Volume 56 - Number 4 - Winter 1990

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

56:40206 Bonneuil, Noel. Turbulent dynamics in a XVIIth century population. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1990. 289-311, 325 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A reconstruction of the population of the Pays de Caux [France] (1589-1700) yields the time series of a fertility behavior indicator....An attempt is made to explain this general temporal structure by using a simulation model based on the autoregulation model (the so-called European Marriage Pattern), putting into play a choice of the spouse function, a fertility function, modalities of marriage and remarriage, under the environmental forcing of the reconstructed mortality conditions. The correspondence between reconstruction and simulation turns out to be quite good....A second simulation with simulated mortality conditions shows a bifurcation point: as the mean frequency of crisis increases, the state of the system leaves the lower level and concentrates more and more in the higher level."
Correspondence: N. Bonneuil, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40207 Calhoun, Charles A. Desired and excess fertility in Europe and the United States: indirect estimates from World Fertility Survey data. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-89-41, Jul 1989. v, 18, [24] pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Using indirect estimation techniques and data from the World Fertility Survey, the author estimates desired and excess fertility for the United States and Europe. "It turns out that the women not in the labor force have higher proportions of unwanted births than those in the labor force; even at given levels of education the former may be thought of as more traditional. Working women, moreover, have a stronger incentive to be [more] careful than housewives. The use of this technique on data available in the late 1970s would have forecast the fall in the late 1980s, if it were supposed that sophistication in birth control is spreading through the population. On the same supposition the possibility of further falls in fertility is one of the conclusions from the figures given here, more for some countries than for others."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40208 Cochrane, Susan H. The policy implications of the effects of education, health and social security on fertility in developing countries. In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 138-55 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The effect of various types of social programs on fertility in developing countries is examined, including education, infant mortality reduction, and the provision of social security. The author concludes that "the implications of these findings are that in most countries family planning is the most cost effective means of reducing fertility. In a few countries that have very costly family planning programs per effect, education, infant mortality reduction, or pension schemes may be more cost effective."
Correspondence: S. H. Cochrane, World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40209 Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Centro de Documentacion en Poblacion y Desarrollo [CENDOP] (La Paz, Bolivia). Fertility and family planning (an annotated bibliography). [Fecundidad y planificacion familiar (bibliografia anotada).] Informacion sobre Poblacion, Vol. 3, 1989. 232 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This annotated bibliography concerns fertility and family planning in Bolivia. It consists primarily of Spanish-language materials published after 1960. A number of indexes are provided, including authors and institutions, titles, acronyms, projects, conferences, geography, series, and subject.
Correspondence: Consejo Nacional de Poblacion, Avenida Acre 2147, Casilla 686, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40210 Debroy, B. Fertility trends and population policies and programmes in Socialist Europe. Social Scientist, Vol. 17, No. 7-8, Jul-Aug 1989. 66-87 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses fertility trends in the countries of Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia, with particular reference to the impact of pro-natalist policies on fertility. The factors associated with the decline in fertility that occurred following World War II are first reviewed. These include an increase in female labor force participation, rural-urban migration, changes in nuptiality, increases in income and living standards, and the rise of induced abortion. The author concludes that neither pro-natalist measures nor restrictions on abortion have had a significant, long-term impact on fertility.
Correspondence: B. Debroy, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, India. Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

56:40211 Dollamore, Gillian. Birth statistics 1989. Population Trends, No. 61, Autumn 1990. 11-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article presents the latest annual birth statistics for England and Wales. In 1989 there were 688 thousand live births, a fall of almost 6 thousand, or nearly one percent, compared with 1988. The total period fertility rate (the average number of children who would be born per woman given current age-specific fertility rates) fell from 1.82 to 1.80 in 1989. Births outside marriage rose by 8 thousand and accounted for 27 per cent of all births."
Correspondence: G. Dollamore, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40212 Farid, Samir; Alloush, Khaled. Reproductive patterns in Syria. [1989?]. 222 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI], World Fertility Survey: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a collection of analytical studies by various authors concerning reproductive patterns. It is based on data from the 1978 Syria Fertility Survey, which was undertaken as part of the World Fertility Survey. "The first three papers (chapters 2-4) are concerned with levels, trends and socio-economic determinants of fertility. Chapter 5 presents a detailed analysis of the levels, trends and correlates of infant, child and adult mortality. Chapter 6 addresses various dimensions of fertility preferences and contraceptive use including the effects of community-level variables on fertility desires and behaviour. Chapter 7 presents a comprehensive analysis of the proximate determinants of fertility through which social, economic and cultural conditions can affect reproductive norms. The concluding chapter of this volume presents a brief synthesis of the various findings of the study."
Correspondence: International Statistical Institute, 428 Prinses Beatrixlaan, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40213 Farooq, Ghazi M.; DeGraff, Deborah S. Fertility and development: an introduction to theory, empirical research and policy issues. Background Papers for Training in Population, Human Resources and Development Planning, No. 7, ISBN 92-2-106797-1. LC 89-181137. 1988. v, 56 pp. International Labour Office [ILO], World Employment Programme: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The present paper is a survey of the theoretical literature, empirical research, and policy issues concerning the determinants of fertility in developing countries....[It] is intended to provide an introduction to the general area of fertility within the context of development. Section II contains a brief overview of fertility trends in industrialised and developing countries. The third section outlines theoretical approaches to the study of fertility, ranging from broad generalisations about the nature of the demographic transition to very specific economic models of household behaviour. Section IV contains a selective outline of some of the empirical research on the determinants of fertility and the final section brings out the major conclusions of the paper. The technical appendix provides a brief introduction to fertility measures and their uses and drawbacks."
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40214 Feeney, Griffith; Kiyoshi, Hamano. Rice price fluctuations and fertility in late Tokugawa Japan. Reprints of the East-West Population Institute, No. 254, [1990]. 30 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
This is a survey of the relationship between fluctuations in rice prices and fertility rates in nineteenth-century Japan. "The observed response of fertility to changes in rice prices might be due to fluctuations in natural infant mortality, to infanticide, to abortion, or to some form of contraception....We have seen...that the estimated birth rate series might in fact be influenced by fluctuations in natural infant mortality (infant mortality exclusive of infanticide). Thus the observed correlation between prices and birth rates might really be a correlation between prices and (natural) infant mortality rates. This would indicate the operation of a positive check, which would be consistent with the older view of a society straining against the limits of subsistence. We are inclined against this possibility, on the grounds of the similarity of our results to those for many European countries, whose birth rate series are (probably) not subject to the same problems as those for Japan, but this is clearly not decisive." The results are compared with those obtained in a 1978 study by Shoji Uemura.
This paper is reprinted from the Journal of Japanese Studies (Seattle, Washington), Vol. 16, No. 1, Winter 1990.
For the study by Uemura, published in 1978, see 45:2613.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40215 Figueroa Campos, Beatriz. Fertility in Mexico: changes and perspectives. [La fecundidad en Mexico: cambios y perspectivas.] ISBN 968-12-0422-0. LC 89-217260. 1989. 454 pp. Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a selection of papers by various authors prepared for a seminar on fertility in Mexico. The first part contains six papers on estimating fertility levels between 1940 and 1980 using data from different sources. The second part includes three papers that review the literature on the determinants of fertility. The final part has three papers on projecting future fertility trends in Mexico.
Correspondence: Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

56:40216 Goyal, R. S. Social inequalities and fertility behaviour. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 153-61 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper is [an]...attempt to examine fertility transition in the Indian society, in the context of socio-economic inequalities manifested in the form of caste system....It dwells on the assumption that the socio-economic inequalities associated with the social stratification of society, not only influences fertility behaviour, but the pattern of fertility transition also."
Correspondence: R. S. Goyal, Panjab University, Population Research Centre, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40217 Grindstaff, Carl F.; Balakrishnan, T. R.; Maxim, Paul S. Life course alternatives: factors associated with differential timing patterns in fertility among women recently completing childbearing, Canada 1981. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, Vol. 14, No. 4, Autumn 1989. 443-60 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the timing of childbearing as measured by the ages of children present in the home for ever-married women at age 35 in Canada in 1981. The timing of childbearing is associated with a series of socio-demographic variables available from the 1981 census. It appears that childbearing at any age is associated with a reduction in labour force activity and earning power. It would seem that women are best able to establish role alternatives outside of their marital responsibilities when they remain childless or begin having children at a relatively late age. In the multivariate analyses, the most important factor in differentiating timing patterns in childbearing is age at first marriage, but several of the other variables are also significant, including marital status, religion, and income. Implications of the findings are discussed relating to life course alternatives."
Correspondence: C. F. Grindstaff, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40218 Grossman, Michael; Joyce, Theodore J. Unobservables, pregnancy resolutions, and birth weight production functions in New York City. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, No. 5, Pt.1, Oct 1990. 983-1,007 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper makes contributions to the estimation of health production functions and the economics of fertility control. We present the first infant health production functions that simultaneously control for self-selection in the resolution of pregnancies as live births or induced abortions and in the use of prenatal medical care services. We also incorporate the decision of a pregnant woman to give birth or to obtain an abortion into economic models of fertility control and use information conveyed by this decision to refine estimates of infant health production functions and demand functions for prenatal medical care....Data on births and abortions are taken from New York City vital statistics in 1984....Data from the abortion and birth certificates were augmented with 1980 census data that had been aggregated from the census tract to the health area level. Thus we were able to measure the race-specific percentage of persons below the poverty level by health area."
Correspondence: M. Grossman, City University of New York, Graduate School, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40219 Hirschman, Charles; Guest, Philip. The emerging demographic transitions of Southeast Asia. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1990. 121-52, 208, 210 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Among the world's regions, Southeast Asia appears to be second only to East Asia in its potential for completed fertility transitions in the near future. This article uses microdata from 1970 and 1980 censuses to examine the first phase of fertility declines in four major Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. In spite of wide variations across countries, clear evidence emerges of significant fertility declines in all four; moreover, within countries once fertility transition is well under way, all social groups and geographical areas are affected."
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40220 Holzer, Jerzy Z.; Link, Krzysztof. Fertility survey in Poland: the Maternity Inquiry, 1984. [Badanie dzietnosci kobiet w Polsce--ankieta macierzynstwa 1984.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 254, LC 89-116129. 1988. 298 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors investigate reasons for the increased fertility that occurred in Poland in the early 1980s. Data are from the Maternity Inquiry, 1984, a survey involving a one-percent sample of all births occurring in Poland in 1984, representing just over 7,000 births in total. Factors considered include rural or urban residence, household characteristics, marriage age, and contraceptive knowledge and practice.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Nepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:40221 James, William H. Reproductive stopping rules and Lexian variation: a comment on Yamaguchi (1989). Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 653-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by Kazuo Yamaguchi that discusses a formal proof of quantifying male-preferring stopping rules in childbearing. His criticism focuses on the lack of adequate knowledge of Lexian variation in a specific macrodemographic method. A response by Yamaguchi is included (pp. 655-6).
For the article by Yamaguchi, published in 1989, see 55:30293.
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, MRC Mammalian Development Unit, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40222 James, William H. Seasonal variation in human births. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 113-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"During the first half of this century, the seasonal pattern of births in European countries showed a major peak in the spring and a minor peak in the autumn. In contrast, the pattern in the U.S. was of a minor peak in spring and a major peak in autumn. Over the last 20 years, the pattern in England and Wales has changed to resemble the U.S. pattern, and the same seems to be true of several other European countries. A hypothesis is offered to account for the difference between the Europen and the U.S. patterns and for the change from one to the other in some countries. The magnitude of seasonality correlates positively with latitude: it is suggested that this is partially consequent on variation in luminosity."
