Volume 56 - Number 4 - Winter 1990

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

56:40110 Alho, Juha M.; Spencer, Bruce D. Error models for official mortality forecasts. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 85, No. 411, Sep 1990. 609-16 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The Office of the Actuary, U.S. Social Security Administration, produces alternative forecasts of mortality to reflect uncertainty about the future....In this article we identify the components and assumptions of the official forecasts and approximate them by stochastic parametric models. We estimate parameters of the models from past data, derive statistical intervals for the forecasts, and compare them with the official high-low intervals. We use the models to evaluate the forecasts rather than to develop different predictions of the future. Analysis of data from 1972 to 1985 shows that the official intervals for mortality forecasts for males or females aged 45-70 have approximately a 95% chance of including the true mortality rate in any year. For other ages the chances are much less than 95%."
Correspondence: J. M. Alho, University of Illinois, Institute for Environmental Studies, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

56:40111 Besancenot, Jean-Pierre. Seasons and mortality in Italy: some ambiguous relationships and their geographic implications. [Saisons et mortalite en Italie: quelques relations ambigues et leurs implications geographiques.] Bulletin de l'Association de Geographes Francais, Vol. 65, No. 5, Dec 1988. 383-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"A statistical analysis of mortality data during the current century in Italy reveals that the seasonal variation curve has undergone conspicuous chronological changes from decade to decade, the rates gradually evolving from a summer to winter maximum. But from [one] region to another the evolution started sooner or later and it is today more or less achieved. Moreover, while almost all countries in the world have come to show such moderateness as to be called deseasonality, i.e. a seasonal variation pattern nearly equal to a straight line, Italy is a sharp exception to this rule."
Correspondence: J.-P. Besancenot, Groupement de Recherche CNRS "Climat et Sante," 36 rue Chabot-Charny, 21000 Dijon, France. Location: New York Public Library.

56:40112 Camposortega Cruz, Sergio. Mortality in the 1980s. [La mortalidad en los anos ochenta.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 83-109 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author analyzes mortality levels in Mexico by age and sex according to selected socioeconomic and geographic variables for the period 1980-1985. Mortality in 1980 is first reviewed. Complete life tables are then provided for 1983-1985 for the whole country. Male mortality showed the greatest decline, due to a decrease in deaths from violence and accidents.
Correspondence: S. Camposortega Cruz, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40113 Capocaccia, R.; Farchi, G.; Mariotti, S.; Verdecchia, A.; Angeli, A.; Scipione, R.; Feola, G.; Morganti, P. Mortality in Italy in 1987. [La mortalita in Italia nell'anno 1987.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 90/18, 1990. ii, 59 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita: Rome, Italy; Istituto Nazionale di Statistica: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"A series of analytical tables for mortality data in Italy in 1987 is described. The age-and-sex specific rates for the whole of Italy are reported for 45 different death causes, as well as the national standardized rate [referring] to the 1971 population. The standardized rates for each of the 20 regions and the three main subdivisions: North, Center, South/Islands are also reported. This report belongs to a series describing mortality in Italy since 1970, using the same methods, with yearly up-dating editions."
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40114 Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Centro de Documentacion en Poblacion y Desarrollo [CENDOP] (La Paz, Bolivia). Mortality and health in Bolivia (an annotated bibliography). [Mortalidad y salud en Bolivia (bibliografia anotada).] Informacion sobre Poblacion, Vol. 4, 1989. 266 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This annotated bibliography concerns mortality and morbidity in Bolivia. It consists primarily of Spanish-language materials published since 1960. A number of indexes are provided, including authors and institutions, titles, acronyms, projects, conferences and geography, series, and subject.
Correspondence: Consejo Nacional de Poblacion, Avenida Acre 2147, Casilla 686, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40115 Curtin, Philip D. Death by migration: Europe's encounter with the tropical world in the nineteenth century. ISBN 0-521-37162-7. LC 89-31414. 1989. xix, 251 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author describes relocation costs in mortality among European soldiers in the tropics between about 1815 and 1914 and analyzes differential mortality between those sent overseas and those remaining at home during this period of declining mortality. "The first objective is to establish the principal patterns of European military death from disease in the tropical world, then to discover why they changed. The book contains two parts. The first deals with the period up to the 1860s, a period of relative stability in a mainly pre-industrial world. The second deals with the 1870s to the beginning of the First World War, the transitional decades when scientific medicine became a major influence." The study is based on military medical data from France and Great Britain.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40116 Ehrlich, Isaac; Chuma, Hiroyuki. A model of the demand for longevity and the value of life extension. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, No. 4, Aug 1990. 761-82 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"We specify a demand function for longevity, or 'quantity of life,' along with corresponding demand functions for indicators of 'quantity of life' and a value-of-health and life extension function....Our comparative dynamics predictions indicate that optimal health and longevity are increasing functions of endowed wealth rather than, necessarily, current income; that improvements in opportunities to produce health can accentuate the differences between endowed health and attained longevity levels; and that the value individuals ascribe to their health may be increasing over a good portion of their life cycle. We use this model to analyze observed empirical variations in levels and trends of life expectancy and in exposure to health risks across different population groups."
Correspondence: I. Ehrlich, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40117 Emery, George; McQuillan, Kevin. A case study approach to Ontario mortality history: the example of Ingersoll, 1881-1972. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1988. 135-58 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using the town of Ingersoll [Canada] and its contiguous townships as a model, the paper demonstrates the feasibility, potential and limitations of the case study approach to Ontario's mortality history. It describes the available documentary sources and how to assemble data from them, evaluates the quality of the data and uses the data to calculate Ingersoll mortality trends for the period 1881-1972. The work presented here enables the authors to study other aspects of mortality in Ingersoll and, more generally, show how empirical case studies can advance knowledge of Ontario mortality history beyond what standard estimation techniques have shown."
Correspondence: G. Emery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40118 Geller, I. M. Educational level as a factor in length of life. [Uroven' obrazovaniya kak faktor prodolzhitel'nosti zhizni.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 101-8 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper deals with...the interrelation of the education level and death-rate of the Ukrainian SSR population....Knowledge [of] the dependence of the death-rate on the educational level may be used to predict the average duration of the forthcoming life and education composition of the population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40119 Grabovskaya, T. V.; Mishchenko, A. N.; Morozyuk, M. M. The use of a simplified method of calculating mean life expectancy by region in the Ukraine. [Primenenie uproshchennoi metodiki opredeleniya srednei prodolzhitel'nosti predstoyashchei zhizni po regionam USSR.] Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie, No. 6, 1989. 16-20 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The authors discuss methodology for calculating the mean life expectancy in the Ukraine. It is suggested that life expectancy is more accurate than the death rate as an indicator of a population's level of health.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:40120 Henry, Louis. Mortality in Paris during the first half of the eighteenth century. [La mortalite a Paris dans la premiere moitie du XVIIIe siecle.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 416-20 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the historical work of Antoine Deparcieux and concludes that the estimates he provides for life expectancy in early eighteenth-century Paris are probably reasonably accurate.
Correspondence: L. Henry, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40121 Hustead, Edwin C. 100 years of mortality. ISBN 0-938959-12-3. LC 89-26100. 1989. ix, 90 pp. Society of Actuaries: Schaumburg, Illinois. In Eng.
