Volume 57 - Number 1 - Spring 1991

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

57:10101 Alramadhan, Muhammad A. The decline of mortality in Kuwait, 1965 to 1985. Pub. Order No. DA8920069. 1989. 432 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study provides a comprehensive analysis and description of Kuwait's mortality rate over the period 1965-1985 to show whether the rate of decline has slowed....Kuwait's mortality experience is compared with that of other selected developing countries and with the West and South model life tables....Trends in infant mortality and life expectancy at birth indicated that mortality decline accelerated over the period 1965-1985."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at George Washington University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10102 Andreev, E.; Darskii, L.; Khar'kova, T. An assessment of population losses during World War II. [Otsenka lyudskikh poter' v period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 10, 1990. 25-7 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
An attempt is made to estimate losses to the population of the USSR due to World War II by projecting the probable population in 1945 based on prewar population data and comparing the projections to the actual population in 1945. The authors calculate that the country lost between 26 and 27 million people, of which some 19 million were male. These losses include direct deaths due to the fighting, indirect mortality due to wartime conditions, and losses through emigration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10103 Bhatnagar, S.; Dosajh, U.; Kapoor, S. D. Correlates of morbidity and patterns of mortality in urban slums of Delhi: Part I. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 11, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1988. 83-95 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Factors influencing morbidity and mortality patterns in four urban slums in Delhi, India, are examined. "Important correlates of morbidity were identified as: low educational level, poor hygienic status of families, poor environmental sanitation and low per capita income. Maximum number of deaths was due to respiratory infections (20 per cent) followed by fever and diarrhoea (17 per cent each)."
Correspondence: S. Bhatnagar, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Planning and Evaluation, New Mehrauli Road, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10104 Calatayud Sarthou, A.; Sabater Pons, A.; Alfonso Sanchez, J. L.; Hernandez Galve, A.; Cortina Greus, P. Comparison of mortality in Spain and France, following the method of "potential years of life lost" [Datos comparativos de la mortalidad en Espana y Francia, segun el metodo del "nivel potencial de anos de vida perdidos"] Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 4-10 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality trends in Spain from 13 major causes of death are analyzed for the period 1972-1982 and compared with trends for the same period in France. Increases in mortality in Spain are noted for three causes--malignant tumors, cardiac diseases, and suicides and homicides--whereas significant declines in mortality are noted for pneumonia, influenza, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. Excess mortality for males is common to both countries.
Correspondence: P. Cortina Greus, Facultad de Medicina, Area de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Publica, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10105 Caldwell, John C. Cultural and social factors influencing mortality levels in developing countries. In: World population: approaching the year 2000, edited by Samuel H. Preston. Jul 1990. 44-59 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"Recent analyses of Third World data, both at the level of national or other large aggregates and at that of individuals studied in sample surveys, have revealed the surprising fact that social characteristics, such as the level of schooling or fertility control, or cultural characteristics, such as ethnic group, are usually more influential in determining mortality levels than is access to medical services, income, or nutritional levels. Evidence from the United States at the beginning of the century suggests that this was not the case earlier in the West. This article examines the evidence, shows why developing countries are currently in an unusual situation, and presents anthropological evidence on how cultural, social, and behavioral factors achieve their impact. An attempt is made to begin the construction of a more general theory of mortality transition."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10106 Dong, Heng-jin. An analysis of the effect of seasonal factors on mortality in Shanghai County, 1975-1986. Zhonghua Yufang Yixue Zazhi/Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 5, Sep 25, 1989. 263-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
Seasonal variations in mortality in a rural county near Shanghai, China, are analyzed using the moving average method. The results show varying seasonal differences by age group. The mortality of children under one year of age was highest in December; mortality among preschool children was highest in summer; and the mortality of the middle-aged and aged showed mortality peaks in both winter and summer.
Correspondence: H.-j. Dong, Shanghai Medical University, Department of Health Statistics and Social Medicine, Shanghai, China. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10107 Farchi, Gino; Mariotti, Sergio; Menotti, Alessandro; Seccareccia, Fulvia; Torsello, Stefania; Fidanza, Flaminio. Diet and 20-y mortality in two rural population groups of middle-aged men in Italy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 50, No. 5, Nov 1989. 1,095-103 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relationships between individual diet measured in 1965 on the two Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study on Cardiovascular Disease, and subsequent mortality from all and specific causes of death in 20 [years] are studied. The analysis covers 1,536 men aged 45-64...at entry to the study. By using a cluster analysis technique, individuals are aggregated into four groups so that the elements within a group have a higher degree of similarity in dietary nutrients than between groups. Impressive differences in death rates between groups are found especially at the 10- and 15-[year] anniversaries."
Correspondence: G. Farchi, Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Rome, Italy. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10108 Fuentes Aguilar, Luis; Garcia de Leon, Armando. Life expectancy conditions in Mexico. [Condicionantes de la esperanza de vida en Mexico.] Boletin de la Instituto de Geografia, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1988. 71-88 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the elderly and changes in life expectancy in Mexico. It also contains the results of a multivariate analysis with variables that affect this life expectancy, to obtain regions of health levels in the country."
Correspondence: L. Fuentes Aguilar, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geografia, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA.

57:10109 Gray, Alan. A matter of life and death: contemporary aboriginal mortality. Institute Report Series, 1990. xiv, 211 pp. Aboriginal Studies Press: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop organized by the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health and held at Kioloa, New South Wales, July 10-12, 1989, on the subject of aboriginal mortality in Australia. "The book details the patterns, causes and effects of Aboriginal death rates, with a lively record of discussions and disagreements among the participants. The workshop compared information from studies in different parts of Australia and found that a similar pattern of Aboriginal death rates exists in all States. In some age groups in middle adulthood, Aboriginal death rates are more than ten times higher than those for the rest of the Australian population. For both sexes, life expectancy is 15 to 20 years less than for the total Australian population."
Correspondence: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, GPO Box 553, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10110 Hansen, Eva S. The proportionate mortality ratio and its relationship with measures of mortality. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 3, Mar 1990. 315-23 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Under certain circumstances a proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) equals the cause-specific standardized mortality ratio (SMR) divided by the overall SMR. In this paper, the relationship between PMR and SMR is derived stepwise with focus on the conditions that must be fulfilled for each step of the derivation to be valid." The implications for the comparative study of observed and expected mortality among occupation groups are discussed.
Correspondence: E. S. Hansen, University of Odense, Institute of Community Health, J. B. Winslows Vej 17, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10111 Israel, Robert A. Automation of mortality data coding and processing in the United States of America. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 43, No. 42, 1990. 259-62 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The development in the United States of America of an automated system for coding mortality data...was undertaken with two major objectives in mind: (i) to introduce consistent and rapid assignment of underlying cause-of-death coding with reduced needs or manpower training; and (ii) to allow better utilization of medical information on death certificates for multiple cause-of death analyses....The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) produces all of its underlying cause-of-death statistics for the United States on the basis of this system, and multiple cause-of-death data are routinely available for additional epidemiological study beyond the traditional methods of vital statistics analyses."
Correspondence: R. A. Israel, Centers for Disease Control, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10112 Jozan, Peter. Changes in Hungarian mortality and the role of the National Health Promotion Program. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 55-69 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Mortality trends and life expectancy in Hungary are examined and compared for the periods 1945-1964 and 1965-1987. In response to a decrease in life expectancy caused by behavioral and socio-medical factors during the second period, Hungary has developed a health promotion program aimed at changing the life-styles of high-risk Hungarians. Goals are identified for reducing mortality by the year 2000.
Correspondence: P. Jozan, Central Statistical Office, Population Statistics Department, Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10113 Juckett, David A.; Rosenberg, Barnett. Periodic clustering of human disease-specific mortality distributions by shape and time position, and a new integer-based law of mortality. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 55, No. 3, 1990. 255-91 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Human mortality distributions were analyzed for 29 disease-specific causes-of-death in male and female, White (U.S.A.), Black (U.S.A.) and Japanese (Japan) populations, constituting a total of 162 separate cohorts." In particular, the authors apply the theoretical tools of survivorship analysis to the study of disease-specific mortality in order to provide evidence "that age-related mortal diseases are the manifestation of major system malfunctions that are all linked by some common, underlying mechanism."
Correspondence: B. Rosenberg, Barros Research Institute, 2430 College Road, Holt, MI 48842. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

