Volume 56 - Number 3 - Fall 1990

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

56:30586 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. The inversion of the age pyramid in Europe: perspectives and problems. [L'inversion de la pyramide des ages en Europe: perspectives et problemes.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 53-68 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the consequences of current demographic trends in Europe, particularly demographic aging. The factors that might affect the pace of this process are examined, and comparisons are made with other regions of the world. A final section considers how European countries propose to cope with the consequences of demographic aging. The author concludes that although the short-term effects may be positive, Europe will face a serious, long-term problem after the year 2000. These problems can be mitigated, if not resolved, by redirecting a higher percentage of public expenditures for the benefit of future labor force participation.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30587 Davies, A. Michael. Older populations, aging individuals and health for all. World Health Forum, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, 1989. 299-306 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author addresses determinants of and problems concerning demographic aging. Consideration is given to conditions of the aged, health and functional ability, services for the elderly, and research on aging. It is concluded that "there are already 300 million people aged 65 and over and by the year 2000 there will be over 400 million, two-thirds or more of them in the developing countries....Although the precise impact of aging on societies awaits clarification, governments will undoubtedly have to develop social and health policies so as to adapt equitably to the forces of change."
Correspondence: A. M. Davies, Hebrew University, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Ecology, P.O. Box 1172, Jerusalem, 91010 Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30588 Florez, C. Elisa; Hogan, Dennis P. Demographic transition and life course change in Colombia. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1990. 1-21 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates changes and differentials in the organization of the early life course of Colombian women. Life course events of interest include school enrollment, labor force attachment, cohabitation (formal and informal marriage), and parenthood. Using a variety of measures of the timing and synchronization of events, the early life course is described for Colombian women in terms of classifications such as birth cohort (indexing demographic and social modernization), urban and rural residence (indicating the institutionalization of the life course), and economic class (a measure of personal affluence). The results of the research are interpreted in the context of research on the history of the transition to adulthood in the United States, Norway, and Japan."
The is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 419).
Correspondence: C. E. Florez, University of Los Andes, Center of Studies in Economic Development, Carrera 1A, No. 18-A-70, Apdo. Aereo 4976, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30589 Grigsby, Jill S.; Olshansky, S. Jay. The demographic components of population aging in China. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 4, 1989. 307-34 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine measures of population aging in China from 1953 to 1982, and then project population aging to the year 2050 using a cohort-components methodology....Results indicate that China's population will age at an unprecedented rate over the next 70 years, both in terms of the absolute size of the elderly population and their proportion of the total population. At least 50 percent of the projected increase in population aging in China between 1980 and 2050 will be a product of the momentum for aging that is already built into the present age structure and vital rates. However, prospective trends in the measures of population aging become increasingly more sensitive to varying assumptions about fertility and mortality with time, and as older age groups are considered."
Correspondence: J. S. Grigsby, Pomona College, Department of Sociology, Claremont, CA 91711. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30590 Ishikawa, Akira. Decomposition of population aging in Japan since 1947. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 3, Oct 1989. 56-65 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author analyzes demographic aging in Japan for 1947-1985. The impact of changes in fertility and mortality trends on aging is examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30591 Kojima, Hiroshi. Aging research in ODA, with particular reference to the NAS Workshop on Aging Demography. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 3, Oct 1989. 66-76 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author describes research concerning aging in Japan including a summary of reports from the Workshop on Aging Demography held in 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30592 Kuroda, Toshio. Aging of labour force and technical progress--the Japanese experience. NUPRI Reprint Series, No. 29, Mar 1989. 14 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on demographic aging in Japan and its impact on the labor force. The author includes population projections by age group to the year 2025 and discusses Japan's changing labor force needs and employment opportunities for elderly people.
This paper is reprinted from "Economic and Social Implications of Population Aging," New York, New York, United Nations, 1988, pp. 145-58.
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30593 Latten, J. J.; Sanders, H. Dejuvenation and aging affect many social aspects. [Ontgroening en vergrijzing raken vele maatschappeljke terreinen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 6, Jun 1990. 25-30 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors estimate the demographic effects of population aging in the Netherlands. They discuss the impact of demographic aging on old age pensions, morbidity patterns, causes of death, and leisure activities. They predict an increase of one-person households, which will have an effect on housing preferences and will decrease migration. Estimates are based on 1989 official data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30594 Martin, Linda G. Emerging issues in cross-national survey research on ageing in Asia. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 69-80 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The paper begins with a brief overview of population ageing and the elderly in Asia, followed by a description of three recent cross-national research projects. The next three sections focus on measurement of health, family support, and financial well-being. The final section summarises the findings and discusses policy issues and future research." Data are from World Health Organization surveys in Malaysia, the Philippines, and the Republic of Korea; Association of South-East Asian Nations surveys in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand; and United Nations University projects in India, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Thailand.
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30595 Ogawa, Naohiro. Population aging and household structural change in Japan. NUPRI Reprint Series, No. 31, Jul 1989. 23 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The present chapter has discussed, by utilizing a number of results generated from the NUPRI [Nihon University Population Research Institute] long-term macroeconomic-demographic-social security model with HOMES [a household projection model] incorporated, the impact of the aging of the Japanese population upon total medical expenditure at both national and household levels and upon the manpower requirements of taking care of the elderly patients at the familial level."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101, Japan.

