Volume 56 - Number 4 - Winter 1990

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

56:40504 Abuzar, M. Socio-economic aspects of population structures: case study of Uttar Pradesh, India. ISBN 81-7033-0491. LC 88-901499. 1988. xvi, 179 pp. Rawat Publications: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
The determinants of variations in the age structure of the population in India are explored, using the example of Uttar Pradesh. In the absence of adequate vital statistics data, the data are from the census, including the 1981 census. "This book is in two parts. The first part is a quantitative and spatial analysis of aggregate-level information based on multiple regression with the socio-economic factors as the assumed independent variables, and the age structures as the dependent variable. The second part deals with the sample social survey of two settlements, one urban and one rural, aimed at complementing the macro-level analyses with data at individual level."
Correspondence: Rawat Publications, 3 Na-20 Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 302 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40505 Beyens-Wu, I-chuan. Aging in a changing population: China in the twenty-first century. In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 177-89 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
Future prospects for demographic aging in China are reviewed. "Due to the rapid population increase after 1945, the number of Chinese aged 65 and above will rise from some 49.3 million in 1982 to around 280 million by 2042 (variations in mortality are unlikely to modify strongly this trend). However, the importance of population aging depends upon the proportion of the aged people in the dependent population and the total population....The policy and long-term goals of China's state-induced fertility-control programme [have a] strong influence upon the wellbeing of her aged people, most of whom live with their progeny. Discussions in this paper are based upon different population projections, using available official publications."
Correspondence: I.-c. Beyens-Wu, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement des Affaires Publiques et Internationales, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40506 Cantalini, Bruno; Lori, Agostino. Geography of ageing in the Italian population. In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 151-75 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
Preliminary results of a study on the geography of population aging in Italy are reported. "The study, carried out by means of several demographic indicators (percentage of elderly in total population, ageing ratio, old age dependency ratio, youngest-old ratio, and oldest-old ratio) especially concerns: trends in ageing in the Italian population from 1951 to 2020; territorial differences in ageing (1961-2020) both at regional level and for the two large geographical divisions (North-Centre, South-Islands); [and] the geography of population ageing...."
Correspondence: B. Cantalini, National Research Council, National Institute for Population Research, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40507 Chen, Ai Ju; Jones, Gavin; Domingo, Lita; Pitaktepsombati, Pitchit; Sigit, Hananto; Yatim, Masitah B. M. Ageing in ASEAN: its socio-economic consequences. Social Issues in Southeast Asia, ISBN 981-3035-36-6. 1989. xvii, 117 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore. In Eng.
This report emanates from a project developed in the ASEAN region concerning the socioeconomic consequences of demographic aging in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It includes chapters on the demographic background of the aging process, characteristics of the aged, family relationships and aging, employment and financial support of the aged, health care, services provided at national and local levels, the role and contribution of the elderly to society, and policy implications and recommendations.
Correspondence: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Pasir Panjang, Singapore 0511. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

56:40508 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Demographic transition patterns and their impact on the age structure. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 327-36, 399, 401 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"To assess the impact of patterns of demographic transition on the variation in the size of broad age groups, this article decomposes the population multiplier by age, with particular attention to young and elderly age groups. The possible range in variation in the multiplier is demonstrated, and age-specific transitional multipliers are derived for historical populations and by extrapolation for current pretransition populations. The latter reveal potential disproportionate expansions in some elderly populations with attendant social costs." The method is illustrated using the examples of France, India, Mexico, and Kenya.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Department of Social Economics, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40509 Craig, John. Changing age distributions among young adults: their demographic effects. Population Trends, No. 56, Summer 1989. 24-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"That a sharp fall in the number of young people in their early twenties [in England and Wales] has begun, and will continue for many years, is now well known and a matter of great concern to many organisations and professions....As such fluctuations pass through successively older age-groups the number of people in the most marriageable and most fertile ages varies, which has consequential effects on birth, marriage and death statistics. This article quantifies the extent to which future fluctuations in the 15-44 age band are going to be greater than in the past; and, as an example of the consequences, looks at the effect on past and future fertility measures."
Correspondence: J. Craig, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40510 Decroly, Jean-Michel; Grimmeau, Jean-Pierre; Roelandts, Marcel; Vanlaer, Jean. A geographical approach to demographic aging in Europe. [Une approche geographique du vieillissement en Europe.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 77-86 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
A series of maps, illustrating demographic aging in Europe, taken from an atlas currently in preparation, is presented. The maps permit a comparison between the situation in 1960 and that in 1980. They also include information on the distribution of the extremely old, defined as 75 years old and over.
Correspondence: J. M. Decroly, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de Geographie Humaine, 50 Avenue Franklin Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40511 Dittgen, Alfred; Legoux, Luc. Demographic aging from the top as well as from the bottom: the French example. [Vieillissement par le haut et par le bas: l'exemple de la France.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 89-103 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The authors first note that demographic aging is caused not only by a decline in fertility (the bottom) but also by a decline in mortality at higher ages (the top). The focus of the study as a whole is on the second factor. Data for France are used to project the likely future growth of the population aged 65 and over and 75 and over.
Correspondence: A. Dittgen, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Demographie de Paris, 12 Place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40512 Dooghe, Gilbert. Demographic aging in Belgium: society and the aged. [Le vieillissement demographique de la Belgique: la societe et les personnes agees.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 105-20 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The current situation concerning demographic aging in Belgium is reviewed. The author first examines the demographic aspects of this process. He then considers society's attitudes toward aging, social issues related to aging, and the identification of groups of the aged at high risk.
Correspondence: G. Dooghe, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Nijverheidsstraat 37, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40513 Eekelaar, John M.; Pearl, David. An aging world: dilemmas and challenges for law and social policy. ISBN 0-19-8254-091. 1989. x, 921 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; Nihon Kajo Publishing: Japan. In Eng.