57:10114 Koponen, Juhani. War, famine, and pestilence in late precolonial Tanzania: a case for a heightened mortality. International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1988. 637-76 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author analyzes the factors affecting mortality in precolonial Tanzania, with emphasis on crisis mortality due to famine, war, and pestilence. The study is based on a review of the published literature.
Correspondence: J. Koponen, University of Helsinki, Institute of Developing Studies, Hallituskatu 8, 00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10115 Mercer, Alex. Disease, mortality and population in transition: epidemiological-demographic change in England since the eighteenth century as part of a global phenomenon. ISBN 0-7185-1344-4. Jun 1990. xiv, 262 pp. Leicester University Press: Leicester, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the epidemiological and demographic transition that has occurred in industrialized countries over the past three centuries, based primarily on the English experience. The focus is on the decline in mortality and on both its causes and its demographic consequences. The approach is epidemiological, relying on recent biomedical research, notably in cellular immunology. Chapters are included on disease patterns, standards of living, and population change after the plague; the impact of immunization on smallpox mortality; changes in infant mortality, gastrointestinal disease, typhus, typhoid, and cholera; respiratory and airborne infections; the transition to noncommunicable disease mortality patterns; and the global transition in disease and mortality.
Correspondence: Leicester University Press, 25 Floral Street, London WC2E 9DS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10116 Shlomowitz, Ralph; Brennan, Lance. Mortality and migrant labour in Assam, 1865-1921. Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 85-110 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper contributes to the literature on the history of Indian health by investigating the mortality suffered by migrant labour in Assam from 1865 to 1921. Although the primary objective of the paper will be to present systematic and comprehensive estimates of annual death rates and of the ascribed causes of death of this migrant population, it will also address wider issues relating to the extent to which this mortality was due to new diseases to which the migrants had no immunity, as compared to environmental factors over which planters and health officials had some control. More generally, the paper will evaluate the success of administrative measures to reduce this mortality."
Correspondence: R. Shlomowitz, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10117 Toole, Michael J.; Waldman, Ronald J. Prevention of excess mortality in refugee and displaced populations in developing countries. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 263, No. 24, Jun 27, 1990. 3,296-302 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The causes of high mortality among refugee populations in developing countries are reviewed. The focus is on the 30 million or so refugees currently dependent on international relief assistance. "Mortality rates in these populations during the acute phase of displacement have been extremely high, up to 60 times the expected rates. Displaced populations in northern Ethiopia (1985) and southern Sudan (1988) have suffered the highest crude mortality rates. Although mortality rates have risen in all age groups, excess mortality has been the greatest in 1- through 14-year-old children. The major causes of death have been measles, diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory tract infections, and malaria." The need for basic structural changes in the provision of relief to refugee populations in order to lower mortality is noted.
Correspondence: M. J. Toole, Centers for Disease Control, International Health Program Office, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10118 Valkonen, Tapani. Assumptions about mortality trends in industrialized countries: a survey. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 3-25 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Mortality trends in developed countries are analyzed. The author focuses on forecasting the future course of human longevity. In doing so, the author considers "mortality assumptions made in some recent population projections and discusses the effects of alternative assumptions. Methods for preparing mortality projections are discussed....The [author] summarizes views on the effects of eliminating certain causes of death and also considers a related debate over the assumed biological limit to life. The final part of the chapter attempts to identify the main open questions affecting mortality projections."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Franzeninkatu 13, 00500 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10119 van Poppel, Frans W. A. Determinants and consequences of mortality in the Netherlands: some suggestions for research. In: Emerging issues in demographic research, edited by Cornelius A. Hazeu and Gerard A. B. Frinking. 1990. 233-79 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is an overview of mortality trends and differentials in the Netherlands from 1800 to the present, including future implications. The author focuses on research priorities for the country and discusses methodological considerations in such areas as cause-of-death statistics, morbidity and mortality interrelationships, life expectancy and health considerations, and mortality trends among generations. Differential mortality patterns by sex, ethnic group, age, marital status, geographic region, and socioeconomic status are discussed. A comment is included by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant (pp. 277-9).
Correspondence: F. W. A. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

57:10120 Bodenmann, Andreas; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Paccaud, Fred; Spuhler, Thomas. Social differences in fetal and infant mortality: Switzerland 1979-1985. [Soziale Unterschiede in der vor- und nachgebwrtlichen Sterblichkeit: Schweiz 1979-1985.] Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1990. 102-7 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The influence of social class on birth weight and fetal and infant mortality is investigated using data on the 519,933 infants born in Switzerland from 1979 to 1985. The proportion of newborns weighing under 2,500 grams was higher in lower social classes, as was the case with the stillbirth rate and with neonatal and postneonatal mortality.
Correspondence: A. Bodenmann, Universitat Basel, Abteilung fur Sozial- und Praventivmedizin, St. Alban Vorstadt 19, CH-4052 Basel, Switzerland. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10121 Pecorari, D.; Diani, F.; Tanganelli, E. Birth rate and perinatal mortality in Italy during the years 1964 through 1986. Journal of Foetal Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1989. 39-43 pp. Padua, Italy. In Eng.
"Between 1964 and 1986 the number of births in Italy declined from over one million per year to little more than half a million per year. The perinatal mortality rate declined from 37.3/1,000 to 12.8/1,000. Using the year 1964 as [the] reference year, the total number of babies who were saved from perinatal death by socio-economic and medical improvements during the 22 years between 1965 and 1986 can be calculated as 435,005."
Correspondence: D. Pecorari, Universita degli Studi, Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Policlinico Borgo Roma, 37134 Verona, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

57:10122 Alberman, Eva; Bergsjo, Per; Cole, Susan; Evans, Stephen; Hartford, Robert; Hoffman, Howard; McCarthy, Brian; Pashley, Judith; Hampton, Barbara. International collaborative effort (ICE) on birthweight; plurality; and perinatal and infant mortality. I: methods of data collection and analysis. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 68, No. 1, 1989. 5-10 pp. Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper describes the collection and analysis of data by a group of international collaborators (International Collaborative Effort on Perinatal and Infant Mortality) interested in comparative studies on birthweight distributions and reproductive outcome." The countries concerned include the United States, England and Wales, Denmark, West Germany, Israel, Japan, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. The data cover the period 1970-1985.
Correspondence: E. Alberman, London Hospital Medical College, Department of Epidemiology, London E1 2AD, England. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10123 Andes, Nancy. Socioeconomic, medical care, and public health contexts affecting infant mortality: a study of community-level differentials in Peru. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 30, No. 4, Dec 1989. 386-97 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Socioeconomic, medical care, and public health contexts are examined in Peruvian communities for their relationship to infant mortality. A deviant case analysis is used to uncover characteristics important in the social structure of Peruvian communities. Results from fieldwork in two 'deviant' communities suggest that economic diversity, income disparity, social class fluidity, and women's autonomy, along with refined measures of medical care and public health resources, are important in understanding differentials in mortality. Attention is drawn to the community context and to the interplay of socioeconomic determinants affecting infant mortality."
Correspondence: N. Andes, University of Connecticut, Department of Sociology, Storrs, CT 06269-2068. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10124 Bicego, George T.; Boerma, J. Ties. Maternal education, use of health services, and child survival: an analysis of data from the Bolivia DHS survey. DHS Working Paper, No. 1, Dec 1990. 29 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Reasons why increased maternal education leads to lower infant and child mortality are explored, with particular reference to the use of child health services. The data are from the 1989 Demographic Health Survey of Bolivia. The results indicate that the children of more highly educated mothers are at a decided advantage in terms of survival prospects in rural areas due to a variety of education-conditioned health behaviors and feeding practices. However, in urban areas, access to modern health services may help to explain education-related differences in mortality levels.
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10125 Bulut, Aysen; Gokcay, Gulbin; Neyzi, Olcay; Shorter, Frederic. Mortality in the 0-4 year age group in Istanbul city. [Istanbul'da bebek ve cocuk olumleri.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 12, 1990. 5-18 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"The study was planned to estimate, through analysis of forms used as burial permits in Istanbul city [Turkey], the numbers, the sex and the place of death in the under five age group and also to establish the reliability of this data source. 1987 records of deaths for all ages and 1988 records for the under five age group were analyzed by systematic sampling. The results, validated by information obtained in 50 home visits, showed that cemetery records were a reliable data source and contained information not available in the State Institute of Statistics (SIS) forms. The data revealed that 20.7% of all deaths in Istanbul city were under-five deaths."
Correspondence: A. Bulut, Istanbul Universitesi, Cocuk Sagligi Enstitusu, Beyazit, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10126 Choe, Minja Kim; Razzaque, Abdur. Effect on famine on child survival in Matlab, Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1990. 53-72 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper examines how the level of child mortality and rate of out-migration, and their covariates were affected during the 1974 famine and the periods immediately following the famine in Bangladesh." The authors examine several variables affecting mortality and out-migration, including socioeconomic status, sex factors, age factors, educational status, and religion. Data are from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System.
Correspondence: M. K. Choe, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10127 Das Gupta, Monica. Death clustering, mothers' education and the determinants of child mortality in rural Punjab, India. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3, Nov 1990. 489-505 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the behavioural factors which make for continuing high levels of child mortality in rural Punjab, despite favourable conditions in terms of nutrition, income, women's literacy and health care facilities are examined. A major factor is that inadequate attention has been paid to improved health care practices within the home. Women's autonomy, social class, and mothers' education significantly influence child survival. One of the pathways by which mothers' education affects child survival is through improved child care....The majority of child deaths are clustered amongst a small proportion of the families. The death-clustering variable remained significant even after several possible biological and socio-economic reasons for clustering had been controlled. It is argued that this clustering of deaths is partly due to the poor basic abilities of some mothers and other carers."
Correspondence: M. Das Gupta, Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10128 DeWitt, Dana C. Social indicators and infant mortality: a regional study of South Dakota, North Dakota, and Montana, 1980. Pub. Order No. DA9007440. 1989. 198 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research was an investigation of the relationship of selected social indicators to variations in the rates of infant mortality in the region comprising the states of South Dakota, North Dakota, and Montana. In addition to regional and state considerations special attention was given to variations in infant mortality rates with respect to the racial compositions of counties within the area under examination. Quality-of-life factors also were examined in the research....Counties with high proportions of Indians were found to have higher rates of infant mortality. Moveover, it was found that the greater the racial heterogeneity of a state's population the more statistically significant the association between individual measures of quality-of-life and the infant mortality rate."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at South Dakota State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(10).

57:10129 Eltigani, Eltigani E. The socioeconomic aspects of child health in Gezira, Sudan. Pub. Order No. DA8923676. 1989. 246 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study attempted to estimate the level, pattern, and differences in childhood mortality levels in Gezira. Estimates derived from maternal histories data showed that there is a decline in childhood mortality levels in Gezira in recent years. The decline is larger for males than for females, particularly between the ages of one and four years....Differences in childhood mortality levels...are attributed to differences in household location, parental education, mother's economic activity, household head occupation, and the ethnic origin of the parents. There are also mortality differences that are due to mother's age at childbirth, length of birth intervals and birth order of the child."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(7).

