Volume 56 - Number 4 - Winter 1990

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

56:40408 Bogue, Donald J. What survival ratios should be used to estimate net migration between 1970 and 1980 in the U.S.? A research note. In: Essays in human ecology, No. 3, edited by Donald J. Bogue and David J. Hartmann. 1990. 57-67 pp. Garcia-Bogue Research and Development: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This research note reports on a small experimental exploration of [estimating census survival ratios]....It produces...a set of [U.S.] census survival ratios for the 1970-1980 decade which, if used with margin for error of measurement (not more than 2 percent of the base population) can be used to uncover at least the major dimensions of net migration in any area, by age, sex and race....[Results reveal] that a practicable set of census survival ratios can be constructed and widely used to link net migration in this period to migration for earlier periods. In particular, the use of the native born population, and of life table ratios have been shown to be of relevance."
Correspondence: D. J. Bogue, Social Development Center, 1313 East 60th Street, Suite 145, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40409 Cadwallader, Martin. A conceptual framework for analysing migration behaviour in the developed world. Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1989. 494-511 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author attempts to formulate a theoretical framework for the analysis of migration that shows the interrelationships between macro and micro perspectives. This framework is used to identify a series of research issues. The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: M. Cadwallader, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40410 Galor, Oded; Stark, Oded. Migrants' savings, the probability of return migration and migrants' performance. International Economic Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 1990. 463-7 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper highlights a difference between migrants and the native-born, namely, a positive probability of return migration. The analysis demonstrates that this probability results in migrants saving more than comparable native-born. This differential may explain why, even if all workers are perfectly homogeneous in skills, migrants often outperform the native-born in the receiving economy."
Correspondence: O. Galor, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40411 Herbst, Jeffrey. Migration, the politics of protest, and state consolidation in Africa. African Affairs, Vol. 89, No. 355, Apr 1990. 183-203 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author notes that in many parts of Africa, people have traditionally showed their discontent with the existing political community by migrating away from their jurisdiction. However, because of political and resource constraints that have evolved over the past 100 years, such options are no longer generally available. In contrast, people tend to migrate toward urban areas, which are the centers of political power. The implications of this change for the political future of the continent are assessed.
Correspondence: J. Herbst, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40412 Hulsman, C. Migration and a future for the Syrian-Orthodox church in the Tur Abdin. Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1989. 1-21 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Migration patterns of a Christian minority group from southeastern Turkey to Istanbul and Europe during the period 1978-1989 are examined. Political, economic, and religious factors motivating migration are considered.
Correspondence: C. Hulsman, Christian Emigration Centre, Koningin Emmakade 167, 2518 JM The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40413 Johnson, James H. The context of migration: the example of Ireland in the nineteenth century. Institute of British Geographers: Transactions, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1990. 259-76 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A classic case where out-migration interacted with many other geographical phenomena is provided by rural Ireland in the nineteenth century. The apparent turning point was the Great Famine of the 1840s, but the areas with the greatest suffering from starvation did not necessarily show the greatest population decline, suggesting that other forces were active. Considerable economic and social changes were already taking place before the Famine: fertility was being reduced, later marriage was becoming established and considerable emigration was already taking place. Immediately after the Famine those areas which had been hardest hit often reverted to pre-Famine conditions and did not show strong population decline until the 1870s. The Famine was a most serious event, but the modernization of Irish rural life, which linked emigration with changes in family structure, agriculture and population numbers, was more important in bringing about geographical change."
Correspondence: J. H. Johnson, Lancaster University, Department of Geography, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40414 Katus, Kalev. Migration development: toward regulation. Conference papers, Haapsalu, Estonia, April 14-16, 1988. [Podkhody k upravleniyu migratsionnym razvitiem. Materialy konferentsii Khaapsalu, Estoniya, 14-16 aprelya 1988 g.] ISBN 5-440-00803-9. 1989. 187 pp. Estonian Interuniversitary Population Research Centre: Tallinn, USSR; Valgus: Tallinn, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collection of papers prepared for a 1988 conference concerning migration in Estonia, USSR. The focus is on recent migration trends and on the development of an appropriate migration policy for Estonia. A report of the discussion that took place at the conference examines the relationship between migration and social development, the availability of employment, and housing; the adaptation of migrants; and methods of regulating migration and their administrative consequences.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Center, Gagarini 17a, 200031 Tallinn, Estonia, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40415 Long, John F.; Boertlein, Celia G. Comparing migration measures having different intervals. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 166, Aug 1990. 1-11 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper, we first outline the problems arising from differing intervals [of migration measurement], explore their causes and effects, and give some guidelines for dealing with these differences. Then, we propose a method that takes advantage of the idiosyncrasies of migration measures of different lengths to produce a measure of repeat migration." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: J. F. Long, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Division of Population Estimates and Projections, Suitland, MD 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40416 Mwabu, Germano M. A comment on Kenyan migration movements. Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, Dec 1987. 143-5 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by Richard E. Bilsborrow, John O. Oucho, and John W. Molyneaux concerning the economic, geographic, and ethnic factors affecting migration in Kenya. In particular, he criticizes the model of migration developed in the original study.
For the article by Bilsborrow et al., published in 1986, see 53:20472.
Correspondence: G. M. Mwabu, University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: New York Public Library.

56:40417 Northcott, Herbert C. Changing residence: the geographic mobility of elderly Canadians. Perspectives on Individual and Population Aging, ISBN 0-409-81147-5. 1988. xxi, 135 pp. Butterworths: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
"This monograph focuses on the patterns of migration by older adults [in Canada], on the consequences of this movement for both the individual and the communities which gain or lose elderly residents, on the implications of Canadian policies for elderly migration, and on the impact of later life migration for Canadian policies. [The author] critically reviews the current literature, dissects existing census data pertaining to migration, and presents a number of analyses that were completed specifically for this monograph. Moreover, migration patterns in Canada are compared to those for Australia, France, Great Britain and the United States. Throughout, the author employs a socio-demographic approach to mobility. This approach involves an analysis of the objective characteristics of various population subgroups (for example, defined by age, gender, socio-economic status, education, marital status and mother tongue) and of various sending and receiving locations (that is, communities, provinces, regions); and, an analysis of the subjective characteristics of individuals who move or stay in place (that is, attitudes, values, beliefs and perceptions)."