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Medical Research Council Mammalian Development Unit, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40223 Jaurez, Fatima; Quilodran, Julieta. Women pioneers of reproductive change in Mexico. [Mujeres pioneras del cambio reproductivo en Mexico.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 33-49 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors attempt to characterize the women who have played a pioneering role in changing reproductive patterns in Mexico. They investigate groups of women having high and low fertility, the importance of generational groups, and variations in the impact of age at first union. The effect of selected socioeconomic and geographical characteristics on reproductive behavior is explored.
Correspondence: F. Jaurez, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40224 Jeffery, Patricia; Jeffery, Roger; Lyon, Andrew. Labour pains and labour power: women and childbearing in India. ISBN 0-86232-4858. 1989. xi, 292 pp. Zed Books: London, England; Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors investigate childbearing in India as a socially organized phenomenon. "By focussing on childbearing in two north Indian villages, we demonstrate the dramatic impact of women's subordination on female reproductive health and the survival of young children, especially girls....Our analysis also casts serious doubt on the current advocacy of schemes to train traditional birth attendants in north India....This book is based on data collected during two main field-trips to Bijnor District in western Uttar Pradesh (from February 1982 until June 1983 and during August and September 1985) and during brief visits in 1984 and 1986." Aspects considered include women as property; class and women's work; attitudes toward pregnancy; childbirth; postpartum health care and cultural restrictions; domestic policies and ethnicity; discrimination against female children; attitudes toward family size, contraception, and the value of children; and the probable impact of government policy on childbearing and women's status.
Correspondence: Zed Books, 57 Caledonian Road, London N1 9BU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40225 Katus, Kalev. The distinctions of post-war fertility trend in Estonia: report on IIASA Conference on Future Changes in Population Age Structure, Sopron, 18-21 October, 1988. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies, No. 7, 1988. 9, [6] pp. Estonian Interuniversitary Population Research Centre: Tallinn, USSR. In Eng.
The author discusses the relatively high level of fertility in Estonia, which unlike rates in other Northern European countries has remained above replacement level during the last 20 years. Consideration is given to factors influencing the fertility level, including political, historical, and socioeconomic conditions, migration, and delayed childbearing.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversitary Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 200090 Tallinn, Estonia, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40226 Lesthaeghe, R. Beyond economic reductionism: the transformation of the reproductive regimes in France and Belgium in the 18th and 19th centuries. IPD Working Paper, No. 1990-3, 1990. 29 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The author investigates fertility trends in France and Belgium in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. "This article gives an overview of the various ways in which the reproductive regime, i.e. nuptiality and martial fertility, has been influenced by material living conditions, strategies of property transmission, types of rural economies on the one hand and by the penetration of the 'nouvelle civilite chretienne' and subsequent secularization on the other hand....Both countries are remarkably heterogeneous with respect to their internal economic and cultural setting, so that the set of regions they contain forms a suitable laboratory for comparative research. Furthermore, the comparison shows that there are many roads that lead to a marital fertility transition. This is the central theme of this paper...."
Correspondence: Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40227 Levy, Michel L. The timing of fertility. [Le calendrier de la fecondite.] Population et Societes, No. 249, Sep 1990. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author discusses the importance of considering the age of parents at the birth of their children in the analysis of fertility trends. The issue is examined in the context of a debate that took place in May-June 1990 at INED concerning fertility trends in France.
Correspondence: M. L. Levy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40228 Lin, Fude. The trend in China's fertility transition. Garcia-Bogue Research and Development International Research Paper, 1986. 33, [17] pp. Social Development Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author analyzes the decline in fertility that has occurred in China since 1949 using official data. The data sources, which include the 1-in-1,000 fertility survey of 1982 and the Statistics Yearbook of 1984, are first described. The characteristics of the fertility transition over time are then outlined, emphasizing differences in rural and urban fertility. Conditions affecting fertility are also examined, including economic factors, education, urbanization, women's labor force participation, population policy, and age at marriage.
Correspondence: Social Development Center, 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40229 McMurray, Christine; Lucas, David. Fertility and family planning in the South Pacific. Islands/Australia Working Paper, No. 90/10, ISBN 0-7315-09188. 1990. 51 pp. Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Research School of Pacific Studies: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This paper is divided into three sections, focusing on fertility and family planning in Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Demographic and socioeconomic data are also included for each country in the three regions.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Research School of Pacific Studies, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40230 Mocan, Naci H. Business cycles and fertility dynamics in the United States: a vector autoregressive model. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1990. 125-46 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"Using vector-autoregressions...this paper shows that fertility moves countercyclically over the business cycle....[It] shows that the United States fertility is not governed by a deterministic trend as was assumed by previous studies. Rather, fertility evolves around a stochastic trend. It is shown that a bivariate analysis between fertility and unemployment yields a procyclical picture of fertility. However, when one considers the effects on fertility of early marriages and the divorce behavior as well as economic activity, fertility moves countercyclically."
Correspondence: N. H. Mocan, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, 1200 Larimer Street, Campus Box 181, Denver, CO 80204-5300. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40231 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Female labor force participation, marital status, and fertility. [Activite feminine, etat matrimonial et fecondite.] Mar 1990. 52 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report examines the effect of female labor force participation on family relationships and fertility in Morocco. Data are from a random sample of some 58,000 households from the 1982 census. It includes a description of trends and characteristics of female employment, an analysis of the relationship between female employment and marital status, and an analysis of the impact of such employment on fertility at both the provincial and individual level.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40232 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Hoofdafdeling Bevolkingsstatistieken (Voorburg, Netherlands). Fertility survey, 1988: cohabitation, marriage, birth control, employment, and childbearing. [Onderzoek gezinsvorming 1988: samenwonen, trouwen, geboortenregeling, werken en kinderen krijgen.] ISBN 90-357-1225-0. 1990. 91 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Results from the 1988 Netherlands Fertility Survey are presented and compared with results from the 1982 survey. The survey was of a representative sample of some 6,000 women born between 1950 and 1969. Topics covered include consensual unions, fecundity, voluntary childlessness, fertility outside marriage, fertility, family planning, and female employment.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40233 Nonaka, K. Effect of delivery season on subsequent birth interval in early 20th century in Japan. International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1989. 238-45 pp. Heidelberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
Data from a survey by questionnaire of 13,404 families in Japan are used to analyze the effects of season of delivery on subsequent birth intervals during the period 1921-1935. Seasonal variations in fertility similar to those experienced in Europe are identified, and their causes are discussed.
Correspondence: K. Nonaka, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Hygiene, 2-11-2 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40234 Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, B.; Legare, J.; Charbonneau, H.; Miura, T. Effects of maternal birth season on birth seasonality in the Canadian population during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Human Biology, Vol. 62, No. 5, Oct 1990. 701-17 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Birth records of the French-Canadian population for the period 1621-1765 were analyzed retrospectively to examine the effect of maternal birth season on the seasonal distribution of births....Mothers born in May-July showed a flatter monthly distribution of nonfirst births at a maternal age of 28 years or more. Analysis of marriage-first birth intervals indicated that mothers who married in August-October showed a lower percentage of immediate conception...whereas those mothers born in May-July had a higher percentage of immediate conception. This difference in birth seasonality shown by mothers born in May-July is similar to results from early twentieth-century Japan. Some seasonal infertility factors could have affected the embryos at the earliest stage of pregnancy, modifying a part of the seasonal variation in birth rate."
Correspondence: K. Nonaka, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Hygiene, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40235 Notkola, Irma-Leena. Transformations of reproductive behavior during the fertility transition: a family reconstitution study of a Finnish parish. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 28, 1990. 36-49 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"In this paper changes in reproductive behavior [in Finland] during the historical fertility transition are studied. The data, which consist of 1,594 family histories of women born between 1830 and 1909, have been collected by family reconstitution technique from the registers of a Finnish parish (Virolahti). Special indirect techniques, which have been devised for reconstitution data, are applied to detect the presence of family limitation and the behavioral background of natural fertility."
Correspondence: I.-L. Notkola, University of Kuopio, Department of Community Health and General Practice, Box 6, SF-70211 Kuopio, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40236 Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw. Cohort shifts in the timing of births in Ghana. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1989. 485-500 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article uses data from the Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS) 1797/1980 to examine the changing pattern of fertility behavior through the timing of births among different birth cohorts representing the onset of the fertility transition. Although the cohort changes expected do not appear to be large, there is some evidence of a pattern of birth intervals which suggests that the younger birth cohorts have shorter durations between marriage and first birth, and a slower pace for childbearing thereafter. Older women, on the other hand, exhibit relatively longer intervals from marriage to first birth and a little shorter intervals for their next births. In contrast to some previous studies, these patterns indicate that shorter intervals are not necessarily associated with shorter subsequent intervals and vice versa. The changing social meaning of marriage, increasing opportunities for the younger generation of women and prevalence of family limitation measures appear to have caused the recent changes in the fertility behavior of Ghanaian women."
Correspondence: Y. Oheneba-Sakyi, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Potsdam College, Potsdam, NY 13676-2294. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40237 Paget, W. John; Timaeus, Ian M. A relational Gompertz model of male fertility: development and application to time location procedures. Centre for Population Studies Research Paper, No. 90-2, ISBN 0-902657-31-3. Oct 1990. vi, 34 pp. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper develops a standard distribution of male fertility for use in conjunction with the relational Gompertz model. The derivation of the standard takes advantage of similarity between the shape of male and female fertility distributions. It entails 'stretching' the female standard, so that it extends to age 80, and then transforming it using the Gompertz model into a pattern which is more typical of male fertility distributions in the developing world....The standard is used to investigate the time location of adult mortality estimates obtained from data on paternal orphanhood....The existing method for estimating these is based on research conducted using the female standard. The analysis in this paper confirms that the assumptions made to derive a simple procedure that can be applied to empirical data are valid. However, the final formula for the time location estimates performs less well in applications to paternal orphanhood data from populations with very low mortality than was supposed originally."
Correspondence: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40238 Perez-Fuentes Hernandez, Pilar. The evolution of fertility in the first Basque industrialization: an analysis of the incidence of socioeconomic factors in a Vizcayan mining municipality, 1877-1920. [La evolucion de la fecundidad en la primera industrializacion vasca: analisis de la incidencia de los factores socioeconomicos en un municipio minero vizcaino, 1877-1920.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1990. 55-79 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes socioeconomic determinants of fertility in a municipality in the province of Vizcaya, Spain, from 1877 to 1920, a period of development and expansion of the mining industry in that area. The impact of industrialization on living and working conditions and the subsequent effects on fertility are emphasized.
Correspondence: P. Perez-Fuentes Hernandez, 3 Nicolas Alcorta, 48003 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40239 Rajaretnam, T. Patterns of recent fertility changes in the four southern states. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 163-70 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to analyse the patterns of recent fertility changes in the four southern states of India, with special emphasis on Kerala." Crude birth rates, total fertility rates, and total marital fertility rates are analyzed.
Correspondence: T. Rajaretnam, J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40240 Rajulton, Fernando; Balakrishnan, T. R.; Chen, Jiajian. Changes in timing of fertility--a Canadian experience. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 33-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper exemplifies a few analytical possibilities of working with...data [on the timing, sequence, and number of births] in a semi-Markovian multistate framework....Using individual reproductive histories [of 5,315 Canadian women], the object of this study is to construct and examine age-and-duration-dependent transition probabilities among different parity states for various age cohorts of women."
Correspondence: F. Rajulton, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40241 Rajulton, Fernando; Balakrishnan, T. R. Interdependence of transitions among marital and parity states in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1990. 107-32 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This study examines changes in the timing of fertility and its relationship to changing marital patterns. It makes "use of the marital and fertility histories obtained through the Canadian Fertility Survey 1984, and examines the trends over cohorts in timing and type of transitions among marital and parity states. It is found that the most conspicuous change over cohorts lies in the very first transition made after age 15, either to first marriage or to first cohabitation. The first transition substantially affects the subsequent transitions to both marital and parity states."
