Volume 56 - Number 3 - Fall 1990

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

56:30382 Adams, O. B.; Nagnur, D. N. Marriage, divorce, and mortality: an analysis of life tables, Canada and regions, 1980-1982. [Mariage, divorce et mortalite: analyse des tables de mortalite, Canada et regions, 1980-1982.] Pub. Order No. 84-536F. Sep 1988. 99 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Fre.
This report, also available in English, examines trends in nuptiality in Canada from 1970 to 1986. The objective of the study is to apply life table methods to identify patterns of nuptiality and mortality and to analyze indicators of marriage duration, divorce, and widowhood in Canada. Life tables by marital status are presented for Canada and its regions for the period 1984-1986 based on official population estimates for 1985.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

56:30383 Bumpass, Larry; Sweet, James; Martin, Teresa C. Changing patterns of remarriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 3, Aug 1990. 747-56 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Beginning with a brief review of recent trends in remarriage rates, this article focuses on the variation in these rates as measured in the 1980 and 1985 June [U.S.] Current Population Surveys. For reasons of data quality, the focus is on rates observed in the five years before each of these surveys. After a discussion of the demographic composition of separation cohorts as a factor affecting remarriage rates and ultimately the structure of remarriages, the article next examines proportional-hazard estimates of differentials in remarriage rates. Finally, using life-table procedures, the study draws out some of the important implications of differing remarriage rates by estimating expected proportions who will ever remarry."
Correspondence: L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30384 Bumpass, Larry L.; Martin, Teresa C.; Sweet, James A. Background and early marital factors in marital disruption. NSFH Working Paper, No. 14, Oct 1989. 22, [5] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The present analysis takes advantage of the marital histories as well as several unique aspects of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to explore both methodological and substantive issues concerning marital instability in the U.S. We begin with two methodological issues: the relative quality of marital history data from males, and the implications of marital reconciliation for our usual practice of measuring the timing of disruption by the date of separation. We then examine in sequence the effects on marital disruption of parental background factors, respondent's characteristics at first marriage, differences in couple characteristics, and then finally the joint activity statuses of both spouses in the first year of marriage....The risk of marital instability is highest among women who grew up in a single parent family, those with less education, those who cohabited before marriage, and those whose husband was unemployed or in the military in the first year of marriage....Intermarriages between Catholics and nonCatholics have much higher disruption rates than religiously homogamous marriages." High disruption rates were also found in marriages where the wife's employment status exceeded the husband's.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30385 Bumpass, Larry L.; Call, Vaughn R. A. The timing of marriage and education. NSFH Working Paper, No. 10, Oct 1989. 17, [7] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors analyze "the relationship between the completion of formal education and entry into marriage....Using the education and marriage histories in the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households, we examine the nature and extent of educational discontinuities, with particular attention to the timing, sequencing, and duration of postsecondary education after marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 400).
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30386 Canabal, Maria E. An economic approach to marital dissolution in Puerto Rico. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 2, May 1990. 515-30 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the socioeconomic determinants of marital dissolution, and the resulting female-headed families, in Puerto Rico....The presence and number of children less than 6 years of age, the religious participation of wives, and the increased age at marriage (up to approximately 30 years) decrease the probability of dissolution. Factors that positively affect marital dissolution are wives' labor force participation, living in a metropolitan area, and participation in a consensual rather than a legal marriage."
Correspondence: M. E. Canabal, Illinois State University, Department of Home Economics, Normal, IL 61701-6901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30387 Danermark, Berth; Soydan, Haluk; Pashko, Gramos; Vejsiu, Ylli. Women, marriage and family--traditionalism vs. modernity in Albania. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 19, No. 2, Autumn 1989. 19-41 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The aim of the article is to illustrate how the transition from traditionalism to modernity in Albanian society is reflected in the fields of decision-making in choosing the marriage partner, arena of choosing the marriage partner, and factors of importance for harmony in the marital relationship. We also outline the changes in women's participation in productive work, in social and policy life, and in education. The empirical material stems from a survey conducted in Albania [in] 1984. The number of respondents was 1,303. We conclude that there is a strong modernistic tendency both with regard to choosing marriage partner and factors important for harmony. The main feature of the development in Albania is the rapidity and explicitness of changes in attitudes towards marriage and family and in women's position."
Correspondence: B. Danermark, Orebro University, Box 923, S701 30 Orebro, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30388 De Santis, Gustavo. Estimating the time elapsed since first marriage with cross-section data. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jul 1990. 143-61 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article shows how Hajnal's method of estimating the mean age at first marriage with period data may be extended to estimate also the mean time elapsed since first marriage. The latter may thus be estimated in fertility analyses that exploit cross-sectional data even when the date of marriage is not known. However, simulations indicate that, under certain circumstances, such an estimate may be seriously biased. An application to data drawn from the 1981 Italian census is presented."
Correspondence: G. De Santis, University of Florence, Department of Statistics, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30389 Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E. Entry to lone parenthood: analysis of marital dissolution. Discussion Paper in Economics, No. 9/90, Dec 1989. 28 pp. University of London, Birkbeck College, Department of Economics: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the socio-economic determinants of marital dissolution among women with dependent children [in the United Kingdom]. Proportional hazard models are estimated using event history data collected in the 1980 Women and Employment Survey. There is no evidence that higher welfare benefits encourage marital dissolution."
Correspondence: University of London, Birkbeck College, Department of Economics, 7/15 Gresse Street, London W1P 1PA, England.

56:30390 Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lloyd, Michael. The effect of preschool children on family stability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 2, May 1990. 531-8 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The association between the number of preschool children in a family and rates of family breakdown was studied in a birth cohort of New Zealand children during the period from birth to ten years. The analysis showed that with increasing levels of exposure to preschool children the risk of family breakdown decreased significantly....The findings are consistent with previous research which suggests that the presence of preschool children in the family acts as a protective factor that reduces risks of family breakdown."