Correspondence: Butterworths, 2265 Midland Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario M1P 4S1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40418 Papademetriou, Demetrios G. Uncertain connection: labor migration and development. Commission Working Paper, No. 9, Nov 1989. 37 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author summarizes current research on the relationship between migration and development. Two types of migrants are first identified, survival migrants and mobility migrants. The author then reviews explanatory models of migration of the classical economics and conflict schools. Next, the costs and benefits of both emigration and return migration are discussed. The focus is on the impact on development in countries of origin of both remittances from emigrants and return migration. The conclusions are generally positive concerning the effect of migration on development.
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20026. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:40419 Piazza, Alberto. Migration and genetic differentiation in Italy. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 81-93 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to discuss two examples on how human genetic differentiation is related to migration....(1) how migration can change gene frequencies; and (2) how to distinguish migration from other evolutionary processes once gene frequency changes have been observed." Surname data from Italy are used to analyze both small- and large-scale migration rates and genetic differentiation.
Correspondence: A. Piazza, Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Chimica Medica, Via Santena 19, Turin 10126, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40420 Rogers, Andrei. Requiem for the net migrant. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 283-300 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
The author criticizes researchers who continue to analyze internal migration in terms of net migrants. "Net migration models are misspecified because the rates that they use confound changing migration propensities with changing population stocks. Moveover, they obscure regularities in age profiles of migration and thereby further misspecify the spatial dynamics generating observed settlement patterns. Thus, the use of the net migration rate as the dependent variable in explanatory models of migration can produce a misspecification of the fundamental relationships that are subject of inquiry. This paper considers deficiencies of the net migration concept and illustrates them with numerical examples."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

56:40421 Akbari, Ather H. The benefits of immigrants to Canada: evidence on tax and public services. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 424-35 pp. Guelph, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The life-cycle theory implication that immigrants, being young at the time of arrival, should benefit the native-born population in a tax-transfer system is analysed for Canada. Microdata from the 1981 Canadian Census of Population are used. Consumption of major public services and payment of major taxes by the average immigrant and non-immigrant households are considered. It is observed that even after they have stayed for 35 years in Canada, immigrant households are a source of public fund transfers to non-immigrants. This confirms the life-cycle net benefit hypothesis. Implications for public policy with respect to immigration policy are suggested."
Correspondence: A. H. Akbari, Saint Mary's University, Department of Economics, Robie Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40422 Baerga, Maria del C.; Thompson, Lanny. Migration in a small semiperiphery: the movement of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1990. 656-83 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article argues that the semiperipheral development of Puerto Rico since around 1975 has led to the creation of a relative labor surplus in the formal sectors of the economy while at the same time increasing the demand for cheap labor in the informal service sector. Thus, Puerto Ricans leave their country in search of good jobs in the United States while Dominicans migrate to Puerto Rico and find work in the informal sector. The return migration of Puerto Ricans has also been significant, but is due to their strong national culture, rather than economic reasons. The article concludes that migration to and from Puerto Rico is of a semiperipheral type because it combines characteristics of migration previously described as 'migration from the periphery to the center' and 'migration within the periphery.' A precise definition of the semiperipheral characteristics of Puerto Rico is given."
Correspondence: M. del C. Baerga, Universidad del Sagrado Corazon, POB 12383 Loiza Station, Santurce, Puerto Rico 00914. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40423 Borjas, George J. Friends or strangers: the impact of immigrants on the U.S. economy. ISBN 0-465-02567-6. LC 89-43093. 1990. x, 274 pp. Basic Books: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This book analyzes the immigrant's role in the American economy....The essence of the empirical evidence summarized here is that because of changes in U.S. immigration policy and because of changing economic and political conditions both here and abroad, the United States is currently attracting relatively unskilled immigrants. For the most part, these immigrants have little chance of attaining economic parity with natives during their lifetimes. Although these immigrants do not greatly affect the earnings and employment opportunities of natives, they may have an even greater long-run economic impact because of their relatively high poverty rates and propensities for participation in the welfare system and because national income and tax revenues are substantially lower than they would have been if the United States had attracted a more skilled immigrant flow....The final section of the book....compares the foreign-born populations in the United States with the foreign-born populations in two other host countries (Australia and Canada) and documents how changes in policy and economic conditions alter the sorting of immigrant skills among host countries." Data are from official U.S. sources and censuses from Australia and Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40424 Brittain, Ann W. Cohort size and migration in a West Indian population. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1990. 703-21 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between cohort size and migration patterns among the population of the French West Indies island of St. Barthelemy. Data show that "for people born from 1878 to 1967, neither cohort size nor fluctuations in external demands for labor had a lasting effect on the probability of eventual migration. Emigration rates only slowed after the development of the local tourist industry brought prosperity to the island."
Correspondence: A. W. Brittain, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40425 Carino, Benjamin V.; Fawcett, James T.; Gardner, Robert W.; Arnold, Fred. The new Filipino immigrants to the United States: increasing diversity and change. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 115, ISBN 0-86638-124-4. LC 90-3725. May 1990. ix, 92 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This study provides a detailed portrait of a large, representative group of recent Filipino immigrants to the United States--their backgrounds before immigration, their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their family networks, and their plans, perceptions, and hopes regarding life in the United States. The analysis, which is based on scientifically selected samples of adult Filipinos who were issued immigrant visas in 1986, reveals the demographic and human resource characteristics of this cohort and the relationships between those characteristics and U.S. immigration policy. Other topics examined include expectations about various aspects of life in the United States, comparisons of the United States and the Philippines on a number of important place dimensions, the role of family networks in the immigration process, and the factors related to occupational choices, including entrepreneurship."
Correspondence: East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40426 Castillo, Manuel A. Population and international migration on the southern border of Mexico: development and change. [Poblacion y migracion internacional en la frontera sur de Mexico: evolucion y cambios.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 169-84 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author investigates trends in international migration along the southern border of Mexico, using data on the characteristics of temporary workers who provide labor for annual coffee harvests in Soconusco. Aspects considered include mechanisms of recruitment of human resources and the volume of labor migration. Data are from a survey of migrant workers employed in the coffee harvest in 1986 and 1987.