This volume contains papers presented at the Sixth World Conference of the International Society of Family Law, held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The focus is on demographic aging. Topics covered include past and future demographic trends; family support systems; contemporary problems of legal and social policy; medical issues and legal responses; and inheritance and pensions. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40514 Grinblat, Joseph-Alfred. The aging of world populations: recent and future demographic trends. [Le vieillissement des populations mondiales: tendances demographiques recentes et futures.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 53-76 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Changes in the age structure of the world's population since 1950 are summarized. The author notes that this population was becoming younger on average up to 1970, but has subsequently tended to get older, excepting Africa. From 1985 to 2000, the United Nations projects an acceleration of the demographic aging process throughout the world.
Correspondence: J. A. Grinblat, United Nations, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40515 Guilmot, Pierre. Current trends and perspectives of rapid demographic aging: the case of Wallonia. [Realite et perspectives d'un vieillissement demographique intense: le cas de la Wallonie.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 121-49 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Demographic aging in the French-speaking part of Belgium is analyzed, focusing on projected trends to 2031. The study examines changes in the median age, changes in the age structure of the elderly population, and geographic differences in demographic aging. Emphasis is on the inevitability and rapidity of this change.
Correspondence: P. Guilmot, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Centre de Demographie, 50 Avenue Franklin Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40516 Ham-Chande, Roberto. Characteristics of demographic ageing in a developing context. In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 191-9 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
The characteristics of demographic aging in a developing country such as Mexico are explored. The author suggests that since the problems posed by this process are different from those in developed countries, they require different approaches and solutions. "Among the elderly...an imbalance in sex ratios with respect to urban and rural residence [is noted], showing more males in rural regions than expected, while there are more females in urban areas. Some explanations on this assume higher female mortality in the rural sector, and lower rural to urban migration among male elderlies." Particular attention is paid to the problem of providing social security coverage to a larger proportion of the elderly population.
Correspondence: R. Ham-Chande, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40517 Jeannel, Dominique; Brucker, Gilles; Gentilini, Marc. Methodological problems of aging in Africa: the case of Mali. [Problemes methodologiques du vieillissement en Afrique: le cas du Mali.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 283-8 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The results of a comparative study of the socioeconomic and health conditions of the elderly in rural and urban Mali are presented. The survey covered some 1,000 elderly people and was completed in the late 1980s.
Correspondence: D. Jeannel, Institut Sante et Developpement, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40518 Katus, Kalev. Demographic transition and population ageing: case of Estonia. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies, No. 10, 1989. 10, [4] pp. Estonian Interuniversitary Population Research Centre: Tallinn, USSR. In Eng.
Demographic aging in Estonia is discussed. The author considers fertility change and the demographic transition as they affect the age distribution of the country's population.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversitary Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 200090 Tallinn, Estonia, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40519 Laslett, Peter. The demographic scene--an overview. In: An aging world: dilemmas and challenges for law and social policy, edited by John M. Eekelaar and David Pearl. 1989. 3-19 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; Nihon Kajo Publishing: Japan. In Eng.
The author summarizes global trends in demographic aging as a background to a conference for family lawyers concerned with its impact on the family. Comparisons are made among the world's countries and regions.
Correspondence: P. Laslett, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40520 Laslett, Peter. The emergence of the Third Age. In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 33-52 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
The concept of the Third Age, defined as the period in the life course between the age of independence, maturity, responsibility, and earning and the age of dependence, decrepitude, and death, is analyzed. It is seen as a period of personal achievement and fulfillment that frequently begins with retirement. The object of this paper is to identify the time period when the Third Age became possible, with a primary focus on twentieth-century Great Britain.
Correspondence: P. Laslett, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40521 Lindgren, Jarl. Towards an aging society: some demographic and socioeconomic aspects of population aging in Finland. Vaestontutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisusarja D, No. 25, ISBN 951-9048-88-X. 1990. 118 pp. Vaestontutkimuslaitos, Vaestoliitto: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
This study examines current population trends in Finland, with emphasis on the consequences of demographic aging. The first chapter describes the demographic transition as it occurred in Finland. Next, population dynamics in modern Finland are analyzed, with separate consideration of fertility, mortality, migration and spatial distribution, age and sex distribution, and the economically active population. Changing marriage patterns are discussed, including divorce and remarriage. A chapter on living arrangements examines family formation and household and housing structures. The socioeconomic implications of aging are considered, including consumption, income, health care, social security, and labor force developments.
Correspondence: Vaestontutkimuslaitos, Vaestoliitto, Kalevankatu 16, 00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40522 Litvak, Jorge. Aging: a challenge beyond the year 2000. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1990. 330-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact of demographic aging on developed and developing countries. He presents an overview of the goals and design of the World Health Organization Research Program on Aging, which was created to address issues concerning the aged worldwide.
Correspondence: J. Litvak, World Health Organization, Global Program for Health of the Elderly, Research Program on Aging, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40523 Litvak, Jorge. The aging of the population: a challenge that goes beyond the year 2000. [El envejecimiento de la poblacion: un desafio que va mas alla del ano 2000.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 109, No. 1, Jul 1990. 1-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This report analyzes the causes and characteristics of the aging trend in the world's population, which has been witnessed in recent decades. Measures are proposed for dealing with the health problems that have arisen as a result of this aging trend, as well as for guaranteeing the delivery of full health services to the elderly."