Correspondence: F. Rajulton, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40242 Rao, A. Kameswara. Fertility transition in Andhra Pradesh. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 181-8 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper the role of three variables, all related to children, that influence the fertility behaviour vis-a-vis the literacy level [in India] are examined. They are child labour, child marriage and child mortality. It is hypothesised that in any society with high prevalence of child marriage, child labour and child mortality, high fertility levels are not only rational but desirable....The necessary data for this paper are obtained from the census of India 1981 publications and from the records and reports of the Medical and Health Department, Andhra Pradesh."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40243 Rao, K. Vaninadha; Balakrishnan, T. R. Recent trends and sociodemographic covariates of childlessness in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1988. 181-99 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the trends and patterns of childlessness among ever married women in Canada using the data from the Canadian Fertility Survey. The proportional hazards model and the logistic regression are used for a detailed multivariate analysis of parity status. The results of the analysis, with logistic regression of parity status, indicate that shorter marriage duration, higher education, foreign birth, current work, and no cohabitation before marriage are some of the typical characteristics of the childless ever married women. Though the analysis does not show significant differences between once married, currently married and women married more than once, it does show that cohabitation before marriage is associated with higher parity....In general, women who marry at age 22 or later, and are married less than five years, residing in large urban areas, having grade 14 or more education, with one or no siblings, and currently working are more likely to remain childless compared to other groups."
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40244 Rychtarikova, Jitka. The importance of the longitudinal analysis of fertility for the development of population projections. [L'importance de l'analyse longitudinale de la fecondite pour l'establissement des perspectives demographiques.] Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1988. 73-91 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Fre. with sum. in Cze.
Estimation techniques used to project future trends in fertility in Czechoslovakia are described.
Correspondence: J. Rychtarikova, Univerzita Karlova, Department of Economic and Regional Geography, Ovocny trh 5, 116 36 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40245 Shaw, Chris. Fertility assumptions for 1989-based population projections for England and Wales. Population Trends, No. 61, Autumn 1990. 17-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The short-term performance of the 1985-based fertility projections for England and Wales is first reviewed. They have fared reasonably well, although they slightly underestimated fertility levels for women in their thirties and overestimated fertility among women in their twenties. The author suggests that average completed family size may fall below 2.0 children per woman for longer than expected. "Some details of the proposed fertility assumptions for the 1989-based projections are presented, together with a brief description of the underlying model of fertility from which they were derived."
Correspondence: C. Shaw, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40246 Stephen, Elizabeth H.; Bean, Frank D. Assimilation, disruption and the fertility of Mexican origin women in the United States. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.12, 1990. 37 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This research uses 1970 and 1980 Census data to test hypotheses about the effects of adaptation, assimilation, and disruption on the fertility of Mexican origin women [in the United States]....The findings show evidence of both assimilation and disruption effects on reproductive behavior. Fertility is found to decline the greater the length of familial exposure to the United States and, in the case of younger groups of immigrant women, to fall below the level of U.S.-born Mexican origin and non-Hispanic white women when other variables are held constant. These results...imply that the fertility behavior of the Mexican origin population is likely to come to resemble that of the rest of the population the longer this group resides in the United States."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40247 Wadhera, Surinder. Trends in birth and fertility rates, Canada, 1921-1987. [Tendances observees dans les taux de natalite et de fecondite, au Canada, 1921 a 1987.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 211-23 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This paper examines Canadian birth data from 1921 to 1987. Generally, birth and fertility rates have been declining since the baby boom of the 1940s and 1950s. Since 1972, Canada's total fertility rate has remained below the replacement level of 2.1, parallelling trends in the United States and other Western countries. From 1971 to 1987, the median age of mothers increased by two years for all births, and about three years each for first and second births. Changes in rates by province and by age are also examined."
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40248 Wadhera, Surinder N. Births and birth rates, Canada, 1988. [Naissances et taux de natalite, Canada, 1988.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1990. 86-8 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Data on births, crude birth rate, and total fertility rate for 1981, 1987, and 1988 are presented for each Canadian province based on data from Statistics Canada.
Correspondence: S. N. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40249 Watkins, Susan C. From local to national communities: the transformation of demographic regimes in Western Europe, 1870-1960. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 241-72, 398-400 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The view that individual choice is fundamental to the analysis of modern reproductive behavior has been largely unchallenged. This article proposes that certain characteristics of demographic change in Western Europe between 1870 and 1960 suggest a significant role for 'others'--kin, friends, and neighbors--in accounting for demographic behavior. Moreover, demographic as well as linguistic patterns suggest that while in the past the relevant 'others' were members of the local community, in the present the relevant community is largely national."
Correspondence: S. C. Watkins, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40250 Welti, Carlos. Decomposition of change in the crude birth rate in Mexico in recent decades. [Descomposicion del cambio en la tasa bruta de natalidad en Mexico en las decadas mas recientes.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 205-21 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author analyzes changes in the crude birth rate in Mexico between 1970 and 1987, with a focus on the impact of declining marital fertility, changes in the proportions of women in conjugal unions by age group, and changes in the age and sex distribution of the population. Data are from national fertility surveys conducted in Mexico in 1976, 1982, and 1987.
Correspondence: C. Welti, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40251 Westoff, Charles F. Reproductive intentions and fertility rates. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 84-9, 96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An evaluation of whether the stated desire to terminate childbearing is a valid predictor of fertility, using national data from 134 surveys conducted over the past 10-15 years, reveals a strong relationship between the total fertility rate and the percentage of women who want no more children, even when the comparison is restricted to developeing countries only. More than two-thirds of this strong association acts through contraceptive prevalence. Further analyses confirm the relationship between intention and fertility across time for those countries for which there were two sources of data about five years apart (on average). The conclusion reached is that the porportion of women reporting that they want no more children has high predictive validity and is therefore a useful tool for short-term fertility forecasting."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40252 Yen, Eva C.; Yen, Gili; Liu, Ben-c. Cultural and family effects on fertility decisions in Taiwan, R.O.C.: traditional values and family structure are as relevant as income measures. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 48, No. 4, Oct 1989. 415-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study attempts to relate some social and cultural factors, including traditional value concepts and complexity of the family structure to the demand for children. Empirical findings with family survey data taken from Taiwan...tend to support the view that fertility is better explained by a framework with a family structure and a sector dummy than one without. For public decision makers, findings of this kind suggest that preference heterogeneity, family structure complexity as well as the rural urban development trends should be explicitly taken into account in demographic policies aimed at family planning and overall quality of life enrichment."
Correspondence: E. C. Yen, Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, 75 Chang Hsing Street, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:40253 Zhang, Junsen. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility in China: a microeconometric analysis. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1990. 105-23 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper reports the first set of estimates of the socioeconomic determinants of fertility in China using micro-data available from China's 1985 In-Depth Fertility Survey. Based on existing microeconomic theories of fertility, an econometric model was specified and estimated. The results indicate that even after age, marriage duration and child mortality are taken into account, education level of the woman, occupational status of the husband, the place of former and current residence, sex preference for boys, durable goods ownership, and family structure affect fertility."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Australian National University, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, Department of Statistics, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

56:40254 Babalola, Stella O. Fertility attitudes and behaviour among primary school teachers in Ibadan. Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 97-111 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The present article examines the fertility preferences and performance among primary school teachers in Ibadan, Nigeria against the background of a negative relationship between women's status and fertility. Contrary to expectations, the findings show no appreciable departure from local patterns. The author tries to explain the high fertility of the study population through a number of factors which include (1) low contraceptive awareness, (2) family background, (3) [extent of compatibility] between the teaching profession and motherhood, (4) past and present level of infant and child mortality in the Yoruba society, and (5) the generally low literacy level within the society." Data are from a 1981 survey.
Correspondence: S. O. Babalola, Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40255 Bahr, Jurgen; Gans, Paul. Regional fertility differences in developing countries. [Regionale Differenzierung der Fertilitat in Entwicklungslandern.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1990. 3-28 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author discusses regional variations in fertility levels and their relationship with modernization and family planning programs. "It is concluded...that a satisfactory explanation for observed differences in fertility can be given only if 'regional factors'--among them mainly differences in cultural traditions which thereby transgress the socio-economic and demographic differentiation of the population--are taken into consideration...." The geographical focus is on developing countries, with examples from Mexico, India, and Sri Lanka.
Correspondence: J. Bahr, Christian-Albrechts Universitat zu Kiel, Geographisches Institut, Neue Universitat, Olshausenstrasse 40, 2300 Kiel, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40256 De Wit, Margaret; Rajulton, Fernando. Education and timing of parenthood among Canadian women: a cohort analysis. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 90-9, Sep 1990. 25 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This research examines factors associated with the timing of first birth in Canada, focusing primarily on the role of women's educational attainment. Proportional hazards modelling techniques are applied to data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS) in order to determine how educational attainment, estimated as close as possible to the date of first birth, influences the timing of first birth and whether the importance of this variable varies according to age cohorts. The results suggest that among a number of variables useful for distinguishing different levels of risk, educational attainment proves to be the most important predictor in the model....Moreover, significant cohort differences are also evident, with the greatest to the smallest impact on the risk from the youngest to the oldest cohorts."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada.

56:40257 Felt, Judy C.; Ridley, Jeanne C.; Allen, Gordon; Redekop, Calvin. High fertility of Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico. Human Biology, Vol. 62, No. 5, Oct 1990. 689-700 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors assess fertility patterns among a group of Old Colony Mennonites living in Mexico in 1967 and compare them to trends for Hutterite and Amish colonies. "Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico appear to demonstrate natural fertility, using no form of artificial birth control and apparently not attempting to limit family size. The resulting fertility is nearly as high as that of the Hutterites....A 1967 partial census obtained data from 38% of the Mennonite households....The median number of live births to women over age 45 years was 9.5, compared with 10.4 in the Hutterites. Age-specific marital fertility rates and birth intervals closely resembled those of the Hutterites."
Correspondence: J. C. Felt, Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40258 Gray, Alan. Aboriginal fertility: trends and prospects. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 7, No. 1, May 1990. 57-77 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of the paper is firstly to review the evidence about levels and trends of Aboriginal birth rates [in Australia], and attempt an assessment of future directions, and secondly to analyse some of the factors differentiating the fertility of groups of Aboriginal women. In particular, the role of education of young women in determining recent changes in Aboriginal fertility levels will be highlighted." Data are from the 1981 and 1986 Australian censuses.
Correspondence: A. Gray, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40259 Leete, Richard. Dual fertility trends in Malaysia's multiethnic society. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 58-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the factors associated with the changes in Chinese and Indian fertility and with the relative stability of Malay fertility over the past decade. The focus is on Peninsular Malaysia because of the greater availability of data for that area of the country." It is found that "between 1957 and 1977, the total fertility rate (TFR) in Peninsular Malaysia fell from 6.2 births per woman to 4.0, with all of the principal ethnic groups (Chinese, Indians and Malays) registering fertility declines. However, in 1988, the TFR among the Chinese and Indians was 2.3 and 2.8 births per woman, respectively, but the rate among the Malays was 4.5 births per woman. The leveling of Malay fertility in the past 10 years is mainly due to a rise in fundamentalist Islamic principles, coupled with pronatalist governmental policies. Data from the 1984-1985 Malaysian Population and Family Survey indicate that currently married Chinese and Indian women are considerably more likely than Malay women to practice contraception....Furthermore, between 1974 and 1985, use of effective contraceptive methods increased among Chinese and Indian women, but declined among Malays...."