Correspondence: M. A. Castillo, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40427 Djajic, Slobodan. Skills and the pattern of migration: the role of qualitative and quantitative restrictions on international labor mobility. International Economic Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Nov 1989. 795-809 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper develops a two-country model of international migration in an attempt to study the role of both qualitative and quantitative restrictions on international labor mobility. Individuals are distinguished in terms of their ability and age, enabling the model to examine factors which influence the age and skill profile of those who migrate, as well as the equilibrium flow of migrants and the pattern of factor rewards in the two economies. Effects of changes in certain parameters of the model are related to the nature of the immigration policy enforced by the host country. The role of emigration restrictions is also considered."
Correspondence: S. Djajic, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40428 Dorbritz, Jurgen; Speigner, Wulfram. The German Democratic Republic--an immigration and emigration country? [Die Deutsche Demokratische Republik--ein Ein- und Auswanderungsland?] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1990. 67-85 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The demographic, economic, and social impacts of emigration from the German Democratic Republic are examined. The author discusses East Germany's migration policy, age distribution changes, demographic aging, and the demographic consequences of a unified Germany. Consideration is given to migration into the Federal Republic of Germany.
Correspondence: J. Dorbritz, Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Institut fur Soziologie und Sozialpolitik, Bevolkerungsentwicklung, Otto-Nurschke-Strasse, 10/11, 1086 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40429 Emke-Poulopoulos, Ira. Immigrants and refugees in Greece, 1970-1990. [Metanastes kai prosfyges sten Ellada 1970-1990.] Ekloge, 1990. 112 pp. Etairia Ptychiouchon Panepistemiakon Scholon Koinonikes Ergasias: Athens, Greece. In Gre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines migration to Greece during the period 1970-1990. The study includes the structure of the migrant population by age, sex, and socioeconomic status; reasons for migration; social and economic consequences to migrants after settling in Greece; acculturation or marginalization of migrants; and migrants' health, family status, occupations, and employment status. Also considered is the impact of migrants on the Greek culture and socioeconomic system, the duration of their stay in Greece, and reasons for out-migration to other countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40430 Goering, John M. The causes of undocumented migration to the United States: a research note. Commission Working Paper, No. 52, Jul 1990. 31 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the issues and prior research on the determinants of undocumented migration to the United States and then to discuss the findings of two recent research projects funded by the Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development. Both social and economic factors have played roles in influencing the amount and persistence of such migration, with little useful data available to precisely document changes in the flow and its determinants."
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:40431 Goldring, Luin. Development and migration: a comparative analysis of two Mexican migrant circuits. Commission Working Paper, No. 37, May 1990. 42 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the relationship between migration and development by examining the livelihood patterns of people in two well established transnational migrant circuits which originated in villages in the states of Zacatecas and Michoacan, Mexico. The analysis starts by identifying and comparing three dimensions which play a crucial role in defining distinct social and economic patterns at the level of the migrant circuits: 1) origins, demography, community-level patterns of local resource availability and use and employment in Mexico, 2) patterns of migration and 3) incorporation in U.S. labor markets. This is followed by a discussion of the investment of migrant earnings in the villages, both for private ends and community projects." The focus is on labor migration to the United States.
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:40432 Gregory, Peter. The determinants of international migration and policy options for influencing the size of population flows. Commission Working Paper, No. 2, Feb 1989. 26 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author analyzes the prospects for significantly reducing the flow of illegal migration to the United States. It is noted that this migration is driven primarily by the existence of employment opportunities in the United States and that there is little that sending countries can do to reduce these pull factors. "Therefore, the paper concludes that the burden of reducing migration falls squarely on the United States itself. Measures are discussed that might have the effect of reducing the demand for illegal migrant labor and/or reducing the probability of success in entering and remaining in the United States."
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:40433 Hoffmann-Nowotny, Hans-Joachim. World population growth and international migration. [Weltbevolkeringswachstum und internationale Migration.] In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 241-61 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The macro-sociological determinants of international migration are examined, and specific conditions that modify theoretical trends are noted. The future of international migration is then discussed, with particular reference to whether migration can compensate for population decline.
Correspondence: H.-J. Hoffmann-Nowotny, Universitat Zurich, Soziologisches Institut, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40434 Johnson, James H. The distribution of Irish emigration in the decade before the Great Famine. Irish Geography, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1988. 78-87 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"Previous attempts at mapping pre-famine emigration from Ireland are examined and two maps based on statistics calculated by Mokyr are presented. Problems with the calculation of emigration from census information are explored and a series of maps based on information collected by the Commissioners of Inquiry into the Condition of the Poorer Classes in Ireland are discussed. It is concluded that this pre-Famine emigration bore a closer resemblance to the sustained emigration that was to be established later in the second half of the nineteenth century than to movements during the Famine."
Correspondence: J. H. Johnson, University of Lancaster, Department of Geography, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40435 Khadria, Binod. Migration of human capital to United States. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 32, Aug 11, 1990. 1,784-94 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"Though recent discussions on brain drain generally give the impression that migration of highly qualified Indians to the United States has abated since the mid-seventies, this impression may be based on a definitional sleight of hand: Human capital transfers through international migration have not necessarily receded just because there is a prima facie evidence of (a) a stabilisation of the total number of immigrants from India under the numerically 'limited' preference categories of the United States visa system and (b) a decline in the share of 'principal' immigrants as defined within the occupational preference categories of the U.S. legislation. This paper argues that human capital has continued to arrive in the United States from India in many guises."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40436 King, Russell; Shuttleworth, Ian. Ireland's new wave of emigration in the 1980s. Irish Geography, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1988. 104-8 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
The purpose of this note is "to describe [Ireland's] 'new emigration' of the 1980s and to offer some evidence on the qualitative changes in the nature of Irish emigration in the last few years." Data are from official sources, including the 1986 census.