Correspondence: J. Litvak, World Health Organization, Global Program of Assistance to the Aged, Program of Investigations on Aging, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40524 Loriaux, Michel; Remy, Dominique; Vilquin, Eric. The elderly population and the grey revolution: humans and society faced with aging. [Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements.] ISBN 2-87085-211-8. [1990]. xxvi, 1,118 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of the 1986 Quetelet Chair, held in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, October 6-10, 1986. The theme of this year's conference was demographic aging. The 81 papers, most of which are in French with some in English, are grouped under the topics of aging man and society, aspects of aging populations, methodological problems concerning the study of aging, biological and social aspects of aging, the condition of the elderly, inequalities among the elderly, past and future prospects, from work to retirement, intergenerational solidarity and the financing of pensions, health services for the elderly, and the future of elderly societies.
Correspondence: Editions CIACO, Avenue Einstein 9, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40525 Markides, Kyriakos S. Consequences of gender differentials in life expectancy for black and Hispanic Americans. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1989. 95-102 pp. Farmingdale, New York. In Eng.
The consequences of gender differences in life expectancy among minority populations in the United States are explored using official data. "Increased survival by blacks and Hispanics is causing a widening of the sex imbalance of the elderly population much like [that] observed in the general population. These demographic trends point toward greater widowhood among minority women and continuing high rates of poverty. In addition, we can expect increased rates of disability in minority elderly women, increased dependency, worsening intergenerational relationships, and higher rates of institutionalization."
Correspondence: K. S. Markides, University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Galveston, TX 77550. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

56:40526 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). The aged: the current situation and future perspectives. [Les personnes agees: situation et perspectives.] Jun 1990. 52 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Characteristics of the elderly population in Morocco are examined using data from the censuses of 1960, 1971, and 1982. Chapters are included on the age structure and the dependency burden, mortality, marital status, migration, economic activity, standards of living, households and consumption, and future trends.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa Al Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40527 Morrill, Richard L. Regional demographic structure of the United States. Professional Geographer, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1990. 38-53 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the surprisingly great variation in demographic character across the [United States], utilizing data on fertility, mortality, age, sex, mobility, household character, abortion, race and ethnicity. A fairly simple regional pattern is revealed that is less related to levels of economic development than to long-standing historical cultural differences."
Correspondence: R. L. Morrill, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

56:40528 Nair, P. S. The aged in rural India: a study of the socio-economic and health profile. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 63-70 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes the health and socioeconomic status of the aged living in rural areas of India and identifies their needs. Data are from a 1987 survey of India's northern districts.
Correspondence: P. S. Nair, University of Kerala, Department of Demography, Kariavattom 695 034, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40529 Neville, Warwick. The population composition of Brunei. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jun 1990. 27-42 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Population characteristics of Brunei are examined, including ethnic composition, age and sex distribution, labor force participation, and occupational status. The author relates the population structure to the economic conditions in Brunei and discusses future implications for economic and social policy.
Correspondence: W. Neville, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40530 Nihon University. Population Research Institute (Tokyo, Japan); China National Committee on Aging (Beijing, China); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York); Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning [JOICFP] (Tokyo, Japan). Japan-China Workshop on Population Aging: Policy Issues and Prospects. Proceedings. 1988. 219 pp. Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning [JOICFP]: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop on demographic aging held in Tokyo, Japan, June 28-July 2, 1988. The workshop was part of a joint Japanese-Chinese project designed to assist China in developing appropriate policies to cope with the socioeconomic implications of demographic aging. The proceedings contain a selection of 12 papers by Japanese and Chinese scholars on aspects of demographic aging in their respective countries.
Correspondence: Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning, Hoken Kankan Bekkan, 1-1 Sadohara-cho, Ichigaya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

56:40531 Paillat, Paul. The vocabulary of aging: from concepts to measures. [Le vocabulaire du vieillissement: des concepts aux mesures.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 203-7 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author attempts to provide definitions for some of the concepts used in the study of demographic aging. Particular attention is given to the measures used to describe the process of demographic aging of a population.
Correspondence: P. Paillat, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Departement de Demographie Sociale, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40532 Rahman, M. Mujibur. Population ageing in a selected region of Bangladesh: socio-economic and health perspectives. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jul 1990. 116-24 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to examine the socio-economic-demographic characteristics and health status of the aged (60 years and above) in rural Bangladesh....About 87 percent of males are currently married as against only half of the females. On the contrary, a large proportion (50 percent) of females are widowed while only 12 percent are widowers. The educational status of males is much better than that of females....About half of the females are found unemployed as against only one-third of males. As regards the annual income, the condition of Hindus is better than that of Muslims. The majority of the older people are living in large households of more than five members."
Correspondence: M. M. Rahman, University of Chittangong, Department of Statistics, Post Code No. 4331, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40533 United States. Congress. Senate. Special Committee on Aging. Aging America: trends and projections. Serial No. 101-E, No. 59, LC 90-600062. Nov 1989. v, 152 pp. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the fourth edition of a report on demographic aging in America prepared for the Special Committee on Aging of the U.S. Senate. It contains chapters on the size and growth of the older population, their economic status, retirement trends and labor force participation, health services and their utilization, social characteristics, federal outlays benefiting the elderly, and international comparisons.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402-9325. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40534 Universite de Paris I. Institut de Demographie de Paris [IDP] (Paris, France). Aging: the examples of Czechoslovakia and France. [Le vieillissement: les cas de la Tchechoslovaquie et de la France.] Travaux et Recherches de l'IDP, No. 4, Jun 1990. 129 pp. Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Paris in November 1988 on demographic aging in Czechoslovakia and France. Seven papers by various authors are included, six of which are in French and one in English. Topics concern the health of the aged, living standards of the aged, and social policy.
