beginning and end and highest among countries in mid-transition."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10362 Lakshmanasamy, T. Old age, risk, security and children: an empirical evidence from rural India. Indian Journal of Economics, Vol. 70, No. 276, Jul 1989. 51-68 pp. Allahabad, India. In Eng.
An investment model of the demand for children is developed to demonstrate that old-age security provided by children is an important consideration in the fertility decisions of parents. "The paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the importance of children as a source of old age support and risk mitigating mechanism. The investment approach for the demand for children is presented in Section III. Section IV...explores the implications in the context of a recent household survey conducted in rural India. Finally, the findings are summarised in Section V."
Correspondence: T. Lakshmanasamy, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune 411 004, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10363 Lee, Sam Sik. Determinants of son preference: the case of Republic of Korea, 1985. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 1,001-36 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines son preference in the Republic of Korea, with a focus on the extent of son preference and its demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and family planning differentials. Implications for fertility trends are considered. Data are from the 1985 Korean National Fertility and Family Planning Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10364 Ogedengbe, O. K.; Giwa-Osagie, O. F.; Usifoh, C. A. The attitude of fertile Nigerian women to sterilization. Biology and Society, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1990. 135-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Attitudes to sterilisation were investigated among patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos [Nigeria]. The most frequently mentioned factors that would affect a patient's decision on sterilisation were the number of living children, her age, and her health. Cultural beliefs, particularly belief in reincarnation, were also relevant."
Correspondence: O. K. Ogedengbe, University of Lagos, College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology and Fertility Regulation, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10365 Olusanya, P. O. Human reproduction in Africa: fact, myth and the martyr syndrome. Research for Development, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan 1989. 69-97 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria. In Eng.
"The paper examines the issue of persistently high fertility across socioeconomic status categories in Africa, particularly in a situation of increasing contraception, and the attempts that have been made by scholars to explain it. It is argued, on the basis of anthropological and other evidence drawn from various parts of Africa, that these explanations are inadequate and that more than any other factors family planning programmes have strong and deep-seated traditional and quasi-religious attitudes and beliefs (collectively referred to here as the 'martyr syndrome') to contend with."
Correspondence: P. O. Olusanya, University of Lagos, Department of Sociology, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10366 Osman, Magued I. Differentials of sex preference in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 335-45 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"In the current study, geographical differentials in sex preference in Egypt are examined. The level of sex preference is described in different areas, the relation between sex preference and pregnancy is measured and explanatory variables for the level of sex preference are determined." Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10367 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). China, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Viet Nam: knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers about contraceptive methods. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-G, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/867. 1990. iv, 53, 16 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a report on findings from five countries concerning an ESCAP study on the knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers toward contraceptive methods. The countries included in the study are China, India, Sri Lanka, Viet Nam, and the Philippines. The aim of the study was to help family planning organizations provide a more balanced mix of contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10368 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). India: knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers about contraceptive methods. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-E, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/738. 1989. v, 31, 63 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of seven volumes presenting results from an ESCAP study on the knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers toward contraceptive methods. This report concerns India. The aim of the study was to help family planning organizations provide a more balanced mix of contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10369 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Philippines: knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers about contraceptive methods. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-F, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/736. 1988. iv, 36, [79] pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of seven volumes presenting results from an ESCAP study on the knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers toward contraceptive methods. This report concerns the Philippines. The aim of the study was to help family planning organizations provide a more balanced mix of contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10370 While, Alison E. The incidence of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies among live births from health visitor records. Child Care, Health and Development, Vol. 16, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1990. 219-26 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Health visitor records are used to estimate levels of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies in the United Kingdom. "A survey of health visitor records has indicated that approximately one-third of pregnancies resulting in live births are unplanned. The data further revealed an association between planning of pregnancies and socio-demographic variables and use of preventive health care for infants."