Correspondence: R. King, Trinity College, Department of Geography, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40437 Klein, Herbert S. The social and economic integration of Portuguese immigrants in Brazil at the end of the nineteenth century and in the twentieth century. [A integracao social e economica dos imigrantes portugueses no Brasil no fim do seculo XIX e no seculo XX.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1989. 17-37 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This survey of Portuguese migration to Brazil analyses the Portuguese and Brazilian statistics to determine the volume, timing and quality of Portuguese immigrants to Brazil as well as the importance of Brazil in the overall Portuguese emigration. The patterns of geographic and economic mobility for the Brazilian resident Portuguese is examined, especially for the period since 1900." The analysis suggests that "though their rapid integration into the Brazilian economy may explain their very low rates of return migration--the lowest of the major European immigrants--they were also the most endogamous of the European migrants, having relatively low rates of intermarriage with native Brazilians and other immigrants."
Correspondence: H. S. Klein, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New york, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40438 Kuijper, H.; Noordam, R. Nearly 100,000 immigrants in 1989. [Bijna 100 000 immigranten in 1989.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 9, Sep 1990. 13-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data on international migration affecting the Netherlands are analyzed for 1989. Both immigration and emigration increased as compared with 1988, although net immigration increased by 4,000. An increase in refugees and migrants for Suriname is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40439 Labaki, Boutros. Emigration. [L'emigration externe.] Maghreb-Machrek, No. 125, Sep 1989. 40-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between the wars that have occurred in Lebanon since 1975 and emigration is analyzed. The data are from a variety of published sources. Information is provided on emigrant characteristics and countries of destination. The consequences of this emigration for Lebanon itself are also considered, including the impact on the labor force and the effect of migrant remittances.
Correspondence: B. Labaki, Universite Libanaise, Sociologie, Place du Musee, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

56:40440 MacPhee, Craig R.; Hassan, M. K. Some economic determinants of third world professional immigration to the United States: 1972-87. World Development, Vol. 18, No. 8, Aug 1990. 1,111-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We estimate reduced form equations for immigration to the United States by engineers, natural and social scientists, and physicians from 18 Third World countries. Explanatory variables include income, real GDP growth, graduation in the United States, and study in each country of origin. Additional explanatory variables are foreign student enrollment in the United States, lagged immigration, total immigration from each country, and a dummy variable which accounts for implementation of restrictions on permanent visas in 1972-73....Because immigration appears to respond to labor shortages in the United States and surpluses in countries of origin, our results suggest that U.S. immigration quotas have not prevented Third World professionals from responding to economic incentives."
Correspondence: C. R. MacPhee, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0745. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40441 Martin, Philip L. Labor migration and economic development. Commission Working Paper, No. 3, Feb 1989. 17 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author attempts to determine whether labor migration from developing to developed countries accelerates development in the country of origin and thus reduces the pressure to emigrate. He concludes that there is little evidence that such migrations resolve development problems and that, despite agreement that labor-sending and labor-receiving countries should cooperate in managing worker migration and development in order to reduce emigration pressures, there is no successful example or model of such cooperation.
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:40442 Martin, Susan F. Development and politically generated migration. Commission Working Paper, No. 5, Jul 1989. 26 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between socioeconomic development and politically generated migration from Central America to the United States is explored. "This paper argues that new strategies are needed for averting the problem of refugee and related movements. In fact, development can precipitate these movements where it creates social, political and economic dislocations." The author suggests that the provision of development assistance to countries of first asylum could play a major role in resolving refugee problems.
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:40443 McElroy, Jerome; de Albuquerque, Klaus. Migration, natality and fertility: some Caribbean evidence. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1990. 783-802 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This research note explores the macrolevel impact of external migration on the demographic behavior of Caribbean islands. The analysis provisionally argues that the massive mobility of Caribbean peoples in the postwar era--primarily of young, reproductive (especially female), working-age cohorts--has inversely affected natality and population growth in sending societies, and reversed these effects in receiving societies. Results further suggest secondarily and quite indirectly that migration may also influence fertility patterns in similar directions through the impacts of age-sex imbalances on mating behavior and family formation."
Correspondence: J. McElroy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40444 Mehrlander, Ursula. Research on foreigners in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1965 to 1980: research themes, theoretical approaches, empirical results. [Auslanderforschung 1965 bis 1980: Fragestellungen, theoretische Ansatze, empirische Ergebnisse.] Forschungsinstitut der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Reihe: Auslanderforschung und Auslanderpolitik, Vol. 4, ISBN 3-87831-457-4. 1987. 111 pp. Verlag Neue Gesellschaft: Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Research on foreigners in West Germany is reviewed using the example of three studies carried out by the author between 1965 and 1980. The research themes, theoretical approaches, and empirical results of the three projects are analyzed. The author contends that research interests have moved from the economic effects of the employment of foreign workers, through the social problems of foreigners, to the integration of migrants' children.
Correspondence: Verlag Neue Gesellschaft, In der Raste 20-22, D-5300 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40445 Mittelberg, David; Sobel, Zvi. Commitment, ethnicity and class as factors in emigration of kibbutz and non kibbutz populations from Israel. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1990. 768-82 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the motivating factors involved in the migration from Israel of kibbutz and non-kibbutz populations. "The burden of the research done until now suggests that an individual's level of commitment is a major predictor of the predisposition to emigrate. This research will be surveyed, reanalyzed in part, with new emphasis on ethnicity and class, and compared with new research on emigration from the kibbutzim which should provide unique insights into the connection between commitment and departure." Data are from two surveys, a 1986 survey of the general population and one of four kibbutzim in 1985.
Correspondence: D. Mittelberg, Haifa University, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40446 Pedraza-Bailey, Silvia. Immigration research: a conceptual map. Social Science History, Vol. 14, No. 1, Spring 1990. 43-67 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual map of immigration research, focusing on immigration to the United States. The approach is interdisciplinary, with emphasis on research carried out in the last 15 years.