Correspondence: R. Leete, Prime Minister's Department, Economic Planning Unit, Jalan Dato' Onn, 50502 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40260 Lewis, Caroline; Ventura, Stephanie. Birth and fertility rates by education: 1980 and 1985. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21: Data on Natality, Marriage, and Divorce, No. 49, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1927. ISBN 0-8406-0437-8. LC 90-6598. Oct 1990. iv, 40 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment of mother are shown for the United States, geographic regions and divisions, and States for 1980 and 1985. The report focuses on differentials in childbearing among educational attainment groups and changes in fertility levels during the period, particularly for well-educated older mothers. The information presented is derived from entries on live-birth certificates from 47 States and the District of Columbia."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40261 Moore, Eric G. Fertility decline in three Ontario cities, 1861-1881. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1990. 25-47 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"While the decline in marital fertility rates in the latter half of the nineteenth century is well documented, the explicit role played by sociodemographic variables in an evolving urban system is less apparent. Using micro-level data from the 1861 and 1881 manuscript censuses for Toronto, London and Kingston [Canada], the central role of religious affiliation in fertility reduction is demonstrated, with birthplace exerting only minor influence. In addition, both the differential composition of local populations and relative location within the urban hierarchy are shown to influence the path of marital fertility decline during this period."
Correspondence: E. G. Moore, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40262 Natarajan, K. S. Fertility and child mortality in Uttar Pradesh: an areal analysis. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 227-32 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The paper has attempted to explain the variation in fertility and child mortality estimates derived from the 1981 census data....Female literacy in age group 15-34 and provision of health facilities seem important factors in explaining variation in fertility....Availability of protected drinking water supply seems to be an important factor in determining child mortality." The data concern the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Correspondence: K. S. Natarajan, Office of the Registrar General, West Block 1, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40263 Pandey, G. D. A study of couple fertility in a tribal population of Madhya Pradesh. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 245-56 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Fertility differentials among tribal and non-tribal populations in India are examined. Consideration is given to the influence of socioeconomic factors on age-specific fertility patterns, age-specific fecundability, secondary sterility, and age-related delays in conception.
Correspondence: G. D. Pandey, Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Jabalpur 482 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40264 Roberts, Joseph P. Education and reproductive success in India. Population Review, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1990. 53-63 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
The relationship between fertility and educational status between two ethnic groups in India is examined. The impact on reproductive behavior of a person's dependence on family for financial security is considered. Data are from a study conducted in 1986.
Correspondence: J. P. Roberts, 2701 Homestead Road #212, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40265 Roeske-Slomka, Iwona. Income as a determinant of the fertility of families. [Dochod jako czynnik ksztaltujacy dzietnosc rodzin.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 265, LC 89-134761. 1988. 259 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Differential fertility among families in Poland by income is analyzed. Data are from official surveys of family budgets carried out in 1973, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1980, and 1983. Both conventional regression analysis and system analysis methods are applied. The conclusions concerning the effect of income on fertility are equivocal and seem to vary according to changing economic conditions.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, A1. Nepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:40266 Saw, Swee-Hock. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 101-12 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia."
Correspondence: S.-H. Saw, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40267 Scott, Joseph W.; Perry, Robert. Do black family headship structures make a difference in teenage pregnancy? A comparison of one-parent and two-parent families. Sociological Focus, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1990. 1-16 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"The black communities of the United States have a disproportionate number of single-parent families: In point of fact, over one half of all black families with children are single-parent families; the great majority of these single-parent families are headed by females. The fastest growing segment of single parent families is young never-married females who...have incomes below the poverty line. Using a causal model analysis, this particular study undertook to compare subsamples of continuous two-parent and one-parent families to find out what intra-familial dynamics 'cause' early versus late teenage pregnancy. The results suggest that positive child-parent affect is generally associated with delayed teenage pregnancy, and negative child-parent affect is generally associated with early teenage pregnancy. Moreover, the father's influence is significant in both two-parent and one-parent families."
Correspondence: J. W. Scott, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40268 Wilson, Murray G. A. The end of an affair? Geography and fertility in late post-transitional societies. Australian Geographer, Vol. 21, No. 1, May 1990. 53-67 pp. North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines the value of studying differential fertility in modern, developed societies with below-replacement fertility. He uses an analysis of small-area fertility differentials in New South Wales, Australia, in 1986 to suggest "(a) that most of the variability in local marital and total fertility is not statistically significant, and (b) than even if this problem is ignored, traditional ecological analysis has only trivial 'explanatory' power. While complete spatial uniformity is unlikely ever to be achieved, it is argued that the intrasocietal convergence of reproductive norms and behaviour has proceeded so far that conventional geographic approaches to the analysis of fertility are unlikely any longer to be...fruitful."
Correspondence: M. G. A. Wilson, University of Wollongong, Department of Geography, PO Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40269 Zsembik, Barbara A. Labor market structure and fertility differences among Puerto Rican women: the effects of economic and social policies on opportunity costs. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1990. 133-49 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1982 Puerto Rican Fertility and Family Planning Assessment, this paper compares fertility differentials among ever-married women who have never worked, who have ever worked in the informal economy, and who have only worked in the formal economy. Contrary to expectations, the fertility levels of informal labor market participants are more like those of formal labor market participants; economic activity in either sector is associated with bearing fewer children. Federal transfer payments do not appear to reduce the opportunity costs of reproduction among women employed in the informal economy."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 415).
Correspondence: B. A. Zsembik, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

56:40270 Axelsson, Gosta. Use of questionnaires in a study of spontaneous abortion in a general population. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1990. 202-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was...to evaluate the appropriateness of postal questionnaires in studies of spontaneous abortion in a general population by comparing the diagnoses reported in questionnaires to information in hospital records and a discharge register. A general comparison was also made between respondents and non-respondents regarding pregnancy outcome. The study was based upon data from a study of pregnancy outcome among women living near petrochemical plants in Sweden."
Correspondence: G. Axelsson, University of Gothenburg, Department of Environmental Hygiene, Box 33031, S-400 33 Gothenburg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40271 Hogberg, Ulf; Akerman, Sune. Reproductive pattern among women in 19th century Sweden. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 13-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Among the married female population in rural areas of 19th century Sweden infertility and subfertility were found in 7.5% and 6.1% respectively with increasing incidence during the latter half of the century. In relation to the age group 20-24, fecundity declined by 42% and 92% in the age groups 35-39 and 40-45 respectively. One-third of married women died before age 50. Re-marriages and step-parents were common. Less than half of the married women brought up the majority of the children in the community."
Correspondence: U. Hogberg, Umea University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40272 Rajulton, Fernando; Balakrishnan, T. R.; Ravanera, Zenaida R. Measuring infertility in contracepting populations. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 90-6, Jun 1990. 21 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper had the purpose of exploring viable methods of estimating the level of infertility in a contracepting population. Even though there are numerous problems associated with examining infertility in the context of widespread contraceptive use, we have shown that it is possible, provided that data on marital, pregnancy and contraceptive histories are available. It was found necessary to focus on pregnancies rather than on births, and hence to follow the definition (of infertility) as normally used by medical researchers." Marital and fertility history data are from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

56:40273 Adamchak, Donald J.; Mbizvo, Michael T. The relationship between fertility and contraceptive prevalence in Zimbabwe. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 103-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine the relationship between the total fertility rate and contraceptive prevalence in Zimbabwe, using data from surveys conducted in 1984 and 1988, in an attempt to determine why the country has high levels of contraceptive use and high fertility. "An extensive overlap is shown between postpartum amenorrhea and early adoption of contraceptive practice: In 1988, 29 percent of total contraceptive use after the last birth overlapped with postpartum amenorrhea. Consequently, the nonoverlapping contraceptive prevalence rate for that year is calculated to be 31 percent. Overlap with postpartum amenorrhea, therefore, accounts for nearly half the difference between the expected and observed contraceptive prevalence rate in Zimbabwe."
Correspondence: D. J. Adamchak, Kansas State University, Department of Sociology, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40274 Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (San Salvador, El Salvador); United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). National Survey of Family Health, FESAL-88: preliminary results. [Encuesta Nacional de Salud Familiar, FESAL-88: informe preliminar.] Sep 1988. 53 pp. San Salvador, El Salvador. In Spa.
Preliminary results from El Salvador's 1988 Survey of Family Health are presented. Data concern contraception and unmet contraceptive needs, including knowledge of contraceptive methods, contraceptive practice, reasons for use or nonuse, planning status of last pregnancy, attitudes toward female sterilization, women needing family planning services, and maternal and child health. (To obtain this document from CELADE, refer to Document No. DOCPAL 13853.00.).
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:40275 Church, Cathleen A.; Geller, Judith. Lights! Camera! Action! Promoting family planning with TV, video, and film. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 38, Dec 1989. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Television, video, and film are analyzed as methods of communicating family planning information in developing countries. The authors assess viewing trends, access to mass media, reproductive behavior changes, and the advantages, costs, and limitations of this form of communication. They outline the steps involved in producing a communication project and discuss lessons that have been learned from experiences in a variety of settings. Sources of assistance to family planning and/or health-related activities using television, film, or video are included.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40276 DaVanzo, Julie; Reboussin, David; Starbird, Ellen; Tan, Boon Ann; Hadi, S. Abdullah. Contraceptive method switching over women's reproductive careers: evidence from Malaysian life history data, 1940s-70s. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 95-116 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Several new concepts are used to describe contraceptive use histories for nearly 1,200 women in Peninsular Malaysia....Transition matrices provide useful summaries of the changes women make in their contraceptive practice from one pregnancy interval to the next. Data from the mid-1940s to mid-1970s, during which period there was a dramatic increase in contraceptive use, reveal considerable inertia in individual couples' contraceptive practice....Virtually all transitions are of three types: continuation with the same method, a change from no method to some method, or a change from some method to no method. For only 1% of all pregnancies did couples use one contraceptive method before a pregnancy and a different method after the pregnancy. Differences are examined by calendar year and education."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 410).
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40277 Dawson, Deborah A. Trends in use of oral contraceptives--data from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1990. 169-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents data from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) on lifetime use of oral contraceptives for U.S. women aged 18-67. For the five-year birth cohorts of 1920-1924 through 1965-1969, it shows ever-use of the pill, use prior to selected ages, duration of use and timing of use with respect to first full-term pregnancy. Data are shown for black and white women separately and for women of all races combined." It is found that "despite fluctuations in current use rates for oral contraceptives, ever-use of the pill has remained remarkably stable for all cohorts of U.S. women born since 1945."
Correspondence: D. A. Dawson, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Federal Center Building, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40278 de Guibert-Lantoine, Catherine. The contraceptive revolution in Canada. [Revolutions contraceptives au Canada.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 361-98 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author describes the contraceptive revolution that has occurred in Canada in recent decades. Particular attention is given to the speed and depth of changes in the province of Quebec. Data are from a number of surveys carried out between 1968 and 1984. "The 1970's were characterized by a massive increase in the number of sterilizations which has rapidly become the most prevalent contraceptive method, the pill being used merely to space births. Figures from the 1984 survey showed that more than one-third of Canadian women of childbearing age, were part of [a] couple in which one of the partners had been surgically sterilized. The most important element is...earlier recourse to sterilization; almost 18% of the youngest respondents in 1984 had had their tubes tied before the age of 30. In this context, the prevalence of abortion which varied considerably in different provinces seems to have stabilized at a moderate level. Abortion is most often used as a 'fallback' when contraception has failed among young or single women. It thus remains a marginal element in birth control in Canada."