"This monograph deals with the significant mortality tables that have been used by members of the Society [of Actuaries] in the last 100 years. Chapter I presents general statistics on mortality in the United States....Chapter II discusses the major statutory mortality tables that have been in use in the United States in the last century....Chapter III discusses the shape and trend of mortality experience in the United States."
Correspondence: Society of Actuaries, 475 North Martingale Road, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40122 Imhof, Arthur E.; Gehrmann, Rolf; Kloke, Ines E.; Roycroft, Maureen; Wintrich, Herbert. Life expectancies in Germany from the 17th to the 19th century. [Lebenserwartungen in Deutschland vom 17. bis 19. Jahrhundert.] ISBN 3-527-17708-6. 1990. 493 pp. VCH, Acta Humaniora: New York, New York/Weinheim, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng; Ger.
This study examines variations in life expectancy in Germany from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. The text is mainly in German, but with substantial parts translated into English. The analysis is based on data from village and community records and genealogical tables, which concern over 100,000 individuals living in six regions of Germany. "The book offers a detailed interpretation of these sources and also describes the research methods applied....The six regions, each different in terms of geography, confession, economy and inheritance patterns, are also described in detail. The results are presented in clearly arranged tables, graphs and maps. A direct comparison with current life expectancies is possible as the original data has been converted into so-called period tables which have been generated according to current statistical methods."
Correspondence: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Postfach 101161, D-6940 Weinheim, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40123 Kane, Penny. Famine in China, 1959-61: demographic and social implications. ISBN 0-312-01665-4. LC 88-3151. 1988. x, 164 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The demographic and social impact of the famine that occurred in China in 1959-1961 is assessed. The author first reviews the available data sources, previous studies on famine theory and experience, and the history of famine in China. She then considers the extent of the famine and how the Great Leap Forward and government procurement demands combined with natural disasters to exacerbate the effects of the famine. The impact of the famine on mortality is then analyzed, and estimates of excess mortality that range from 14 to 30 million are reviewed. The study concludes by reviewing the consequences of the famine, particularly on nuptiality and fertility.
Correspondence: St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40124 Kislyi, A. E. Some features of the death rate among the population of the Ukraine territory steppes in the Bronze Age (based on archeological data). [Nekotorye osobennosti smertnosti naseleniya stepei v epokhu bronzy na territorii Ukrainy (po arkheologicheskim dannym).] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 113-27 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The Bronze Age in the territory of the Ukraine has been studied as to peculiarities of the population death-rate in steppe areas. The first successes in the economy of production led first of all to prolongation of...life, while a high level of the early death-rate among women was a result of the generative death-rate and treatment of women under patriarchy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40125 Lee, Ronald D.; Carter, Lawrence. Modeling and forecasting U.S. mortality. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 30, Aug 1990. 24, [12] pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"In this paper we first consider the available data [for forecasting and modeling mortality] and their limitations. We then develop our demographic model of mortality, which represents mortality level by a single index. Next we fit the demographic model to U.S. data and evaluate its historical performance. Using standard time series methods, we then forecast the index of mortality, and generate associated life table values at five year intervals. Because we intend our forecasts to be more than illustrative, we present them in some detail, and provide information to enable the reader to calculate life table functions and their confidence intervals for each year of the forecast."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 440).
Correspondence: University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40126 Mina Valdes, Alejandro. Gains in life expectancy by sex and age in Mexico. [Contribuciones en anos de vida por sexo y edad en Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1990. 149-78, 213 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This work estimates the gains in life expectancy, or average years a person lives, at a national level [in Mexico] during the 1950-1980 period by sex and age of the population structure, referring as well to the changes undergone in such gains. An exhaustive presentation of the Pollard method is made in order to enable us to appreciate the advantages and limitations of the methodology used to quantify the gains in life expectancy. It also shows, graphically, the differences by sex and age from which the gain distributions are derived."
Correspondence: A. Mina Valdes, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40127 Murphy, M. J. Methods of forecasting mortality for population projections. In: Population projections: trends, methods and uses, by the British Society for Population Studies. 1990. 87-101 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
"Methods which have been used to forecast both overall and cause-specific mortality are reviewed--these include extrapolation of mortality rates, life-table based approaches and models of progression to an ultimate mortality regime. The main conclusion is that the base over which the forecasts are made is more important than the method used. The performance of British mortality forecasts incorporated in official population projections is reviewed, and the results are found to have been surprisingly poor when compared, for example, with the fertility component, with similar conclusions holding for other countries also. The particular importance of mortality of the elderly for population projections is discussed, and the need for more detailed data on this group is emphasised."
Correspondence: M. J. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40128 Nagnur, Dhruva; Nagrodski, Michael. Epidemiologic transition in the context of demographic change: the evolution of Canadian mortality patterns. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1990. 1-24 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the derived indicators from time series data on the movement of Canadian mortality from the high levels of the early decades of this century to the low levels of recent years. The paper emphasizes the trends and levels in various age/cause/sex components of mortality, the increases in life expectancy, the rectangularization of the survival curve, potential years of life lost...by leading causes of mortality and the influence of epidemiologic transition and specific cause elimination on the resultant life expectancies at different ages."
Correspondence: D. Nagnur, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40129 Okolski, Marek. Determinants of mortality according to theoretical and empirical studies. [Determinanty umieralnosci w swietle teorii i badan empirycznych.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 308, 1990. 254 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This monograph contains six chapters by various Polish authors summarizing the present state of demographic research on mortality around the world. A primary purpose is to develop a model of mortality that could be applied to future empirical studies. The first chapter examines the impact of modernization on mortality. Existing models of mortality are then reviewed, and a new model of mortality and modernization is proposed. This model is applied to the analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality and to analyses of selected determinants of morbidity and mortality in empirical studies. Finally, the proposed model is used to analyze the recent increase in mortality in Poland.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Nepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40130 Pison, Gilles; van de Walle, Etienne; Sala-Diakanda, Mpembele. Mortality and society in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara.] Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 124, ISBN 2-7332-0124-7. LC 90-165710. 1989. xi, 446, 22 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a selection of papers presented at an international seminar organized by the IUSSP in Yaounde, Cameroon, October 19-23, 1987. The objectives of the seminar were to summarize current trends in mortality and mortality differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa, study the biological and social factors affecting mortality, and identify lessons for improving existing health programs.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, Departement des Revues, 14 Avenue du Bois-de-l'Epine, B.P. 90, 91003 Evry Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40131 Rudnitskii, E. P. Trends in the death rate and length of life among the Ukraine's population in the postwar period. [Tendentsii smertnosti i prodolzhitel'nosti zhizni naseleniya Ukrainy v poslevoennyi period.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 94-101 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in mortality and life expectancy in the Ukrainian SSR are analyzed based on life tables for 1948-1949 and 1953-1954.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40132 Steshenko, V. S. The death rate of the population in demo-logical interpretation. [Smertnost' naseleniya v demologicheskom osveshchenii.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 31-45 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The present-day peculiarities...[of] population death-rate analysis are considered. It is substantiated that the population death-rate should be studied in two mutually complementary aspects: [a natural] historical process and a result of human activities. The demographic policy object is formulated as aimed at prolongation of the human life."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40133 Vallin, Jacques. Theories concerning the decline in mortality in the African context. [Theorie(s) de la baisse de la mortalite et situation africaine.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 399-431 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Theories concerning the causes of mortality decline in modern societies are reviewed in the first part of this chapter. The second part examines the relevance of such theories to the present situation in Africa.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40134 Wigle, D. T.; Mao, Y.; Semenciw, R.; McCann, C.; Davies, J. W. Premature deaths in Canada: impact, trends and opportunities for prevention. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 81, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 376-81 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The impact, time trends and potential for prevention of premature deaths in Canada were assessed. There were almost 100,000 deaths before age 75 in Canada during 1986 resulting in over 1.7 million potential years of life lost (PYLL). The three leading broad disease categories responsible for PYLL were cancer, injuries/violence and cardiovascular disease." Specific causes of death by sex and age are presented. The authors conclude that "about 6,000 premature deaths are avoidable through improvements in medical care."