Correspondence: Universite de Paris I, Institut de Demographie de Paris, 22 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40535 Valkovics, Emil. Population aging in perspective: past and future trends. [De veroudering van de bevolking in perspectief: verleden en toekomst.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1989. 23-72 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the past, present, and future age structure of the world population. The effects of fertility, mortality, and migration are considered, and geographic variations worldwide are noted. Projections of age structure based on data from the United Nations are presented. The author also discusses the process of demographic aging and the impact of increasing numbers of elderly people.
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Kozponti, Statisztikai Hivatal Demographic Institute, Veres Palne u. 10, Budapest V, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40536 van de Stadt, H.; Bieseman, L. J. The institutional population: trends. [De institutionele bevolking: omvang en ontwikkeling.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 9, Sep 1990. 26-30 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The institutional population includes the population in homes for the aged, nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals, prisons and educational and religious institutions. On 1 January 1990 there were 278,000 people in this population group in the Netherlands, which amounts to 2% of the total population. During the period 1960-1990 the institutional population showed a smaller increase than the total population (6% vs. 30%); during the eighties the number has decreased. In this population the share of people of 65 or older has increased from 29% in 1960 to 67% in 1987."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40537 van Hoorn, W. D. The institutional population: background and expected development. [De institutionele bevolking: achtergronden en verwachte ontwikkeling.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 9, Sep 1990. 19-25 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article aspects of the development of the institutional population in the Netherlands are described. During the eighties there has been a moderate decrease in numbers due to a change in attitudes and policies. Because of ideological and financial reasons, governments are inclined to institutionalise fewer old (and disabled) people and to provide more care by other means such as home-support. However, simulations lead to the conclusion, that particularly as a consequence of the ageing of the population, the demand of care is growing quite fast....Taking all factors into account, one may expect that the number of institutionalised people will not change much in the near future."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

56:40538 Anantharam, S.; Premi, M. K. Sex ratio and stages of demographic transition. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 39-42 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between the sex ratio of a population and its stage of demographic transition is discussed, with a focus on India.
Correspondence: S. Anantharam, Visva-Bharati University, Palli Charcha Kendra, PO Santiniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal 731 235, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40539 Hull, Terence H. Recent trends in sex ratios at birth in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1990. 63-83, 207, 209 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article, I analyze data from the One Percent Survey of China, carried out by the State Statistical Bureau in 1987. The sex ratios of births and young children calculated from these data are higher than those found in other recent Chinese surveys and censuses and indicate a serious and growing problem of 'missing' female births....We posit three major potential explanations for the rising sex ratios at birth and among young children between 1982 and 1987, all of them related to pressures created by the 'one child per couple' policy pursued nationally in China since 1979....The missing females could have been victims of infanticide, or the biased sex ratios at birth could reflect patterns of gender-specific abortion. The third explanation assumes that...sex ratios at birth were in fact 'normal,' but female births and young female children were underreported by their parents."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, Department of Political and Social Change, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40540 Legare, Jacques. Life expectancy in good health: its structure and application. [Esperance de vie en bonne sante: construction et applications.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 209-17 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author discusses the concept of life expectancy with good health, defined as life expectancy without serious disability as opposed to life expectancy per se. He suggests that this concept will take on greater importance as choices will have to be made concerning the allocation of resources either to increasing overall life expectancy or to increasing active life expectancy.
Correspondence: J. Legare, Universite de Montreal, Groupe de Recherche sur la Demographie Quebecoise, Departement de Demographie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40541 Mealey, Linda; Mackey, Wade. Variation in offspring sex ratio in women of differing social status. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 11, No. 2, Mar 1990. 83-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Evidence for the successful manipulation of the sex ratio of offspring is presented using data from the nineteenth century for the Mormon population in the United States. Factors influencing such a manipulation are considered, including social status and access to resources.
Correspondence: L. Mealey, College of Saint Benedict, Psychology Department, St. Joseph, MN 56374-2099. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40542 Olshansky, S. Jay; Carnes, Bruce A.; Cassel, Christine. In search of Methuselah: estimating the upper limits to human longevity. Science, Vol. 250, No. 4981, Nov 2, 1990. 634-40 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
An attempt is made to estimate the upper bound of human longevity based on hypothesized reductions in current mortality rates necessary to achieve a life expectancy at birth of from 80 to 120 years and an expectation of life at age 50 of from 30 to 70 years. "With the use of conditional probabilities of death from complete life tables for the United States, reductions in mortality required to achieve extreme longevity...were compared with those resulting from hypothetical cures for all cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Results indicate that in order for life expectancy at birth to increase from present levels to what has been referred to as the average biological limit to life (age 85), mortality rates from all causes of death would need to decline at all ages by 55%, and at ages 50 and over by 60%. Given that hypothetical cures for major degenerative diseases would reduce overall mortality by 75%, it seems highly unlikely that life expectancy at birth will exceed the age of 85."
Correspondence: S. J. Olshansky, National Opinion Research Center, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

56:40543 Peterson, William. The physiology of childbearing. Population Review, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1990. 11-22 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of the physiology of reproduction and of medical findings affecting fertility.
Correspondence: W. Petersen, 24900 Pine Hills Drive, Carmel, CA 93923. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40544 Soffritti, Maria C.; Gallo, Pia G. Menopause in a sample of women from Bassa Modenese (Italy): its secular trends and connections with labor force activity. [La menopausa in un campione di donne della Bassa Modenese (Italia): la sua evoluzione nel tempo e la sua connessione con l'attivita lavorativa.] Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 113-23 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Comparisons are made among women in Bassa Modenese, Italy, concerning age at menarche and menopause, length of reproductive period, and need for hysterectomy. The impact of employment status and occupation on the timing of these physiological events is considered.