Correspondence: A. E. While, King's College, Department of Nursing Studies, 552 King's Road, London SW10 0UA, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10371 Williams, Linda B.; Pratt, William F. Wanted and unwanted childbearing in the United States: 1973-88. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 189, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 90-1250. Sep 26, 1990. 8 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Trends in wanted and unwanted births to ever-married and never-married women in the United States during the period 1973-1988 are examined. Differentials according to age and race are included. Data are from three cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

57:10372 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. Abortion policy and women's health in developing countries. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1990. 297-314 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
The author first notes that unsafe induced abortion is responsible for between 100 and 200 thousand women's deaths in developing countries every year. She "reviews the legal, medical, and social contexts in which women in developing countries resort to clandestine abortion. Despite intensified international concern with reducing high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, national policy makers and participants at international conferences on maternal health--with a few important exceptions--have not recommended that safe, legal services for terminating unwanted pregnancies be offered as an essential element of basic reproductive health care. United States international policy on funding abortion-related activities in maternal health and family planning programs is especially restrictive. A new policy approach is clearly needed if unacceptably high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in many countries are to be reduced."
Correspondence: Jane Ordway, IWHC, 24 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10373 Frankel, Susan L. Abortion policy implementation: understanding the availability of abortion services in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA8907439. 1988. 239 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines five factors predicted to be related to abortion, and assesses their influence on the availability and use of abortion services [in the United States]....This study reveals that...availability is affected by differing views concerning the family, economic status of women, pressures of social movements and availability of physicians. Use of abortion services is affected by the social and political climate primarily through availability of abortion providers, along with existing characteristics of the health care system and with the level of demand for abortion."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of New Hampshire.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(3).

57:10374 Jacobson, Jodi L. Abortion in a new light. World Watch, Vol. 3, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 31-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author develops the theme that treating induced abortion as a public health problem rather than as a criminal or ideological issue would have the effect of reducing its incidence around the world. The main approach proposed is the promotion of contraceptive usage through family planning programs.
Correspondence: J. L. Jacobson, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10375 Keown, I. J. Some aspects of the legal regulation of abortion in England from 1803 to 1982, with particular reference to the influence of the medical profession on the development of the law and of the law on the practice of abortion by the medical profession. Pub. Order No. BRD-85474. 1985. 328 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines abortion legislation in England from 1803 to 1982. The focus is on the impact of medical professionals on the creation of laws concerning induced abortion, and how those laws affected abortion rates.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Oxford, England.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(3).

57:10376 Korenbrot, Carol C.; Brindis, Claire; Priddy, Fran. Trends in rates of live births and abortions following state restrictions on public funding of abortion. Public Health Reports, Vol. 105, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 555-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examined for [Pennsylvania, Colorado, and North Carolina] changes in the proportion of reported pregnancies that resulted in births and in the proportion that ended in abortions, following restrictions on public funding of abortions, to see whether generalizations could be made about what might happen in other States that similarly restricted funding. We used the State of California as an example to apply the findings and made projections for the expected impact on births in that State." Data are from state health departments. Findings reveal an increase in live births due to the inability of low-income women to pay for abortions.
Correspondence: C. C. Korenbrot, University of California, Institute of Health Policy Studies, Center for Reproductive Health Policy Research, 1326 Third Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0936. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10377 Meeks, Thomas J. The economic efficiency and equity of abortion. Economics and Philosophy, Vol. 6, 1990. 95-138 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This essay...examines the abortion option [using] two standard economic welfare criteria, efficiency and equity, to evaluate different distributions of property rights." The author critically examines a 1971 article by Judith Jarvis Thomson concerning fetal personhood and the maternal right to privacy. He asserts that "the efficiency of different output allocations and even output and wealth as such are neither ethically neutral nor ordinally invariant but depend on the range of property rights and distributions, wealth-constrained valuations, and populations considered. The results suggest that, insofar as claims of efficiency and equity are met or accepted as appropriate, economic criteria may affect the constitution of justice and behavior as legal and normative constraints."
Correspondence: T. J. Meeks, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA 23803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10378 Rogers, James L.; Boruch, Robert F.; Stoms, George B.; DeMoya, Dorothy. Impact of the Minnesota Parental Notification Law on abortion and birth. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 3, Mar 1991. 294-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The present paper concerns the Minnesota [Parental Notification Law], enacted in August 1981 and enjoined in March 1986. This law required a minor woman to notify both parents at least 48 hours prior to an abortion or else seek court approval....In this study, the statewide impact of the [law] upon the incidence rate of abortion and birth, as well as upon the ratio of abortions to births and the ratio of early to late abortions, is examined....Data presented in this study are compatible with the hypothesis that, initially, parental notification facilitated pregnancy avoidance in 15-17 year-old Minnesota women. Abortion rates fell markedly in this age group relative to older women. Birth rates also fell, but only in keeping with a long-term trend established before enactment of the law."