Correspondence: C. de Guibert-Lantoine, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40279 Donaldson, Peter J.; Ghosh, Shubha. Changing patterns of fertility and the supply of contraceptive commodities. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 52-7, 80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article provides one forecast of the probable demand for contraceptive commodities in the developing world between 1985 and the year 2000....It also illustrates the effect that changing patterns of fertility will have on the demand for contraceptive commodities from the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the largest international donor of contraceptive commodities. Using information on shipments of such commodities by AID and data on current contraceptive prevalence from developing countries themselves, we offer an estimate of the number of women currently using U.S.-supplied contraceptives and project the changes that will be necessary if AID is to keep pace with the growth in contraceptive use in developing countries. Our purpose is not to argue for a particular forecast, but to call attention to the rapidly increasing need for contraceptive commodities in the developing world and to the importance of country-specific analyses of future demand and of ways to meet that demand."
Correspondence: P. J. Donaldson, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40280 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Singh, Susheela. The impact of public-sector expenditures for contraceptive services in California. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1990. 161-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A methodology previously used to calculate the number of unintended pregnancies averted nationally through publicly funded contraceptive services has been adapted for a state-level analysis in California. An estimated 136,800 unintended pregnancies--which would result in approximately 36,000 births, 85,100 abortions and 15,700 miscarriages--are averted each year because publicly funded contraceptive care is available from clinics and private physicians in California. Federal and state expenditures of $46 million for contraceptive services in California in FY 1989 resulted in an estimated savings of $232-$509 million in public costs for abortions, for prenatal and maternity care and for medical care, welfare and supplementary nutritional programs during the first two years after a birth. These savings represent an average of $7.70 saved for each dollar spent to provide contraceptive services. This savings/cost ratio is 75 percent higher than that previously estimated for the United States as a whole."
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40281 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Singh, Susheela. The sexual and reproductive behavior of American women, 1982-1988. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 206-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we examine selected findings from the two most recent rounds of the NSFG [National Survey of Family Growth] (conducted at the start and at the end of the 1980s) along with other data to identify trends over the decade in marriage, sexual activity, exposure to the risk of pregnancy, [pregnancy outcomes,] pregnancy planning and birth intentions among U.S. women of reproductive age."
Correspondence: J. D. Forest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40282 Gajanayake, Indra; Caldwell, John. Fertility and its control: the puzzle of Sri Lanka. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 97-102, 111 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors analyze fertility trends in Sri Lanka, with a focus on the use of traditional and modern contraceptive methods. Fertility surveys and contraceptive prevalence surveys conducted in 1975, 1982, and 1987 revealed that "fertility levels predicted from reported contraceptive prevalence were higher than the actual rates, but the disparity was largest for 1975. The apparent discrepancy between fertility and contraceptive use was caused by substantial underreporting of use of traditional methods in the [1975 survey] and more accurate reporting in successive surveys. Contraceptive use was understated primarily because traditional methods were not perceived by their users as methods of fertility control. Former users of traditional methods, who later accepted sterilization and were less reluctant to report its use, account for much of the observed increase in contraceptive prevalence between surveys."
Correspondence: I. Gajanayake, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, GPO 4, Canberra 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40283 Grady, William R.; Hayward, Mark D.; Billy, John O. G.; Florey, Francesca A. Contraceptive switching among currently married women in the United States. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 117-32 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines contraceptive method switching among married women in the U.S. It enquires first into the effect of method type and women's socioeconomic characteristics on the risk of switching to each of six methods, including no method, and secondly into the previous methods used by women who adopt specific contraceptive means. The results indicate a great deal of circulation among all method types and of movement to unprotected intercourse. The adoption of sterilization is greatest among women not previously using any contraceptive method."
Correspondence: W. R. Grady, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40284 Hamill, David N.; Tsui, Amy O.; Thapa, Shyam. Determinants of contraceptive switching behavior in rural Sri Lanka. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 559-78 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines the influence of a selected set of determinants of contraceptive method switching in rural Sri Lanka. Of interest is the question of how change in contraceptive practice at the individual level can account for patterns observed at the aggregate level. Based on calendar data on contraceptive use over a 3-year period, collected for more than 3,000 married women in a 1986 survey, the multivariate analysis shows that women who attain all or a significant proportion of their desired fertility tend to switch to more effective methods. Women who experience method failure tend to switch methods, usually to a type that is more effective. The woman's background determinants of age and education have small but significant effects on method switching, whereas the effect of household economic well-being is not significant. There is strong indication that rural couples are practicing contraception in a nonrandom fashion, switching methods in accordance with changes in their fertility motivations and contraceptive experience."
Correspondence: D. N. Hamill, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40285 Hatcher, Robert A.; Stewart, Felicia; Trussell, James; Kowal, Deborah; Guest, Felicia; Stewart, Gary K.; Cates, Willard. Contraceptive technology, 1990-1992. 15th rev. ed. ISBN 0-8290-2419-0. LC 78-641585. 1990. xxiii, 621, 18 pp. Irvington Publishers: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This 15th edition of Contraceptive Technology is divided into sections on reproductive health, contraceptive methods, pregnancy and family planning, and special topics related to family planning. The focus of this edition is on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the use of condoms." Special topics covered in this edition include education, counseling, and informed consent; adolescent pregnancy; population and family planning; and global trends in family planning. The book is intended as a reference guide for family planning service providers. The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
For the previous U.S. edition, published in 1988 and covering 1988-1989, see 54:20403; for the international edition, published in 1989, see 55:20330.
Correspondence: Irvington Publishers, 522 E. 82nd Street, Suite 1, New York, NY 10028. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40286 Jagdeo, Tirbani P. Contraceptive prevalence in Antigua. IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, No. 5, ISBN 0-916683-19-2. 1990. vii, 120 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The major objectives of the Antigua Contraceptive Prevalence Survey were: a) to determine and clarify levels of contraceptive in Antigua; b) to assess the relative impact of information, education and contraceptive service delivery systems on patterns of contraceptive use in the island; [and] c) to compare current levels and patterns of use in Antigua with those observed in the 1980/81 Westinghouse Health Systems study."
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 902 Broadway, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40287 Jagdeo, Tirbani P. Contraceptive prevalence in St. Kitts-Nevis. IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, No. 1, ISBN 0-916683-16-8. 1985. xi, 102, 24 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the results of a contraceptive prevalence survey carried out in St. Kitts-Nevis in 1984. Chapters are included on fertility trends, awareness of contraception and contraceptive outlets, contraceptive usage, family planning programs, and non-contraceptors.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 902 Broadway, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40288 Jagdeo, Tirbani P. Contraceptive prevalence in St. Vincent. IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, No. 4, ISBN 0-916683-17-6. 1990. vii, 123 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The major objectives of the St. Vincent Contraceptive Prevalence Survey were: a) to determine and clarify levels of contraceptive use in St. Vincent; b) to assess the relative impact of information, education and contraceptive service delivery systems on patterns of contraceptive use in the island; [and] c) to compare current levels and patterns of use in St. Vincent with those observed, in the 1980/81 Westinghouse Health Systems study."
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 902 Broadway, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40289 Khan, Joan R.; Thapa, Shyam; Gaminiratne, K. H. W. Sociodemographic determinants of contraceptive method choice in Sri Lanka: 1975-82. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 41-60 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The determinants of contraceptive method choice in Sri Lanka are examined during a period in which contraceptive prevalence increased by over 60% and involved substantial use of sterilization and traditional methods. Data are from the 1975 World Fertility and 1982 Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys....The analysis shows, in 1975 and 1982, strong socioeconomic as well as demographic effects on whether any method is used. However, in both years the type of method chosen is primarily a function of demographic considerations related to the couple's family-building stage rather than social status, implying that in Sri Lanka there are few socioeconomic barriers limiting access to different contraceptive methods. The family planning programme, however, has emphasized sterilization rather than birth spacing methods."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 410).
Correspondence: J. R. Kahn, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40290 Klugman, Barbara. The politics of contraception in South Africa. Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1990. 261-71 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article discusses the social relations surrounding the use of contraception amongst Africans in South Africa. It argues that women are oppressed by the opposing forces of apartheid and capital, interlocked as they are, on the one hand, and patriarchy on the other. The government population control programme seeks to limit the number of children that women have, in an effort to reduce the African population growth rate, as part of the overall strategy to maintain white political and economic domination....This article suggests that the double-bind that women experience in this context can only be resolved if gender oppression is addressed within the process of antiapartheid politics so that the struggle for social change does not retain its patriarchal character."
Correspondence: B. Klugman, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Social Anthropology, Wits 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40291 Low, Boon Song. Study of characteristics of condom-acceptors using condom as first choice and alternative method of contraception in 1981-1987 at the NPFDB, GHKL. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jun 1990. 13-9 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"Factors influencing condom acceptance were studied and compared in two groups of condom-acceptors [in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia]. Age of wife, duration of marriage, number of living children, wife's level of education and socio-economic status were identified as factors influencing condom acceptance. Significant differences were observed between groups in higher socio-economic status and higher level of education."
Correspondence: B. S. Low, General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Cheras Branch, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40292 Montgomery, Mark R. Dynamic behavioural models and contraceptive choice. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 17-40 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author assesses the merits and limitations of dynamic behavioral models of contraceptive use. He "explores several simple models of contraceptive use in which family-size goals are assumed to be fixed over the reproductive lifetime...[and] considers models that include the option of induced abortion....[The author] allows for change in family-size goals over the life cycle and examines the implications for sterilization decisions. The paper concludes with a discussion of empirical applications and issues in model estimation."
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, State University of New York, Department of Economics, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40293 Mosher, William D. Contraceptive practice in the United States, 1982-1988. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 198-205 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The primary purposes of this article are to describe, for the first time, the trends in contraceptive use between 1982 and 1988 among U.S. women by race, ethnic origin (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), marital status, education, income and fertility intentions, and to speculate why these changes occurred....The primary source of data for this article is the fourth cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), which was conducted in 1988. Comparisons are made to the first and third cycles of the NSFG, conducted in 1973 and 1982." The use of specific contraceptive methods is analyzed.
Correspondence: W. D. Mosher, National Center for Health Statistics, Family Growth Survey Branch, Federal Center Building, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40294 Mundigo, Axel I.; Phillips, James F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. Determinants of contraceptive use dynamics: research needs on decision and choice. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 9-16 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the need for longitudinal, theoretically-based studies of contraceptive use dynamics, including the timing, duration and interaction of reproductive events which may be more important than contraceptive technology in the social, cultural and economic context of fertility control. New research methods and appropriate analysis of data are relevant. Consideration of the social context is essential for the formulation and implementation of effective policies relating to the provision of contraceptive services."
Correspondence: A. I. Mundigo, World Health Organization, Special Program of Research in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40295 Palma Cabrera, Yolanda; Figueroa Perea, Juan G.; Cervantes Carson, Alejandro. The dynamics of contraceptive use in Mexico. [Dinamica del uso de metodos anticonceptivos en Mexico.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 51-81 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors identify some variables associated with the adoption and continuation of contraception in Mexico. The focus is on determinants of choice of different methods, as well as the impact of selected socioeconomic and demographic factors and the influence of institutions providing family planning services on choice of method.
Correspondence: Y. Palma Cabrera, Secretaria de Salud, Direccion General de Planificacion Familiar, Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40296 Paul, Bimal K. Contraceptive intention behavior in rural Bangladesh: factors in the diffusion of an innovation. Economic Geography, Vol. 66, No. 2, Apr 1990. 123-39 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Realizing the importance of religion, peer influence, and the role of various attributes of contraceptive methods, this paper develops a Fishbein-type behavioral intention model as an alternative to the traditional analysis of factors affecting the use or nonuse of contraception. The model is then empirically tested using individual-level data collected from a rural area of Bangladesh. The results of this study suggest that attitude toward contraception in general, global motivation, and method-specific attitude were the three important determinants of the intention to use birth control pills in the study area. The policy implications of the findings are also discussed." Data are from a sample survey carried out by the author in three villages of the Tangail district in 1984.