Correspondence: D. M. Fergusson, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch School of Medicine, Christchurch Child Development Study, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30391 Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne. Demography of the marriage market in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 175-87 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the effects of age differences at marriage, and of fertility and mortality rates on the marriage markets in countries in two very different settings: sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia....In the first section...we describe our basic approach and review results of our work for three sub-Saharan African countries [Senegal, Cameroon, and Northern Sudan]. Then, we use this approach to investigate the magnitude of the surplus of women in Pakistan and in Bangladesh and the demographic factors which account for the differences between these surpluses and those for the sub-Saharan African countries."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30392 Greenstein, Theodore N. Marital disruption and the employment of married women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 3, Aug 1990. 657-76 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the simultaneous effects of multiple indicators of wife's employment on marital disruption for a [U.S.] national probability sample of women who first married between 1968 and 1982. Based on a multivariate proportional-hazards model....it was found that the rate and timing of marital disruption was negatively related to wife's income and positively related to number of hours worked per week and to amount of premarital work experience. The pattern of these effects is similar for whites and blacks. Some implications for future trends in marital stability are discussed."
Correspondence: T. N. Greenstein, North Carolina State University, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Raleigh, NC 27695-8107. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30393 Gurak, Douglas T.; Falcon, Luis; Sandefur, Gary D.; Torrecilha, Ramon. A comparative examination of the link between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital stability. Population and Development Program: 1989 Working Paper Series, No. 1.15, 1989. 20 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The core goals of this paper consist of: 1) describing the association between premarital cohabitation with an eventual spouse and marital dissolution for Puerto Rican women residing in two social contexts [those residing in New York City and those living in Puerto Rico]; 2) exploring some of the mechanisms through which cohabitation and other factors influence the probability of divorce; and 3) comparing the patterns found for Puerto Rican women and that of Swedish women in order to assess the extent to which premarital cohabitation influences life-cycle processes similarly in diverse contexts." Data are from a 1982 Puerto Rican survey, a 1985 New York City survey, and a 1988 Swedish survey.
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 379).
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30394 Hinde, P. R. Andrew. The marriage market in the nineteenth century English countryside. Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 18, No. 2, Fall 1989. 383-92 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"The chief aim of this note is to examine the marriage market in the English countryside during the last decades before the onset of widespread fertility control. More specifically, the aim is to see how far a model of the marriage market in nineteenth-century England proposed by Robert Woods and myself in a recent paper can be applied to a number of rural communities between 1851 and 1881. The basis of the model we proposed lies in the observation that during the nineteenth century, a tension existed between two sets of influences on marriage: those relating to the changing conditions of employment and employment opportunity which were brought about by industrialisation, and those relating to the continuing 'social controls' on the timing and prevalence of marriage...." Consideration is given to the regional variations in marriage rates and to the effect of farm service on the marriage market.
For the article describing the original model, published in 1985, see 52:10240.
Correspondence: P. R. A. Hinde, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton 509 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30395 Hunter, Virginia. The Athenian widow and her kin. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989. 291-311 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The nature and social characteristics concerning women's status after widowhood and remarriage in classical Greece are examined using evidence from Athens lawsuits dated from approximately 420 to 320 B.C. "It is...significant that our sources for ancient Athens express no prejudice or ideology, and reveal no rituals against remarriage. Rather, the remarriage of widows predominates....This is not surprising, however, in a society where women married very young and the age gap between spouses was significant. Widowed early, a woman was in a position to provide children for a second house. In this, her social role conformed to family expectations, for lineage was important and marriage strategies numerous and varied...."
Correspondence: V. Hunter, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30396 Jacobsen, Linda A.; Pampel, Fred C. Cohabitation versus other nonfamily living arrangements: changing determinants from 1960 to 1980. Population and Development Program: 1989 Working Paper Series, No. 1.18, 1989. 32, [8] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This study places cohabitation within the...framework of nonfamily living arrangements, and analyzes changes [in the United States] from 1960 to 1980 in the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals who choose cohabitation over living alone or living in some other 2+ person nonfamily household. Separate multinomial logit models are estimated for whites and blacks using microdata from the Public Use Samples of the U.S. Census of Population for 1960, 1970, and 1980. The results indicate that the determinants of cohabiting versus living alone and cohabiting versus living in some other 2+ person nonfamily household are different, and that cohabitation appears to be related to a lack of economic resources among unmarried adults. Although there are some differences in the determinants of cohabitation among blacks and whites, their overall patterns are remarkably similar by 1980."
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 379).
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30397 Juarez, Fatima. Marriage patterns, family formation and demographic change. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 189-202 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines marriage patterns, family formation, and demographic change in Mexico using data from the 1976-1977 Mexican Fertility Survey for female cohorts born in 1927-1936, 1937-1946, and 1947-1956. She describes the evolution of marriage patterns and living arrangements in Mexico and discusses the impact of urbanization and industrialization on demographic change. She then focuses on the interrelationship between nuptiality and migration and on trends in fertility and migration to metropolitan areas.
Correspondence: F. Juarez, El Colegio de Mexico, CEDDU, Camino Al Ajusco 20, Mexico City, 10740 Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30398 Kohli, Krishan L.; Al-Omaim, Musa'ad. Recent nuptiality trends and patterns in Kuwait. Biology and Society, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1990. 81-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Comparison of marriage data from the five-yearly censuses in Kuwait from 1970 to 1985, and vital statistics, show trends in marriage. Age at first marriage increased for women, but there was little change in men, so there was a narrowing of the age difference between spouses. There is a new tendency emerging for Kuwaiti males to marry non-Kuwaiti females. These changes are attributed to increasing education and employment of women, urbanisation and modernisation, and appear to be leading to a decline in fertility."