57:10130 Ford, Rodney P. K.; Pearce, Geof. Infant mortality in New Zealand: an analysis of the causes of death and the relative importance of cot death (sudden infant death syndrome). New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Nov 1990. 4-33 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The authors analyze the causes of New Zealand's relatively high infant mortality rate using official data for the past 40 years. The focus is on social inequalities and on differences in rates among the Maori and non-Maori populations. Comparisons are made with rates for selected other countries. The results indicate that the country's high postneonatal mortality is due to the high and increasing incidence of suspected cot death (sudden infant death syndrome).
Correspondence: R. P. K. Ford, Primary Health Division, PO Box 1475, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10131 Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo; Herrera Leon, Lorenzo. Social development and infant mortality, 1977-1986, Cuba: a regional analysis. [Desarrollo social y mortalidad infantil, 1977-1986, Cuba: un analisis regional.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 24, No. 3, Jun 1990. 186-95 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Por.
The authors first note that the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Cuba dropped 65 percent between 1970 and 1986. "This paper seeks to identify by multiple regression techniques, those sociodemographic or health care factors which have determined the decline in the IMR and those variables which best explain the inter-regional differences in this indicator. Sociodemographic factors fundamentally explain the evolution of the IMR in Cuba; on the other hand, although in the first instance the proportion of live births of low weight and the crude birth rate explain the inter-regional differences in IMR levels every year, it can be seen that other socioeconomic variables really lie behind these differences."
Correspondence: G. Gonzalez Perez, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Calle 23 Esq. N, 4to Piso. Vedado, CP 10400, Havana, Cuba. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10132 Grasland, Claude. Political systems and the decline of infant mortality in Europe. [Systemes politiques et declin de la mortalite infantile en Europe.] Revue Belge de Geographie, Vol. 113, No. 2, 1989. 59-80 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
The author analyzes differentials in infant mortality trends among the countries of Europe. In addition to the well-known lag in the rate of infant mortality decline in Eastern and Mediterranean European countries, he notes a general difference between communist and capitalist countries. In communist countries as a whole, infant mortality declined rapidly following World War II but has remained steady since the 1960s. The author speculates whether the absence of further declines is associated with the development of pro-natalist policies in many communist countries over the past 20 years. The reasons for the demographic differences between Eastern and Western Europe are considered.
Correspondence: C. Grasland, Universite de Paris I, Equipe P.A.R.I.S., 12 Place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: New York Public Library.

57:10133 Hammerslough, Charles. A survey on infant and child mortality in the Sine Saloum region of Senegal: the impact of environmental factors. [Une enquete sur la mortalite infantile en juvenile au Sine Saloum (Senegal): le poids des facteurs d'environnement.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 652-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a brief review of the results of a 1982-1983 survey on infant and child mortality in Sine Saloum, Senegal. The results suggest that environmental factors such as water supply influence mortality to a greater extent than do individual factors such as mother's education.
Correspondence: C. Hammerslough, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10134 Huffman, Sandra L.; Combest, Cheryl. Role of breast-feeding in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1990. 68-81 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
A review of the published literature is used to emphasize the beneficial effects of breast-feeding on morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in infants. In particular, the authors note that "even among women in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent, breast-milk alone can support adequate child growth for the first several months of life." The importance of modifying diarrheal disease control programs to ensure a continuation of breast-feeding during treatment is also noted.
Correspondence: S. L. Huffman, Center to Prevent Childhood Malnutrition, Suite 204, 7200 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10135 Kleinman, Joel C.; Fowler, Mary G.; Kessel, Samuel S. Comparison of infant mortality among twins and singletons: United States 1960 and 1983. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 133, No. 2, Jan 15, 1991. 133-43 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Infant mortality among U.S. black and white twins and singletons was compared for 1960 and 1983 using the Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Sets from the National Center for Health Statistics. Both twin and singleton infant mortality rates showed impressive declines since 1960 but almost all of the improvement in survival for both twins and singletons was related to increased birth weight-specific survival rather than improved birth weight distribution."
Correspondence: J. C. Kleinman, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Analysis, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 1080, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:10136 Ksenofontova, N. Yu. Some trends in infant mortality during the past decade. [Nekotorye tendentsii mladencheskoi smertnosti v poslednee desyatiletie.] In: Demograficheskie protsessy v SSSR, edited by A. G. Volkov. 1990. 116-34, 210-1 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author outlines recent trends in infant mortality in the USSR, with a focus on probability of death and on regional differences in fertility among the various Union republics. "An attempt is made to estimate the completeness and quality of statistical information. The possible prospects for infant mortality decline are presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10137 Kytir, Josef. Regional differences in infant mortality in Austria. [Regionale unterschiede der Sauglingssterblichkeit in Osterreich.] Mitteilungen der Osterreichischen Geographischen Gesellschaft, No. 131, 1989. 47-76 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The study analyses regional differences of infant mortality in Austria. Data from all 99 political districts between 1950 and 1987 were subject of the investigation. In the 1950s infant mortality rates were generally lower in alpine than in non-alpine regions. This pattern which existed already in the 19th century was solely determined by differences in postneonatal mortality rates. One plausible explanation for these regional differences is different exposure of the newly born to infection. This traditional pattern of infant mortality slowly disappeared in the 1960s. Today, due to the statistical problem of small numbers, regional analysis of mortality differences becomes almost meaningless. The health policy implications of this are discussed."
Correspondence: J. Kytir, Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fur Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstrasse 2B, A-1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

57:10138 Lindtjorn, Bernt. Famine in southern Ethiopia 1985-6: population structure, nutritional state, and incidence of death among children. British Medical Journal, Vol. 301, No. 6761, Nov 17, 1990. 1,123-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The impact of drought on children in southern Ethiopia is assessed using data obtained during famine relief work in 1985 and 1986. The results indicate that "the most severe consequences of the widespread famine that occurred in Arero and Borana provinces of southern Ethiopia during 1985-6 were seen among children living in relief shelters. Early food intervention may decrease the scale of migration and thus also reduce the severe consequences of a famine."
Correspondence: B. Lindtjorn, University of Bergen, Centre of International Health, 5021 Bergen, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:10139 Makannah, Toma J. 9 determinants of infant mortality in Sierra Leone: a district-level analysis. In: Sierra Leone studies at Birmingham 1988: proceedings of the Fifth Birmingham Sierra Leone Studies Symposium, 15th-17th July 1988, Fircroft College, Birmingham, edited by Adam Jones, Peter K. Mitchell, and Margaret Peil. ISBN 0-7044-1080-X. 1990. 78-84 pp. University of Birmingham, Centre of West African Studies: Birmingham, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the determinants of the high infant mortality rate in Sierra Leone by analyzing the impact of socioeconomic factors, female educational status, the availability of health facilities, and medical technology and by developing a model to assess the impact of biological dimensions. Data are from projections to 1985 of 1974 census data.
Correspondence: University of Birmingham, Centre of West African Studies, Publications Officer, P.O. Box 363, Birmingham B15 2TT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10140 Mitchell, E. A. International trends in postneonatal mortality. Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol. 65, No. 6, 1990. 607-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Trends in mortality in the age groups 1-5 and 6-11 months from 1966 to 1987 for Australia, Canada, England and Wales, New Zealand, and Sweden were examined. Mortality rates for ages 1-5 months differed appreciably between countries, with Sweden lower than all other countries examined. Rates have decreased in Australia, Canada, and England and Wales, but increased in New Zealand and Sweden." Particular attention is given to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Correspondence: A. E. Mitchell, University of Auckland, School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10141 Pamuk, Elsie R. Social class inequality in infant mortality in England and Wales: 1921 through 1984. Pub. Order No. DA8922580. 1989. 359 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This analysis examines the trend in social inequality in infant mortality in England and Wales between 1921 and 1980-84, using data on infant mortality according to the social class and occupation of the father....Occupations that played a significant role in determining the time trend in inequality are identified, and the results are used to evaluate the trends in social class inequality in neonatal and postneonatal mortality and in five cause of death categories. In addition, mortality among unclassified and out-of-wedlock infants, groups usually excluded from analyses by social class, is examined."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(7).

57:10142 Paul, Bimal K. Health service resources as determinants of infant death in rural Bangladesh: an empirical study. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1991. 43-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using empirical data collected from a rural area of Bangladesh, this paper examines the relative importance of availability of health care resources on infant death. Following many health care studies, this paper hypothesizes that the likelihood of infant death is a function of accessibility to different types of health facilities and personnel. Both univariate and multivariate analyses of data indicate that the distance to a qualified physician of Western medicine exerts significant influence on infant deaths."
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10143 Potts, Malcolm; Thapa, Shyam. Child survival: the role of family planning. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1990. 12-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the role of family planning and contraceptive use in child survival in developing countries. Factors considered include high-risk births, infant mortality, breast-feeding, and declining family size desires.
Correspondence: M. Potts, Family Health International, 1 Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10144 Rosetta, Lyliane; O'Quigley, John. Mortality among Serere children in Senegal. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1990. 719-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Seasonal variation in nutritional status and child survival was studied in a representative sample of 40 Serere households in a rural area in Senegal. Hazard models...were used to investigate risk factors associated with child mortality....Not surprisingly the most important risk factor was the child's nutritional status, as reflected in the BMI [body mass index]....We investigated other risk factors and their relation to child survival. Of these, birth rank and mother's age were seen to be associated with survival and all the more so in the presence of an unfavourably evolving BMI."
Correspondence: L. Rosetta, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 26 rue Boyer, F-75971 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10145 Sandiford, Peter; Morales, Patricia; Gorter, Anna; Coyle, Edward; Smith, George D. Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan experience. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 1, Jan 1991. 30-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor."
Correspondence: P. Sandiford, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10146 Siddhisena, Kone A. P. Family composition and infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka. Pub. Order No. DA9001710. 1989. 274 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the effect of family composition on infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka using logit and proportional hazard models. The sex composition of the surviving siblings and the time to nearest siblings alive are hypothesized to be a significant factor, ceteris paribus, in child survival. The study uses data from the 1975 Sri Lanka World Fertility Survey."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(8).