Correspondence: M. C. Soffritti, ULSS N. 20 di Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

56:40545 Blejer, Mario I.; Guerrero, Isabel. The impact of macroeconomic policies on income distribution: an empirical study of the Philippines. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 72, No. 3, Aug 1990. 414-23 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"There has been a growing awareness of the income distribution dimension of macroeconomic policies. This paper studies this issue empirically, considering the case of the Philippines and using data available from integrated surveys of households. After estimating a reduced form equation, it was found that underemployment, inflation, and government spending worsen income distribution, while productivity gains, the real interest rate, and the real exchange rate were found to improve distribution. A similar pattern emerges when the effects of these variables on the absolute incidence of poverty are estimated."
Correspondence: M. I. Blejer, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20431. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40546 Chu, C. Y. Cyrus; Koo, Hui-Wen. Intergenerational income-group mobility and differential fertility. American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 5, Dec 1990. 1,125-38 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"One question development economists are especially interested in, but so far left unanswered, is: how would the societal income distribution be affected by introducing a family-planning program to reduce the reproduction rate of the poor, which is usually high in developing countries? The purpose of this paper is to search for analytical answers to this question. We are able to make definite comparisons about some class of inequality measures of the steady-state societal income distributions, and these comparisons provide strong theoretical support in favor of the above-mentioned family-planning program."
Correspondence: C. Y. C. Chu, National Taiwan University, Department of Economics, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40547 Columbia University. School of Public Health. National Center for Children in Poverty (New York, New York). Five million children: a statistical profile of our poorest young citizens. ISBN 0-926582-01-1. LC 90-5680. 1990. 96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report brings together...information on children under six and their families who live in poverty [in the United States]. It addresses the following questions: Who are the nation's poor children under six, and where do they live? What are the families of poor young children like, and why are they poor? What risks do poor children face, and what is being done to reduce them? [and] What conclusions can we draw from this information to help us improve the life circumstances and developmental outcomes for poor children under six? The intention of this report is to bring the needs and problems of poor young children and their families into focus and to suggest steps to improve their lives." Graphs and charts provide information on poverty rates for children under six by ethnicity, geographic location, residence characteristics, educational level of parents, parental employment status, marital status of parents, source of family income, and family characteristics. Child health status, school enrollment, child care, and child abuse are also examined. Data are from published and unpublished sources and national databases.
Correspondence: Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty, 154 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40548 Daly, Anne. Women in the workforce and family structure in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 7, No. 1, May 1990. 27-39 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to set out some of the changes that have taken place in the economic status of women in Australia and to discuss the relationship between economic factors and family structure. I look to the position of women in the workforce and examine some of the possible explanations for the increase in female participation. These include the increase in the female wage, demographic changes and changes in the industrial composition of the economy. In a final section, I examine some of the evidence for the effect of economic variables, particularly the wage, on fertility."
Correspondence: A. Daly, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40549 Hauser, Robert M. Changes in occupational status among U.S. men from the 1970s to the 1980s. CDE Working Paper, No. 90-05, May 7, 1990. 32 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper, I analyze data from March [U.S.] Current Population Surveys for the past eighteen years in order to provide indirect evidence about changes in mobility chances with respect to occupational status. To measure social origins and educational attainment, and to estimate structural equation models of occupational status, I use data from the 1973 OCG survey for cohorts of black and nonblack...U.S. men who were aged 25 to 64 in March 1973. Additional measurements of educational attainment, occupation, and labor force status have been obtained from Uniform March Current Population Survey files from 1971 through 1988....Among black and white men, intercohort gains in occupational status have been fueled in large part by intercohort gains in social background and in educational attainment....My reading of the evidence is that there has been little net upward mobility since 1973, and, to the extent that such mobility has occurred, it has occurred among older, rather than younger cohorts of men."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393.

56:40550 Kabluchko, G. V. Some demographic aspects of studies of the socioeconomic structure of the population. [Nekotorye demograficheskie aspekty izucheniya sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo sostava naseleniya.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 46-53 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper deals with such socio-economic characteristics of the population as social mobility, participation of...women in social production, [and] shifts in the education level of the population which promote improvement of qualitative parameters of the Ukrainian SSR population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40551 Krieg, Randall G. Does migration function to reduce earnings differentials by race and gender? Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1990. 211-21 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This study investigates the role of migration in the determination of earnings differentials by race and gender. Microdata from the United Status Census are used to estimate earnings functions by race, gender, and migration status. Strong evidence is provided suggesting that unexplained portions of earnings differentials, reflectng wage discrimination and other unobserved heterogeneity, are substantially reduced for both race and gender through the process of interstate migration."
Correspondence: R. G. Krieg, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40552 Macunovich, Diane J.; Easterlin, Richard A. How parents have coped: the effect of life cycle demographic decisions on the economic status of pre-school age children, 1964-87. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 301-25, 399, 401 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article traces the average economic status of pre-schoolers in the United States from 1964 to 1987, as measured by total money income per adult equivalent in the child's household of residence, using data from the March Current Population Survey. It investigates how children's economic status has been affected by life cycle dissolution of unions (including unmarried-couple unions), establishment of independent households, mother's work, and number and spacing of children. Overall, children's average economic status was 42 percent higher in 1987 than in 1964, but in the 1980s there was little or no improvement in average status, and inequality worsened noticeably."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 407).
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, Williams College, Department of Economics, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40553 Massey, Douglas S.; Eggers, Mitchell L. The ecology of inequality: minorities and the concentration of poverty, 1970-1980. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 95, No. 5, Mar 1990. 1,153-88 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article examines trends in the geographic concentration of poverty among whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 60 U.S. metropolitan areas from 1970 to 1980. It describes changes in the distributional structure of income, the extent of income inequality, and the degree of spatial segregation by income. These factors are then related to levels and trends in poverty concentration. Concentrated urban poverty is confined principally to blacks outside the West and to Hispanics in the Northeast....The occurrence of rising poverty under conditions of high racial/ethnic segregation explains the growing spatial isolation of poor blacks and Hispanics in U.S. urban society."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, NORC/University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40554 Northrop, Emily M. The feminization of poverty: the demographic factor and the composition of economic growth. Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1990. 145-60 pp. Lincoln, Nebraska. In Eng.