Correspondence: S. Pedraza-Bailey, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40447 Perez-Lopez, Jorge; Diaz-Briquets, Sergio. Labor migration and offshore assembly in the socialist world: the Cuban experience. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 273-99, 399-400 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article analyzes labor flows from Cuba to Eastern Europe (East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary) and to the Soviet Union during the 1980s; it also examines the phenomenon of Soviet assembly operations on the island. The analysis suggests that these labor flows were largely motivated by factors similar to those that drive labor migration in the West--notably labor complementarities arising from differential rates of labor force growth and the tendency among native workers to avoid certain types of jobs."
Correspondence: J. Perez-Lopez, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40448 Peterson, Linda S.; Warren, Robert. Determinants of unauthorized migration to the United States. CIR Staff Paper, No. 57, Sep 1990. x, 34 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Unauthorized immigration to the United States is associated with selected characteristics of the home countries of the immigrants. This study helps to specify native-country characteristics and conditions that are associated with unauthorized migration to the United States, and it investigates how these vary by region, particularly for Europe, Latin America, and Asia. Linkages between country characteristics and rates of unauthorized migration to the United States are analyzed for 69 sample countries." The data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service and other official U.S. sources and concern nonimmigrants who overstay their permitted time period.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40449 Portes, Alejandro. Unauthorized immigration and immigration reform: present trends and prospects. Commission Working Paper, No. 8, Nov 1989. 24 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines common views about the causes of unauthorized immigration [to the United States], compares them with the available historical and contemporary evidence, and proposes an alternative perspective on the process." The determinants of labor migration to the United States are analyzed. The author concludes that the most effective way to reduce migration pressures might be "to promote the social and cultural vitality of communities in sending countries and to support small-scale and cooperative entrepreneurship in them [to] strengthen the forces that inhibit out-migration."
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:40450 Pu, Yonghao. The international emigration from modern Fujian: effects and appraisal. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1989. 211-36 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Characteristics of emigration from Fujian (Fukien) province, China, are analyzed, with attention to the impact on countries of destination and origin. The author notes that emigration from Fujian totalled some 6.5 million by 1984, of which 6.3 million live in Southeast Asia.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Zhongguo Shehui Kexue (Beijing), No. 4, 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:40451 Ritzen, Jozef M. M. World population growth and future immigration in Western Europe. [Weltbevolkerungswachstum und zukunftige Immigration in Westeuropa.] In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 262-72 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The author contends that future world population growth may lead to an increase in the immigration of highly educated young workers to Western Europe. The supply of and demand for educated young workers over the next 20 years are first discussed. The role of immigration policy is then considered.
Correspondence: J. M. M. Ritzen, Erasmus Universitat Rotterdam, Faculteit der Economische Wentenschappen, POB 1738, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40452 Snowden, Lynne L. Collective versus mass behavior: a conceptual framework for temporary and permanent migration in Western Europe and the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Fall 1990. 577-90 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Present theories treat migration as one basic movement. [In the present paper,] conceptualization of economic migration as collective rather than mass behavior has been proposed to overcome present theoretical inadequacies and facilitate empirical analyses. Permanent migration has been correctly regarded as statistically aggregated, institutionalized behavior. Temporary international labor migration is, however, a different phenomenon--one that is more accurately portrayed as a collective product. It is the culmination of nontraditional interactions between three major groups: the migrants, their employers and host nation-states. The development of collective behavior, including a noninstitutionalized role of the state, may be illustrated by Western European guestworkers and United States illegal aliens. Advantages of the conceptualization include easier cross-cultural comparisons, guidelines for predictability and recognition of the dual role of the state as both major actor in the migration process and social control agent."
Correspondence: L. L. Snowden, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40453 Sullivan, Teresa A.; Singer, Audrey. Different paths to diversity: Canadian immigration patterns, 1971-1981. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.09, 1990. 16, [16] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper uses the Public Use Samples of the Canadian censuses of 1971 and 1981 to compare and contrast recent immigrants to Canada with the Canadian foreign-born population to examine the following issues: 1) to what extent does recent Canadian immigration represent a shift in countries of origin from earlier immigration, and to what extent can this change be documented even within the space of a single decade? 2) to what extent does recent Canadian immigration 'rejuvenate' the age structure of the country as a whole and of the foreign-born population in particular? 3) to what extent has fertility changed among the immigrants, and with what effect on continued Canadian population growth? The results are used to consider the effects on the United States of proposed reforms that would make U.S. immigration policy more similar to that of Canada."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40454 Tribalat, Michele. A review of immigration. [Chronique de l'immigration.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 113-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Immigration trends in France in 1988 are reviewed using official data. Separate consideration is given to those seeking refugee status in France, to assisted repatriation of immigrants to their country of origin, and to the conditions governing the entry and residence of foreigners. A separate analysis is provided of legitimate fertility among immigrant women by country of origin using data from the INSEE family survey of 1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40455 United States. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development (Washington, D.C.). Unauthorized migration: an economic development response. Jul 1990. xxxvi, 110, [39] pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the report of a commission established by the U.S. Congress in the Immigration Reform Control Act of 1986 to examine the conditions in countries that contribute to unauthorized immigration to the United States and to explore mutually beneficial, reciprocal trade and investment programs to alleviate such conditions. The report includes a number of recommendations that are designed to reduce the pressures in countries of origin for unauthorized immigration to the United States, primarily involving the expansion of trade between those countries and the United States. The emphasis is on assessing the impact on unauthorized immigration of any trade or development policy under consideration. A 41-page executive summary of the report is published separately.
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40456 Verhaeren, Raphael-Emmanuel. To leave? An economic theory of international migration. [Partir? Une theorie economique des migrations internationales.] ISBN 2-7061-0344-2. 1990. 316 pp. Presses Universitaires de Grenoble: Grenoble, France. In Fre.
The author develops an economic theory concerning the evolution of international migration in the modern world. In addition to taking into account the desire to earn more as a motivation for migration, the author also attempts to include the concepts of return migration and chain migration, as well as the links between countries of origin and destination. The importance of global economic trends for migration patterns is stressed, particularly insofar as labor shortages in some developed economies engender a demand for immigration.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, BP 47X, 38040 Grenoble Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40457 Wattelar, Christine; Roumans, Guido. Immigration, a factor of demographic stability? Some simulations. [L'immigration, facteur d'equilibre demographique? Quelques simulations.] Futuribles, No. 145, Jul-Aug 1990. 3-23 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors examine the role that immigration might play in counteracting the trend in developed countries toward below-replacement fertility and population decline. Two countries with strong traditions of immigration, Canada and Belgium, are compared with two countries without such traditions, Austria and Spain. The results indicate that a considerable increase in the level of immigration than these countries are currently experiencing would be required to counteract the trend toward population decrease.