Correspondence: D. T. Wigle, Health and Welfare Canada, Health Protection Branch, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Bureau of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

56:40135 Leroy, Odile; Garenne, Michel. Neonatal tetanus mortality: the situation in Niakhar, Senegal. [La mortalite par tetanos neonatal: la situation a Niakhar au Senegal.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 153-67 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Some problems concerning the analysis of neonatal mortality from tetanus are examined in the context of a high-mortality region of Niakhar, Senegal. Data are from a series of local censuses carried out between 1983 and 1986. The results indicate that mortality from this cause affects 16 out of 1,000 newborn children and is responsible for some three-quarters of deaths occurring from the sixth to the ninth day after a birth. Such mortality is higher for boys than for girls and is higher in the rainy season.
Correspondence: O. Leroy, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, BP 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

56:40136 Baranov, A. A.; Al'bitskii, V. Yu. Infant mortality in the USSR: trends and expected indicators. [Mladencheskaya smertnost' v SSSR: tendentsii i ozhidaemye pokazateli.] Pediatriya, No. 7, 1989. 74-8 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The authors discuss trends in infant mortality in the USSR. Past and current patterns are compared and future changes are predicted.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:40137 Bledsoe, Caroline; Brandon, Anastasia. Boarding children outside the home and its effect on mortality. [Le placement des enfants et son influence sur la mortalite.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 271-93 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The West African custom of sending children away from their biological families to be raised by others is described, and its impact on the child's morbidity and mortality is examined using data from Sierra Leone. The results indicate a higher risk of death for children fostered out in this way, although the reasons for this excess mortality are complex.
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40138 Bobadilla, Jose L.; Langer, Ana. Infant mortality in Mexico: a phenomenon in transition. [La mortalidad infantil en Mexico: un fenomeno en transicion.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 111-31 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors analyze trends in infant mortality and health in Mexico over the past three decades, using vital statistics data and national health surveys. They also explore trends and epidemiologic profiles in light of standards of living and recent scientific and technological developments. It is found that the probability of surviving during infancy has greatly increased; nevertheless, inequalities among social groups have become more acute.
Correspondence: J. L. Bobadilla, Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40139 Brockerhoff, Martin. Rural-to-urban migration and child survival in Senegal. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 601-16 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Analysis of the 1986 Senegal Demographic and Health Survey reveals that mothers may be able to improve their children's survival chances by migrating from the countryside to the city. Children of urban migrants, however, continue to experience a much higher risk of mortality before the age of 5 than children of urban nonmigrants, even after the mother has lived in the city for several years. This migrant mortality disadvantage persists when controlling for numerous socioeconomic and fertility-related factors typically associated with child mortality in developing countries, which also serve as indicators of migrant selection and adaptation."
Correspondence: M. Brockerhoff, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40140 David, Patricia H.; Bisharat, Leila; Hill, Allan G.; Bennett, Steve. Measuring childhood mortality: a guide for simple surveys. ISBN 92-806-0000-2. 1990. xiii, 172 pp. United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], Regional Office of the Middle East and North Africa: Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"This handbook is intended to help UNICEF staff and their government counterparts handle simple surveys of childhood mortality added to vaccination coverage (EPI) surveys, to diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality (MMT) surveys, other household surveys, or to be fielded on its own as a free-standing instrument." The methodology is based on the procedures developed by William Brass, and the geographical focus is on the countries of Western Asia and Northern Africa. Chapters are included on measuring mortality, formulating the questionnaire, designing a sample survey to measure childhood mortality, collecting the data, analyzing the data, and writing the report of the analysis.
Correspondence: United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office of the Middle East and North Africa, Chief of Programme Section, P.O. Box 811721, Amman, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40141 Feyisetan, Bamikale J.; Adeokun, Lawrence. The effects of medical care and the treatment of children. [Les effets de soins et des therapeutiques infantiles.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 85-98 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between certain aspects of infant care and disease prevention and infant mortality is examined using 1987 data for a cross section of Yoruba mothers in Nigeria. Aspects considered include prenatal care, birth facility, and postnatal care; the focus is on diarrhea, measles, fevers, and convulsions. The authors attempt to determine how women in traditional societies absorb knowledge about disease so that their behavior can be modified, resulting in lower infant mortality.
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40142 Gbenyon, Kuakuvi; Locoh, Therese. Mortality differences between boys and girls. [Les differences de mortalite entre garcons et filles.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 221-43 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Sex differentials in child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa are investigated, with a focus on the availability and quality of data. Data are from various surveys, including the World Fertility Survey, and censuses. Geographic and temporal differences in child mortality are also analyzed. The results do not indicate any major differences in child mortality by sex.
Correspondence: K. Gbenyon, Universite du Benin, Demography Research Unit, BP 1515, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40143 Hill, Althea. Child mortality: the current level and trends since 1945. [La mortalite des enfants: niveau actuel et evolution depuis 1945.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 13-34 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of trends in child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa since 1945. Data are from a wide range of censuses and surveys. Data sources and methods of estimation are first discussed. Analysis shows a general decline in child mortality, with differences between East and West Africa and among individual countries, as well as differences within countries.
Correspondence: A. Hill, World Bank, Health and Nutrition Division, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40144 Koenig, M. A.; Khan, M. A.; Wojtyniak, B.; Clemens, J. D.; Chakraborty, J.; Fauveau, V.; Phillips, J. F.; Akbar, J.; Barua, U. S. The impact of measles vaccination on childhood mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh. Programs Division Working Paper, No. 3, Jun 1990. 18 pp. Population Council, Programs Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the impact of measles vaccination on childhood mortality, based upon an analysis of longitudinal data from the Matlab maternal and child health/family planning program in rural Bangladesh....Vaccination of children up to 3 years of age is associated with significantly improved subsequent survival chances. The findings underscore the need to accord measles vaccination higher priority within current primary health programs in settings such as rural Bangladesh."
Correspondence: Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40145 Krotki, Karol P. Trends in geographical and socio-economic differentials in early age mortality: Guatemala, 1973 and 1981. CELADE Research Report, Apr 1988. 32 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Eng.