The concept of the feminization of poverty in the United States is examined from a demographic perspective, in particular by a comparative analysis of poverty among female-headed and other-headed households. The author concludes that the growth of female-headed households has been an important factor in the feminization of poverty and that the gap in relative affluence between female-headed and other households is increasing. She also notes that female-headed households suffer most from economic downturns because of sex segregation in the work force.
Correspondence: E. M. Northrop, Keene State College, 229 Main Street, Keene, NH 03431. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40555 Pryor, Frederic L. Changes in income distribution in poor agricultural nations: Malawi and Madagascar. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 39, No. 1, Oct 1990. 23-45 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author compares differences in income distribution between Malawi, which chose a capitalist model for its development strategy, and Madagascar, which chose a Marxist model. "In both countries the major cause of overall increases in income inequality can be traced to a widening of income differentials among smallholders caused by a variety of policy failures, almost all of which were correctable."
Correspondence: F. L. Pryor, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:40556 Rosenfeld, Rachel A.; Kalleberg, Arne L. A cross-national comparison of the gender gap in income. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 1, Jul 1990. 69-106 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article examines national labor-market samples from two 'dualist' countries (the United States and Canada) and two 'corporatist' countries (Norway and Sweden). Labor-market location is less powerful in predicting income in Norway and Sweden where they have more inclusive employment policies. In Sweden, though, the labor-market variables are more important in explaining the income gap." The importance of part-time work on the gender gap in income is noted.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 518).
Correspondence: R. A. Rosenfeld, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40557 Sullivan, Teresa A.; Gilbertson, Greta. Caribbean immigrants in the U.S.: the effects of race and language on earnings. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.10, 1990. 22 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper contrasts several features of the socio-economic integration of immigrants from the West Indies with the U.S. native-born blacks in order to assess the influence of race and language [on annual earnings]....Due to racial characteristics, both immigrant and native-born blacks are subject to prejudice and discrimination....Comparisons of native-born blacks with immigrant blacks provide an opportunity to evaluate the contribution of racial prejudice and discrimination in determining the conditions of racial minorities." Data are from the 1980 U.S. census.
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 396).
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

56:40558 de Graaf, Paul M.; Ganzeboom, Harry B. G. Intergenerational educational mobility in the Netherlands for birth cohorts from 1891 through 1960. Netherlands' Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 1, Apr 1990. 35-50, 83 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article we describe...intergenerational educational mobility with respect to father, for cohorts of men and women born between 1891 and 1960. We use data from fourteen national Dutch surveys, concerning 11,892 men and 10,895 women. The educational mobility pattern is described with a simple log-linear model. Historical changes in the pattern of association can be described as a linear trend towards more openness, without significant discontinuities. The trend to more openness is stronger for men than for women."
Correspondence: P. M. de Graaf, Utrecht State University, Department of Social Sciences, Heidelberglaan 8, POB 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40559 Grusky, David B.; DiPrete, Thomas A. Recent trends in the process of stratification. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 617-37 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using the 14 annual cross-sections from the [U.S.] General Social Survey, we specify a 'basic model' of attainment and describe the year-by-year fluctuations in its parameters....Under a linear model of educational achievement, we find that the direct effects of race are weakening and the returns of class-based advantages are declining in tandem. The contours of the socioeconomic 'gender gap' are also changing in important ways, with the male intercept declining at a rapid pace and the female term registering small and insignificant year-by-year gains. At the same time, the returns to experience and schooling are increasing for men, whereas the corresponding returns for women have remained stable over the 15-year period. This pattern of interaction effects implies that the size of the gender gap varies over time and across different population groups."
Correspondence: D. B. Grusky, Stanford University, Department of Sociology, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40560 Kominski, Robert. What's it worth? Educational background and economic status: Spring 1987. Current Population Reports, Series P-70: Household Economic Studies, No. 21, Oct 1990. iv, 31 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) regarding the educational attainment and background of the population of the United States....The primary tabulations in this report show numbers of persons by their highest attained degree and the field of the degree, along with some basic measures of their current economic and employment status."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40561 Latten, J. J. In the 1980s young people stayed longer with their parents again. Developments since the 1960s. [Jongeren bleven in jaren '80 weer langer bij hun ouders. Ontwikkeling sinds de jaren '60.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 10, Oct 1990. 14-24 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in the residential patterns of young adults in the Netherlands over time are analyzed. The authors note an increasing tendency for young people to continue to reside with their parents after reaching adulthood. The social and economic factors affecting these trends are reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40562 Lavely, William; Xiao, Zhenyu; Li, Bohua; Freedman, Ronald. The rise in female education in China: national and regional patterns. China Quarterly, No. 121, Mar 1990. 61-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes [Chinese] census and survey data to describe change in female education nationally and for four major regional populations from 1952 to 1982. Because it is plausible that the educational trends and differentials are related to other aspects of Chinese social, political and economic history, they are presented here in some detail....[The authors] consider the history of gender equality in educational opportunity as reflected in educational progression ratios [and]....introduce, as a demonstration of the significance of female education, education-specific rates of marriage and fertility."