Correspondence: K. L. Kohli, Central Statistical Office, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30399 Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Marlena; Nowak, Lucyna; Smolinski, Zbigniew. Survey of newly married couples, 1985. [Postawy prokereacyjne mlodych malzenstw "ankieta nowozencow 1985"] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 304, 1990. 257 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Results from a 1985 survey of 9,665 couples married that year in Poland are analyzed. Separate sections consider sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive attitudes and family formation, birth planning in the initial stages of marriage, and models of the planned total fertility of selected cohorts of newly married persons. Data are also compared with those from a similar study conducted in 1975.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30400 Landale, Nancy S. Opportunity, movement, and marriage: U.S. farm sons at the turn of the century. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989. 365-86 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The implications of historic changes in the American industrial structure for the marriage behavior of farm sons are examined using data from the 1880-1900 National Panel Study. The analysis focuses on migration and occupational placement as mechanisms through which the structure of local opportunities potentially affected family formation. The findings suggest that narrowing opportunities for farm ownership channeled the sons of U.S. farmers into farm labor and nonfarm occupations. These alternatives, in turn, reduced marriage chances during the early adult years. In contrast, inter-county migration between childhood and young adulthood increased the likelihood of marriage among the men in each occupation. Over all, the analysis demonstrates clear linkages between opportunity, occupations, migration, and nuptiality."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, National Opinion Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30401 Lee, Gary R.; Whitbeck, Les B. Economic systems and rates of polygyny. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1990. v, ix, 13-24 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper examines the roles of primary subsistence base and women's contributions to food production in the etiology of polygyny. Cross-cultural data from the Ethnographic Atlas are employed....The results show that polygyny is very likely to be allowed, but infrequently practiced, in exploitative and incipient agriculture economies. It is most likely to be widespread in herding and extensive agriculture economies, but decreases in frequency as agricultural technology develops further. These patterns are explained by variation in the roles of men and women in subsistence production, in combination with variation in the labor-intensiveness of subsistence activities."
Correspondence: G. R. Lee, University of Florida, Department of Sociology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:30402 Linke, Wilfried. Nuptiality trends in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1950. [Trendy malzenstw w Republice Federalnej Niemiec po 1950 r.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/97, 1989. 55-71 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Nuptiality trends in the Federal Republic of Germany are examined for the period 1950-1986. Changes in attitude toward marriage, postponement of marriage, and increasing numbers of consensual unions were found to affect marriage patterns and the definition of marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30403 Lutz, Wolfgang; Wils, Babette; Nieminen, Mauri. The demographic dimensions of divorce: the case of Finland. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-89-06, Jan 1989. v, 22 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper uses a multi-dimensional perspective to study the phenomenon of divorce. It is made possible by the availability of a unique data set from the Finnish Population Register that provides cross-classified information on several demographic dimensions of divorce....The main findings of this study on the Finnish case are: The period effect on divorce trends is very strong....age is the most important divorce risk factor until about age 30; higher age at marriage (above 35 or so) and high durations at least until duration 19 tend to increase divorce risk. Both the number of children and the age of the children influence the probability of divorce."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30404 McQuillan, Kevin. Economic structure, religion, and age at marriage: some evidence from Alsace. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989. 331-46 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the effects of economic and cultural factors on age at first marriage, using marriage records [from the period 1811-1870] for a sample of twenty-five communities located in the French region of Alsace. The findings indicate that in both agricultural and industrial settings, young people in predominantly Protestant communities married earlier than did those in predominantly Catholic villages. Significant differences also existed by occupation of the groom, though the effect of occupation varied by gender and religious affiliation."
Correspondence: K. McQuillan, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30405 Netherlands. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Voorburg, Netherlands). Annual statistics. Marriages and divorces, 1985-1989; changes of nationality, 1989. [Jaarcijfers. Huwelijkssluitingen, echtscheidingen, 1985-1989; wijzigingen van nationaliteit, 1989.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 6, Jun 1990. 31-51 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng; Dut.
Annual statistics for the Netherlands are presented concerning marriage, divorce, and nationality for 1985-1989. Tabular data include marriage and divorce patterns by residence, age, marital history, and marriage duration. Data also include nationality registrations of migrants becoming Dutch citizens and natives relinquishing their citizenship in 1989.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Prinses Beatrixlaan 428, Postbus 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30406 Otani, Kenji. Selected time distributions in the process to marriage and pregnancy in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 4, Jan 1990. 1-16 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Time distributions between selected events for women in Japan are examined, including birth, encounter with eventual husband, marriage, and first pregnancy. The author considers attitude toward marriage and its impact on timing of events. A model is developed to project marriage age and age at first pregnancy. Data are from the 1987 National Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30407 Quilodran, Julieta. Mexico: nuptiality differentials by region and size of settlement. [Mexico: diferencias de nupcialidad por regiones y tamanos de localidad.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1989. 595-613, 627 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents a description of the patterns of marriage to be found in the different regions of Mexico based on an analysis of the National Demographic Survey...conducted in 1982....An assessment was made of first marriages in terms of their timing, intensity, average age at marriage and nature of the union according to the size of the settlement. Then a similar analysis was effected for each region. In conclusion, it is pointed out that in Mexico two patterns of nuptiality coexist: one which is characterized as 'traditional' and the other which has been called the 'Gulf-Caribbean' pattern because in some respects it is similar to the patterns found in the Caribbean region."
Correspondence: J. Quilodran, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino Al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30408 Rao, K. Vaninadha. Marriage risks, cohabitation and premarital births in Canada. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 6, No. 1, May 1990. 27-49 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper is an attempt to examine the trends in union formation among various cohorts and to identify some of the socio-demographic correlates of marital timing. The data for this study are taken from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The results indicate that there is no immediate crisis for the family in Canada, but that many are choosing cohabitation as a preferred mode of first union formation at early stages. Young women (below 25 years of age), residents of large metropolitan areas, those with a university education and those with low religious commitment are more likely than others to be delayers of marriage."