57:10147 Singh, Harmeet K. D. Stork reality: why America's infants are dying. Policy Review, No. 52, Spring 1990. 56-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The reasons for the high rate of infant mortality recorded in the United States are examined. The author suggests that improvements in medical care, including the simplification of federal program bureaucracy, better services in rural areas, and increases in eligibility for medical insurance, can help further reduce infant mortality, but that the main "barrier to prenatal care has to do with the behavior and motivation of mothers themselves....A free society cannot force a woman to obtain prenatal care, nor can it constantly look over her shoulder to ensure that she doesn't smoke, take drugs, or otherwise damage herself and her child. Neither can the government, by itself, prevent out-of-wedlock births, stop young girls from having babies, or construct the supportive family setting necessary not only to the infant's survival of birth but also his survival of childhood and adolescence."
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

57:10148 Singhi, Sunit; Kumar, R.; Raina, N.; Kumar, V. Determinants of infant and child mortality in rural Haryana. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 56, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 753-63 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"To identify the individual and household level variables associated with increased risk of mortality, 159 infant and 50 child deaths (cases) and [an] equal number of age matched live infants and children (controls) and their families were studied in a rural area of Haryana [India]....Increased risk of infant and child mortality was associated with maternal age less than 20 and more than 30 years, birth order 4th or higher, unclean cord care at the time of child birth, failure of breast feeding during the first 3 months of age, lack of immunizations, and previous infant or child death(s) in the family...."
Correspondence: S. Singhi, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Pediatrics, Chandigarh 160 012, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10149 Sufian, Abu J. M. A multivariate analysis of infant mortality in developing countries. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 12, 1990. 19-30 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"In this paper, socioeconomic and health services related determinants of infant mortality have been examined on the basis of national data for 49 developing countries. The data came from the 'Family Planning and Child Survival: 100 Developing Countries' compiled by the Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, and from the 1989 World Population Data Sheet prepared by the Population Reference Bureau....[Eleven variables are considered.] Among these, only female literacy rate which has the largest contribution in lowering the infant mortality, and percent of population with access to safe water supply are significantly associated with infant mortality rate. Policy implications are discussed."
Correspondence: A. J. M. Sufian, King Faisal University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, POB 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10150 Tran, Thi Lan Huong. Infant mortality by causes of death in the Philippines (1976-1985). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 965-99 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper aims: (a) to assess the deficiencies in infant death registration in the Philippines during the period 1976-1985 by evaluating the following: 1) level of completeness 2) deficiencies by sex 3) deficiencies by age and 4) deficiencies in the causes of death data, (b) to investigate the levels, trends and sex, age and cause of death patterns of infant mortality during 1976-1985, [and] (c) to examine the influence of cause-specific conditions on the age pattern of infant mortality of the country during the period 1976-1985."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10151 Tu, Ping. The effects of breast-feeding and birth spacing on child survival. Pub. Order No. DA9006542. 1989. 175 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The effects of breast-feeding and birth spacing on child survival in Shaanxi Province and Shanghai Municipality, China, are examined. Other aspects considered include supplementary feeding, father's and mother's educational status, and socioeconomic factors. Differences in child mortality rates between the areas are discussed.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(10).

57:10152 Ubomba-Jaswa, Peter. Ethnic causal differentials in early childhood mortality in Kenya. Pub. Order No. DA8914543. 1989. 337 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study highlights the importance of ethnicity both as a factor in explaining the wide variations in mortality that exist among population groups in Kenya and as an avenue through which the investigation of the processes by which other factors influencing mortality can be carried out. The study has been guided by the proposition that the effects of socioeconomic, bio-demographic, and cultural factors vary by ethnic groups....The study explores and compares the effects, on infant and child mortality, of fourteen covariates of mortality within Kikuyu and Luo ethnic groups." Factors considered include birth intervals, parents' educational status, breast-feeding, and number of marital unions.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(10).

57:10153 United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean [ECLAC] (Santiago, Chile); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile); United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Social factors of risk of infant death: the cases of Costa Rica, Honduras, and Paraguay. [Factores sociales de riesgo de muerte en la infancia: los casos Costa Rica, Honduras y Paraguay.] CELADE Serie OI, No. 41, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM.G.88. Oct 1990. 116 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This investigation is part of a larger study on trends in geographic and socioeconomic differences in infant and child mortality in developing countries. The present volume, which focuses on Costa Rica, Honduras, and Paraguay, is concerned with examining how risks of death among infants are associated with various social and economic characteristics and the effects of these factors on mortality in the first years of life. Infant mortality is analyzed using information on the total number of children born alive and child survivals and deaths according to recent censuses and surveys. Introductory chapters are provided on the frame of reference for the analysis and a detailed description of the methodology used in the case studies. Factors considered include paternal occupation, maternal economic activity, parental education, urban or rural residence, ethnicity and quality of life.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10154 Vijayarghavan, K.; Radhaiah, G.; Prakasam, B. Surya; Sarma, K. V. Rameshwar; Reddy, Vinodini. Effect of massive dose vitamin A on morbidity and mortality in Indian children. Lancet, Vol. 336, No. 8727, Dec 1, 1990. 1,342-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"The effect of vitamin A supplementation on preschool child morbidity and mortality was assessed in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study around Hyderabad, India. Every six months 200,000 IU vitamin A was given to 7,691 children (treatment group) whereas 8,084 children received a placebo (control group). Morbidity and mortality data were collected every three months....Vitamin A supplementation had no effect on morbidity status. Mortality rates were similar in the two groups; it was highest in children who did not receive either vitamin A or placebo. The findings suggest that vitamin A supplementation alone may not reduce child mortality."
Correspondence: K. Vijayaraghavan, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad 500 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:10155 Wood, Charles H.; Lovell, Peggy A. Indirect measures of child mortality: overview and application to Brazil, 1980. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, Nov 1990. 247-67 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Indirect estimation techniques are applied to 1980 Brazilian census data on child mortality. "The results for metropolitan areas show that children in affluent households have an average expectation of life that is around ten years higher compared to the children of the poor. Multivariate analysis using the mortality ratio proposed by Trussell and Preston found that mother's education was the most important determinant of child mortality, followed by the effects of running water in the house, father's schooling, membership in the social security system and region of the country." Detailed examples of the computational steps involved in the various techniques employed are given.
Correspondence: C. H. Wood, University of Florida, Department of Sociology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

57:10156 Kannisto, Vaino. Mortality of the elderly in late 19th and early 20th century Finland. Tutkimuksia/Undersokningar/Studies, No. 175, Aug 1990. 49 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
Trends in mortality among the elderly in Finland from 1880 to 1930 are analyzed using data from the Central Statistical Office. "Close attention has been paid...to regional mortality differentials which have been followed from 1878 to 1915 and partly up to 1935, and roughly estimated for the 1853-1878 period." Age-adjusted death rates by sex are included, and the problem of premature mortality of men is discussed.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10157 Nelson, Joyce I. A matter of life and death: recent death rates among the South Dakotan elderly. Garland Studies in Historical Demography, ISBN 0-8240-3361-2. LC 89-35580. 1989. 206 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This study investigated age- and sex-specific death rates in South Dakota Counties [United States] among the population 65 and over in 1960, 1970 and 1980. Census Bureau and Vital Statistics data were employed to answer the basic question of how death rates and quality of life factors were related. Quality of life factors included: economics, urbanization, health technology, and education, which were operationalized at the county level. A description of county quality of life factors and age- and sex-specific death rates for males and females was presented. County death rates for the older population were regressed with county quality of life factors for each of the study years. A relationship between quality of life factors and death rates was found to exist in fifteen of the thirty-three death rates examined."
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, Inc., 136 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10158 Olausson, Petra O. Mortality among the elderly in Sweden by social class. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1991. 437-40 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Class differentials in mortality among elderly Swedish men and women are analyzed over the period 1961-1979 using data from the 1960 census. "The study indicates that there are evident social class differences in mortality among people aged 65-83 years. We found increasing class differences with increased age among women, but decreasing class differences with increased age among men."
Correspondence: P. O. Olausson, Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, Box 60208, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10159 Riggs, Jack E. Longitudinal Gompertzian analysis of adult mortality in the U.S., 1900-1986. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 54, No. 3, Jun 1990. 235-47 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"An analysis of mortality data for the United States from 1900 through 1986 demonstrates near perfect Gompertzian mortality rate distributions for adult American men and women....Despite living in the same environment, the environmental factor contributing to adult mortality is at present significantly less for women than men. However, analysis predicts that in an environment less conducive to human survival than has existed in the United States during this century, the environmental factor contributing to adult mortality was less for men than women. The study further implies that as the environment becomes more favorable for human survival, men will experience an effective lowering of the theoretical maximal life span toward a limit of 87.4 years."
Correspondence: J. E. Riggs, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology and Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10160 Rogers, Richard G. Living and dying in the USA: sociodemographic determinants of death. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-90-8, Sep 1990. 28, [5] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"This paper endeavors to illuminate the social factors associated with length of life. It employs the 1985 and 1986 National Health Interview and the 1986 National Mortality Followback Surveys to examine, through logistic regression, the covariates of mortality among the U.S. adult population. Using a Weberian lifestyle perspective, the paper demonstrates that demographic, familial, socioeconomic, health, and geographic factors influence mortality. Age is one of the strongest predictors of mortality, but other sociodemographic variables are also important. In controlling for socioeconomic status, sex differences in mortality remained, but race differences disappeared. Of particular note is the finding that mortality is associated not solely with marital status but with the conjunction of marital and family status."
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10161 Sivamurthy, M. A survey methodology for estimating adult mortality for a specific time period. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 75-89 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to present the details of a method for estimating adult mortality for the period of five years prior to an enumeration date, from the data on the survival of parents....For illustration the method is applied to estimate adult mortality for the period 1972-77 from the data collected in the Shibpur (Bangladesh) survey."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