Differences in infant and child mortality in Guatemala according to geographic and socioeconomic variables are examined using data from the 1973 and 1981 censuses. The analysis reveals that although both mortality and fertility have decreased during the period, the levels remain high. Early-age mortality risks are decreasing and social disparities are converging, with women's educational levels being the strongest determinant of decreased infant and child mortality. This report is also available in Spanish.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, P.O. Box 833-2050, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40146 Kuate Defo, Barthelemy. Mortality and attrition processes in longitudinal surveys in Africa: an appraisal of the IFORD surveys. CDE Working Paper, No. 89-30, 1989. 34, [18] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the impact of sample-attrition through dropouts on mortality analyses using the pioneering [1978-1981] IFORD [Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques] survey of Yaounde (Cameroon). The analysis provides insights into the ongoing debate among students of African demography regarding the attrition problem in the IFORD surveys. Based on a multinomial survival modelling approach, the results substantiate that children who dropped out were not selectively at higher risks of mortality than those who did not and suggest rather that an overestimation of mortality (particularly during the neonatal period) is likely to occur if attrition is ignored."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40147 Legare, Jacques. Infant mortality among the Inuit (Eskimos) after World War II. Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 55-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author examines infant mortality trends among the Inuit in Greenland, Canada, Alaska, and the USSR since World War II. Differences are analyzed in terms of data reliability and lifestyles, particularly child nutrition, health care systems, and political involvement.
Correspondence: J. Legare, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40148 Mbacke, Cheikh. Infant mortality surveys in the Sahel. Some problems of technical evaluation. [Les enquetes sur la mortalite infantile dans le Sahel. Quelques problemes d'evaluation technique.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 18, No. 2, Autumn 1989. 361-78 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate the main problems encountered with the various surveys on child mortality in the [African] Sahel countries....After reviewing the methodological problems, the author discusses how to estimate the level of child mortality. Potentialities and traps in the study of mortality differentials, as well as the use of retrospective data, are also examined."
Correspondence: C. Mbacke, Institut du Sahel, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40149 Rahmathullah, Laxmi; Underwood, Barbara A.; Thulasiraj, Ravilla D.; Milton, Roy C.; Ramaswamy, Kala; Rahmathullah, Raheem; Babu, Ganeesh. Reduced mortality among children in southern India receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 323, No. 14, Oct 4, 1990. 929-35 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The results of a study in southern India involving 15,419 preschool-age children who received vitamin A and/or vitamin E supplements weekly for a year are reported. "The regular provision of a supplement of vitamin A to children, at a level potentially obtainable from foods, in an area where vitamin A deficiency and undernutrition are documented public health problems contributed substantially to children's survival; mortality was reduced on average by 54 percent."
Correspondence: B. A. Underwood, National Eye Institute, Building 31, Room 6A-17, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40150 Singh, K. P. Child survival, health and nutrition: impact of green revolution. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 191-9 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The impact of the recent economic transition associated with agricultural progress in Punjab, India, on the rates of child survival and infant and child mortality is examined in relation to child health and nutrition. Data are from censuses and other official sources and cover the period 1970-1985. The results suggest that infant mortality and child malnutrition remain at unacceptably high levels.
Correspondence: K. P. Singh, Panjab University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Centre, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40151 Stembera, Zdenek. Prospects for higher infant survival. World Health Forum, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1990. 78-84 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Studies on trends in infant mortality and its constituent elements of early neonatal, late neonatal and postneonatal death, in developed and developing countries [from 1937 to 1984], point to ways of making further progress towards the target of infant mortality rates not exceeding 50/1,000 live births in all countries by the year 2000."
Correspondence: Z. Stembera, Research Institute for Mother and Child Care, UPMD, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Perinatal Medicine, nabr. K. Marxe 157, 14710 Prague 4, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40152 Thomas, Duncan; Strauss, John; Henriques, Maria-Helena. Child survival, height for age and household characteristics in Brazil. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 33, No. 2, Oct 1990. 197-234 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The impact of household characteristics on child survival and height, conditional on age, is examined using household survey data from Brazil. Parental education is found to have a very strong positive effect on both outcomes and this is robust to the inclusion of household income and also parental heights, which partly proxy for unobserved family background characteristics. We find that income effects are significant and positive for child survival but insignificant for for child height although the latter depends on identification assumptions. Parental height has a large positive impact on child height and on survival rates even after controlling for all other observable characteristics."
Correspondence: D. Thomas, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:40153 van der Pol, Hendrik. The effect of type of infant feeding: the case of Yaounde. [L'influence du type d'allaitement: le cas de Yaounde.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 325-38 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The impact of alternative methods of infant feeding on mortality in Africa is analyzed using data from a multi-round survey carried out between 1978 and 1980 in Yaounde, Cameroon. Comparisons are made among exclusively breast-fed babies, those breast-fed with supplementary feeding, those half breast-fed and half bottle-fed, and those exclusively bottle-fed. The favorable impact of breast-feeding on mortality is stressed.
Correspondence: H. van der Pol, United Nations Development Program, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

56:40154 Hessler, Richard M.; Pazaki, S. H.; Madsen, Richard W.; Blake, Robert L. Predicting mortality among independently living rural elderly: a 20-year longitudinal study. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1990. 253-67 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The problem of predicting mortality among rural [U.S.] elderly (65 years and older) living independently is examined using 20-year panel data derived from a random multistage cluster sample. Fifteen independent variables, including social networks, age, sex, and health status, were hypothesized on theoretical and empirical grounds to predict mortality. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with the same respondents in 1966, 1974, and 1986/87. Logistic regression establishes that a model comprising age, sex, participation in formal organizations, relative and children association, and general health status is a powerful predictor of mortality. The authors conclude that the more heterogeneous formal, or secondary, social networks which may enhance self esteem are most functional for the elderly."
Correspondence: R. M. Hessler, University of Missouri, Department of Sociology, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40155 Horiuchi, Shiro; Coale, Ansley J. Age patterns of mortality for older women: an analysis using the age-specific rate of mortality change with age. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1990. 245-67, 325 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper we propose a mortality measure that seems useful in analyzing age patterns of death rates. The measure, which will be denoted by k(x), indicates the proportional increase or decrease with age in the risk of death at a given age x, and is called the age-specific rate of mortality change with age." Estimations are presented for women in 10 countries. "Eight of the selected sets of data are for developed nations in the 1960s and 1970s, and the other two sets of data, for Taiwan, 1931-35, and for Germany, 1910-11, represent relatively high mortality. For France and West Germany, three different periods are included for an investigation of cohort effects on the observed age patterns." Other mathematical models of age-specific mortality rates are discussed and compared.
Correspondence: S. Horiuchi, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Populations, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

56:40156 Corona Vazquez, Rodolfo; Jimenez Ornelas, Rene. Mortality trends in Mexico by federal entity, 1980 (abbreviated life tables). [El comportamiento de la mortalidad en Mexico por entidad federativa, 1980 (tablas abreviadas de mortalidad).] ISBN 968-837-792-9. 1988. 133 pp. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias: Cuernavaca, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors analyze mortality in Mexico by sex and age group, based on 1980 census and vital statistics data. They investigate changes in principal mortality indicators at the national level and for each federal entity, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and mortality at other ages for the period 1940-1980. Introductory chapters are included on mortality trends in Mexico, 1900-1980; synthetic indicators of mortality in the federal entities, 1940-1980; and the methodology for constructing abbreviated life tables for 1980. The fourth section contains the abbreviated life tables by sex for the federal entities and the whole country.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Boulevard Emiliano Zapata, No. 306 Col. Tlaltenango, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40157 Duchene, Josianne; Wunsch, Guillaume. Limit life tables: when biology comes to the aid of the demographer. [Les tables de mortalite limite: quand la biologie vient au secours du demographe.] In: Populations agees et revolution grise: les hommes et les societes face a leurs vieillissements, edited by Michel Loriaux, Dominique Remy, and Eric Vilquin. [1990]. 321-32 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Editions CIACO: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Demographers have brought no satisfactory solution to the problem of the maximum span of life of the human species and of the limit life table. Biological data can be used in order to derive a hypothetical limit life table based on a maximum lifespan of 115 years and an average age at death of more than 90 years. After summarizing various models of mortality, the authors have opted for a Weibull survival function. Some demographic consequences of this limit life table are then derived. One would observe a considerable aging of the population: with present-day fertility levels, one person out of four would be more than 75 years of age."