56:30596 Ogawa, Naohiro. Population aging and medical demand: the case of Japan. NUPRI Reprint Series, No. 30, Mar 1989. 22 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This article examines the impact of the aging of the Japanese population upon the government medical programme. In the [first] section...the aging process of the Japanese population is discussed, by drawing heavily upon a population projection generated by a long-term macroeconomic-demographic model. The second section deals with an analysis of the level and pattern of medical demand projected on the basis of the model." Projected changes in the Japanese labor market to meet the needs of the elderly are described, and policy implications are discussed.
This paper is reprinted from "Economic and Social Implications of Population Aging," New York, New York, United Nations, 1988, pp. 254-75.
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30597 Ogawa, Naohiro. Population change and welfare of the aged. NUPRI Reprint Series, No. 32, Oct 1989. 26 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"In the present paper...an attempt will be made to analyse the interrelationships among population change, the welfare of the aged, and overall development....We will briefly discuss the demographic profile of the elderly in Asia....Some of the major linkages among demographic factors, the socio-economic well-being of the aged, and developmental processes will be investigated, using a simplified theoretical framework....Some of the serious problems related to the welfare of the elderly in Asia will be discussed, with special emphasis upon both public and family support systems on the basis of findings obtained from several studies recently conducted."
This paper is reprinted from "Frameworks for Population and Development Integration," U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 1988, pp. 105-32.
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan.

56:30598 Roy, S. Guha. Perspectives on population ageing in India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 1, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 291-301 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study focusses on the phenomenon of ageing in India, using data mainly from the United Nations and the national census series. It examines the state of the aged population, changes in this sub-population in respect to size, composition and distribution, and the determinants and implications of the process." Estimated sex and age distributions are projected to the year 2025. Mortality patterns and causes of death of the elderly and policy implications for the aged are discussed.
Correspondence: S. G. Roy, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30599 Serow, William J.; Sly, David F.; Wrigley, J. Michael. Population aging in the United States. Contributions to the Study of Aging, No. 18, ISBN 0-313-27311-1. LC 89-25699. 1990. xvii, 220 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this book is to review some of the more salient aspects of the demographic, social, and economic aspects of the aging of the population of the United States....[It begins with a retrospective review of the population aging process of the United States throughout the twentieth century and continues with a prospective view of aging through most of the next century....[It] deals with trends in numbers of older persons and the share of the total population represented by those aged 60 and over. It considers age composition from the perspective both of the older population relative to the population as a whole and of the structural change within the older population itself....[as well as] current projections of the age-race-gender structure of the U.S. population, as prepared by the Bureau of the Census...." Chapters are included on the demographic determinants of population aging; population distribution and migration; family, household, and housing characteristics; social and economic characteristics; the health status of the older population; and policy implications.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30600 Sternstein, Larry. A population geographer's population pyramid. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1989. 91-9, 119 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"A...geographic population profile is proffered which provides information about the [regional] variation of age-sex values [in Thailand]. Use of this graphic construct in the exploratory analysis of the geography of age-sex structure is demonstrated and advocated."
Correspondence: L. Sternstein, Australian National University, Department of Geography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30601 Vidlakova, Olga. International Conference on Population: Prague 1989. [Mezinarodni populacni konference: Praha 1989.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1990. 97-115 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This is an overview of an international population conference held July 3-7, 1989, in Prague, Czechoslovakia. The topic of the conference was demographic aging in developed countries. Conference sessions focused on past and future trends in population aging; natality, mortality, internal migration, and household composition and demographic aging; living conditions of the elderly; labor force, pensions, and aging; and social and health care of the elderly.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