57:10162 Spain. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica [INE] (Madrid, Spain). Life tables for the Spanish population by autonomous communities, 1970-1975-1980. [Tablas de mortalidad de la poblacion espanola por comunidades autonomas, anos 1970-1975-1980.] ISBN 84-260-1860-2. 1988. 193 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Abbreviated life tables are presented for the autonomous communities of Spain by sex for the years 1970, 1975, and 1980. The methodology used to prepare the tables is described.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Paseo de la Castellana 183, Madrid 16, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

57:10163 Andersen, Otto. Occupational impacts on mortality declines in the Nordic countries. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 41-54 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter is based on a comparative study analyzing differences in mortality among occupational groups in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. In this context the major interest is to estimate the potential for a reduction in overall mortality by decreasing mortality of the high-risk groups to the level of the lowest-risk group--namely, teachers. Differences in occupational mortality can be explained in a number of ways. The differences can be attributed to the different working conditions, but another important factor may be different life-style practiced by persons in different occupations."
Correspondence: O. Andersen, Danish Central Bureau of Statistics, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10164 Biryukov, V. A. Mortality trends and characteristics in urban areas of the USSR. [Evolyutsiya i osobennosti smertnosti naseleniya v gorodakh SSSR.] In: Demograficheskie protsessy v SSSR, edited by A. G. Volkov. 1990. 135-50, 211 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The [concept] of [the] historically changing relationship between positive and negative effects of urbanization on mortality is presented. [A] series of mortality tables by causes of death for 139 Soviet cities, for groups of cities of different sizes and for two groups of cities with...extreme mortality characteristics are analyzed." Aspects considered include changes in life expectancy in large cities and differences between mortality trends in large and small cities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10165 Contu, P.; Minerba, L. Geographical analysis of mortality in Sardinia: an ecological study. Note 2: general mortality. [Analisi geografica della mortalita in Sardegna: studio ecologico. Nota 2: mortalita generale.] Rassegna Medica Sarda, Vol. 92, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1989. 131-6 pp. Cagliari, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality differentials in Sardinia, Italy, are analyzed by region, age, and sex. Data are presented on age-standardized death rates and life expectancy. The relationship between mortality and socioeconomic factors is also considered.
Correspondence: P. Contu, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, Istituto Igiene Medicina Preventiva, via Universitaria 40, 09100 Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10166 Cortes-Majo, Margarita; Garcia-Gil, Carmen; Viciana, Francisco. The role of the social condition of women in the decline of maternal and female mortality. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1990. 315-28 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this article is to study the changes that have occurred in the mortality pattern of women of fertile age in Spain throughout the 20th century, the significance of maternal mortality in the development of this pattern, and the other causes of death that have contributed most to such changes....Using the mortality theory of competing risks as our basis, we excluded in turn maternal mortality and mortality due to tuberculosis from overall mortality and analyzed the transformations produced in the mortality pattern. Our results show that maternal mortality alone cannot be held responsible for the excess female mortality of the 1910s and 1920s, or for the mortality pattern among women of fertile age during the first half of this century. We suggest that the social discrimination against females from infancy has been responsible for most of the differences observed in mortality patterns."
Correspondence: M. Cortes-Majo, Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Ciencias Socio-Sanitarias, Avenida Sanchez Pizjuan s/n, 41009 Seville, Spain. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10167 Dobrovol'skaya, V. M. Ethnic differentials in mortality. [Etnicheskaya differentsiatsiya smertnosti.] In: Demograficheskie protsessy v SSSR, edited by A. G. Volkov. 1990. 150-66, 211 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Mortality of aboriginal nationalities of Union republics and Russians inhabiting these Republics is analyzed for 1926, 1970 and 1979. Dynamics and differentiation of life expectancy, child mortality and adult mortality by sex from the end of [the nineteenth] century till the end of the 70s are described. Some stable characteristics of ethnic mortality are also identified."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10168 Fox, A. J. Socio-economic differences in mortality and morbidity. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1990. 1-8 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author first reviews the adequacy of existing data sources for estimating mortality and morbidity differentials by socioeconomic status in England and Wales. A summary of the current situation is provided, based primarily on data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study. The need for the development of international compatibility of the data to encourage comparative studies is noted.
Correspondence: A. J. Fox, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10169 Harriss, Barbara. Differential female mortality and health behaviour in India. Ld'A-QEH Development Studies Working Paper, No. 12, Sep 1989. 60 pp. Queen Elizabeth House: Oxford, England; Centro Studi Luca d'Angliano: Turin, Italy. In Eng.
This essay takes an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the evidence concerning mortality differentials by sex in India in order to identify substantive policy, theoretical, and methodological issues that deserve further study. "The paper is organised into five sections. First, time trends in mortality and morbidity are described. Second, spatial patterns of mortality, morbidity and nutrition are compared and attempts to explain them are reviewed. Third, recent studies of small localities shed light on social and economic factors affecting, and affected by, gender bias. Fourth, we examine gender aspects of health behaviour and access to health facilities. Last we summarise the conclusions of this heterogeneous body of work for a research agenda for gender."
Correspondence: Queen Elizabeth House, 21 St. Giles, Oxford OX1 3LA, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10170 Hu, Yow-hwey; Lin, Yun-yun; Wu, Shiao-chi. Social factors and mortality in Taiwan: analysis of six causes of death in small areas. Journal of Population Studies, No. 13, Aug 1990. 83-106 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
Geographical differences in mortality by cause of death are examined for Taiwan. Socioeconomic, educational, and health factors are analyzed for their contributions to mortality variations in six specific causes of death throughout the country.
Correspondence: Y.-h. Hu, National Yang-Ming Medical College, Institute of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10171 Keeney, Ralph L. Mortality risks induced by economic expenditures. Risk Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 1, Mar 1990. 147-59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationship between income and mortality in the United States is examined. "A model is developed for estimating the number of fatalities possibly induced by economic expenditures. This model accounts for different allocations of the expenditures on family units with varying income levels. Illustrative calculations provide insights about the possible significance of fatalities induced by economic expenditures. These results suggest that some expensive regulations and programs intended to save lives may actually lead to increased fatalities. Important caveats to reduce the likelihood of misinterpreting or misusing the results are included."
Correspondence: R. L. Keeney, 101 Lombard Street, Suite 704W, San Francisco, CA 94111. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10172 Kraus, Jaroslav. Abbreviated life tables for Czechoslovak districts, 1981-1985. [Zkracene umrtnostni tabulky za okresy CSFR 1981-1985.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1990. 308-23 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Regional differentials in mortality for Czechoslovakia are presented for the period 1981-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10173 Maurer, Jeffrey D.; Rosenberg, Harry M.; Keemer, Joan B. Deaths of Hispanic origin, 15 reporting states, 1979-81. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 18, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1855. ISBN 0-8406-0424-6. LC 89-600371. Dec 1990. iv, 73 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report describes the mortality of the Hispanic-origin population [of the United States] for a 15-State reporting area during the period 1979-81, by age, sex, and cause of death. This is the first such report from the national vital statistics system, based on information reported on the death certificate." Comparisons are made with the white and black population as a whole. The report also considers infant and maternal mortality.
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10174 Ostberg, Viveca; Vagero, Denny. Socio-economic differences in mortality among children. Do they persist into adulthood? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1991. 403-10 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Socioeconomic differences in mortality in Sweden are analyzed. The data concern more than 13,000 deaths occurring among the 1.2 million children born between 1946 and 1960 who were enumerated in the 1960 census and followed over the period 1961-1979. The question posed was whether socioeconomic mortality differences measured in childhood persist into adulthood. "Among children and adolescents there was a clear socio-economic group difference in mortality. Children in families of non-manual workers had a significantly lower mortality than children in the families of manual workers. In particular this was the case for boys. Socio-economic differences in total mortality are evident also in the age between 20 and 33 years among men but it could not be demonstrated here that these are a result of childhood socio-economic group rather than achieved socio-economic group. However, the study indicates that some differences in childhood, to a certain degree and for some diagnoses, may persist into adulthood."
Correspondence: V. Ostberg, University of Stockholm, Swedish Institute for Social Research, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10175 Rosenwaike, Ira; Hempstead, Katherine. Differential mortality by ethnicity and nativity: foreign- and native-born Irish, Italians, and Jews in New York City, 1979-1981. Social Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1990. 11-25 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper compares the mortality experience of foreign- and native-born Irish, Italians, and Jews in New York City in 1979-81....Major and lifestyle-related causes of death were examined, as were specific sites of cancer. While no consistent pattern [emerged] which related nativity or ethnicity to the relative distribution of mortality, it does appear that the intra-ethnic patterns of the Irish group were unique relative to those of the Italian and Jewish groups. Overall, this study suggests a number of interesting relationships between ethnicity, nativity, and the distribution of mortality by cause."
Correspondence: I. Rosenwaike, University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Social Work, 3701 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10176 Smith, George D.; Shipley, Martin J.; Rose, Geoffrey. Magnitude and causes of socioeconomic differentials in mortality: further evidence from the Whitehall Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 1990. 265-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim [of this study] was to explore the magnitude and causes of the differences in mortality rates according to socioeconomic position in a cohort of civil servants [in London, England]." Data were originally collected from 1967 and 1969 surveys and follow-ups carried out over a ten-year period.
Correspondence: G. D. Smith, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10177 Stefansson, Claes-Goran. Long-term unemployment and mortality in Sweden, 1980-1986. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1991. 419-23 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Mortality trends in a cohort of 28,846 long-term unemployed men and women in Sweden over the period 1980-1986 are analyzed. "Compared to a population of employed, the total mortality rate ratios (with 95% confidence limit) were 1.37 (1.22-1.53); for men 1.61 (1.42-1.84) and for women 1.14 (0.91-1.42). The young/middle-aged men had about four times higher relative mortality than all men. Suicide and alcohol-related deaths could not explain the excess mortality among these men." The possible effects on mortality of mental disturbances associated with the psychosocial stress of unemployment are considered.
Correspondence: C.-G. Stefansson, Psychosocial Research Unit, Ektorpsvagen 2, S-131 47 Nacka, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10178 Werner-Leonard, Andrea; Trovato, Frank. An analysis of native mortality in Canada. Population Research Laboratory Research Discussion Paper, No. 71, Nov 1990. 28 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"In 1986, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada published a series of reports...[containing] many cross-tabulations concerning the health and socioeconomic conditions of Canada's Natives....[In the present report, the data have been] reanalyzed to allow for a comparison of the Native and general Canadian population's mortality experience for 1980-1982, and to develop three hypotheses to explain the disparate mortality experience of the two populations: 1) the minority status hypothesis, 2) the modernization/disruption hypothesis, and 3) the subcultural hypothesis. It is suggested that in future research a multivariate statistical analysis should be employed to test the above three hypotheses to get beyond the purely descriptive analysis pursued here."
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