Correspondence: J. Duchene, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40158 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Life tables, 1988. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamislukuja, 1988/Dodlighets- och livslangdstal, 1988.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1990, No. 8, 1990. 13 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Swe; Fin.
Official life tables for Finland for 1988 are presented by sex and province. They indicate that there have been no significant changes in mortality since 1984, with life expectancy for males at 70.7 and for females at 78.7.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40159 Fukawa, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Tokihiko. A Bayesian approach to life table construction for small areas. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 13, May 1990. 37-49 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors utilize a specific statistical method for constructing life tables for municipal areas of Japan. Estimates of life expectancy by age, sex, and geographic location for the period 1983-1987 are presented.
Correspondence: T. Fukawa, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Statistics and Information Department, 42 Ichigaya-Honmachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:40160 Gage, Timothy B. Variation and classification of human age patterns of mortality: analysis using competing hazards models. Human Biology, Vol. 62, No. 5, Oct 1990. 589-617 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The structure of variation in human mortality patterns is explored using a five-parameter competing hazards model and standard multivariate taxonomic procedures. The data consist of 281 national life tables representing a wide range of environmental and cultural regions of the world....A K mean cluster analysis conducted on the residuals of the regression analysis identified seven distinct models of mortality that differ in characteristic ways from the general pattern. Four of the seven clusters have age patterns of mortality similar to the north, east, south, and west regions of the Coale and Demeny model life tables. The remaining three clusters represent regions of the world and age patterns of mortality that are not represented in the Coale and Demeny model life tables."
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40161 Yaakoubd, Abdel-Ilah. Some problems in the use of the new U.N. model life tables. [Quelques problemes d'utilisation des nouvelles tables-types de mortalite des Nations-Unies.] Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 125-41 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
"After a brief introduction to new United Nations model life tables for developing countries, we have proceeded to point out some blanks contained in them....[A theoretical] approach has allowed us to demonstrate the inadequacy of some fundamental assumptions on which the methods used are based. [An empirical approach] has enabled us to point out some of the problems that may be encountered when using the tables."
Correspondence: A.-I. Yaakoubd, Institut National de Statistique et d'Economie Appliquee, BP 406, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

56:40162 Akoto, Eliwo; Tabutin, Dominique. Socioeconomic and cultural inequalities in mortality. [Les inegalites socio-economiques et culturelles devant la mort.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 35-63 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Mortality differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed, with a focus on differences by educational status of father and mother, social class, mother's labor force participation, residence characteristics, region, religion, and ethnic group. Data are from a variety of sources, including the World Fertility Survey. The chapter concludes with a multivariate analysis of the relative impact of these factors on mortality.
Correspondence: E. Akoto, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40163 Britton, Malcolm. Mortality and geography. Population Trends, No. 56, Summer 1989. 16-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This article summarizes the decennial supplement on mortality and geography in England and Wales. "The report, Mortality and Geography, analyses mortality according to where people live, their country or place of birth and their recent movements around the country. By bringing together information from a number of different sources the report provides an indication of the key characteristics of geographic patterns in mortality. Overall mortality was highest in the North and West of England and Wales, in urban areas for people moving within a county and for those born in Scotland and Ireland. Mortality rates for infants in the first month of life followed the overall regional pattern and [were] also higher among infants of mothers born in the Caribbean and Pakistan."
For the report referred to, published by the same author in 1989, see 56:30092.
Correspondence: M. Britton, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Medical Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40164 Congdon, Peter. Issues in the analysis of small area mortality. Urban Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, Aug 1990. 519-36 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers mortality variation between small areas in London during the 1980s in both a cross-sectional and a temporal perspective. The analysis takes account of the special nature of small area mortality data and incorporates sampling variation in addition to extraneous variation, as well as investigating the extent of autocorrelation, both spatial and temporal. The strongest association between socio-economic structure and mortality is apparent in the cross-sectional analysis and remains when spatial autocorrelation is allowed for. However, socio-economic concomitants of mortality are also significant in the temporal analysis based on conditional (two sub-period) and panel (time series) analyses."
Correspondence: P. Congdon, London Research Centre, Division of Population and Statistics, Parliament House, 81 Black Prince Road, London SE1 7SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:40165 Gartner, Karla. Mortality by marital status. [Sterblichkeit nach dem Familienstand.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1990. 53-66 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Mortality differentials according to marital status are analyzed for the Federal Republic of Germany for the period 1961-1986. Overall mortality has decreased; however, the death rate for males remains higher than that for females for all age groups. "It can still be said that the death rate of married persons persists to be the lowest, whereas that of once-married persons remains the highest. The relational patterns between age, sex, personal status, and cause of death, however, have shifted, and this study therefore aims at showing some developments and interconnections as well as providing material for further more profound analysis."
Correspondence: K. Gartner, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40166 Goldblatt, Peter. Mortality by social class, 1971-85. Population Trends, No. 56, Summer 1989. 6-15 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data on social mobility and mortality from the OPCS Longitudinal Study are used to examine changes in mortality differentials by social class in England and Wales. Comparisons are made to similar studies using data from the decennial supplements. The author concludes that data from both sources confirm that such mortality differentials continue to widen for both men and women.
Correspondence: P. Goldblatt, City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40167 Isely, Barbara J. Modernization and sex differences in mortality in India: a new perspective. Women in International Development Working Paper, No. 161, LC 90-111596. Mar 1988. 27 pp. Michigan State University, Women in International Development: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
Sex differentials in mortality in India are analyzed. "The results of this research point to a new perspective with which to explain the female mortality disadvantage. No longer is it possible to place the entire blame for the female mortality disadvantage in India on traditional Indian culture and family roles....Rather, the effects of modernization, plus the influence of non-modern, non-Indian factors on certain traditional Indian cultural practices, must be considered."
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Office of Women in International Development, 202 International Center, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40168 Ladbrook, Denis. Sex differentials in premature death among professionals, Part I. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 7, No. 1, May 1990. 1-26 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Differences in mortality according to marital status and sex in early-age death among U.S. professionals are examined. "A reversal of the sex differential in mortality appears in the 1968-72 death rates of white Wisconsin professionals....Substantially more professional women were not married, and this differential in the distribution of marital status accounted for 37.8 per cent of the women's deaths. The results linking marital status and mortality are discussed in terms of Durkheim's concepts of social integration and anomie, and are related to recent empirical studies connecting marriage and parenthood with health and mortality. Part II will further analyse the data in terms of cause of death and occupational variables."
Correspondence: D. Ladbrook, Curtin University of Technology, School of Social Work, Bentley WA 6102, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40169 Linke, Wilfried. Differential mortality by occupation: an evaluation of statistics on employed persons, 1984 and 1985. [Differentielle Sterblichkeit nach Berufen: Eine Auswertung der Beschaftigtenstatistiken 1984 und 1985.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1990. 29-51 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Differential mortality by occupation in 1984 and 1985 is examined for the Federal Republic of Germany. Age and sex factors are considered. Socio-occupational differences in the death rates of England and Wales and of France are also studied.