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Manhattnan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40297 Perla, Gani. Developing contraceptive social marketing strategy in Indonesia: the Dualima experience. Social Marketing for Change Occasional Paper, No. 9, May 1990. 12, [2] pp. Futures Group: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In 1986 the IKB-SOMARK project launched the Dualima condom as its first commercially distributed contraceptive product in Indonesia. The project's success has illustrated that the private sector can be a successful implementor of family planning programs. The...project was helpful in desensitizing the Indonesian public toward the advertising and purchasing of condoms. After a three-year period, the project attained a level of sales which allowed complete self-sufficiency, proving that [contraceptive social marketing] projects can realize sustainability and self-sufficiency objectives within reasonable timeframes."
Correspondence: Futures Group, 1101 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40298 Potts, Malcolm; Rosenfield, Allan. The fifth freedom revisited: I, background and existing programmes. Lancet, Vol. 336, No. 8725, Nov 17, 1990. 1,227-31 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine worldwide progress over the last 25 years in regard to the fifth freedom, the term coined by the late Sir Dugald Baird and defined as "freedom from the tyranny of excessive fertility". The focus is on policy issues in developing countries. The authors describe policy changes that affect the provision of safe abortion, family planning programs, and contraception, and discuss changes in religious attitudes. They also summarize the experience of family planning programs with regard to their demographic impact, clinical experience, distribution channels, evaluation and management, and funding.
Correspondence: M. Potts, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40299 Saxena, D. N. Marriage age, family size motivations and contraceptive prevalence in Uttar Pradesh. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 89-94 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The theme of this paper is to understand the changes in marriage time patterns, family size motivations in the Indian society, contraceptive prevalence and the extent to which these would be able to serve the aims of the country's population planning efforts. The study basically relates to Uttar Pradesh...." Data are from field studies conducted during the period 1979-1987.
Correspondence: D. N. Saxena, Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40300 Schoop, Wolfgang. Population growth, development work, and family planning (the church's experience in the third world). [Bevolkerungswachstum, Entwicklungsarbeit und Familienplanung (kirchliche Erfahrung in der Dritten Welt).] In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 308-15 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The basic concepts of church-sponsored development and family planning work are outlined, and experiences with natural family planning programs in developing countries are discussed.
Correspondence: W. Schoop, Bischofliches Hilfswerk Misereor e.v., 510 Aachen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40301 Schwartz, J. Brad; Flieger, Wilhelm. Contraceptive prevalence and continuation: a longitudinal analysis of traditional and other method users in the Philippines. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 75-93 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"An important question for family planning administrators relates to characteristics of couples who are most likely to choose and continue to use traditional methods (calendar rhythm, natural methods, withdrawal, and abstinence), so that promotion of natural methods and education in methods and techniques can be aimed at the appropriate population. This study improves on previous research by calculating prevalence and continuation rates for couples who use traditional methods, other methods (pills, IUD, condom, injections, and foam), and no contraceptive method by socioeconomic characteristics using longitudinal data from over 2,600 women from the Cebu region of the Philippines."
Correspondence: J. B. Schwartz, Research Triangle Institute, Office of International Programs, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40302 Singh, Ratan; Legnain, Mabrouka M. Profile of oral contraceptive and intrauterine device users at Benghazi. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jun 1990. 5-12 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"The present study at Benghazi, Libya was carried out to identify the profiles of Oral Contraceptive (OC) and Intrauterine Device (IUD) users and to gain insight into their experiences. The group includes 1,582 initially registered for pills and 574 women for intrauterine devices out of a total of 7,200 cases during [the period 1981-1984. The authors note that]....IUD users were of higher age and higher parity compared to OC users. The rates of morbidity, complication, discontinuation and accidental pregnancy were higher among IUD users than OC users."
Correspondence: R. Singh, Al-Arab Medical University, P.O. Box 7578, Benghazi, Libya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40303 Streit, Wolfgang. Family planning as a solution? On the public health system in Tunisia. [Ausweg Familienplanung? Zum staatlichen Gesundheitswesen in Tunesien.] Krankheit und Kultur, Vol. 4, ISBN 3-496-00914-4. 1987. 342 pp. Dietrich Reimer: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The government-sponsored family planning program in Tunisia is examined in an effort to determine how well Western medical programs fit in with the traditions of third-world countries. Initial chapters deal with traditional life-styles, including sex roles, in the Maghrib; socioeconomic change in Tunisia and international influences since independence; and traditional forms of family planning and folk medicine. The implementation and results of the family planning program are then discussed. An appendix provides information on the country's Islamic religious background.
Correspondence: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Unter den Eichen 57, 1000 Berlin 45, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40304 Tipping, Sharon; Adamchak, Susan. A mystery shopper study: evaluation of the retailer training component of the Ghana contraceptive social marketing program. Social Marketing for Change Occasional Paper, No. 10, Jul 1990. [6] pp. Futures Group: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A 'mystery shopper' survey was undertaken in five cities in Ghana in mid-1988 in order to unobtrusively test the knowledge retention and counseling practices of employees of pharmacies and chemical shops trained under the auspices of the Ghana Social Marketing Program (GSMP) to distribute condoms, vaginal foaming tablets and oral contraceptive pills....[Findings indicate that] training programs must be geared more to teaching communication skills to retailers to help them interact better with consumers about contraceptive products, as well as including more sales personnel in training programs."
Correspondence: Futures Group, 1101 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40305 Tsui, Amy O.; Thapa, Shyam; Hamill, David; De Silva, Victor. Contraceptive method change among rural Sri Lankan women. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 133-48 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Patterns of contraceptive method change and their association with reproductive motivation and contraceptive failure are examined using data from a 1986 survey of family planning behaviour of rural Sinhalese married women aged 15-44 in seventeen districts of Sri Lanka. A notable degree of rationality in contraceptive method changes occurs with family formation. The attempt to control unwanted fertility leads to more efficacious use of contraception, including traditional methods. Some methodological improvements to the analysis of contraceptive switching are indicated. Implications of the findings for programmatic emphasis on permanent versus non-permanent modern methods are discussed."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 484).
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40306 Tsui, Amy O. The dynamics of contraceptive use: an overview. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 1-7 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is an overview of articles contained in a supplement to the Journal of Biosocial Science. The special issue is devoted to an exploration of the dynamics of contraceptive use. The emphasis is on patterns of contraceptive use, with attention to method choice, switching, and continuation. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40307 Zablan, Zelda; Choe, Minja Kim; Palmore, James A.; Ahmed, Tauseef; Alcantara, Adelamar; Kost, Kathryn. Contraceptive method choice in the Philippines, 1973-83. In: Dynamics of contraceptive use, edited by Amy O. Tsui and M. A. Herbertson. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 11, 1989. 61-74 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Contraceptive use and method mix were analysed using Philippines national survey data of 1973, 1978, and 1983. The analyses suggest that the reported decline in contraceptive prevalence between 1978 and 1983 was due to under-reporting of use in 1973 and 1983. The shifts in contraceptive method mix were also partly from under-reporting of rhythm and other methods in 1973 and 1983. Nevertheless, the determinants of method choice were similar in all three sets of data. Filipino couples were making rational choices in terms of their contraceptive goals, access, evaluation, and competence. Modifications in the directions and magnitude of the relationships in determining method choice also occurred, partly reflecting the increased use of sterilization by older, higher parity women."
Correspondence: Z. Zablan, University of the Philippines, Population Institute, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

56:40308 Arshat, Hamid; Rachagan, S. P.; Kwa, Siew Kim; Ang, Eng Suan; Karim, Hamidah A.; Ismail, M. T. M. A study of the acceptability and effectiveness of Norplant(R) contraceptive implants in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jun 1990. 21-9 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"A clinical trial was carried out on the levonorgestrel-containing subdermal contraceptive implant to evaluate its efficacy and acceptability among Malaysian women. The study recruited 121 women in and around the Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory over a 13-month period [beginning in 1986] and followed up regularly for 2 years. The results showed that the subdermal implant Norplant(R) is effective and safe. The acceptability of the method among our women in 4 clinics around Kuala Lumpur and other Norplant(R) studies in other countries is comparable to the intrauterine devices among Malaysian women."
Correspondence: E. S. Ang, c/o Klinik Hamid, 75M Medan Setia 1, Plaza Damansara, Bukit Damansara, 50490 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40309 Boutaleb, Youssef; Goldzieher, Joseph W. Toward a new standard in oral contraception: Proceedings of a symposium held at the XIII World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, Marrakesh, Morocco, October 3, 1989. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 163, No. 4, Pt. 2, Oct 1990. [42] pp. Mosby-Year Book: St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a symposium held at the XIII World Congress on Fertility and Sterility in October 1989 in Marrakesh, Morocco, that focused on oral contraception. Papers by various authors are included on side effects associated with oral contraceptive use and on changes in the chemical substances or agents of oral contraceptives. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Mosby-Year Book, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146-3318. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40310 Edelman, David A.; Van Os, Willem A. A. Contraceptive development and testing in the United States of America. International Journal of Fertility, Vol. 35, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1990. 206-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Contraceptive development, including the development of IUDs, is discussed in light of the changing regulatory role of the [U.S. Food and Drug Administration]. The paper considers how the FDA and the government affect contraceptive development. Events that led to the demise of IUD use in the United States probably will have long-lasting effects on all future contraceptive development by the pharmaceutical industry in the United States."
Correspondence: D. A. Edelman, Medical Research Consultants Inc., Groton, CT 06340. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40311 Hirvonen, Erkki; Idanpaan-Heikkila, Juhana. Cardiovascular death among women under 40 years of age using low-estrogen oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices in Finland from 1975 to 1984. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 163, No. 1, Pt. 2, Jul 1990. 281-4 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"From 1975 to 1984, there were 1,585,000 women-years of oral contraceptive use and 1,975,000 women-years of copper-bearing intrauterine device use in Finland. During this 10-year period, 20 women between 15 and 39 years of age died of pulmonary embolism, 41 of coronary heart disease, and 311 of intracranial hemorrhage....Among the 20 patients who died of pulmonary embolism, four died while taking the pill, which gives a relative risk of 1.2....The corresponding values for death from myocardial infarction and intracranial hemorrhage were 0.19...and 0.36..., respectively. None among the copper intrauterine device users under the age of 40 years died of pulmonary embolism during 1,383,000 women-years of intrauterine device use. The relative risk of death from intracranial hemorrhage among intrauterine device users was 1.18...."
Correspondence: E. Hirvonen, Gynekologinen Iaakariasema, Bulevardi 22A, 00120 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40312 Huggins, George R.; Cullins, Vanessa E. Fertility after contraception or abortion. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 54, No. 4, Oct 1990. 559-73 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The authors review the literature on fertility following contraception or abortion. Contraceptive methods considered include oral contraceptives, IUDs, and spermicides. They conclude that "the risk of impaired future fertility with the use of any method appears to be low. Careful identification of patients who may be at high risk, such as those with a history of oligomenorrhea or PID, may allow the physician to suggest a method that poses the least risk to future fertility."
Correspondence: G. R. Huggins, Francis Scott Key Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4940 Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21224. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40313 Thorogood, Margaret; Vessey, Martin P. An epidemiologic survey of cardiovascular disease in women taking oral contraceptives. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Supplement, Vol. 163, No. 1, Pt. 2, Jul 1990. 274-81 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Earlier epidemiologic studies have indicated an increase in mortality from certain cardiovascular diseases in young women associated with the use of oral contraceptives. However, since these studies were conducted, newer oral contraceptives containing less estrogen and progestogen have been widely adopted. In addition, an increasing majority of oral contraceptive use is by women under the age of 30 years. Early results from a new case-control study suggest the possiblity that the risk of myocardial infarction associated with oral contraceptive use is now lower than in the past, although the previously observed small increase in the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage appears to be unchanged." The geographical focus is on the United Kingdom.