Correspondence: J. L. Rogers, Wheaton College, Department of Psychology, Wheaton, IL 60187. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10379 Siriboon, Siriwan. The impact of education on attitude towards abortion among women in rural-urban Thailand. Institute of Population Studies Paper, No. 55, LC 89-9155-25. May 1987. vii, 97 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The impact of educational status on women's attitude toward induced abortion in Thailand is analyzed. Consideration is given to differences between women living in rural and urban areas.
Correspondence: Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

57:10380 Berg, Alan; Brems, Susan. A case for promoting breastfeeding in projects to limit fertility. World Bank Technical Paper, No. 102, ISBN 0-8213-1247-2. LC 89-9195. 1989. 55 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The paper "presents the case for promoting breastfeeding in [World] Bank projects with fertility limitation objectives. It challenges assumptions that may have worked against including breastfeeding components in projects, synthesizes recent research findings that cast light on this subject and outlines why promotive actions are necessary (even in areas where breastfeeding is prevalent) if the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding are to be maintained or enhanced....The paper advocates breastfeeding as a complement to other contraceptives and calls for family planning programs that are designed with local breastfeeding patterns in mind. It examines the compatibility of breastfeeding with women's other roles and argues that reducing barriers to breastfeeding will increase women's options for infant feeding." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10381 Feyisetan, Bamikale, J. Postpartum sexual abstinence, breastfeeding, and childspacing, among Yoruba women in urban Nigeria. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 110-27 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper...examines the present level of departure from the traditional practice of sexual abstinence during lactation as well as the factors that facilitate the break from the traditional norms. The impact of the break from the traditional postpartum sexual norms on duration of lactation will also be examined by determining whether durations of lactation differ significantly between women who experience sexual relations during lactation and those who abstain from sexual relations throughout the lactation period. It shall also be determined whether duration of lactation has any significant impact on childspacing." The data concern 10,340 ever-married women between the ages 15 and 49 from a survey carried out in nine Nigerian cities in 1987-1988.
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10382 Hassig, Susan E.; Bertrand, Jane T.; Djunghu, Balowa; Kinzoni, Minuku; Mangani, Nlandu. Duration and correlates of post-partum abstinence in four sites in Zaire. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1991. 343-7 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The current article describes the relative duration of breastfeeding, post-partum amenorrhea and abstinence in four sites in Zaire. In addition, it examines a number of correlates of post-partum abstinence in an effort to identify those factors which contribute most significantly to the practice (i.e. correlates of abstinence)." The data concern 2,223 women collected during four surveys on fertility, family planning, and child health carried out between 1983 and 1987. "The median duration of abstinence in the two urban and two rural sites ranged from 4.5 to 8.8 months. The final multivariable model showed that low socio-economic status, rural residence, more living children, prolonged duration of breastfeeding and non-Zairian nationality were all important predictors of prolonged duration of abstinence."
Correspondence: S. E. Hassig, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1501 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10383 Khan, Abdul Q. Breastfeeding practices and birth spacing in Pakistan. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 889-924 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study...attempts to document the trend and differentials in the breastfeeding practice among the Pakistan population; to investigate the socio-economic and demographic correlates, and to assess its fertility inhibiting effect through its contribution to birth spacing. The analysis will be done for the country as a whole as well as for the rural and urban areas and for administrative regions." Data are from the 1984-1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10384 Leridon, Henri. From natural fertility to aided fertility: the demographer's contribution. [De la procreation naturelle a la procreation assistee: le point de vue du demographe.] Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Vol. 131, No. 2, 1990. 3-23 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the implications of medical involvement in human reproduction over the course of the twentieth century for the study of fecundity and fertility by demographers. Topics considered include fecundability, intrauterine mortality, and sterility treatment.