57:10179 Allen, Machelle H.; Chavkin, Wendy; Marinoff, Joani. Ascertainment of maternal deaths in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 81, No. 3, Mar 1991. 380-2 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Maternal deaths in New York City are defined as deaths from any cause in a woman while pregnant or within six months of pregnancy termination. Pilot studies seeking to improve maternal death ascertainment found that selected medical examiner reports contributed an additional 10.5 percent of the total maternal deaths, vital statistics review contributed 6.3 percent, linkage of death tapes of women of reproductive age to live birth and fetal death tapes contributed 1.0 percent....The results of these pilot studies suggest implementation of a system whereby the medical examiner, or hospital-based pathologist, notifies the maternal mortality surveillance team whenever evidence of a current or recent pregnancy is identified."
Correspondence: M. H. Allen, New York University, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10180 Andreev, E. M. Life expectancy and causes of death in the USSR. [Prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni i prichiny smerti v SSSR.] In: Demograficheskie protsessy v SSSR, edited by A. G. Volkov. 1990. 90-116, 210 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in life expectancy and causes of death in the USSR are analyzed. "The analysis is based on the theory of demographic transition in mortality and on mortality dynamics data by age and major causes of death classes. An attempt is made to characterize...region-specific mortality by causes of death. Among the most important negative features of the USSR population mortality nowadays are the retention of relatively high mortality...from exogenous diseases, high mortality...from accidents and chronic diseases at relatively young ages. Certain hypothesizes regarding the social causes of such a situation are presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10181 Beaglehole, Robert. International trends in coronary heart disease mortality, morbidity, and risk factors. Epidemiologic Reviews, Vol. 12, 1990. 1-15 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the recent international data on trends in coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity and risk factor levels and assesses the possible explanations for the changes in mortality rates. The implications of the trends and the associated investigations for the prevention and control of coronary heart disease and other noncommunicable diseases are discussed."
Correspondence: R. Beaglehole, University of Auckland, School of Medicine, Department of Community Health, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:10182 Becker, Charles M. The demo-economic impact of the AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, Vol. 18, No. 12, Dec 1990. 1,599-619 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the available data on the incidence and spread of AIDS and the associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa. Assessments of the impact of the spread of AIDS on African population growth and economic performance are then offered. The interactions with present economic and public health policy receive particular attention. The paper stresses continued emphasis on rural development and greater efforts to control other sexually transmitted diseases along with increased promotion of condoms as means of slowing the spread of AIDS."
Correspondence: C. M. Becker, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10183 Beer, Valerie; Schick, Manuel T.; Minder, Christoph E. Single versus multiple cause mortality analyses: a decision aid. [Sterblichkeitsanalyse: Wann ist die alleinige Auswertung von Grundtodesursachen zulassig, wann muss multikausal Ausgewertet werden?] Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1990. 17-23 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Data quality is often a critical point in mortality studies. The purpose of the present report is to present criteria for assessing the value of death-certificate-based mortality studies. For this purpose all 57,454 Swiss death certificates of the year 1979 were analysed. Reliability of the diagnosis listed on the death certificate was investigated by comparing for each case of a linked sample of 12,478 deaths the cause of death with medical information available from the hospital record....[The results] indicate a high reliability for cancers and accidents. Reliability was lower for other causes of death such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, rheumatic diseases."
Correspondence: V. Beer, Universitat Bern, Institut fur Sozial- und Praventivmedizin, Finkenhubelweg 11, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10184 Bhatia, Jagdish C. Light on maternal mortality in India. World Health Forum, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1990. 188-91 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a report on "a low-cost study of maternal mortality in southern India. Its main objectives were to estimate the number of maternal deaths in a whole community during one year, and to discover the causes, not only in clinical terms but also in terms of avoidable factors in the health services and in the socioeconomic, sociocultural and behavioural fields. The study was conducted in Anantapur District, an economically backward part of the state of Andhra Pradesh."
Correspondence: J. C. Bhatia, Indian Institute of Management, Population and Health Management, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore 560 076, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10185 Bonita, Ruth; Stewart, Alistair; Beaglehole, Robert. International trends in stroke mortality: 1970-1985. Stroke, Vol. 21, No. 7, Jul 1990. 989-92 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"We compared the pattern of cerebrovascular disease (stroke) mortality in men and women aged 40-69 years in 27 countries during 1970-1985 with the decline in coronary heart disease mortality during the same period. Stroke mortality rates declined in 21 and 25 countries for men and women, respectively. In 23 countries the decline in stroke mortality in women was greater than that in men. Countries with the highest rates of stroke mortality are also those with the least favorable secular trend. The rate of decline for stroke mortality is greater than that for coronary heart disease mortality in those countries that experienced a decline in both categories. International comparisons of risk factor levels over time are required to explain the striking differences between countries."
Correspondence: R. Bonita, North Shore Hospital, University Geriatric Unit, Takapuna, Auckland 9, New Zealand. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10186 Chu, Susan Y.; Buehler, James W.; Berkelman, Ruth L. Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic on mortality in women of reproductive age, United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 264, No. 2, Jul 11, 1990. 225-9 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors analyze the impact of HIV on mortality of U.S. women aged 15-44 using official data for the period 1980-1988. The data indicate that the death rate from HIV/AIDS for this group increased from 0.6 to 2.5 per 100,000 between 1985 and 1988 and that by 1987, HIV/AIDS had become one of the 10 leading causes of death. The death rate for black women was nine times that of the rate for white women. "If current mortality trends continue, HIV/AIDS can be expected to become one of the five leading causes of death by 1991 in women of reproductive age."
Correspondence: S. Y. Chu, Centers of Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of HIV/AIDS, Surveillance Branch, Mailstop G-29, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10187 Cooper, Richard; Sempos, Christopher; Hsieh, Shih-Chao; Kovar, Mary G. Slowdown in the decline of stroke mortality in the United States, 1978-1986. Stroke, Vol. 21, No. 9, Sep 1990. 1,274-9 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
"The gradual decline in stroke mortality rates observed in the United States since 1900 accelerated markedly around 1973 for whites and around 1968 for blacks. During the next decade stroke mortality rates decreased by almost 50% so that the United States now experiences one of the lowest stroke mortality rates in the world. Beginning in 1979, however, the annual rate of decline in stroke mortality began to slow considerably....This slowdown in the rate of decline in stroke mortality is occurring while mortality rates for both coronary heart disease and all causes are leveling off. The reasons for this change in the mortality trend remain unknown, and corresponding trends in the treatment and control of hypertension do not provide an entirely satisfactory explanation."
Correspondence: R. Cooper, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10188 Dagenais, Gilles R.; Ahmed, Zaidou; Robitaille, N. Michelle; Gingras, Suzanne; Lupien, Paul J.; Christen, Andree; Meyer, Francois; Rochon, Jean. Total and coronary heart disease mortality in relation to major risk factors: Quebec cardiovascular study. Canadian Journal of Cardiology/Journal Canadien de Cardiologie, Vol. 6, No. 2, Mar 1990. 59-65 pp. Mississauga, Canada. In Eng.
"The relationships of blood pressure, smoking, serum cholesterol and education levels on total and coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality were evaluated in 4,576 Quebec men aged 35 to 64 years, free from overt CAD at entry and followed for 12 years. From January 1974 to January 1986, there were 417 deaths, 131 due to CAD." The results indicate that "for these Quebec men, smoking is an important risk factor for both total and CAD mortality, while systolic and diastolic blood pressure elevation had a greater impact upon CAD than total mortality. A longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the role of cholesterol on CAD mortality in this population."
Correspondence: G. R. Dagenais, Quebec Heart Institute, 2725 Chemin Ste-Foy, Ste-Foy, Quebec G1V 4G5, Canada. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10189 De Muylder, X. Maternal mortality audit in a Zimbabwean province. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 247, No. 3, 1990. 131-8 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The results of a maternal mortality audit in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe are presented. "During the two-year study period, the maternal mortality rate was 137 per 100,000 total births. The main causes of death were uterine rupture, eclampsia, haemorrhage and caesarean section related accidents."
Correspondence: X. De Muylder, Clinique Generale Saint-Jean, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 114 rue du Marais, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10190 Dorfman, Sally F. Maternal mortality in New York City, 1981-1983. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 76, No. 3, Pt. 1, Sep 1990. 317-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes the 120 maternal deaths that occurred in New York City in the three-year period 1981-1983 by ethnic group, age, and cause of death. "Increasing age and parity were associated with greater maternal mortality ratios. The leading causes of pregnancy-associated mortality were found to be ectopic pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, anesthetic complications, amniotic fluid embolism, intercranial hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, infection, and cardiac disease. Abortion-related mortality was about nine times less than the maternal mortality ratio and the cesarean death-to-case rates could be considered roughly comparable to overall maternal mortality."
Correspondence: S. F. Dorfman, 124 Main Street, Goshen, NY 10924. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10191 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Kleinman, Joel C. International and interstate comparisons of homicide among young males. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 263, No. 24, Jun 27, 1990. 3,292-5 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The homicide rate for males 15 through 24 years of age in the United States was compared with the rates in 21 other developed countries. The U.S. homicide rate, 21.9 per 100,000, was more than four times higher than the next highest rate in Scotland (5.0). Most countries had rates that were between 1 and 3 per 100,000. The lowest rates were in Japan and Austria, each with rates below 0.6 per 100,000 males 15 through 24 years of age. Three quarters of the homicides in the United States resulted from the use of firearms contrasted with less than a quarter of all homicides in the comparison countries. The U.S. homicide rate for black males 15 through 24 years of age (85.6) was more than seven times the rate for white males (11.2)."
Correspondence: L. A. Fingerhut, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 1080, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10192 Fortney, Judith A. Implications of the ICD-10 definitions related to death in pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 43, No. 42, 1990. 246-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) will include two new definitions concerning death related to pregnancy....This article discusses the rationale underlying these definitions and their implications for public health statistics. The introduction of these definitions is a step...towards an increased acceptance of epidemiology in determining the relationships which affect death related to pregnancy."
Correspondence: J. A. Fortney, Family Research International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10193 Gartner, Rosemary; Parker, Robert N. Cross-national evidence on homicide and the age structure of the population. Social Forces, Vol. 69, No. 2, Dec 1990. 351-71 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"A relationship between trends in the age structure of the population and homicide rates has been systematically observed only in the United States since World War II. This study analyzes data from five nations over 70 years to examine the generalizability of this relationship. Using two time-series techniques, we find that changes in the proportion of young males in a population do not exert consistent effects on homicide rates. There is no evidence of an age effect in Scotland and Japan, and strong evidence of a postwar age effect only in the United States and Italy. Based on similarities in the character of homicide in the United States and Italy, we suggest a set of conditions under which an age effect is most likely to obtain....[The study is based on data for] Japan (1901-1970), Italy (1901-1971), England and Wales (1901-1971), Scotland (1901-1971), and the United States (1907-1971)."
Correspondence: R. Gartner, University of Toronto, Faculty of Law, 78 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10194 Goldbourt, Uri; Yaari, Shlomit. Cholesterol and coronary heart disease mortality: a 23-year follow-up study of 9,902 men in Israel. Arteriosclerosis, Vol. 10, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1990. 512-9 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
Results of a 23-year follow-up study of some 10,000 40- to 50-year-old males included in the Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease Study are presented. They show that of the 3,473 deaths recorded, 1,098 (34.5 percent) were primarily caused by coronary heart disease. Particular attention was paid in the study to cholesterol levels and their relationship to heart disease mortality.
Correspondence: V. Goldbourt, Sheba Medical Center, Heart Institute, Tel-Hashomer 52621, Israel. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10195 Golding, Jean; Ashley, Deanna; McCaw-Binns, Affette; Keeling, Jean W.; Shenton, Terry. Maternal mortality in Jamaica: socioeconomic factors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 68, No. 7, 1989. 581-7 pp. Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
"Socioeconomic factors relating to all maternal deaths identified during the 12 months of the Jamaican Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey were compared with a control population of over 10,000 women. The maternal mortality rate was 11.5 per 10,000 livebirths. Initial analysis revealed (a) that the risk of maternal death declined with increasing maternal education level, (b) that mothers who lived in households with direct pumped water and/or flush toilets enjoyed a reduced risk; (c) mothers who were themselves the major wage earner and (d) those living in households where the major wage earner and source of income was an agricultural worker or farmer were at increased risk of maternal death."
Correspondence: D. Ashley, Ministry of Health, 10 Caledonia Avenue, Kingston, Jamaica. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10196 Hansluwka, Harald. Some recent developments in cancer epidemiology. Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 30, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1990. 465-85 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author reviews recent trends in global cancer epidemiology. Topics covered include the geographical pathology of cancer, its socioeconomic pathology, and potentials and limitations of cancer epidemiology. Data are included on differences in cancer mortality among countries.
Correspondence: H. Hansluwka, Institute for Epidemiology of Neoplasms, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10197 Heilig, Gerhard. The possible impact of AIDS on future mortality. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 71-95 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter summarizes the available information concerning the impact of AIDS-related deaths on mortality trends [worldwide]....After discussing basic characteristics of the HIV infection, the chapter reviews studies that analyze the impact of AIDS on mortality. It documents the increases in premature mortality attributable to this disease in high prevalence areas, such as New York, San Francisco, and East Africa. Finally, it is argued that the further spread of HIV infection in Africa south of the Sahara and the Caribbean will result in a substantial decrease in overall life expectancy within these regions."