Correspondence: C. Wattelar, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40458 Weiner, Myron. Immigration: perspectives from receiving countries. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jan 1990. 140-65 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the issue of international migration from the standpoint of receiving countries. He attempts "to understand how and why migrant-receiving countries respond as they do, and to suggest some of the new issues in international migration that arise in a world in which the supply of would-be migrants and refugees is now greater than receiving countries are willing to accept."
Correspondence: M. Weiner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40459 Zinyama, Lovemore M. International migrations to and from Zimbabwe and the influence of political changes on population movements, 1965-1987. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1990. 748-67 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article suggests that the special case of [international migration in] southern African countries (Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe), in which the majority of permanent movers have historically been whites of European origin, requires that greater attention should be given to the politico-structural context of voluntary international migrations [as compared to economic motivation]. Statistical data on international migrations to and from Zimbabwe during the past quarter of a century are used to demonstrate that the temporal magnitude and spatial patterns of population movements are best explained by reference to the changing political, rather than economic, conditions within the country."
Correspondence: L. M. Zinyama, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40460 Zolberg, Aristide R. The future of international migrations. Commission Working Paper, No. 19, Feb 1990. 37 pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author attempts to anticipate probable developments in international migration in coming decades based on an analysis of current trends. Separate consideration is given to labor migration and to refugee movements. It is noted that the experience of developed countries with labor immigration has led to tighter restrictions in a period of increasing pressure to emigrate from developing countries. The likelihood of continued conflicts in developing countries leading to refugee movements is also established. The author also considers the implications of the grouping of national states into larger units, such as the European Community, and of changes in exit policies in Eastern European countries and the USSR.
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

56:40461 Beltrao, Kaizo I.; Migon, Helio dos S. Annual rates of rural-urban-rural migration, 1970-1980. [Migracoes anuais rural-urbano-rural periodo 70/80.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1989. 63-94 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
A method to measure levels of internal migration in Brazil is proposed based on the hypothesis that the decision to migrate in a given year depends on residence conditions in that year only, and not on conditions existing in previous years. "That is to say that the migratory process is first order Markovian process order. These estimates allow a better approximation of actual migration, as opposed to measures of net migration obtained through indirect methods."
Correspondence: K. I. Beltrao, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 166, 3 andar, 20021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40462 Clark, Rebecca; Speare, Alden. Measuring geographical mobility using panel data from the SIPP. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 89-05, Dec 1989. [6] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to discuss the usefulness of data from the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) for the study of residential mobility and interstate migration....This paper discusses how to ascertain the migration status of those who have left the SIPP sample and how including these cases can improve the estimation of mobility and migration."
This article is reprinted from the 1988 Proceedings of the Business and Economic Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association, Alexandria, Virginia, 1988, pp. 376-81.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40463 DeAre, Diana. Longitudinal migration data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 166, Aug 1990. 13-23 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The availability of the [U.S.] longitudinal Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) should be of great interest to mobility researchers. The SIPP includes about 20,000 households who are contacted every 4 months and asked detailed questions about each of the preceding 4 months. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the usefulness of this new national survey for migration research. Data quality will be considered first in determining the SIPP's utility, including comparisons with other migration data sources. Rates of moving will be calculated from the SIPP data, based on characteristics of persons at the beginning of the survey. A few variables will be analyzed with age controls. Finally, selected characteristics of movers at the beginning of the survey will be compared with the same characteristics at the end of the survey in order to examine some of the correlates of moving."
Correspondence: D. DeAre, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Journey-to-Work and Migration Statistics Branch, Suitland, MD 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40464 Evans, Alan W. The assumption of equilibrium in the analysis of migration and interregional differences: a review of some recent research. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, Nov 1990. 515-31 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper questions the plausibility of the assumption of interregional equilibrium in recent research into migration and the valuation of amenities in the United States. It is shown that it is difficult to develop a satisfactory explanation for continuing net migration which is compatible with the equilibrium assumption, and that recent relevant research generally fails to support the idea that the U.S. economy is in equilibrium. The association of higher rent levels with in-migration is explained as a short-run phenomenon. If the spatial economy is in disequilibrium, then the valuations of amenities assuming equilibrium will be biased, being probably too low in areas of net in-migration and too high in areas of net out-migration."
Correspondence: A. W. Evans, University of Reading, Environmental Economics, Reading, Berkshire RG6 2AH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:40465 Fashchevskii, N. I.; Starostenko, A. G.; Nemchenko, M. P. Features of demographic processes in the regional settlement system in the capital. [Osobennosti demograficheskikh protsessov v stolichnoi regional'noi sisteme rasseleniya.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 86-93 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Pecularities of migration processes characteristic [of] the population of the large city in the system of interrelated settlements [in the USSR] are considered. Dynamics and structure of migration relations of Kiev in the local and regional systems of settling are analyzed. [The] effect of migration flows on formation of the age-sex structure...of the system of settling and zone of its surrounding is determined."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40466 Foot, David K.; Milne, William J. Serial correlation in multiregional migration models. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, Nov 1990. 505-13 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this paper, we outline the specification and estimation of a time series of multiregional net-migration equations subject to first-order serial correlation. We show that the necessary nonstochastic adding-up constraint, which requires that net migration in the system sum to zero, imposes restrictions on the serial-correlation coefficients. We estimate equations under these restrictions using data for the ten Canadian provinces for the period 1962-1985. The results confirm the significance of the serial-correlation coefficient and, hence, the importance of incorporating this correction in future time-series models of multiregional migration."