Correspondence: M. Thorogood, University of Oxford, Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. (Reprints not available.). Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

56:40314 Ayub, Tahmina A.; Farooq-i-Azam. Community participation in family planning: a case study of the Family Welfare Centre Project, Pakistan. LC 89-187072. 1988. 67 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]: London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of a family planning community participation project in Pakistan, which is coordinated by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The goal of the project is to gain a better understanding of community participation in family planning projects, to evaluate their organization and management, and to analyze their effectiveness. In addition, the linkages between providers and users were considered. Structural and informal channels of interaction were identified and evaluated. Five family welfare centers in different regions of the country were examined, with the goal of developing in-country capabilities for managing the family planning programs.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, PO Box 759, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4LQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40315 Bouzidi, Mohammed; Korte, Rolf. Family planning for life: experiences and challenges for the 1990s. May 1990. viii, 240 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]: London, England; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit [GTZ]: Eschborn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The papers in this volume were presented at the Conference on Management of Family Planning Programmes, held October 1-7, 1989, in Harare, Zimbabwe. "The conference has provided an opportunity to share the experience of family planning programme managers on the development of effective programmes and management systems. It has also addressed the management needs of family planning associations, and public sector family planning programmes, in developing new advocacy and service delivery strategies for countries with low and middle level contraceptive prevalence rates. The conference also reviewed methods for developing organizational capabilities to mobilize and manage both local and donor resources." Papers are included under the broad topics of family planning programs and trends; the integration of family planning services and maternal-child health programs; community-based distribution programs; social marketing programs; target groups; management issues; and contraceptive update.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40316 de Silva, Victor. An analysis of community participation in the Community Managed Rural Family Health Project, Sri Lanka. Occasional Series on Community Participation, LC 89-187137. 1988. 62 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]: London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of a family planning community participation project in Sri Lanka coordinated by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The goal of the project is to analyze community participation in family planning projects and to evaluate project organization, administration, and effectiveness. Organization of the supervisory, management, and volunteer staff is discussed, and various modes of community participation are described. The emphasis of this project is on staff training and education, which are observed to be key factors in successful community participation.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation, PO Box 759, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4LQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40317 Harrison, Frances C. S. The family planning programme in Pakistan. Contemporary Review, Vol. 255, No. 1487, Dec 1989. 288-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses major causes behind the failure of the Pakistani government to develop an effective national family planning program, including the impact of traditional values on public hostility to birth control and problems of organization and administration.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40318 Omu, Alexander E.; Weir, Sharon S.; Janowitz, Barbara; Covington, Deborah L.; Lamptey, Peter R.; Burton, Nadine N. The effect of counseling on sterilization acceptance by high-parity women in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 66-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine the impact of counseling on acceptance of sterilization by high-parity women in Nigeria. "More than 1,000 high-parity women...were randomly allocated either to a treatment group exposed to four individualized counseling sessions on family planning methods and the health risks associated with high parity or to a control group that received only the standard family planning information provided at the prenatal clinic....The information and education program had a significant impact on a woman's decision to utilize a contraceptive method postpartum. In addition, counseled women of every ethnic and religious group were more likely to request sterilization."
Correspondence: A. E. Omu, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40319 Piotrow, Phyllis T.; Rimon, Jose G.; Winnard, Kim; Kincaid, D. Lawrence; Huntington, Dale; Convisser, Julie. Mass media family planning promotion in three Nigerian cities. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 265-74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The impact of mass media in the promotion of family planning is examined for projects in three capital cities in Nigerian states for the period 1985-1988. "Each of these projects was among the first organized state information, education, and communication (IEC) activities under the expanding Nigerian program....Overall and in each case, clinic attendance at existing family planning clinics increased measurably at the same time as the media activities. Also, each of these state projects was implemented over a progressively shorter time period and at a lower cost. Thus, this study in Nigeria demonstrates not only the feasibility of mass media in family planning promotion but also its affordability and potential for replication in launching family planning campaigns in new settings."
Correspondence: P. T. Piotrow, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40320 Sarkar, B. N. Education and prevalence of contraception in West Bengal and Bihar. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 133-42 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationships among contraceptive use, educational status, caste, and religion and their impacts on fertility in India are examined. Data are from surveys conducted during 1970-1980. The focus is on the factors associated with effective contraception.
Correspondence: B. N. Sarkar, Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Survey Research Centre, 157 Asokegarh, Calcutta, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40321 Sawhney, Nirmal. Family planning and management interventions: a case study of Uttar Pradesh. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 171-80 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an effort has been made to review the acceptance of barrier methods (condom, IUD and oral pills) of [a] family family planning programme [for the period 1977-1988], identify issues for low level of acceptance of these methods and analyse the role management interventions in the achievement of the programme goals in Uttar Pradesh, [India]...."
Correspondence: N. Sawhney, Population Centre, Indira Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40322 Williams, Ian. Respect for religion and tradition: key to family planning in Jordan. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1990. 38-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews Jordon's family planning strategy and its success in reducing the fertility rate. The approach incorporates programs run by nongovernmental organizations with one sponsored by the Royal Family and combines Islamic traditions concerning birth spacing with modern family planning methods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40323 Williams, Timothy; Ojeda, Gabriel; Trias, Miguel. An evaluation of PROFAMILIA's female sterilization program in Colombia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 251-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The findings of three surveys and three studies used by PROFAMILIA [a private, nonprofit family planning organization based in Colombia] to evaluate and improve their voluntary female sterilization program are presented. The surveys measured sociodemographic characteristics of users, factors behind the sterilization decision, and user satisfaction with the operation in the short run and over time. The studies explored methodologies for more accurate cost-effectiveness analysis. Results of the projects were used by PROFAMILIA management to identify areas of program strengths and weaknesses and to implement operational changes."
Correspondence: T. Williams, Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, 122 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10168. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

56:40324 Bernhart, Michael H.; Uddin, M. Mosleh. Islam and family planning acceptance in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 287-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"One frequently cited barrier to more widespread adoption of family planning in Moslem countries is religious opposition. To examine the depth and extent of such opposition in Bangladesh, 106 men who had been identified by their wives as religiously opposed to family planning were interviewed. Unexpectedly, 26 percent of the 'opposing' husbands reported that they were current users of a contraceptive and an additional 50 percent, although not practicing, said they were in favor of family planning. Of the alleged 'opposers,' only 23 percent said they opposed family planning on religious grounds....It appears on the basis of these data, which were collected in the religiously conservative area of Lakshmipur, that the perception of widespread Islamic-based resistance to contraception in Bangladesh is not founded in fact."
Correspondence: M. H. Bernhart, University of Puget Sound, School of Business and Public Administration, 1500 No. Warner, Tacoma, WA 98416. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40325 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Schultz, T. Paul. Schooling, information and nonmarket productivity: contraceptive use and its effectiveness. International Economic Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 1989. 457-77 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/Osaka, Japan. In Eng.
"Information from two U.S. fertility surveys on couples' knowledge about and use of specific contraceptives are used to estimate the technology of human reproduction in order to examine the association between schooling and productivity in the household sector. The results indicate that more schooled couples have a wider knowledge of contraceptive methods, use more efficiently those contraceptive methods for which there is little information and large scope for misuse, and are better able to mitigate the effects of their biological constraints (fecundity) on their fertility compared to less schooled couples."
Correspondence: M. R. Rosenzweig, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40326 Schuller, Vratislav; Dytrych, Zdenek; Matejcek, Zdenek; Vonkova, Jirina. Psychosocial maladjustment and antisocial behavior of undesired children. [Psychosocialni maladaptace a antisocialni jednani u nechtenych deti.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1990. 225-33 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The results of a long-term study on 220 unwanted children born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, are presented. They indicate that the experience of these children, now in their early twenties, confirms their disadvantaged status, particularly as indicated by their criminality rate and antisocial behavior, when compared with the control group of wanted children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40327 Singh, K.; Viegas, O. A. C.; Ratnam, S. S. Attitudes towards contraceptive implants and injectables among present and former users in Singapore. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 1-11 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a comparison of present and past users of contraceptive implants (Norplant) or injectables (DMPA) and discontinuers of Norplant or DMPA, information concerning the women's knowledge and perception of, and attitude to, implants and injectable contraceptives, was studied. The long duration of action (5 years) of implants was perceived positively by all groups as compared to the shorter 3-month duration of injectables, though this was seen as an advantage over the pill. It appears that the Norplant system has potential for wider use in Singapore in the future."
Correspondence: K. Singh, National University of Singapore, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40328 Wawer, Maria J.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Ravao, Voahangi; Maidouka, Halima; Traore, Kadi. Results of a contraceptive prevalence survey in Niamey, Niger. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 90-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A community-based knowledge, attitudes and practices survey was conducted among women in Niamey, Niger, more than two years after the initiation of the first public-sector family planning program in 1984. Prevalence of modern method use was nine percent among women aged 15-49 and 10 percent among those currently in union....More than 75 percent of all women of reproductive age knew of at least one modern method without prompting: Radio and television had reached a larger proportion of the population with family planning information than had the more traditional method of communication, the community meeting. Survey and focus group results indicate a general acceptance of birth spacing as well as a need for more personalized communication by program staff and clarification of Islam's position on family planning."
Correspondence: M. J. Wawer, Columbia University, School of Public Health, 600 W. 168th Street, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

56:40329 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Krotki, Karol J. Attitudes towards abortion in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1988. 201-15 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"An analysis of the data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984 shows that attitudes towards abortion among a national sample of women are related to not only their demographic and socioeconomic background, but also to their experience with unwanted pregnancy. Women who were non-Catholic, educated, less religious and lived in large urban areas were more liberal in their attitudes towards abortion. Those who had an unwanted or an untimed pregnancy were also more liberal. It was also found that attitude towards abortion is correlated to with attitude toward marriage, family and childbearing in general. Women who place less value on marriage and childbearing and more value on work and personal freedom are more liberal towards abortion."
Correspondence: T. R. Balakrishnan, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40330 Garbacz, Christopher. Abortion demand. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1990. 151-60 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Abortion may be characterized as fertility control. Costs and benefits of an additional child are weighed over time. If costs exceed benefits, fertility control is employed. An economic model of abortion demand [in the United States] is developed that incorporates price, income, demographic factors (tastes), and public policy issues such as abortion funding. A key finding is that state abortion funding, substituted for federal funding under Medicaid as a result of the Hyde Amendments, may be important to abortion demand but it is difficult to differentiate its effect from other effects at the state level with an econometric model."
Correspondence: C. Garbacz, University of Missouri, Department of Economics, Rolla, MI 65401-0249. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40331 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Selected characteristics of women applying for interruption of pregnancy in Israel, 1988. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 41, No. 5, Suppl., May 1990. 119-38 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This publication presents for the first time demographic data on women applying for interruption of pregnancy [in Israel], to the committees which are attached to the licensed hospitals (according to the penal law 1977, and the Ministry of Health's instructions from 1978)." The data indicate that 16,181 out of 18,015 applications for abortion were approved. Information is provided on applicants for abortion by marital status, religion, age, size of locality, and reasons for abortion.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Prime Minister's Office, P.O.B. 13015, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40332 Keown, John. Abortion, doctors and the law: some aspects of the legal regulation of abortion in England from 1803 to 1982. Cambridge History of Medicine, ISBN 0-521-34574-X. LC 88-2604. 1988. xii, 212 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author traces the development of abortion legislation in England. "The book spans the period 1803 to 1982 and considers certain aspects of the development of the law, with particular reference to the influence of the medical profession...on its enactment and the degree to which the law has influenced the practice of abortion by the profession. It does not, therefore, present either a comprehensive history of the law itself or a socio-political history of its development." Chapters are included on the passage of anti-abortion legislation in the nineteenth century and the impact of the medical profession; abortion in legal theory and medical practice before 1938; the medical profession's influence on the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967; the medical profession's interpretation of that act; the reaction of the profession to proposed restrictions of the law from 1969 to 1979; and a theoretical overview.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40333 Mehta, Suman. Time trends in abortion practices and associated safety: an Indian perspective. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 213-23 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a comparative study of changes over time in maternal morbidity and mortality resulting from induced abortion in India. Hospital practices, profiles of abortion seekers, contraceptive use, and methods of pregnancy termination are compared. Findings reveal that "abortion risks declined considerably. The magnitude of risk reduction varies depending on personal characteristics of the abortion acceptors. Favourable shifts in timing of abortion and increase in contraceptive acceptance are noteworthy."