56:30602 Baeg, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sea Baick. A study on sex ratio variation in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, Dec 1989. 34-62 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to find out the trend of sex ratio variation in [the Republic of] Korea. The data...were derived from the government publications including the Population and Housing Census Reports covering the period of 1960-1985 and the Korea Urbanic Year Book, 1985. The major findings of the study are summarized as follows: The average sex ratio in all age groups is 100.17-101.44 from 1960 through 1980. Sex ratio imbalance was most severe in 1960 due to the Korean War." Sex ratios are compared among urban and rural areas and for industrialized and agricultural areas.
Correspondence: K. S. Baeg, Seoul National University, School of Public Health, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30603 Boldsen, Jesper L.; Jeune, Bernard. Distribution of age at menopause in two Danish samples. Human Biology, Vol. 62, No. 2, Apr 1990. 291-300 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"It is our purpose here to find a model for the distribution of age at menopause and to see whether there is a secular trend in any of the parameter estimates. To succeed in this, we analyzed two samples of Danish women reporting their age at menopause....On their own, our data give no strong reason to assume any change in average age at menopause, but in light of findings reported by others, the present analysis confirms a trend toward delayed menopause."
Correspondence: J. L. Boldsen, University of Odense, Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Community Health, J. B. Winslows Vej 17, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30604 Liu, Shuang. An analysis of sex ratio at birth of China's population. Population Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1989. 24-30 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"In this paper, a comparative study on distributive features of China's sex ratio at birth has been made based on the [1982] census data, and also, an evaluation of data quality is provided."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30605 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Major improvements in life expectancy: 1989. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 71, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1990. 11-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Changes in life expectancy in the United States in 1989 are reviewed. Consideration is given to mortality decline, gender differences, and ethnic groups.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

56:30606 Borodkin, F. M. The welfare of the urban population of Siberia: issues of differentiation (the experience of sociological investigations). [Blagosostoyanie gorodskogo naseleniya sibiri: problemi differentsiatsii (opyt sotsiologicheskogo izucheniya).] ISBN 5-02-029111-0. 1990. 348 pp. Nauka: Novosibirsk, USSR. In Rus.
This monograph summarizes the results of a sociological study of different socioeconomic groups in the western part of Siberia, USSR, with a focus on their standard of living and life-style. Aspects considered include family income, urban residence, housing, labor force, health care, education, child-care facilities, rural population, occupation, social status, and region and settlement type.
Correspondence: Nauka, ul. Sovetskaya 18, 630099 Novosibirsk, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30607 Canada. Statistics Canada. Household Surveys Division (Ottawa, Canada). Family incomes: census families, 1988. [Revenus des familles: familles de recensement, 1988.] Pub. Order No. 13-208. Jan 1990. 42 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Data on the income and economic status of 36,696 households in Canada are presented. Tables are included on income distribution, family size, educational level, numbers of earners and dependents, and income of persons not in families.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Publications Sales, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30608 Fierla, Irena. Conditioning of socio-demographic transformations in Suwalskie voivodship. [Uwarunkowania przemian demograficzno-spolecznych w wojewodztwie suwalskim.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1987. 9-30, 263-4, 275-6 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Current trends in socioeconomic characteristics for Suwalskie voivodship, Poland, are examined. Factors affecting migration patterns, changes in age distribution, labor force participation, and human resources are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30609 Poston, Dudley L.; Jia, Zhongke. The economic attainment patterns of foreign-born workers in the United States. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 1.01, 1989. 72 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The economic attainment patterns, specifically annual earnings, of [male and female migrants to the United States] born in 93 countries of the world are examined and compared among themselves, as well as with the seven main U.S.-born groups of Anglos, Blacks, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Asian Americans, and American Indians....We then turn attention to the determinants of these patterns. For all foreign-born groups, one at a time, we first examine the degree to which individual-level, i.e., human capital, factors are capable of accounting for variation in patterns of annual earnings. Second, we examine the degree to which group-level, or structural, factors account for the variation among the groups of immigrants in their average economic attainment." Data are from the 1980 U.S. census.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801.