Correspondence: W. Linke, Fasaneriestrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40170 Lund, Eiliv; Arnesen, Egil; Borgan, Jens-Kristian. Pattern of childbearing and mortality in married women: a national prospective study from Norway. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1990. 237-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to analyse total mortality rates for married women in relation to different patterns of childbearing...number of children (parity), and age at first and last birth." Data concern all married women aged 25 years or more from the 1970 Norwegian census followed up to 1985. Findings indicate that postponed childbearing may benefit the health of women.
Correspondence: E. Lund, University of Tromso, Institute of Community Medicine, Postuttak, Universitetet, 9000 Tromso, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40171 Mbacke, Cheikh; van de Walle, Etienne. Socioeconomic factors and their impact on the use of health services. [Les facteurs socio-economiques et l'influence de la frequentation des services de sante.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 67-84 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Problems involved in the analysis of factors affecting mortality differentials in Africa are examined using data from a continuous survey carried out between 1981 and 1984 in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, by the local National Demographic and Statistical Institute. The available data permit consideration of the effect on mortality of mother's educational status, income, and housing quality when use of health services is taken into account.
Correspondence: C. Mbacke, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement, Institut du Sahel, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40172 Mohanty, Bidyut. Case study of the Indian famines of 1896-97 and 1899-1900. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 371-9 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper has treated famine as a form of crisis in the economic system especially in the context of nineteenth century India. The pattern of famine mortality and its relationship with sex ratio has been examined taking the famines of 1896-97, and 1899-1900 as test cases." The author discusses sociobiological factors and out-migration that favored the survival of women during the famine years.
Correspondence: B. Mohanty, University of Delhi, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40173 Navarro, Vincente. Race or class versus race and class: mortality differentials in the United States. Lancet, Vol. 336, No. 8725, Nov 17, 1990. 1,238-40 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the recent concern with the increasing mortality differentials between blacks and whites in the United States. He notes that there is also a less obvious but significant increase in morbidity and mortality differentials by social class. Information on such differentials is provided by occupation, education, and income.
Correspondence: V. Navarro, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40174 Pison, Gilles. Twins: frequency of occurrence, social status, and mortality. [Les jumeaux: frequence, statut social et mortalite.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 245-69 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The mortality of twins among the many cultural and ethnic groups of Sub-Saharan Africa is examined. The first part examines the frequency of twin births in Sub-Saharan Africa and geographic variations. Next, the status of twins in various cultures is considered. Finally, the mortality of twins and singletons is compared.
Correspondence: G. Pison, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie, 57 rue Cuvier, 75281 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40175 Rogot, Eugene. Mortality by employment status in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. [Sorlie, Paul D.] American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 132, No. 5, Nov 1990. 983-92 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A mortality follow-up of 452,192 persons aged 25 years or more who were characterized with respect to employment status was conducted using the [U.S.] National Death Index for the years 1979 through 1983....Employed persons aged 25-64 years were found to have standardized mortality ratios from 61% to 74% of the average, depending upon their sex and race. Unemployed men had standardized mortality ratios slightly above 100, but these values were 1.6 and 2.2 times higher than those for employed white men and black men, respectively. Those classified as unable to work had very high mortality ratios, from two to seven times the average. In the older age groups, 65 years or more, very low mortality ratios were found for those who were still employed. These relations were maintained after adjustment for family income and educational level."
Correspondence: P. D. Sorlie, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Federal Building, Room 3A10, 7550 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40176 Rosenwaike, Ira; Hempstead, Katherine. Mortality among three Puerto Rican populations: residents of Puerto Rico and migrants in New York City and in the balance of the United States, 1979-81. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1990. 684-702 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study attempts to explain similarities and differences in the mortality experience of three population groups: Puerto Ricans on the island commonwealth, Puerto Rican born persons in New York City and Puerto Rican born persons in the rest of mainland United States. Mortality is much higher among Puerto Ricans in New York City than among those residing elsewhere. Much of the difference is due to excess mortality caused by cirrhosis of the liver and homicide. Puerto Rican born persons living on the mainland but outside New York City generally have low mortality, even when compared with U.S. whites."
Correspondence: I. Rosenwaike, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40177 Schwartz, Eugene; Kofie, Vincent Y.; Rivo, Marc; Tuckson, Reed V. Black/white comparisons of deaths preventable by medical intervention: United States and the District of Columbia 1980-1986. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1990. 591-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We...[used] data for the U.S. and the District of Columbia (DC) and performed a race-specific analysis to delineate possible racial differences in access or quality of health care between Blacks and Whites and to compare local patterns of mortality with national patterns....[The] data suggest a discordance between health care needs and health care services...among both the Black and White populations. The excess mortality rate experienced by Blacks for selected sentinel conditions reviewed likely reflects racial inequities in access and quality of health care."
Correspondence: E. Schwartz, Commission of Public Health, 425 'Eye' Street NW, Room 2001, Washington, D.C. 20001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40178 Wilkins, Russell; Adams, Owen; Brancker, Anna. Changes in mortality by income in urban Canada from 1971 to 1986. [Evolution de la mortalite selon le revenu dans les regions urbaines du Canada entre 1971 et 1986.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 137-74 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This study examines changes in mortality by income in urban Canada from 1971 to 1986 in terms of both relative and absolute differences between income groups....In 1971, the difference in life expectancy at birth between the highest and lowest income quintiles was 6.3 years for men and 2.8 years for women. By 1986, these differences had decreased to 5.6 years for men and 1.8 years for women....In 1986, the major causes of death contributing to income inequalities in mortality were: circulatory diseases...; accidents, poisonings and violence...; and neoplasms...."
Correspondence: R. Wilkins, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

56:40179 Aaby, Peter. Overcrowding, a determining factor in mortality from measles. [La promiscuite, un facteur determinant de la mortalite par rougeole.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 295-324 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The effect of various factors on the seriousness of measles for an individual in Africa is examined. Data concern a population of some 4,000 children in Guinea-Bissau who were followed over a period of time, as well as from studies in other countries, including Nigeria, Zaire, and Senegal. Factors considered included malnutrition, age, and overcrowding. The author concludes that differences in measles mortality are related to the intensity of exposure to the risk of infection, and thus to overcrowding, rather than to malnutrition.
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Kobenhavns Universitet, Institut for Etnologi og Antropologi, POB 2177, 1017 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40180 Caldwell, John; Caldwell, Pat. Famine and mortality in Africa. [Famine et mortalite en Afrique.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 361-83 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The impact of famine on mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa is examined. The authors conclude that the reports of famine-related mortality are frequently overstated and that there is no proof of a close relationship between famine and mortality, particularly since famines generally affect poor countries with high levels of general mortality. They conclude that in the Sahel region, deaths due to famine probably make up less than 10 percent of all deaths occurring over the past 20 years.
Correspondence: J. Caldwell, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40181 Carael, Michel; Piot, Peter. AIDS in Africa: epidemiological and social aspects. [Le SIDA en Afrique: aspects epidemiologiques et sociaux.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 385-97 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Rates of HIV prevalence in various African urban areas are first summarized. Next, the authors examine the methods by which the virus is transmitted in Africa. Finally, the impact of AIDS on mortality is assessed. The importance of heterosexual transmission, particularly through prostitution, and of neonatal transmission from mothers to children in Africa is stressed.