Correspondence: G. Heilig, International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10198 Hughes, K. Mortality from cardiovascular disease in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore, in comparison with England and Wales, USA and Japan. Annals: Academy of Medicine, Singapore, Vol. 18, No. 6, Nov 1989. 642-5 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"Age-standardised death rates, for ages 35-64 years in both sexes, from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertensive disease for Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore (1980-84) have been compared with those in England and Wales, USA and Japan (1982)." The differences identified are discussed in the context of the declining trends in mortality from these diseases in Singapore over the past 25 years.
Correspondence: K. Hughes, National University Hospital, Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10199 Jarjoura, David; Logue, Everett. Variation in heart disease mortality across census tracts as a function of overdispersion and social class mixture. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 10, Oct 1990. 1,199-209 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Variation in heart disease (HD) mortality rates across [U.S.] census tracts is greater than expected given binomial error and available explanatory variables. We extended an extra-binomial variation model for rates standardized by the direct method. The overdispersion parameter accounted for 36 per cent of the observed variation in standardized rates. Ignoring overdispersion resulted in a change in an estimate of the effect of social class on HD mortality and substantial underestimation of the error of the estimates of such effects. Ecologic regression on the proportional mixture of social classes within tracts provided an appealing approach to the problem of estimating fixed effects with aggregated data."
Correspondence: D. Jarjoura, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Community Health Sciences, Rootstown, OH 44272. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10200 Katsouyanni K.; Karakatsani, A.; Messari, I.; Touloumi, G.; Hatzakis, A.; Kalandidi, A.; Trichopoulos, D. Air pollution and cause specific mortality in Athens. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 1990. 321-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We report here the results of a study undertaken to investigate the association between air pollution and cause specific mortality for all ages as well as for specific age groups [in Athens, Greece]." Data are from death certificates for the years 1975-1982.
Correspondence: K. Katsouyanni, University of Athens, Medical School, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Goudi, 115 27 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10201 Kruger, Oystein; Nymoen, Erik H. Mortality from ischemic heart disease among males aged 30-69 in Norwegian counties, 1966-1987. [Dodelighet av hjerteinfarkt blant menn 30-69 ar i morske fylker 1966-87.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 110, No. 16, Jun 20, 1990. 2,051-7 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in mortality from ischemic heart disease among males aged 30-69 in all 19 Norwegian counties are analyzed for the period 1966-1987. The authors note that mortality from this cause declined by 15 percent over the period studied. Reasons for the observed regional differences are considered.
For a related study by E. H. Nymoen and O. Kruger, also published in 1990, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: O. Kruger, Universitetet i Trondheim, Institutt for Samfunnsmedisinske fag, Eirik Jarls gate 10, 7030 Trondheim, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10202 La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Decarli, Adriano; Fasoli, Monica; Cislaghi, Cesare. Cancer mortality in Italy: an overview of age-specific and age-standardized trends from 1955-1984. Tumori, Vol. 76, No. 2, Apr 30, 1990. 87-166 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"Number of certified deaths, age-specific and age-standardised rates and percentages of all cancer deaths from 30 cancers or groups of cancers (plus total cancer mortality) for each five-year calendar period between 1955 and 1984 in Italy are presented in tabular form. From these data, three graphs are derived, including trends in age-standardised rates, age-specific rates centered on birth cohorts and maps plotted in different shades of grey to represent the surfaces defined by the matrix of various age-specific rates." The results show an increase in overall cancer mortality among males, primarily related to smoking, but a decline in cancer mortality rates in all ages below 40 in males and below 55 in females, which provides encouraging indicators of further improvements.
Correspondence: C. La Vecchia, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Marco Negri, Via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10203 Laureano, Evelyn. Consistency of cancer sites recorded at the cancer registry and on death certificates in Puerto Rico. Pub. Order No. DA8919997. 1989. 170 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"To evaluate the consistency of cancer mortality data in Puerto Rico, the underlying causes of death coded on 4,351 death certificates of 1980 and 1982 were compared with the primary site diagnoses listed on the corresponding clinical records filed with the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry. Comparing the diagnoses recorded by the two data systems permitted an evaluation of the sources of variation affecting consistency, such as the patient's demographic characteristics, basis of diagnosis, informant of death, region of death and the type of doctor who certified the death."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Fordham University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10204 Lee, Jeannette Y.; Soong, Seng-Jaw. Cancer mortality in the South, 1950 to 1980. Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 83, No. 2, Feb 1990. 185-90 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
"The overall cancer mortality for white and nonwhite [U.S.] men rose twice as rapidly in the South as in the rest of the nation, largely influenced by the rapid growth in lung cancer mortality among southern men in both race groups, and by the significant increase in prostate cancer mortality among southern, nonwhite men. Although the overall cancer mortality rate among white and nonwhite women in the South remained stable, the relative contributions of cervical and lung cancer change considerably with time. The proportion of cancer deaths in southern women attributed to cervical cancer decreased by 50% while the proportion ascribed to lung cancer tripled."
Correspondence: J. Y. Lee, University of Alabama, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Biostatistics Unit, Birmingham, AL 35294. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10205 Loudon, Irvine. Maternal mortality: 1880-1950. Some regional and international comparisons. Social History of Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 2, Aug 1988. 183-228 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In Britain maternal mortality remained at a disturbingly high level from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1930s, and then began to fall rapidly. Was Britain unique in this respect? A comparison of maternal mortality between 1870 and 1950 in certain European countries, Australia, New Zealand, and the USA suggests that although the levels of mortality often differed widely, the trends were broadly similar....The evidence suggests that between 1870 and 1935 it was usually safest to be delivered at home by a well-trained midwife rather than in a hospital by a doctor; but it was no safer to be rich rather than poor."
Correspondence: I. Loudon, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, 45-7 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6PE, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10206 Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [STATEC] (Luxembourg). Suicide in Luxembourg: a statistical study. [Le suicide au Luxembourg: etude statistique.] Bulletin du STATEC, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1990. [19] pp. Luxembourg. In Fre.
Trends in suicide mortality in Luxembourg over the past 100 years are analyzed using official data.
Correspondence: Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Boite Postale 304, 19-21 Boulevard Royal, L-2013 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10207 McNown, Robert; Rogers, Andrei. Forecasting cause-specific mortality using time series methods. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-90-4, Apr 1990. 20, [19] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"Our study has demonstrated the use of parameterized mortality schedules to represent age profiles of mortality by cause, and the viability of forecasting cause-specific mortality by the application of time series methods to the parameter histories of the schedule. The multiexponential function adequately approximates the variety of age profiles displayed by the leading causes of death in the U.S., and projections of these parameters into a holdout sample yield forecasted profiles of reasonable accuracy. Forecasts of mortality probabilities to the year 2000 show interesting differences from projections produced by the Social Security Administration, with the model forecasts generally being more conservative in predictions of progress against mortality."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol, 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 440).
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10208 Mizuno, Shoichi; Akiba, Suminori. Smoking and lung cancer mortality in Japanese men: estimates for dose and duration of cigarette smoking based on the Japan vital statistics data. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, Vol. 80, No. 8, Aug 1989. 727-31 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The effect of cigarette smoking on mortality from lung cancer is analyzed using official Japanese vital statistics data. The primary purpose was to examine the validity of statistical models developed to study mortality of this nature in the United Kingdom and United States, and what changes were required to fit the model to Japanese men. The authors "discuss the associations of lung cancer mortality with the proportions of smokers, effective duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Also discussed is the possibility of quantitative assessment of the lung cancer risk for Japanese male smokers and nonsmokers."
Correspondence: S. Mizuno, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, 5-2 Hijiyama Park, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 732, Japan. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10209 Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group (Minneapolis, Minnesota). Mortality rates after 10.5 years for participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial: findings related to a priori hypotheses of the trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 263, No. 13, Apr 4, 1990. 1,795-801 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The results of a study to examine the effect of multifactor intervention on coronary heart disease mortality among high-risk U.S. men are presented. They indicate that after 10.5 years, "mortality rates were lower for men who received special intervention than for men who received their usual care by 10.6% for coronary heart disease and by 7.7% for all causes."
Correspondence: Marcus O. Kjelsberg, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Coordinating Centers for Biometric Research, Room 200, 2221 University Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10210 Nymoen, Erik H.; Kruger, Oystein. Mapping of mortality data: ischemic heart disease among males in Norway, 1966-1987. [Kartografisk fremstilling av dodelighetsdata--ischemisk hjertersykdom blant menn i Norge 1966-87.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 110, No. 16, Jun 20, 1990. 2,059-62 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Data on mortality from heart disease among Norwegian males aged 30-69 over the period 1966-1987 illustrate how cartography can be used to study regional trends in mortality. The authors suggest that such techniques can reveal regional mortality patterns not previously reported by those using conventional methods.
For a related study by O. Kruger and E. H. Nymoen, also published in 1990, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: E. H. Nymoen, Universitetet i Trondheim, Geografisk Institutt, 7055 Dragvoll, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10211 Pinto, Cynthia B.; Coleman, Michel P. Cancer mortality in Rio de Janeiro. International Journal of Cancer/Journal International du Cancer, Vol. 46, No. 2, Aug 15, 1990. 173-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Cancer mortality data for 1979-81 are presented for the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The population in 1980 was over 11 million, and more than 30,000 deaths (11% of the total) were certified as being due to cancer during the 3-year period. Death certification was fairly complete, and for two-thirds there was complementary medical evidence of the certified cause of death....The results confirm large regional differences in the pattern of cancer mortality within Brazil."
Correspondence: C. B. Pinto, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Centro de Informacaoes para a Saude, Avenida Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, 21040 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10212 Rogers, Richard G.; Powell-Griner, Eve. Life expectancies of cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the United States. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-90-9, Nov 5, 1990. 18, [7] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"This research employs the National Health Interview and the National Mortality Followback Surveys to calculate life expectancies by age and sex for white nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers in the United States in 1986. In general, life expectancies are higher for never smokers than for former smokers, and higher for former smokers than for current smokers....Differences in life expectancy by sex...appear to be due, in part, to cigarette smoking, but also to occupational, environmental, and sociodemographic factors."
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10213 Rutqvist, L. E.; Mattsson, B.; Signomklao, T. Cancer mortality trends in Sweden 1960-1986. Acta Oncologica, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1989. 771-5 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Data on trends in age-standardized cancer mortality in Sweden over the period 1960-1986 are presented. "From the middle of the 1970s, total cancer mortality decreased significantly among both males and females. The estimated annual decrease between 1975 and 1986 was 0.5-1.2%. Current Swedish trends are thus in keeping with the goal stated in the European Community's action programme 'Europe against cancer': a 10-15% decrease in total age-standardized cancer mortality by the year 2000."
Correspondence: L. E. Rutqvist, Karolinska Hospital, Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10214 Ruzicka, Lado T.; Lopez, Alan D. The use of cause-of-death statistics for health situation assessment: national and international experiences. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 43, No. 42, 1990. 249-58 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"About 80 countries or areas regularly report detailed cause-of-death data to WHO based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD). These data refer to about 35% of all deaths estimated to occur in the world....This article describes the collection and use of these data by WHO for assessing the global and regional health situation, and for monitoring trends in health status. In addition, several issues in the use of mortality data and the ICD for national health situation assessment are discussed, including the need for documenting the quality and coverage of cause-of-death statistics, identifying biases and evaluating mortality trends."
Correspondence: L. T. Ruzicka, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Child Survival Project, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10215 Shaikh, Kashem; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mostafa, G.; Khan, M. U. Pattern of diarrhoeal deaths during 1966-1987 in a demographic surveillance area in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1990. 147-54 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Mortality trends in Matlab district, Bangladesh, are analyzed in relation to age, sex, seasonality, and yearly variations over the period 1966-1987. "The overall death rate due to diarrhoeal diseases and other causes fluctuated during the period. Diarrhoeal death rate varied between 2.0 and 4.0 per 1,000 population except during the war and famine periods of 1971 and 1974-1975 respectively when it was two times higher over the preceding period of five years' average. On an average, more than 20% of all deaths appeared to be related to diarrhoea. The relative importance of diarrhoea as the cause of death did not diminish over time."
Correspondence: K. Shaikh, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