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30409 Rao, K. Vaninadha. What is happening to cohabitation in Canada? In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 269-86 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt at addressing some of the issues concerning cohabitation in Canada using the national fertility survey data collected in 1984." The author finds the prevalence of cohabitation in Canada to be higher among young women, reaching levels comparable to those reported in the United States. "A set of eight achieved and ascribed characteristics were considered for their effect on the propensity of cohabitation. The covariates considered include birth cohort, place of birth, place of residence, education, number of siblings, religiosity, work status, and the province of residence at the time of survey....Results from...multivariate analysis confirm that birth cohort is a major factor and the risks of cohabitation for younger women are very high compared to older cohorts, controlling for other characteristics....Church attendance is another important decisive factor...[and] women with university education have lower risks compared to others."
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30410 Robinson, Patricia A. Mother tongue and marriage: the French and English in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1989. 187-200 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Linguistic intermarriage has important consequences both for the groups and individuals concerned. This paper examines marriage within and between the English and French mother tongue groups [in Canada] using individual level data. Characteristics such as education, ethnic origin and official language ability were found to be significant factors but the social or demographic context was also important. A sizable effect of language ability was found but the magnitude varied with the demographic context."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30411 Roucka, Michal; Skocdopolova, Radka. Seasonal variations in nuptiality in Czechoslovakia since World War II, with international comparisons. [Vyvoj sezonni snatecnosti v Ceskoslovensku po druhe svetove valce a soucasna situace v mezinarodnim srovnani.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1990. 116-25 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Seasonal variations in marriage patterns in Czechoslovakia from 1945 to the mid-1980s are analyzed and compared with trends in seven European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30412 Schultz, Martin. Divorce patterns in nineteenth-century New England. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1990. 101-15 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Sociological explanations of marital disruption and social change have relied on official governmental statistics that trace the emergence of divorce to the late 1800s. New data (N=2,241) derived from an eight-county sample in three New England states during the 1800-1860 period are compared with existing evidence for the late nineteenth-century. The findings indicate that divorce rates emerged in the early 1800s, increased sharply in the mid-century decades, and then leveled off toward the end of the century. These patterns are analyzed in terms of such variables as urbanization, the changing status of women, and the divorce laws and policies of the individual states, demonstrating that ideological changes were more important than forces associated with the industrial revolution."
Correspondence: M. Schultz, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30413 Sinel'nikov, A. B. Marriage and the birth rate in the USSR. [Brachnost' i rozhdaemost' v SSSR.] Voprosy Demografii, ISBN 5-02-013395-7. 1989. 102 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The impact of changes in marital status on the birth rate in the USSR is examined. Separate sections consider marriage and birth rates by age, marital instability, the influence of changes in marital law on the divorce rate, geographic variations in divorce rates, and the effect of second marriage on birth rates. Family size and divorce and factors affecting marital instability and family size are also discussed.
Correspondence: Izdatel'stvo Nauka, Profsoyuznaya ul. 90, GSP-7, 117864 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30414 Smock, Pamela J. Remarriage patterns of black and white women: reassessing the role of educational attainment. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 3, Aug 1990. 467-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this article illustrates the role of educational attainment in the remarriage patterns of black and white [U.S.] women. For whites, remarriage propensities do not differ significantly by schooling level. For blacks, on the other hand, remarriage and education are positively associated, net of the effects of other variables such as age at separation and the number of children. Very few black high school dropouts in the sample had remarried 10 years after separation. The results suggest that for blacks, those with the worst socioeconomic prospects are least likely to remarry."
Correspondence: P. J. Smock, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30415 Suzuki, Tohru. Regional patterns of marriage squeeze in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 3, Oct 1989. 14-28 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Regional marriage patterns in Japan for the period 1980-1985 are analyzed. The impact of population characteristics, age factors, and educational and socioeconomic status are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30416 Sweet, James A. Differentials in precision of reporting of dates of marital events in the National Survey of Families and Households. NSFH Working Paper, No. 20, Apr 1990. 13, [12] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper we will examine differentials in the precision with which respondents [in the U.S. National Survey of Families and Households] were able to date events in their marital histories--i.e., differentials in the extent to which they were able to report the specific month that an event occurred." Respondents were questioned concerning dates of marriage, separation, divorce, widowhood, and beginning and ending of cohabitation. The effects of age and the recency of events on the precision of reporting are also discussed.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30417 Takahashi, Shigesato. Marital status life tables with five states for Japanese population. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 3, Oct 1989. 41-55 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Life tables are presented by marital status for five states in Japan for the period 1980-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30418 Thornton, Arland; Axinn, William. Changing patterns of marital formation and dissolution in the United States: demographic implications. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 149-61 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper focuses attention on one aspect of family life in the United States--union formation and dissolution. We discuss changes in marriage and divorce and outline some of the important demographic consequences emanating from those changes. We note that the changes in patterns of marital formation and dissolution have important implications for a broad range of demographic attitudes and behaviour, including the marriage system itself, childbearing, household composition and living arrangements, economic well-being, migration and geographical mobility, and physical and mental health."
Correspondence: A. Thornton, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Department of Sociology and Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30419 Wijewickrema, S. First marriage among Maghrebian and Turkish women in Belgium: a comparative study. Part 1. IPD Working Paper, No. 1990-2, 1990. 16, [13] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a comparative study of nuptiality among Maghrebian and Turkish women residing in Belgium. Analyses of marital status, age at first marriage, age at entry into Belgium, and educational status for cohorts of women by nationality are included. Data are from the 1981 census.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, IPD, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30420 Williams, Lindy B. Marriage and decision-making: inter-generational dynamics in Indonesia. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1990. vi, x, 55-66 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this analysis, the factors that determine how much input Javanese couples are allowed into decisions regarding their marriages are explored. Perceptions of power and the factors that influence these perceptions are investigated separately for husbands and wives. It is found that, over time, couples have gained considerably in their ability to control decision outcomes, and that the educational attainment levels of both partners' fathers are consistent predictors of the couples' decision-making power. Size of community prior to marriage is particularly important among women, and age at marriage is especially relevant among men."