Correspondence: W. Lavely, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40563 Massey, Douglas S. American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 2, Sep 1990. 329-57 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article argues that racial segregation is crucial to explaining the emergence of the urban underclass [in the United States] during the 1970s....This argument is developed with simulations that replicate the economic conditions observed among blacks and whites in metropolitan areas during the 1970s but assume different conditions of racial and class segregation. These data show how a simple increase in the rate of minority poverty leads to a dramatic rise in the concentration of poverty when it occurs within a racially segregated city. Increases in poverty concentration are, in turn, associated with [deleterious] changes in the socioeconomic character of neighborhoods....Thus, policies to solve the socioeconomic problems of minorities will fail unless they are accompanied by measures for overcoming the disadvantages caused by racial discrimination and prejudice in the housing market."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, NORC/University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:40564 Pryor, Edward T.; Norris, Douglas A. Religion and the family cycle. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1988. 159-80 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the declaration of religion, as measured by the Canadian census, in terms of basic demographic characteristics of the population (age, sex, marital status) and trends between 1971 and 1981. Building on this review, the relationship between declared religion and the family cycle is presented. Husband-wife families are assessed by family cycle characteristics (age of wife, no children, children present, no children at home). Evidence on religion homogeneity (that is, husband-wife same/different religion-no religion) is also reviewed within the family lifecycle. Conclusions are drawn as to the relationship between declared religion and family organization and trends in this relationship for the decade."
Correspondence: E. T. Pryor, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40565 Roy, B. K. Census based trends in religions of India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 383-92 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author presents a sequential analysis of the major religions in the states of India for the period 1901-1981. Consideration is given to the distribution, growth, and magnitude of the various religions.
Correspondence: B. K. Roy, Office of the Registrar General, West Block 1, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40566 Yusuf, Farhat. Demography of Muslims in Australia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 77-84 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes the origins and size of the Muslim population in Australia, at present about 1% of the total population. Their age distribution is younger and their sociodemographic characteristics are different from those of the rest of the Australian population....The main data sources for this study were the Australian population censuses, the most recent of which was conducted in June 1986."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

56:40567 Auvinen, Riitta. The Finnish Sami population. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 28, 1990. 67-76 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article is a short overview of the Sami [or Lapp] population, a small ethnic minority in the northern Scandinavia and parts of USSR. It describes the background of the Sami population, the territory where they live and their economic conditions. As it is difficult to distinguish the Sami population as a clearly defined ethnological group, demographic data on the Sami population is rather incomplete or lacking. In spite of that the author gives some estimates of the size of the population and its fertility." The focus is on the Sami population in Finland.
Correspondence: R. Auvinen, Population Research Institute, Kalevankatu 16, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40568 Battistella, Graziano. Italian Americans in the '80s: a sociodemographic profile. ISBN 0-934733-41-4. LC 88-29932. 1989. xii, 207 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study is...to present a set of unpublished data on Italian Americans which was prepared by the United States Bureau of the Census....A collection of twelve data sets [was] compiled, each set comprises 248 tables regarding the entire nation and the following eleven states which have high concentrations of Italian Americans: California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island....Each set of data displays eight tables of demographic, cultural and economic characteristics. The eight-set tables are crossed with such variables as type of household, place of birth, age, language, education, labor force, occupation, earnings and citizenship. In addition, the same characteristics are tabulated by educational achievements and age for the whole population, single ancestry, multiple ancestry and the population born in Italy."
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40569 Bose, Ashish; Sinha, U. P.; Tyagi, R. P. Demography of tribal development. ISBN 81-7018-601-3. Jan 1990. xxii, 312 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This collection of 23 papers is a product of the All India Symposium on Tribal Demography and Development, organized by the Indian Association for the Study of Population, and held in Bhopal, India, in October 1984. Chapters include papers on tribal demography and development, tribal population trends, health and family planning topics, and literacy and education.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, 29/9 Nangia Park, Shakti Nagar, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40570 Bose, Ashish; Nongbri, Tiplut; Kumar, Nikhlesh. Tribal demography and development in North-East India. ISBN 81-7018-568-8. 1990. [viii], 197 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This volume brings together 20 research papers prepared mostly by scholars from North-East India, on the critical problems of tribal demography and development. In particular, emphasis has been put on nutrition, health and education." Attention is also given to occupational structure. The papers were prepared for a symposium held in Shillong, India, in May 1985, that was organized jointly by the Indian Association for the Study of Population and North-Eastern Hill University.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, 29/9 Nangia Park, Shakti Nagar, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40571 Finnas, Fjalar. The language of children in bilingual families in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 28, 1990. 77-82 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The author deals with the effect of language shifts and registrations on children in bilingual families in Finland. The study is based on census data, the language information which was extracted from the central population register."
Correspondence: F. Finnas, Abo Akademi, Social Science Research Unit, Domkyrkotorget 3, 20500 Abo, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40572 Gandotra, M. M. Fertility, mortality and contraceptive prevalence in a tribal population. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 267-74 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Fertility, mortality, and contraceptive prevalence are studied in a rural tribal population of Gujarat, India, using data collected in 1986 from 3,000 households.
Correspondence: M. M. Gandotra, Population Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Lokmanya Tilak Road, Baroda 390, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40573 Kalibova, Kveta. Prognosis of the Gypsy population in Czechoslovakia up to the year 2005. [Prognoza romske populace v CSFR do roku 2005.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1990. 219-24 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An attempt is made to forecast the growth of the Gypsy population of Czechoslovakia up to 2005 using data from the censuses of 1970 and 1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40574 Karlquist, Anders; Olsson, Mats-Olov. Circumpolar population: the case of Sweden. Population Review, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1990. 23-37 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
Demographic and economic development in northern Scandinavia, particularly northern Sweden, since 1750 is reviewed, with a focus on the Sami (or Lapp) population. The impact of industrialization on this population is considered.