56:30610 Schwodiauer, Gerhard; Wenig, Alois. The impact of taxation on the distribution of wealth in an economy with changing population. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1990. 53-71 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The authors examine the determinants of the personal distribution of income and wealth using an overlapping generations model in which all individuals are assumed to be identical except for their inherited wealth. "It is shown that, in general, higher tax rates reduce distributive inequality as long as the rate of interest is exogenously given. In steady state, however, where the rate of interest is determined endogenously, increasing taxation and higher social security payments both diminish the capital labor ratio so that the rate of interest rises. If this interest effect is strong enough then it may outbalance the tendency toward more equality because higher interest rates enhance initial differences in the distribution of both income and wealth and, eventually, the inequality in the distribution of income and wealth in the society." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: G. Schwodiauer, University of Bielefeld, Faculty of Economics, Universitatsstrasse, D-4800 Bielefeld 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30611 Short, Kathleen S.; Littman, Mark S. Transitions in income and poverty status: 1985-86. Current Population Reports, Series P-70: Household Economic Studies, No. 18, Jun 1990. iv, 69 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents data from the complete 1985 panel file of the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) on changes between 1985 and 1986 in the income and poverty status of persons." Data are presented by age, race and Hispanic origin, educational attainment, region, type of residence, and family size.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30612 Vecernik, Jiri. Income and consumption among the elderly: analysis and comparison of selected aspects. [Prijmy a spotreba v "tretim veku": analyza a komparace nekterych aspektu.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1990. 17-26 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Income and expenditures among the elderly population in Czechoslovakia are analyzed. The effects of retirement and pensions on life-style are compared with those of France's elderly.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30613 von Weizsacker, Robert K. Demographic change, public finance, and income distribution. [Demographischer Wandel, Staatshaushalt und Einkommensverteilung.] In: Einkommensverteilung und Bevolkerungsentwicklung, edited by Bernhard Felderer. Schriften des Vereins fur Socialpolitik, Gesellschaft fur Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Vol. 187, 1989. 31-84 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
A theoretical model is presented for analyzing the relationships among demographic change, public finance (including the tax system and old-age insurance), the reactions of individuals, and income distribution. Particular attention is given to the correlation between age structure and income distribution. The emphasis is on developed countries.
Correspondence: Duncker und Humblot, Dietrich-Schafer-Weg 9, Postfach 410329, 1000 Berlin 41, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30614 Waldrop, Judith. Up and down the income scale. American Demographics, Vol. 12, No. 7, Jul 1990. 24-7, 30 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author examines income characteristics of U.S. households, based on the Census Bureau's 1989 Current Population Survey. She has divided all households into three income categories: downscale, midscale, or upscale. income distribution is categorized by the age of the head of the household.
Correspondence: Judith Waldrop, American Demographics, 108 North Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

56:30615 Bruno, Rosalind R. School enrollment--social and economic characteristics of students: October 1988 and 1987. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 443, Apr 1990. vi, 201 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed tabulations of [U.S.] data on school enrollment of the civilian noninstitutional population in October 1987 and 1988. It also includes summary time series of data collected since the beginning of the survey. The data are from the October school enrollment supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)....The data cover [all school] enrollment...and are shown by the following person characteristics: age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, family status, family income, education of householder, labor force status, metropolitan residence, region, and mother's labor force status and education (for preprimary enrollment)."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30616 Hirschl, Thomas A. Homelessness: a sociological research agenda. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 1.16, Dec 1989. 29 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to identify an appropriate research framework for testing different sociological theories of homelessness [in the United States]." A definition of homelessness is proposed, research on the homeless since 1980 is reviewed, and recommendations for conducting longitudinal research are presented.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801.

56:30617 Jowett, A. John. Patterns of literacy in the People's Republic of China. GeoJournal, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1989. 417-27 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The recent publication of data from the 1982 census permits an assessment of the patterns, progress and problems of illiteracy in China. Educational progress, since the communists came to power in 1949, has been particularly impressive, especially in relation to the low levels of income within the People's Republic. Nevertheless, nearly a third of the country's population are still unable to read and write and major variations in literacy exist between the developed and less developed regions, between men and women, between the urban and rural areas, between the various age groups and among the many ethnic groups that constitute the People's Republic of China....By stressing the value of labour, including child labour, the agricultural responsibility system has generated a surprising decline in school attendance which may jeopardise future improvements in literacy, particularly so among the poorer people in the poorer areas of China."
Correspondence: A. J. Jowett, University of Glasgow, Department of Geography, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30618 Mukherjee, S. P.; Chattopadhyay, A. K. Social and occupational mobility: measurement and inference. In: Population transition in India, Volume 1, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 483-98 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The features of social and occupational mobility can be represented by using Markovian and semi-Markovian models. In the present paper a few of them have been discussed. Some useful measures of social and occupational mobility have been considered. Large sample distributions of some of the estimated measures and related testing problems have been studied." A study of social mobility in Great Britain is used as an illustration.
Correspondence: S. P. Mukherjee, Calcutta University, Department of Statistics, College Street, Calcutta, West Bengal 700 073 India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30619 Sarmad, Khwaja; Husain, Fazal; Zahid, G. M. The education sector in Pakistan. PIDE Research Report Series, No. 156, 1989. 38 pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Educational status in Pakistan during the period 1951-1987 is examined. "The level of illiteracy is a staggering 70 percent and there are wide inter-regional, inter-gender and inter-provincial inequalities in the distribution of the literate population and of educational services....Over time there has been a decline in the quality of education, particularly at the higher levels, while the amount of wastage in terms of the number of pupils dropping out of the system, remains at a high level." Low levels of government and private sector expenditures on education are considered to be the main cause of the inadequate educational system. Data are from censuses and surveys.
Correspondence: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Post Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