Correspondence: L. B. Williams, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Family Growth Survey Branch, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:30421 Wu, Zheng; Balakrishnan, T. R. Attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage in Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 89-7, Sep 1989. 27 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"An analysis of a national sample of Canadian women in the Canadian National Fertility Survey (1984) [indicates] that attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage are associated with their demographic, socioeconomic and cultural background. Eight attitudinal variables in the survey are used to construct the scales for the attitudes in a confirmatory factor analysis. Women who are in older ages, currently married, living in rural areas, with lower educational attainment, non-Catholic, having a higher frequency of church attendance and a higher desired number of children are found to be more conservative in their attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada.

56:30422 Xu, Xiaohe; Whyte, Martin K. Love matches and arranged marriages: a Chinese replication. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 3, Aug 1990. 709-22 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Data from a probability sample of 586 ever-married women in Chengdu, Sichuan, in the People's Republic of China, are used to examine the transition from arranged to free-choice marriages in that society. Retrospective data on mate-choice experiences reveal that the role of parents has declined sharply, while young people more and more dominate the process of spouse selection....Multiple regression analyses indicate that wives in...love matches are more satisfied with their marital relationships than their counterparts in arranged marriages, regardless of the length of the marriage, and that this difference cannot be attributed to the influence of other background factors that differentiate these two types of women."
Correspondence: X. Xu, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, 3012 Literature, Science, and the Arts Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

56:30423 Aldous, Joan. Family development and the life course: two perspectives on family change. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 3, Aug 1990. 571-83 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article is an assessment of family development and life course approaches for studying family change. After a brief description and critique of each, a discussion of selected studies illustrates the central research concerns that emerge within the two frameworks. The last section explores a range of current issues that may be examined effectively from family development and life course perspectives." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: J. Aldous, University of Notre Dame, Department of Sociology, 431 Decio, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30424 Ali, Syed M. Determinants of family size preferences in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Autumn 1989. 207-31 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The paper attempts to investigate and identify some of the most important predictors of family size-preferences in Pakistan. Based on cross-sectional data relating to 9,416 currently married women, the results of this study suggest that having one or more sons in the family is the principal predictor of the desired family size. Yet another important predictor is the education of the wife which plays a critical role in the family size determination. The study shows that the preferences for family size do not vary greatly between urban and rural areas."
Correspondence: S. M. Ali, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30425 Alter, George. Households and the life course: natives and migrants in a nineteenth century Belgian city. PIRT Working Paper, No. 3, Mar 1986. 27, [9] pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
The household patterns of women in a nineteenth-century industrial city in Belgium are examined from a life-course perspective. "Only a minority, less than one in five, of these women lived apart from their parents and unmarried siblings....The household patterns of married women show the preference for independent, neolocal residence....Marriage was a distinct break with the family of origin, and married women rarely lived with either parents or unmarried siblings....This paper has also tried to describe complexities in migration patterns that have received little previous attention. In nineteenth century Verviers, women most often migrated in family groups....Women who came before the age of 20 almost always came with their parents, and migrants arriving with parents are found at older ages too."
This paper was originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 460).
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30426 Aquilino, William S. The likelihood of parent-adult child coresidence: effects of family structure and parental characteristics. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 2, May 1990. 405-19 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study estimates the influence of child, parent, and family structural characteristics on the likelihood of parents having a coresident adult child. Data from a representative national sample of [U.S.] parents (N = 4,893) show that parental dependency is not the major factor explaining coresidence at any point in the life course. The large majority of parents at all ages maintain their own households, and most parents and adult children who coreside live in the parent's household....Only parents with unmarried adult children have any appreciable risk of having an adult child at home....Parents' marital dissolution and remarriage are negatively related to the likelihood of coresidence; parents with extended households are more likely to have a coresident adult child."
Correspondence: W. S. Aquilino, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30427 Arrom, Silvia M. Perspectives on the history of the Mexican family. Latin American Population History Bulletin, No. 17, Spring 1990. 4-9 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
Historical trends in family formation and characteristics in Mexico are examined using data from the 1811 census of Mexico City and are compared to patterns in selected countries. The author also reviews studies that have analyzed family history data.
Correspondence: S. M. Arrom, Indiana University, Department of History, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30428 Beaujot, Roderic. The family and demographic change in Canada: economic and cultural interpretations and solutions. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1990. v-vi, x-xi, 25-38 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Certain patterns of family related behaviour have been undergoing profound changes over the past twenty-five years in Canada: cohabitation, age at marriage, proportions marrying, divorce and levels of childbearing. After describing these trends, two interpretations are suggested. The economic perspective argues that structural transformations in the economy have increased opportunities for women in the labour force, changing the economic aspects of the relations between men and women. The cultural perspective argues that values and norms have promoted a greater concern for self-gratification and a greater freedom of choice in family related matters....The paper concludes with an appraisal of various economic and cultural solutions to the problems created by those recent demographic trends."
Correspondence: R. Beaujot, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:30429 Bianchi, Suzanne M. America's children: mixed prospects. Population Bulletin, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jun 1990. 43 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of life for children in the United States in the 1990s. She discusses changes in the child population, family size, marital status of parents, and labor force participation of mothers and how these affect the quality of life for children. Income, child care, parental time with children, educational performance, health status, and differentials among ethnic groups are examined. The author concludes that "most American children lead happy, healthy lives and several trends portend well for the future of most youngsters. But the picture is marred by the problematic future of the children of the underclass and the uncertain psychological impact of America's transformed family life."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30430 Blayo, Chantal. Application of principles of demographic analysis to the study of the family life cycle. [De l'application des principes d'analyse demographique a l'etude de l'evolution des familles.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 63-86 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Methods of demographic analysis for studying the family life cycle are assessed. The author discusses event classification based on successive stages of the family life cycle, variables affecting the cycle, and questionnaire design for implementing the study of transition within families.