Correspondence: M. Carael, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 avenue Franklin Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40182 Crosby, Alfred W. America's forgotten pandemic: the influenza of 1918. ISBN 0-521-38547-4. LC 89-22372. 1990. xiv, 337 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Between August 1918 and March 1919 the Spanish influenza spread worldwide, claiming over 25 million lives, more people than perished in the fighting of the First World War. It proved fatal to at least a half-million Americans. Yet, the Spanish flu pandemic is largely forgotten today...[The author] recounts the course of the pandemic during the panic-striken months of 1918 and 1919, measures its impact on American society, and probes the curious loss of national memory of this cataclysmic event."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40183 Curwen, Michael; Dunnell, Karen; Ashley, John. Hidden influenza deaths: 1989-90. Population Trends, No. 61, Autumn 1990. 31-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The [1989-1990] influenza epidemic was the worst to have hit England and Wales since 1976. It may have been responsible, directly or indirectly, for about 25,000 deaths, 10 times the number attributed to influenza by certifying doctors. This paper explains that estimate and compares the outbreak with three other major epidemics during the past twenty years."
Correspondence: M. Curwen, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Medical Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40184 Fargues, Philippe; Nassour, Ouaidou. Seasonal variations in urban mortality: the case of Bamako from 1974 to 1985. [Les variations saisonnieres de la mortalite en ville: le cas de Bamako de 1974 a 1985.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 99-119 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Seasonal variations in mortality in Bamako, Mali, over the last 12 years are analyzed using data from the death register concerning some 55,000 deaths. Particular stress is laid on mortality from measles. The analysis also takes into account such factors as sex, age, and causes of death. For the first day of life, no seasonal variations are apparent, but from the second day to age five, infectious diseases associated with the hottest season cause a seasonal increase in mortality.
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40185 Gaudette, Leslie A. Cancer in Canada 1984. [Le cancer au Canada en 1984.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1989. 189-209 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article provides an overview of cancer in Canada in 1984, including an analysis of geographic patterns by province. Trends for selected sites of cancer incidence from 1970 to 1984 and cancer mortality from 1970 to 1987 are also examined. Finally, trends since 1970 in cancer incidence and mortality are examined in the context of strategies for cancer control."
Correspondence: L. A. Gaudette, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40186 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). Morbidity and mortality from cancer in Hong Kong--the last 20 years. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Mar 1990. 109-19 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
"Cancer continued to be the top killer in Hong Kong during the past two decades. This article describes the growing trend in cancer morbidity and mortality during the period." Data are included on changes in patterns by age, sex, and cancer site over time.
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, 21/F Wanchai Tower I, 12 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40187 Karjalainen, Sakari. Geographical variation in cancer patient survival in Finland: chance, confounding, or effect of treatment? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 44, No. 3, Sep 1990. 210-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper was to determine (1) whether the survival of cancer patients in Finland varies with their place of residence, and (2) if such variation is present, what proportion of the difference can be accounted for by chance, or by confounding from geographical differences in patient or disease characteristics, as opposed to possible variations in the health services. The methodology...was applied to breast and prostate cancer, which are the most frequent malignant tumours with fairly good prognosis in Finland." Conclusions indicate there is little reason to attribute the large regional variations in cancer mortality to inequalities in medical care.
Correspondence: S. Karjalainen, Finnish Cancer Registry, Liisankatu 21 B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40188 Khayarov, A. V. Dynamics of the death rate due to alcoholic psychosis during 1970-1985 (the example of the Ukrainian SSR). [Dinamika smertnosti naseleniya ot alkogol'nykh psikhozov v 1970-1985 gg. (na primere Ukrainskoi SSR).] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 108-12 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in deaths due to alcoholic psychosis in the Ukrainian SSR during the period 1970-1985 are analyzed, with a focus on age and sex distributions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40189 Koenig, M. A.; Khan, M. A.; Wojtyniak, B.; Clemens, J. D.; Chakraborty, J.; Fauveau, V.; Phillips, J. F.; Akbar, J.; Barua, U. S. Impact of measles vaccination on childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 68, No. 4, 1990. 441-7 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study examines the impact of measles vaccination on childhood mortality, based on longitudinal data from the Matlab maternal and child health/family planning programme in rural Bangladesh. It analyses the mortality experience of 8,135 randomly matched nonvaccinated children aged 9-60 months, who were observed from March 1982 to October 1985. The results indicate that measles vaccination had a pronounced impact on both short- and long-term survival--the mortality rates for vaccinated children were as much as 46% less than those for nonvaccinated children. Immunization of children aged up to 3 years with measles vaccine appears to improve significantly their subsequent chances of survival."
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40190 Kupsc, Witold; Piotrowski, Walerian. An analysis using multiple regression of the geographic variations in mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. [Analiza (metodami regresji wielokrotnej) geograficznej zmiennosci umieralnosci spowodowanej chorobami ukladu krazenia.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 10, Oct 1989. 17-9 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Geographical differences in mortality from cardiovascular diseases in Poland are analyzed using multiple regression. Factors considered include employment, population density, percentage of forest area, housing conditions, percent urban, provision of hospital beds, and population size.
Correspondence: W. Kupsc, Instytut Kardiologii, ul. Alpejska 42, 04-628 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40191 Levy, Claude. Poorly defined and unknown causes of death. [Les causes de deces mal definies et inconnues.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 157-66 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of various ill-defined causes of death in France is presented. The data concern the years 1984 and 1985 and pertain to about 16 percent of the total deaths for those years. Particular attention is given to mortality from unknown causes among young adults aged 20-34.
Correspondence: C. Levy, 11 Villa Brune, 75014 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40192 Lund, Eiliv. Childbearing in marriage and mortality from breast cancer in Norway. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1990. 527-31 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between childbearing and mortality from breast cancer has been studied in a cohort of 822,593 currently married Norwegian women with information on parity from the Census in 1970 and follow-up till 1985. All age groups of parous women showed significant trends of decreasing mortality rates with increasing parity. Nulliparous women had the same mortality rates as uniparous women in all age groups."
Correspondence: E. Lund, Institutt for Samfunnsmedisin, Postuttak, Universitetet i Tromso, 9000 Tromso, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40193 Mahoney, Martin C.; LaBrie, Danielle S.; Nasca, Philip C.; Wolfgang, Patricia E.; Burnett, William S. Population density and cancer mortality differentials in New York State, 1978-1982. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1990. 483-90 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This report describes sex- and site-specific patterns of cancer mortality within five population density quintiles in New York State, exclusive of New York City, between 1978 and 1982....Data show a direct association between population density and mortality from all cancer deaths combined among both males and females....Population density, as measured in this investigation, may represent a surrogate measure for other cancer risk factors, such as socioeconomic status, personal health behaviours, and differential exposures to environmental agents, which are related to cancer morbidity and cancer mortality."