Correspondence: S. Mehta, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40334 Petchesky, Rosalind P. Abortion and woman's choice: the state, sexuality, and reproductive freedom. Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory, Rev. ed. ISBN 1-55553-075-3. LC 90-31272. 1990. xxxii, 412 pp. Northeastern University Press: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author "aims to provide a holistic understanding of abortion [in the United States] from a feminist perspective, including the history of its practice and state policies to contain it; the social, economic and cultural conditions under which women utilize it; and the legal, moral, and political battles that surround it." In this revised edition, she emphasizes "two interrelated problems that have surfaced since the book was first written: (1) the ascendancy of fetal politics and imagery in abortion discourse; (2) the uses of that discourse, through the law and the media, to play out the class and race politics of the neoconservative state." Part 1, on fertility control in theory and history, deals with fertility, gender, and class and with abortion and the state in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Part 2, on abortion practice in the 1970s, contains chapters on social and economic characteristics of abortion seekers; problems of contraception; and abortion and heterosexual culture, with a focus on teenagers. Part 3, on sexual politics in the 1980s, has chapters on the antiabortion movement and the rise of the "New Right" and a feminist perspective on morality and personhood.
Correspondence: Northeastern University Press, 271 Huntington Avenue, 272 Huntington Plaza, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40335 Rademakers, Jany. Abortion and contraception, 1985-1986: yearly reports from the abortion register, and information from various surveys concerning contraceptive practice in the Netherlands. [Abortus en anticonceptie, 1985/86: jaarverslag van de abortusregistratie, aangevuld met diverse onderzoeksgegevens betreffende anticonceptiegebruik in Nederland.] ISBN 90-70632-06-3. 1988. xviii, 139 pp. Stimezo-Onderzoek: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in the Netherlands during 1985 and 1986 are analyzed using data from the official abortion register. There were 37,972 abortions in 1985 and 36,455 in 1986, of which about half were for non-Dutch residents. Those coming from abroad are analyzed by country of origin and reason for coming to the Netherlands for abortions. The author notes a continuing decline in abortion for Dutch residents to 1986, when an increase was recorded. The characteristics of abortion seekers are analyzed, with particular attention paid to contraceptive practice.
Correspondence: Stimezo-Onderzoek, Postbus 63565, 2502JN The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40336 Wadhera, Surinder. Therapeutic abortions, Canada, 1987. [Les avortements therapeutiques au Canada pour l'annee, 1987.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 229-45 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Data on induced abortions in Canada are presented and analyzed. "A total of 63,662 therapeutic abortions were performed in hospitals in Canada in 1987, an increase of 0.2% from the 63,508 performed in 1986. The abortion rate per 1,000 women 15-44 years was 10.2 in 1987, as it had been in 1986. Looking at marital status at the time of abortion, 67.3% of women were single, 21.8% married and the remaining 10.9% were separated, divorced, widowed or living common-law. About 22% of the women were under 20 years of age, 54.3% were between 20-29 years, 21.3% were from 30 to 39 years and 2.4% were over 39 years of age. At time of pregnancy termination, the gestation period was under 13 weeks for 88.5% of abortion cases, 13 to 16 weeks for 8% of cases, and over 16 weeks for 3.5% of cases."
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

56:40337 Chua, S.; Viegas, O. A. C.; Ratnam, S. S. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 125-34 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Socioeconomic and ethnic differentials in breast-feeding incidence and duration in Singapore are reviewed for the period 1951-1985.
Correspondence: S. Chua, National University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40338 Eslami, Susan S.; Gray, Ronald H.; Apelo, Ruben; Ramos, Rebecca. The reliability of menses to indicate the return of ovulation in breastfeeding women in Manila, the Philippines. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 243-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the present study, biological measurements were used to estimate the time of ovulation so as to determine the relationship between the onset of menses and the resumption of ovulation during lactation. These data allowed an examination of the extent to which menses can be used as an appropriate marker for the return of fertility during the postpartum period....[The authors conclude that] the resumption of menstruation is an inaccurate indicator of the timing of fertility during the first six months postpartum, when a large proportion of menstrual episodes are anovular, and when ovulation does occur it is frequently associated with luteal phase defects. However, after six months menses is a reliable indicator that ovulation has resumed and in the majority of cases is accompanied by a normal luteal phase." Data are from 40 breast-feeding women in the Philippines.
Correspondence: S. S. Eslami, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Examination Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40339 Haurin, R. Jean; Mott, Frank L. Adolescent sexual activity in the family context: the impact of older siblings. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 537-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using approximately 2,000 sibling pairs from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth, we examine the influence of an older sibling's age at first sexual intercourse on the sexual initiation of a younger sibling. Hypotheses about differences by gender composition of the pair are tested, using a framework derived from social comparison theory and a two-stage failure-time model. Results provide evidence of a direct but modest-sized older sibling effect for white but not black youth. This effect is approximately equal in magnitude for same- and opposite- sex siblings. Little support is offered for the greater salience and association of sexual activity for brother-brother as compared with sister-sister pairs." The implications for premarital pregnancy and early childbearing are considered.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 414).
Correspondence: R. J. Haurin, Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Research, 921 Chatham Lane, Columbus, OH 43221-2418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40340 Iskandar, M. B.; Costello, C.; Nasution, Y. Initiation and duration of breast-feeding in Indonesia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 89-112 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is (a) to identify socio-economic characteristics distinguishing mothers who do and do not initiate breast-feeding; and (b) to identify covariates associated with the duration of breast-feeding in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. The analysis is based on data from the 1987 National Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS)." The impact of maternal age, parity, place of delivery, and supplemental feeding is discussed.
Correspondence: M. B. Iskandar, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Public Health, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40341 Kennedy, Kathy I. Breast-feeding and return to fertility: clinical evidence from Pakistan, Philippines and Thailand. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 45-56 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author reports on studies of the relationship between breast-feeding and fertility in Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand. "The accumulated evidence suggests that during the first six months of unsupplemented breast-feeding, if the mother remains amenorrheic, then the breast-feeding stimulus is usually sufficient to postpone the recovery of fertility. Breast-feeding frequency alone is not a useful measure of the breast-feeding stimulus in terms of its ability to predict the return of menses or ovulation."
Correspondence: K. I. Kennedy, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40342 Khan, M. E. Breast-feeding and weaning practices in India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 71-88 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Based on the literature that is available, this article reveals that [breast-feeding in India] is almost universal, but many customs surrounding breast-feeding and weaning are not conducive to the health of the child. Initiation of breast-feeding is generally quite late and colostrum is discarded. Moreover, [supplementary] feeding is generally unhygienic." Duration of breast-feeding, employment status of mothers as it affects breast-feeding, and women's knowledge of the benefits of breast milk are also examined.
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Operations Research Group, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40343 Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn; Wongboonsin, Kua. Breast-feeding trends, patterns and policies in Thailand. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 135-50 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Breast-feeding trends, patterns, and policies in Thailand are examined for the years 1970-1987. Socioeconomic differentials in the duration of breast-feeding are noted, and various promotional programs and policies are discussed.
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40344 Shaaban, Mamdouh M.; Kennedy, Kathy I.; Sayed, Gamal H.; Ghaneimah, Sharaf A.; Abdel-Aleem, Aly M. The recovery of fertility during breast-feeding in Assiut, Egypt. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 19-32 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a study in a peri-urban hospital in upper Egypt that serves a large rural population. The objective of the study was to detect by hormone analysis the time of the return of ovulation in a group of [26] breast-feeding women observed longitudinally. In this article, infant feeding factors (such as the beginning of supplementation and the frequency of breast-feeding) and other overt variables are investigated as possible predictors of the onset of ovulation."
Correspondence: M. M. Shaaban, Assiut University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Assiut, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40345 Suyono, Haryono; Thapa, Shyam. Breast-feeding and the family planning sector's initiative in Indonesia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 151-6 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The contraceptive, health, and economic benefits of breast-feeding in Indonesia are briefly examined. The author discusses efforts on the part of the government and the family planning sector to promote breast-feeding.
Correspondence: H. Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40346 Thapa, Shyam; Williamson, Nancy E. Breast-feeding in Asia: an overview. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 7-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This review considers some of the multiple reasons why researchers and policy makers are increasingly concerned about breast-feeding. It discusses the contraceptive effects and health benefits of breast-feeding, and reviews major breast-feeding trends and patterns in selected countries and areas of Asia. It also discusses the complementarity between breast-feeding and contraceptive use...."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, Program Evaluation Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40347 Tu, Ping. Breast-feeding patterns and correlates in Shaanxi, China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 57-70 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study shows a significant change in the breast-feeding pattern by parity and sex after the transition from a natural fertility regime to a controlled fertility regime in Shaanxi, a less developed inland province of China. Breast-feeding has increased in Shaanxi although the age at which supplemental food is given has declined. The rapid increase in the length of subsequent birth intervals has been partly responsible for the increase in the duration of breast-feeding for the higher order child. However, breast-feeding may also have been used to prevent additional births under the controlled fertility regime. The duration of breast-feeding increases significantly with parity, especially if the child is a son."
Correspondence: P. Tu, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40348 Tuladhar, Jayanti M. Breast-feeding: patterns and correlates in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 157-63 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This note presents the prevalence and duration of breast-feeding in Nepal and discusses some of the socio-demographic factors influencing breast-feeding as well as the determinants of breast-feeding. It is based on data from the Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey (NFFPS) 1986...."
Correspondence: J. M. Tuladhar, Nepal Family Planning and Maternal/Child Health Project, P.O. Box 820, FP/MCH Building, Panchayat Plaza, Ramshah Path, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40349 Williamson, Nancy E. Breast-feeding trends and the breast-feeding promotion programme in the Philippines. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 113-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Breast-feeding trends and promotional programs in the Philippines are examined. "Breast-feeding duration and incidence have declined in the Philippines since 1973, particularly among urban, better-educated and higher income groups. As more and more women move into these modern groups, breast-feeding may continue to decline, making attempts to decrease fertility more difficult. The National Movement for the Promotion of Breast-feeding seeks to overcome the declines by encouraging a wide range of breast-feeding promotion activities, including improving hospital practices and implementing a five-year plan."
Correspondence: N. E. Williamson, Family Health International, Program Evaluation Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

56:40350 Duncan, Greg J.; Hoffman, Saul D. Welfare benefits, economic opportunities, and out-of-wedlock births among black teenage girls. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 519-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article presents a model of teenage out-of-wedlock births [in the United States] that incorporates the effects of both welfare and nonwelfare economic opportunities. We construct measures of the likely 'medium-run' income available to a teenage girl in the event of an out-of-wedlock birth and in the absence of a birth and then estimate a logit model to determine their importance in influencing fertility behavior. The model is estimated with data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics of nearly 900 black teenagers. We find weak and statistically insignificant positive effects of Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC) benefit levels and stronger and significant negative effects of economic opportunities on the probability of AFDC-related out-of-wedlock teen births."
Correspondence: G. J. Duncan, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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