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30431 Bonvalet, Catherine; Merlin, Pierre. Housing and the changing family. Proceedings of a conference presided over by Pierre Merlin (Institut Francais d'Urbanisme), Paris, October 20-21, 1986. [Transformation de la famille et habitat. Actes du colloque preside par Pierre Merlin (Institut Francais d'Urbanisme), Paris, 20-21 octobre 1986.] Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 120, ISBN 2-7332-0120-4. 1988. 371 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Paris in 1986, which was concerned with the changes that are occurring in the structure of families in France and their impact on housing policy. These changes include the growth in the number of persons living on their own, the increase in single-parent families, and the decline in families with many children, as well as changes in the family life cycle, which also have implications for housing. The contributions are from a number of different disciplines.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, Departement des Revues, 14 avenue du Bois-de-l'Epine, B.P. 90, 91003 Evry Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30432 Burch, Thomas K. Comparative study on the family systems of the less and more advanced societies. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 105-17 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author compares international patterns of household size and structure among developed and developing countries. Included is the "development of a new decomposition of the 'crude householder rate' (the inverse of average household size) to include a term relating to the proportion of adults living in one-person households; presentation of the above decomposition for 53 nations for which the requisite data are available in the latest [U.N.] Demographic Yearbook compilation of household data (1982), primarily from the 1980 census round; presentation of changes in the indices for a smaller subset of nations for which the data are available at two widely spaced dates; [and] a brief presentation of recent U.N. tabulations of households by number of family nuclei contained."
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30433 Burch, Thomas K. Improving statistics and indicators on families for social policy purposes. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 89-3, Nov 1989. 33, [8] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The author examines data analysis methods and survey design that focus on changes in family demography. The paper is divided into four sections. "The first shows how new techniques or new variations on old techniques can be used to analyze readily available international data, in particular, the U.N. Demographic Yearbook series of data on households. The second section discusses the inadequacies of the conventional marital status classification in the face of changing patterns of union formation and dissolution....The third section discusses some major limitations of the census household concept, and illustrates survey questions that might be used to overcome them. The focus is on the issue of important social and economic interaction among members (often kin or relatives) of distinct census households. The fourth...considers the question of household/family typologies....The inadequacy of the conventional nuclear/stem/extended typology, and of prevailing stereotypes of family structures around the world [are described]. Some relatively simple census-type questions...are presented. Finally, more formal, empirical approaches to the delimitation of family structure are outlined...."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada.

56:30434 Burkart, Gunter; Kohli, Martin. Marriage and parenthood in the process of individualization: trends and life-style differentiation. [Ehe und Elternschaft im Individualisierungsprozess: Bedeutungswandel und Milieudifferenzierung.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1989. 405-26 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The theory of individualization offers a useful context for the understanding of present changes in the couple relationship, marriage and parenthood. However, so far there have been no empirical tests for clarifying the scope of this theory. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study [conducted in West Germany] which, in addition to a general trend towards individualization, also reveals differences according to socio-regional milieus. These differences are demonstrated by two topics: living together (with and without being married) and the relation between parenthood and occupational activity. The results are condensed into a typology of couple relationships. The observed trends make it seem possible that the future will bring a polarization into two life styles: a family-oriented and an individualized style."
Correspondence: G. Burkart, Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Soziologie, Hittorfstrasse 16, 1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30435 Canada. Statistics Canada. Postcensal estimates of families, Canada, provinces and territories, June 1, 1989. [Estimations postcensitaires des familles, Canada, provinces et territoires, 1er juin 1989.] Pub. Order No. 91-204. Mar 1990. 29 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
These are estimates of families for 1989 based on the 1986 Canadian census. Tabular data are presented for rate of increase by type of family, percentage distribution of husband-wife and single parent families, families by size and structure, and families by province and age group of children.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30436 Charbit, Yves. Public opinion about demographic policies, nuptiality, and new techniques of procreation in May 1987. [L'opinion sur la politique demographique, la nuptialite et les nouvelles techniques de procreation en mai 1987.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 1,159-87 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A new opinion survey on [France's] current demographic situation was carried out in May, 1987 on a sample of 2,800 people aged 18 or over. The questions dealt primarily with demographic policies: financial aid to families, abortion, and contraception." Attitudes concerning the family were analyzed, including ideal family size, marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. "Questions were also asked relating to attitudes to new forms of procreation and the possibility of choosing the sex of one's child." Findings reveal a connection between socioeconomic factors, such as educational levels and place of residence, with nuptiality and fertility trends.
Correspondence: Y. Charbit, Universite de Paris V, 12 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30437 Chi, Peter S. K. Determinants of family formation in Taiwan. Population and Development Program: 1989 Working Paper Series, No. 1.17, 1989. 18, [11] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1985 Taiwan Labor Force Survey were used to construct two multivariate models. The first model is to determine what significant variables influenced the couple's choice of family types (i.e., nuclear vs. extended) at the time of marriage. For those married couples who have lived in an extended family, the second model will explain why there is variation in length of coresidence with their parents. The findings indicate that the wife's socioeconomic characteristics are the major determinants of family formation in Taiwan even when the husband's educational level and a contextual variable are statistically controlled."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30438 Cornell, L. L. Getting and begetting children: childlessness, adoption, and fertility in early modern Japan. PIRT Working Paper, No. 9, Dec 1987. 55 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in childlessness, adoption, and fertility in early modern Japan. "Because the Japanese family system does permit the incorporation of outsiders through adoption it is often assumed that adoption serves as a remedy for all problems resulting from a lack of children. With adoption, this argument runs, there is no risk in limiting the number of children you have, because they can always be replaced. This paper uses data on childless couples drawn from population registers covering a single village in central Japan in the period 1671 to 1871 to argue that this interpretation is incorrect."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30439 DaVanzo, Julie; Goldscheider, Frances K. Coming home again: returns to the parental home of young adults. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jul 1990. 241-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data from the (U.S.) National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 are used to study young adults' returns to the parental home, to test hypotheses about the influences on these residential decisions and to examine the likely causes of the increases in returning home in recent years....We find returns home not only to be associated with 'failure' transitions, such as losing a job or ending a marriage, but also to follow the completion of such transitional roles as student and military service. They occur as well in conjunction with the role changes, such as returning to school or beginning full-time work. Thus returning home appears to be more common, and more ordinary, in the life course, now that more of those young adults away from home are unmarried, than was the case when most young adults who lived away from home were married."