Correspondence: M. C. Mahoney, New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Cancer Epidemiology, Albany, NY 12237-0683. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40194 McCormick, Anna. Estimating the size of the HIV epidemic by using mortality data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: B. Biological Sciences, Vol. 325, No. 1226, Sep 5, 1989. 125-35 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Evidence that more people are dying as a result of HIV infection than is reflected by the number of deaths among reported cases meeting the WHO definition of AIDS is derived from mortality data....Standardized mortality ratios due to [such] causes increased for single men aged 15-54 years from 100 in 1984 to 118 in 1987. The age, sex, marital status, temporal and geographic distribution of these excess deaths suggest that they are HIV-associated....There is a need for surveillance to be extended to include HIV-positive people who die before meeting the WHO definition if the full extent of the HIV epidemic is to be identified."
Correspondence: A. McCormick, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40195 Nanjo, Zenji; Shigematsu, Takao; Yoshinaga, Kazuhiko. Parameterized model schedules of mortality for Japan: all and selected causes of death. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 13, May 1990. 27-35 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality patterns and causes of death by age for Japan are analyzed for the period 1895-1985. A model of Japanese mortality is described.
Correspondence: Z. Nanjo, Tohoku Gakuin University, 1-3-1 Tsuchitoi, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:40196 Napalkov, N. P.; Merabishvili, V. M. Basic patterns of mortality from malignant neoplasms in the population of the USSR. [Osnovnye zakonomernosti smertnosti naseleniya SSSR ot zlokachestvennykh novoobrazovanii.] Voprosy Onkologii, Vol. 35, No. 6, 1989. 649-57 pp. Leningrad, USSR. In Rus.
The authors describe mortality patterns due to malignant neoplasms in the USSR since 1960. Mortality is analyzed by type of cancer, sex, age, and Union republic.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:40197 Omondi-Odhiambo; van Ginneken, J. K.; Voorhoeve, A. M. Mortality by cause of death in a rural area of Machakos district, Kenya in 1975-78. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 63-75 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines mortality by cause of death in a rural area of Machakos district in Kenya. The cause-of-death data collected between 1975 and 1978 were likely to be of fairly good quality. The number of deaths was higher among infants and children. Infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system were the leading causes of death among children below 5 years of age. Next in prominence were the causes ascribed to congenital anomalies and perinatal conditions. Among adolescents and young adults, injury and poisoning, together with tuberculosis and other infectious and parasitic diseases, were the leading causes of death. Degenerative diseases, especially diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasms and respiratory illness, were responsible for the majority of deaths among the older population."
Correspondence: Omondi-Odhiambo, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Medical Research Center, POB 54840, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40198 Preble, Elizabeth A. Impact of HIV/AIDS on African children. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 6, 1990. 671-80 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the potential impact of HIV/AIDS on orphanhood and under-five mortality in 10 Central and East African countries. The author estimates that, in the 10 countries studied, HIV/AIDS in children under age five will cause between one-quarter and half a million child deaths annually by the year 2000. Whereas the United Nations estimate (without AIDS) and target for the under-five mortality rate in this 10-country region by the year 2000 are 132 and 78, respectively, HIV/AIDS will cause the under-five mortality rate to rise to between 159 and 189....During the 1990s, HIV/AIDS will kill a total of between 1.5 and 2.9 million women of reproductive age in this region, producing between 3.1 and 5.5 million AIDS orphans--which means that between 6 and 11% of the population under age 15 will be orphaned." Data are from a variety of published sources.
Correspondence: E. A. Preble, United Nations Children's Fund, 3 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40199 Rallu, Jean-Louis. Automobile driving and road accidents. [Conduite automobile et accidents de la route.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 27-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Automobile accident rates are analyzed by driver's sex and age for countries in northern, southern, and western Europe. The high percentage of accidents caused by elderly drivers has implications for road safety in European countries as the population ages. The focus is on accidents causing serious injury or death.
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40200 Ravenholt, R. T. Tobacco's global death march. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 213-40, 398, 400 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Trends in disease and death due to the smoking, chewing, and breathing of tobacco are examined, with a focus on the U.S. experience in the twentieth century. The history of tobacco use and production worldwide since the fifteenth century is first reviewed. The author considers increases in mortality and morbidity rates caused by cardiovascular disease, cancers, and other tobacco-related diseases.
Correspondence: R. T. Ravenholt, World Health Surveys, Seattle, WA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40201 Seaman, John. Famine mortality in Ethiopia and the Sudan. [La mortalite due a la famine en Ethiopie et au Soudan.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 341-59 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The economic and demographic consequences of the famines experienced in Ethiopia and the Sudan from 1980 to 1985 are reviewed using data from various aid organizations. These data permit a general analysis of the impact of the famine on mortality, either through malnutrition or migration. The author estimates that excess mortality in northern Ethiopia affected between a half a million and a million people, or between 7 and 15 percent of the region's population; it was lower in northern Sudan. Mortality in both countries was particularly high among children and refugees.
Correspondence: J. Seaman, Save the Children Fund, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40202 Thouez, J. P.; Ghadirian, P. Mortality and ethnicity: a preliminary analysis of cancer mortality rates among immigrants to Canada, 1969-1973. [Mortalite et ethnicite: analyse preliminaire des taux de mortalite par cancers chez les immigrants au Canada, 1969-73.] Canadian Geographer/Geographe Canadien, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring 1989. 58-66 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Fre.
Differentials in cancer mortality among immigrants to Canada are analyzed by province. The author examines differences among and between ethnic groups and the country of origin. The data are from official Canadian sources and are for the period 1969-1973.
Correspondence: J. P. Thouez, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Geographie, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40203 Vallin, Jacques. The evolution of mortality by cause in France since 1925: problems and solutions. [La evolucion de la mortalidad por causas en Francia desde 1925: problemas y soluciones.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1990. 11-35 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes the evolution of mortality by causes of death in France since 1925. Aspects considered include reporting discontinuities caused by successive revisions of cause-of-death definitions; the number of deaths due to indeterminate causes; the formulation of an etiological reclassification; and the contribution of particular causes of death to changes in the expectations of life at birth.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40204 van Ginneken, Jeroen K.; Teunissen, Anton W. Morbidity and mortality from diarrhea. [La morbidite et la mortalite par diarrhee.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 169-93 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Current research on illnesses associated with diarrhea is reviewed, with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. The first part reviews the clinical and biological aspects of diarrheal morbidity. The second and third parts summarize demographic and epidemiological studies on diarrheal morbidity and mortality. The fourth part considers seasonal variations and the relevant socioeconomic, hygienic, and nutritional factors. The final section presents an anthropological approach to the resolution of some of the problems associated with diarrhea.
Correspondence: J. K. van Ginneken, Nederlands Instituut voor Praeventive Gezondheidszorg TNO, Wassenaarseweg 56, POB 124, 2300 AC Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40205 Walker, Godfrey J. A.; McCaw-Binns, Affette; Ashley, Deanna E. C.; Bernard, G. Wesley. Identifying maternal deaths in developing countries: experience in Jamaica. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 3, Sep 1990. 599-605 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Multiple sources were used to identify maternal deaths and their causes in a study carried out in Jamaica....Deaths due to certain causes were far more likely to be identified from particular sources e.g. those due to clinical mismanagement...from hospital in-patient records; while deaths from ruptured ectopic pregnancy were more likely to come from coroners', police and morgue records. It is concluded that using multiple sources to identify maternal deaths in developing countries is an effective method to identify all maternal deaths." Comparisons are made with the quality of data and methodologies used in other countries.
Correspondence: G. J. A. Walker, 7 chemin de Valavran, Ferney-Voltaire, 01210 France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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