56:30620 del Pinal, Jorge H.; DeNavas, Cavinen. The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1989. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 444, May 1990. 39 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States. The Bureau of the Census collected this information in the March 1989 supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)....This is the first report in the annual series of CPS reports on the Hispanic population to present data for Hispanic households on urban and rural residence, tenure, availability of telephone, and income."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30621 Haskey, John. The ethnic minority populations of Great Britain: estimates by ethnic group and country of birth. Population Trends, No. 60, Summer 1990. 35-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article presents the latest estimate of the total ethnic minority population (derived from the 1986, 1987, and 1988 Labour Force Surveys): 2.58 million, or 4.7 per cent of the total population of Great Britain. Just over one half...of the ethnic minority population is of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi ethnic origin; about one fifth is of West Indian ethnic group; and one in nine is of mixed ethnic origin. The article also gives information on the age distributions of the different ethnic groups and an analysis of their countries of birth."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censues and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30622 Krotki, Karol J.; Odynak, Dave. The emergence of multiethnicities in 1981 and 1986: their sociocultural significance. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 63, Feb 1990. 40 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to report what use the 24 million Canadian respondents made of the new freedom to report their ethnicities and to undertake a first attempt at developing analytic means of drawing conclusions from the reported multiethnicities, much more numerous than the number of Canadians." A comparison of the numbers and proportions of self-reporting ethnic groups is made between the 1971 and 1986 censuses. Multiethnicity as an outcome of intermarriage and its cultural implications are discussed.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30623 Lowe, Jeremy. The Australian Maori population; nga Maori ki ahitereria. ISBN 0-908601-69-7. May 1990. 58 pp. New Zealand Planning Council: Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"It is timely to assess the size and characteristics of the Australian Maori population, and to reassess the significance of movement between New Zealand and Australia for the future of the New Zealand-resident Maori population....The early sections of the report assess the reliability of the available historical record and the information available from the 1986 Australian Census. An examination of the characteristics of the Australia-resident Maori population follows, with the emphasis on the Australian totals. Trans-Tasman migration of Maori and its demographic implications are then considered. The final section deals with the state and territory populations. The Appendices review the more technical aspects of establishing the total size of the Australia- and New Zealand-resident Maori populations, the projected growth of these populations, how to obtain further Australian census data, and recommendations for improving the comparability of the Australian and New Zealand censuses."
Correspondence: New Zealand Planning Council, P.O. Box 5066, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30624 Poulain, M.; Eggerickh, T. Demographic analysis of the foreign population in Belgian cities (1983-1988). [De demografische kenmerken van de vreemde bevolking in de Belgische Steden (1983-1988).] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1990. 77-92 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents the main results of a demographic analysis of the foreign population in Belgian cities....The data, presented by sex, five year age-groups and main nationalities, show how the urban populations have evolved during this recent period. In all cases, E.C. [European Community] populations present the same demographic behaviour as Belgians, whilst among the non-E.C. populations, Turkish and Maghrebian [populations] show the larger differences. Age structure, natural increase and migration are approached in this paper, and the authors end up by showing that the major change in the near future will be the greater increase of the non-E.C. population born in Belgium." Data are from vital statistics records for the period 1983 to 1988.
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Nationaal Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, 1 Place Montesquieu, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30625 van der Haegen, H. The population of foreign nationality and its influence on Belgian demography. [De bevolking van vreemde nationaliteit en haar impact op de Belgische demografie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1990. 7-36 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author compares population characteristics of native Belgians and foreign-born migrants living in Belgium. Regional variations in the demographic impact of the migrants are also discussed. Migrant place of origin and the size of the migrant population for all regions of Belgium are described.
Correspondence: H. van der Haegen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Sociale en Economische Geografie, W. de Croylaan 42, 3030 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30626 Yusuf, Farhat. Size and sociodemographic characteristics of the Afghan refugee population in Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jul 1990. 269-79 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Some recent data are presented on the size and selected sociodemographic characteristics of the Afghan refugee population in Pakistan. Although the official figures show that there were 3.27 million registered Afghan refugees in Pakistan, it is estimated that the actual number may be as high as 3.6 million. There is an excess of females over males, mainly due to war-related activities and excessive casualties particularly among males. While infant and childhood mortality rates are declining and are lower than the levels prevalent in Pakistan, as well as in Afghanistan during the pre-war period, the fertility levels among Afghan refugees seem very high indeed."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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