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, Rand Corporation, Population Research Center, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30440 Duben, Alan. Understanding Muslim households and families in late Ottoman Istanbul. Journal of Family History, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1990. 71-86 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The basic features of Muslim Turkish household and family structures in late Ottoman Istanbul are analyzed using quantitative data obtained from the Ottoman censuses of 1885 and 1907, retrospective interviews, and literary sources. A major purpose is to examine the meaning of quantitative household data for an understanding of household and family life at that time by considering both the methods used to elicit and to analyze such data and the alternative perspectives gained by the use of data from retrospective interviews and literary sources."
Correspondence: A. Duben, Bogazici University, 80815 Bebek, Istanbul. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30441 Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E. Lone parenthood and employment in Great Britain: male-female differences. Discussion Paper in Economics, No. 89/9, Sep 1989. 20 pp. University of London, Birkbeck College, Department of Economics: London, England. In Eng.
"In Great Britain, the 100 per cent marginal tax rate in the Supplementary Benefit (SB) system implies that higher SB benefits would discourage employment while higher family income other than earnings or SB would encourage it. This paper measures the size of these effects using a large sample of lone parents who are household heads from ten years of the General Household Survey (1973-1982). We find that welfare benefits and other family income have the predicted effects on the employment rate of female lone parents, but have no significant effect on that of male lone parents."
Correspondence: University of London, Birkbeck College, Department of Economics, 7/15 Gresse Street, London W1P 1PA, England.

56:30442 Gerber, Haim. Anthropology and family history: the Ottoman and Turkish families. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989. 409-21 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The kadi court records of the seventeenth-century Turkish city of Bursa are used to reconstruct, in an empirical way, the dominant family pattern for that period. An explanation for the identified pattern--the nuclear family--is then sought by means of comparisons with other family patterns in different socioeconomic and political contexts. The study also deals briefly with the implications of these findings for the current anthropological literature on the Turkish family."
Correspondence: H. Gerber, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of History of Muslim Countries, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30443 Glick, Paul C. American families: as they are and were. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 74, No. 3, Apr 1990. 139-45 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The author analyzes changes in the structure of U.S. families during the twentieth century, with a focus on the past 50 years. Aspects considered include changes in family life cycles, marriage patterns, living arrangements, divorce, and remarriage; the growing number of single-parent families; life expectancy of parents after their children leave home; and social changes.
Correspondence: P. C. Glick, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:30444 Goldani, Ana Maria; Pullum, Thomas W. Changes in the life course of Brazilian women. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 129-46 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The focus of this study is on the impact of cohort nuptiality, fertility, and mortality on women's life courses in twentieth-century Brazil. Using 1984 data for women aged 15-54 and multistate life table methodology, the authors examine family structure, the various roles women assume within the family during the life course, and the effect of age and time on role transition. A comparison of U.S. and Brazilian women's life courses is included.
Correspondence: A. M. Goldani, Fundacao SEADE, Av. Casper Libero 464, 3o Andar s/31, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30445 Grigsby, Jill S. Adult children in the parental household: who benefits? Lifestyles: Family and Economic Issues, Vol. 10, No. 4, Winter 1989. 293-309 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Households that include adult children may arise out of collective necessities, not just the needs or shortcomings of the adult child. Therefore living in the parental home does not necessarily preclude the transition to adulthood. An analysis of household income in the 1980 U.S. Census demonstrates that while parents on average contribute a larger share of household income than their adult child does, some parents and children share a need for joint living arrangements. The parental characteristics associated with such needs include an older householder, a female householder, and income close to or below the poverty line."
Correspondence: J. S. Grigsby, Pomona College, Department of Sociology, Claremont, CA 91711. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30446 Itoh, Tatsuya. Household composition of migrants in Japan, 1980. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 4, Jan 1990. 30-45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the impact of migration on household composition and size in Japan during 1980. Data are from the 1980 census.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30447 Joshi, Heather. Changing roles of women in the British labour market and the family. In: Frontiers of economic research, edited by Phyllis Deane. ISBN 0-333-49251. 1990. 101-28 pp. Macmillan: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper starts with an exposition of the reasons why there may be causal links, in both directions, between the female labour market and the family [in the United Kingdom]; it then reviews the evidence about the changes and continuities in the demography of the British family; it examines changes and continuities in the role of women and men in the British economy; summarises some research findings about the effects of gender and family responsibilities on women's earnings and reviews the evidence for influences of the labour market on family formation. Its conclusion dismisses fears that equality of economic opportunity for men and women threatens the family, but emphasises the constraints that their domestic role still places on women's contributions to and earnings from the paid economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30448 Kazi, Shahnaz; Raza, Bilquees. Households headed by women: income, employment and household organization. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 27, No. 4, Winter 1988. 781-90 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of female-headed households in Pakistan. "[A] sample of 680 working women will be used to analyse the economic situation of households headed by women relative to households headed by men. The paper will compare income levels, household size and composition and employment patterns in the two sets of households. Further, the study will also investigate differences in income and employment options within the subset of households headed by women." The poverty of households headed by women was generally found to reflect the disadvantaged position of women in the labor market. Comments by Nahced Aziz are included (pp. 788-90).