Correspondence: D. K. Foot, University of Toronto, Scarborough College, Toronto M1C 1A4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:40467 Goldstein, Sidney. Jews on the move: implications for American Jewry and for local communities. Jewish Journal of Sociology, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jun 1990. 5-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Internal migration has most likely become the major dynamic responsible for the growth or decline of many Jewish communities and for the redistribution of the American-Jewish population across the United States in a pattern quite different from that characterizing American Jewry earlier in the century....The analysis which follows will be restricted to an assessment of migration into the State of Rhode Island....This paper begins with an overall description of the migration patterns of the population, set against some background information on migration to Rhode Island generally. Following this, attention will focus on how the migrants to the State, classified by duration of residence, differ from non-migrants with respect to socio-economic characteristics. Finally, migrants and non-migrants will be compared on selected behavioural indicators designed to measure integration into the religious and social life of the community."
Correspondence: S. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40468 Grundy, Emily M. D. Longitudinal study. Women's migration: marriage, fertility and divorce. Series LS, No. 4, ISBN 0-11-691240-5. 1989. 42 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
The relationships between geographical mobility and marriage, childbearing, and divorce for women in England and Wales are analyzed for the period 1971-1981 using data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study. The focus is on internal migration. The study also examines the effects of circumstances such as occupation, housing tenure, and social class.
Correspondence: Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

56:40469 Kuhnl, Karel. A preference index of migration among the major regions of Czechoslovakia and changes over the past 25 years. [Indice de preference des mouvements migratoires entre les grandes regions de la Republique Socialiste Tchecoslovaque et ses changements dans les 25 dernieres annees.] Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1988. 39-55 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Fre. with sum. in Cze.
Trends in internal migration over the past 25 years in Czechoslovakia are reviewed.
Correspondence: K. Kuhnl, Univerzita Karlova, Department of Economic and Regional Geography, Ovocny trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40470 Narayana, M. R. Policy and non-policy economic determinants of inter-regional migration of workers in a developing country: some new evidence based on a polytomous logit model for India. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1990. 285-302 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper utilises the framework of Polytomous Logit Model for analysing and testing the economic behaviour of worker migrants between different regions (states) in India. The model is estimated...with policy and non-policy economic variables, using 1971 Population (migration) Census data. The empirical results with regard to policy variables provide new evidence that federal transfers have resource (labour) allocation effects rather than pure income redistribution effects and that workers move from high tax regions to low tax regions. The results...argue for an inter-regional migration policy for India as well as for other developing countries."
Correspondence: M. R. Narayana, Centre for Development Studies, Prasantanagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40471 Pick, James B.; Tellis, Glenda L.; Butler, Edgar W.; Pavgi, Suhas. Socioeconomic determinants of migration in Mexico. [Determinantes socioeconomicos de migracion en Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1990. 61-101, 212 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study examines the socioeconomic influence on migration frequency and transitory movements in four Mexican regions. The analysis is based on data gathered from the [Mexican Fertility Survey] 1976-1977, considering the influences of...education, occupation, literacy, place of residence and fertility. The methods used for this analysis were regression and logistic regression." Aspects considered include patterns of internal migration in Mexico, data sources, analysis of independent variables, migration experiences, and age effects. A comment by Carlos Brambila Paz is included (pp. 179-83).
Correspondence: J. B. Pick, University of California, Graduate School of Management, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40472 Premi, M. K. Pattern of internal migration in India: some new dimensions. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 277-92 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes interdistrict migration (within the state of enumeration) in India using data from the 1961, 1971, and 1981 censuses for Rajasthan district. Principal population movements are described, and motivation for internal migration by sex is discussed.
Correspondence: M. K. Premi, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40473 Robinson, Isaac A. The relative impact of migration type on the reversal of black out-migration from the South. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1990. 373-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article historical patterns and recent trends in black migration in the United States are examined. The purpose of the article is two-fold: (1) to examine historical changes in the volume and rates of migration between the southern region and nonsouthern regions; and (2) to determine the relative impact of migration types on the South's changeover to net in-migration during the 1975-1980 migration interval....The single most important factor influencing the turnaround was a decrease in the number of southern-born blacks migrating out of the region. This finding is contrary to much current speculation about the role of return migrants in influencing the South's changeover to net in-migration for the black population."
Correspondence: I. A. Robinson, North Carolina Central University, Sociology Department, Durham, NC 27707. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40474 Rogers, Andrei; Watkins, John F.; Woodward, Jennifer A. Interregional elderly migration and population redistribution in four industrialized countries: a comparative analysis. Research on Aging, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1990. 251-93 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"This article examines the elderly migration and population redistribution process in four industrialized countries, identifies their principal retirement regions, and analyzes the sources of regional elderly population growth in these regions. It concludes that the United Kingdom and the United States are approaching the final stages of their 'elderly mobility transition,' whereas Japan is only entering the first stage, with Italy occupying a position somewhere in between."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40475 Seekings, Jeremy; Graaff, Johann; Joubert, Pieter. Survey of residential and migration histories of residents of the shack areas of Khayelitsha. Department of Sociology Occasional Paper, No. 15, ISBN 0-908422-81-4. Apr 1990. [vii], 66 pp. University of Stellenbosch, Department of Sociology, Research Unit for Sociology of Development: Stellenbosch, South Africa. In Eng.
"This report presents and analyses the results of a survey conducted in Khayelitsha, [South Africa,] an African (officially 'Black') township on the Cape Flats, during June 1988. The survey covered 755 residents in four shack areas of Khayelitsha....The aim of the survey was to examine migration into Khayelitsha. What were the residential and movement histories of Khayelitsha shack residents: Where had they come from, why, and when? How many were born outside of the Western Cape, and when had they originally migrated into the area? How many times had they moved in the Western Cape, and when? What ties did they have with their places of origin?...The survey also provided basic household data, such as household size, composition, and education. In addition, the survey asked a few questions concerning AIDS."
Correspondence: University of Stellenbosch, Department of Sociology, Research Unit for Sociology of Development, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa.

56:40476 Shaw, D. P. Rural population redistributions, the case of Malawi: a neglected aspect of migration studies? Malawian Geographer, No. 26, Aug 1987. 87-91 pp. Zomba, Malawi. In Eng.