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10385 Patacsil, Prudante M. The post-partum non-susceptible period in the Philippines. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 925-64 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Data from the 1978 Philippines Fertility Survey are used to examine postpartum variables, including breast-feeding, amenorrhea, and sexual abstinence, that determine the postpartum non-susceptible period of conception and consequently birth intervals and fertility. Cultural and socioeconomic factors influencing the variables are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10386 Saadeh, R.; Benbouzid, D. Breast-feeding and child-spacing: importance of information collection for public health policy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 68, No. 5, 1990. 625-31 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The presence of lactational amenorrhoea cannot be fully relied upon to protect the individual mother against becoming pregnant. Nevertheless, the use of breast-feeding as a birth-spacing mechanism has important implications for global health policy. This article identifies the information that should be collected and examined as a basis for developing guidelines on...the most appropriate timing of the introduction of other family planning methods in specific environments, based on prevailing breast-feeding patterns and the duration of lactational amenorrhoea."
Correspondence: R. Saadeh, World Health Organization, Nutrition Unit, CH-1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10387 Sanogo, Diouratie. Determinants of breastfeeding and amenorrhoea duration and their fertility impact in Mali. Pub. Order No. DA8923747. 1989. 213 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objective of this research was to study the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of breastfeeding and amenorrhoea durations, to determine their fertility effect, and finally to identify those factors easily amenable to policy intervention in Bamako, Mali. The data used to investigate this relationship come from the 1983-85 Infant Mortality Survey....The results indicate that among the socioeconomic and demographic variables that significantly affect breastfeeding, maternal age at time of child birth, birth weight, maternal education, and socioeconomic status measured by the source of water supply have the strongest effect."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(7).

57:10388 Tsui, Amy O.; de Silva, S. Victor; Marinshaw, Ruth. Pregnancy avoidance and coital behavior. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 101-17 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study proposes a behavioral model that identifies determinants of coital activity in the context of pregnancy avoidance and assesses the relationships using weekly panel data collected on 300 rural married women in Sri Lanka in 1988. We discuss the utility of the design, which is similar to that of an epidemiological surveillance system, for the measurement of coital behavior and pregnancy risk perceptions. Perceptions of pregnancy risk, spousal agreement on sexual relations, menstrual and lactational status, and cycle timing, all measured daily, are found to influence significantly the probability of coitus on that day. The findings suggest that substantial gains in studying fertility regulation are likely from closer investigation of the behavioral connections between motivation for pregnancy avoidance and coital incidence. Comparison of such panel data with those of cross-sectional sample surveys also provides insights into the validity of measures of coital and contraceptive behavior."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 452).
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, CB# 8120, University Square, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10389 Weinstein, Maxine; Wood, James W.; Stoto, Michael A.; Greenfield, Daniel D. Components of age-specific fecundability. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3, Nov 1990. 447-67 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors use a mathematical model to examine how much of the variation in fecundability during the reproductive period may be due to age-related changes in physiology and how much to variation in coital frequency. "Intra-uterine mortality has an important effect on fecundability: effective fecundability (the likelihood of a conception that results in a live birth) is less than half of total fecundability (the likelihood of any conception) at nearly all ages when coital frequency is held constant. The change in effective fecundability with increasing coital frequency is non-linear: it declines with increasing frequency. At all coital frequencies, the effects of increasing physiological age are greatest at the youngest and oldest reproductive ages, while between the ages of 20 and 30 physiological change has only a small impact on effective fecundability."
Correspondence: M. Weinstein, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

57:10390 Leridon, Henri. Extra-marital cohabitation and fertility. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3, Nov 1990. 469-87 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In France, as in many other Western European countries, attitudes and behaviour regarding marriage have changed drastically over the past 20 years. One of the major changes has been the increasing propensity to begin one's matrimonial career outside marriage: two-thirds of first unions begun in 1983-1985 were outside marriage. A special survey was carried out at the end of 1985 to collect detailed information on life-courses for a sample of 4,091 women and men aged between 21 and 44 years....We [are] interested in (i) the proportion of first births that precede a union; (ii) the first event which follows the establishment of a union: marriage, birth of a child, or separation; (iii) the relative positions of the first birth and marriage of the parents....We shall examine the specific fertility of consensual unions (specific by both age and duration) and of the number of births achieved at certain ages, as a function of the couple's marital history."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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