57:10216 Silverberg, Edwin; Boring, Catherine C.; Squires, Teresa S. Cancer statistics, 1990. CA: A Cancer Journal of Physicians, Vol. 40, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 9-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The American Cancer Society's Department of Epidemiology and Statistics reports its 24th annual compilation of cancer incidence, survival, and mortality data for the United States and around the world."
Correspondence: E. Silverberg, American Cancer Society, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, New York, NY. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10217 Tezcan, Sabahat; Guciz Dogan, Bahar. The extent and causes of mortality among reproductive age women on three districts of Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 12, 1990. 31-9 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"In this study [the aim is] to determine the extent and medical causes of all deaths in reproductive age groups, to study the relationship between some socio-demographic and reproductive characteristics and mortality, and to find out the level of utilization of health services by women prior to death....The main five causes of death were all cancers, heart diseases, kidney disease, accidents and suicide." Data are for a total of 96 women in Turkey who died in 1984 or 1985.
Correspondence: S. Tezcan, Akdeniz University, Department of Public Health, 07003 Antalya, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10218 Trussell, James; Rodriguez, German. A note on the sisterhood estimator of maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 344-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors critically examine a proposal by Wendy Graham et al. concerning the sisterhood method of maternal mortality estimation. A brief reply by Graham et al. is included (p. 346).
For the paper by Graham et al., published in 1989, see 55:30195.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10219 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality attributable to HIV infection/AIDS--United States, 1981-1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 40, No. 3, Jan 25, 1991. 41-4 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Estimates of mortality from AIDS and HIV infections in the United States from 1981 through 1990 are presented. "From 1981 through 1990, 100,777 deaths among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported to CDC by local, state, and territorial health departments; almost one third (31,196) of these deaths were reported during 1990. During the 1980s, AIDS emerged as a leading cause of death among young adults in the United States."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10220 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality--United States, 1980-1987. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 39, No. 48, Dec 7, 1990. 875, 881-3 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report describes [U.S.] trends in lung cancer incidence from 1980 through 1986 and lung cancer mortality from 1980 through 1987." Data are presented by age and sex for blacks and whites.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10221 Yu, Jing Jie; Mattson, Margaret E.; Boyd, Gayle M.; Mueller, Michael D.; Shopland, Donald R.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Cullen, Joseph W. A comparison of smoking patterns in the People's Republic of China with the United States: an impending health catastrophe in the Middle Kingdom. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 264, No. 12, Sep 26, 1990. 1,575-9 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Half of the global increase in tobacco use from 1976 to 1986 occurred in the People's Republic of China. In 1984, the first national smoking survey was conducted in China, involving over a half-million subjects. Sixty-one percent of Chinese males over age 15 smoke, with higher rates in all occupational groups than for corresponding groups in the United States. Current smoking patterns in China are similar to those in the United States during the 1950s, and these patterns forecast a steadily increasing epidemic of smoking-related deaths. It is estimated that by 2025, two million Chinese men will die annually from smoking." The need for a national smoking-control program is stressed.
Correspondence: J. J. Yu, National Cancer Institute, 900 Rockville Pike, Building EPN, Room 330, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.


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