Internal migration trends in Malawi are analyzed using data from the 1966 and 1977 censuses. The importance of migration among rural areas as opposed to rural-urban migration is stressed.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:40477 Wetrogan, Signe I.; Long, John F. Creating annual state-to-state migration flows with demographic detail. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 166, Aug 1990. 25-41 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents a description and compares the major current sources of migration data [for the United States]. It also presents the steps needed to create a synthetic migration matrix of State-to-State migration rates by age, sex, and race. The proposed method combines annual geographic information on recent migration from tax return data, information on the relationship between 1-year and 5-year migration rates from CPS, and data on interaction between geographical and demographic dimensions contained in the 5-year interstate migration data from the 1980 census. The method produces a time series of annual interstate migration data for 1-year migration intervals with detailed demographic characteristics for use in migration analysis and development of population projections."
Correspondence: S. I. Wetrogan, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Projections Branch, Suitland, MD 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

56:40478 Abou-Rjaili, Khalil. The forced migration of population inside Lebanon, 1975-1986. [L'emigration forcee des populations a l'interieur du Liban, 1975-1986.] Maghreb-Machrek, No. 125, Sep 1989. 53-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The internal migration that has taken place in Lebanon since 1975 as a result of war is analyzed. This includes both forced migration and migration to avoid the fighting. A distinction is made between temporary migration to avoid the actual fighting and permanent migration caused by deliberate attempts by different groups to clear specific population groups from selected areas in order to reduce political or religious diversity.
Correspondence: K. Abou-Rjaili, Universite Saint-Joseph, Sociologie, Rue de Damas, BP293, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

56:40479 Japan. Statistics Bureau (Tokyo, Japan). 1985 population census of Japan: commuting population. Reference Report Series, No. 1, [1988]. [607] pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng; Jpn.
"This report...presents a summary analysis on the daily movement of workers and students commuting between their usual places of residence and places of work or schooling, that is 'Daytime Population' and 'Commuting Population', at the level of the whole country [of Japan], prefectures and municipalities. This is based on the results of the 1980 and 1985 Population Censuses, aiming at contributing to more extensive use of these data."
Correspondence: Statistics Bureau, Management and Coordination Agency, 19-1 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA.

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

56:40480 Fuller, Theodore D.; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit; Lightfoot, Paul. Urban ties of rural Thais. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Fall 1990. 534-62 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This article analyzes interpersonal linkages between villagers and urban dwellers and the effect on circular migration in Thailand. "Using data from Northeast Thailand, it examines the prevalence of urban social contacts, selectivities involved in such linkages, the characteristics of the urban contacts themselves, the salience of the interpersonal relationships, and the potential for the urban contact to act as a sponsor for the villagers. Furthermore, using a prospective research design, the impact of social contacts on subsequent rural-urban mobility of villagers is examined." A distinction is made between Bangkok and Northeastern Thai urban centers in order to illustrate some of the obstacles to the decentralized urbanization program in Thailand.
Correspondence: T. D. Fuller, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40481 Jha, S. D. Policy implication of rural-urban migration in India. 1989. xv, 140 pp. Vani Prakashan: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Trends in rural-urban migration in India are analyzed using data from official and other published sources. Migrant characteristics are examined by occupation, age, sex, and educational status. The author suggests that the major cities have reached the saturation point. The policy implications of these trends are assessed.
Correspondence: Vani Prakashan, 4697/5, 21-A Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40482 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Rural-urban migrants and their adaptation to the urban employment market. [Immigrants d'origine rurale et leurs comportements vis a vis du marche d'emploi urbain.] Apr 1990. 33 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report examines the impact of rural-urban migration on labor force structure in urban areas in Morocco. Data are from the 1982 census and from a series of labor force surveys carried out between 1985 and 1987. The report includes a profile of both the rural and urban labor forces. The main focus is on how migrants are absorbed into the urban labor force.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco.

56:40483 Nasibullin, R. T. Migration from towns toward the countryside. [Migratsiya iz goroda v derevnyu.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 3, 1990. 75-8 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in migration from urban centers in the USSR back to rural areas are analyzed. Data are from a survey carried out in the cities of Uchal and Sterlitamak in the Bashkir Autonomous Republic and Magnitogorsk in the Russian SFSR. The results show that such reverse migration is related to job scarcity, unsatisfactory economic or social status, and the desire to cultivate a private plot of land.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40484 Ormachea, Enrique. Migration and employment in Bolivia: the cases of La Paz and Santa Cruz. [Migracion y empleo en Bolivia: los casos de las ciudades de La Paz y Santa Cruz.] PREALC Documento de Trabajo, No. 321, May 1988. 198 pp. International Labour Office [ILO], Programa Regional de Empleo para America Latina y el Caribe [PREALC]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Trends in rural-urban migration to the Bolivian cities of La Paz and Santa Cruz are analyzed. Chapters are included on the absorption of in-migrants into the urban labor force, their occupational structure, and migrant incomes. (To obtain this document from CELADE, refer to Document No. 13615.00.).
Correspondence: International Labour Office, Programa Regional de Empleo para America Latina y el Caribe, Casilla 618, Santiago, Chile. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:40485 Pandey, A.; Sharma, H. L.; Singh, K. K. Compounding negative binomial and Poisson distribution to describe rural-urban out-migration at household level. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 293-8 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Rural-urban out-migration at the household level is studied using a probability model applied to data collected in 1978 from a rural area in northern India.
Correspondence: A. Pandey, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40486 Serow, William J. Patterns of rural-urban migration among the elderly. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 89-53, 1989. 23, [3] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
Rural-urban migration among the elderly is considered "within the context of urbanization and metropolitanization. More specifically, this paper will review the findings from a recently completed cross-national study...on the migration of older persons, as well as [data from] other relevant studies, to determine the state of our knowledge regarding the magnitude of flows to and from urban or metropolitan areas, as well as information regarding the characteristics and motivations of older persons making these moves. In addition to reviewing the characteristics of migrants themselves, we will also consider those characteristics of places which tend to make them more or less attractive to older migrants." Countries considered include Australia, Belgium, Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United States.
Correspondence: Robert H. Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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