Correspondence: A. Karlquist, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, Box 50005, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40575 Khubchandani, Lachman M. Language and population. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 393-404 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The demography of language distribution in India is analyzed using data from the 1981 census. Tables are presented by state and numbers of people speaking each language.
Correspondence: L. K. Khubchandani, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Rashtrapati Nivas, Simla 171 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40576 McHugh, Kevin E. Hispanic migration and population redistribution in the United States. Professional Geographer, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1989. 429-39 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The U.S. Hispanic population has grown rapidly over the last two decades and remains geographically concentrated in nine states. Redistribution away from core states through internal migration has been largely offset by heavy immigration to traditional areas of Hispanic concentration. Geographical patterns of Hispanic migration show broad similarities to overall patterns of population distribution in the United States. New York and California serve as key spatial redistributors or pivots in the Hispanic migration system."
Correspondence: K. E. McHugh, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40577 O'Hare, William. A new look at Asian Americans. American Demographics, Vol. 12, No. 10, Oct 1990. 26-31 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides the first analysis of national data on the consumer characteristics of [Asian Americans] since the 1980 census. The data come from an analysis of the 60,000 nationally representative households included in the Current Population Survey conducted by the [U.S.] Bureau of the Census. In the March 1989 survey, the Census Bureau identified Asian Americans separately for the first time."
Correspondence: W. O'Hare, Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Suite 809, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40578 Poston, Dudley L.; Yu, Mei-Yu. The distribution of the overseas Chinese in the contemporary world. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Fall 1990. 480-508 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the distribution of the overseas Chinese in the contemporary world. Data are analyzed on the numbers of overseas Chinese in six continents and in more than 130 countries and areas from the end of the 1940s to the early 1980s. In the circa 1980 period, there were between 26.8 million and 27.5 million overseas Chinese. Also, the data indicate that the overseas Chinese population has steadily increased in recent decades. The overseas Chinese now live in almost all parts of the world. Although their distribution is widespread, it is uneven. Changes in the magnitude of the overseas Chinese population are affected by Chinese international migration patterns and by overseas Chinese mortality and fertility. These demographic processes are discussed in the context of overseas Chinese migration."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40579 Ram, Sodhi. Indian immigrants in Great Britain. ISBN 81-210-0242-7. 1989. 709 pp. Inter-India Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author investigates the structure and dynamics of the Indian community in Great Britain. "The book examines the process of settling and relocation of Indians in their new country of adoption. Not only the origin and destination areas of immigrants are precisely identified but also the underlying considerations relevant to both are looked into. The migration histories of the immigrants are traced and their demographic, housing and socio-economic characteristics are studied. A futuristic view of the situation is taken by building the 2011 scenario of the Indians in Britain." Particular attention is paid to immigration to the Bradford area.
Correspondence: Inter-India Publications, D-17 Raja Garden Extension, New Delhi 110 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40580 Srb, Vladimir; Ziegenfuss, Vladimir; Bulir, Michal. Nationality policy and education. [Narodnostni politika a narodnostni skolstvi.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1990. 204-18 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Data are presented on the evolution of ethnic minorities in Czechoslovakia over the period 1980-1988. The focus is on the provision of schooling in the langauage of these minorities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40581 Tabak, I. V. The Russian population of Moldavia: numbers, settlement, interethnic connections. [Russkoe naselenie Moldavii: chislennost', rasselenie, mezhetnicheskie svyazi.] ISBN 5-376-00576-3. 1990. 135 pp. Shtiintsa: Kishinev, USSR; Akademiya Nauk Moldavskoi SSR, Otdel Etnografii i Iskusstvovedeniya: Kishinev, USSR. In Rus.
This is a demographic analysis of the Russian population of the Moldavian SSR. Separate chapters provide information on the development of this population in the second half of the nineteenth century and up to 1917, during the period from 1917 to 1940, and during the period following World War II. The final chapter examines the ethnocultural development of this population as a whole.
Correspondence: Shtiintsa, ul. Akademika Ya. S. Grosuda 3, 277028 Kishinev, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40582 Taylor, John. The estimation of small town Aboriginal population change. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 7, No. 1, May 1990. 40-56 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper outlines some of the methodological and conceptual issues associated with the estimation of Aboriginal population change in the rapidly growing town of Katherine, in the Northern Territory [of Australia], and reports on selected social and economic impacts of recent in-migration. Attention is drawn to the inappropriateness of de facto population figures as a basis for planning and the need to estimate service requirements in the context of high population mobility."
Correspondence: J. Taylor, Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit, PO Box 41321, Casuarina NT 0810, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40583 van der Erf, R. F.; Tas, R. F. J. Aliens in the Netherlands on January 1, 1990. [Niet-Nederlanders op 1 januari 1990.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 8, Aug 1990. 14-24 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data on the foreign-born population living in the Netherlands are presented and analyzed. "On January 1st 1990 there were 641 thousand aliens living in the Netherlands, i.e. 4.3% of the total population. These figures only relate to people included in Dutch municipal population registers who do not possess...Dutch nationality....The largest category of aliens on January 1st 1990 was that of the Turks (185 thousand), followed by the 11 EC-nationalities (160 thousand) and...Moroccans (144 thousand)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40584 Zhdanko, T. A. Daily family life among ethnic groups in the Soviet Union. [Semeinyi byt narodov SSSR.] ISBN 5-02-009973-2. 1990. 520 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR; Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut Etnografii im. N. N. Miklukho-Maklaya: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The diverse ethnic and cultural traditions and daily life of the various peoples of the USSR are described and compared. Particular attention is given to differences in marriage patterns and family characteristics, as well as differences in family interrelationships in both the nuclear and extended family network. The analysis is based on a variety of demographic and other statistical data.
Correspondence: Nauka, Profsoyuznaya ul. 90, 117864 Moscow B-485, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).


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