Correspondence: S. Kazi, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30449 Kolbeck, Edeltraud; Kiefl, Walter. The family in an implosion spiral: considerations on the decline in the motivation for parenthood. [Die Familie in der Implosionsspirale: Uberlegungen zum Ruckgang der Elternschaftsmotivation.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 18, 1989. 119 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The decline in the motivation for parenthood in the Federal Republic of Germany and other developed countries is examined. Topics discussed include the extent to which this trend is a symptom of crisis for the family; causes of the decline in fertility and family size; effects on the individual, the family, and society; and the outlook for the future.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Postfach 5528, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30450 Lacombe, Bernard; Lamy, Marie-Jose. The household and the small family, a methodological illusion of statistics and survey demography. [Le menage et la famille restreinte, illusion methodologique de la statistique et de la demographie d'enquete.] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1989. 407-14 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors question the use of the concept of "households" in demographic analyses of the family. "Designed with reference to the Western family, is the concept still operational in radically different contexts, and in particular where extended families are dominant? The authors reply that it might be as long as it is handled with caution, knowledge of its limits and only as a practical collection concept. Wanting to force it to coincide with a social reality leads to methodological illusion."
Correspondence: B. Lacombe, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer de Mexico, Departement S.D.U., Apartado postale 57297, 06501 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30451 Levin, Irene. How to define family. Familjerapporter, No. 17, 1990. 19 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
The author presents a new method of conceptualizing family by interviewing individuals within a family and comparing their perceptions concerning family relationships. "The aim is to study the variation in content, structure, closeness, and the definition of family."
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30452 Ma, Xia. The change in family and population reproduction in China. Population Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1989. 1-13 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The role of the family in China's socialist system is discussed. Beginning with decreases in marital fertility levels, the author addresses the socioeconomic changes that have affected family structure, the role of the family in culturally educating children, intergenerational household composition, and the family's responsibility in providing care for aged parents.
Correspondence: X. Ma, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30453 Matras, Judah. Demographic trends, life course, and family cycle--the Canadian example: Part I. Changing longevity, parenting, and kin-availability. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1989. 1-24 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper...reviews the bearing of recent demographic trends on longevity, parenting and kin-availability in the life course [in Canada]....Declining mortality and fertility have led to population aging and, not less important, to restructuring of the individual life course and family cycle. Increased longevity has been followed by diminished parenting, family size, sibships and child dependency; by lengthened pre-childbearing and 'empty nest' periods for intact couples; but also by extended parental survival and dependency. We conjecture and hypothesize that the frequencies, directions and timing of life course and family cycle transitions such as school leaving, leaving the parental home, entering employment, marriage, childbearing, household formation, migration, job mobility, retirement and the [like] are closely related to the constellation of family dependencies and obligations as well as to intra- and extra-family income and service entitlements...."
Correspondence: J. Matras, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30454 Matras, Judah. Demographic trends, life course, and family cycle--the Canadian example: Part II. Employment, parenting, and their alternatives. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1989. 145-62 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"An earlier companion paper...reviewed trends in mortality and fertility in Canada in the present century and tried to show how they bear upon the individual life course and family cycle through their effects on longevity, on parenting and on numbers, presence, or 'availability' of surviving spouses, children, siblings and parents at various junctures....The present paper considers the patterns of life course employment, parenting and their alternatives which have followed from--or at least accompanied--the major demographic and socioeconomic trends of the present century....The central hypothesis advanced here...is that considerations of dependency and obligations with respect to close kin bear heavily upon the timing and direction of life course transitions--in this case, on the transitions into or out of employment, or among full- or part-time jobs."
For Part 1, published by the same author in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. Matras, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30455 Mayer, Karl U.; Tuma, Nancy B. Event history analysis in life course research. Life Course Studies, ISBN 0-299-12200-X. LC 89-40261. 1989. xi, 297 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This is a selection of revised versions of papers originally presented at a conference on the applications of event history analysis to life course research, held in 1985 in Berlin, West Germany. "The contributions deal with various substantive issues in life course research and with several unsolved methodological problems in event history analysis. By life course research we mean the study of social processes extending over the individual life span or over significant portions of it, especially the family cycle (marriage and child-rearing), educational and training histories, and employment and occupational careers....By event history analysis we mean various statistical methods for examining shifts between successive states (or categories) within some continuous interval of time on the basis of a complete temporal record for some sample....The chapters in this volume are arranged into three parts. The first two parts deal primarily with some major life domain. Those in Part I deal with job and unemployment processes, and those in Part II concern migration and family formation. Chapters in Part III raise and attempt to resolve various methodological issues in event history analysis."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin Press, 114 North Murray Street, Madison, WI 53715. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30456 Molloy, Maureen. Friends, neighbors, and relations: the practice of kinship in Waipu, New Zealand, 1857-1917. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989. 313-30 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Aspects of the practice of kinship in a Highland Scots community in nineteenth-century New Zealand are examined through archival and oral historical sources....There is evidence that the extended family was central to settlement patterns and to support systems throughout the life course. It is further suggested that support extended to those beyond the circle of 'close' kin to include friends, acquaintances, and others in need, especially when these were children. The study concludes that a biologistic model of kinship does not fit the evidence for Waipu and that the settlers had a wider and more fluid concept of appropriate people toward whom 'kinship' could and should be practiced."
Correspondence: M. Molloy, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30457 Narain, Vatsala; Narayan, Lalitha. Demographic aspects of the family in India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 1, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 253-65 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper describes some demographic aspects of family in India with the following specific objectives: (i) to examine the changes in the household size and composition for census years 1961-81; [and] (ii) to measure the family life cycle in India. The paper is divided broadly into three sections. The first section explores...family studies in India; the second deals with...family size and composition; the last section measures the life cycle."
Correspondence: V. Narain, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30458 Nelson, Nici. Rural-urban child fostering in Kenya: migration, kinship ideology, and class. In: Migrants, workers, and the social order, edited by Jeremy Eades. 1987. 181-98 pp. Association of Social Anthropologists [ASA]: London, England; Tavistock Publications: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines child fostering in Kenya. "Two types of exchange occur in different ways and for different socioeconomic reasons. The first type of fostering is where poor, rural peasants send their children to be fostered by kinspeople who are part of the urban elite. The second type occurs when poor, urban migrants send their children back to kin in the villages. Looking at the possible changes in the rate of fostering and the certain changes in the structure of fostering will yield insights into the interrelationships between rural-urban migration, class formation, and kinship ideology in modern Kenya."
Correspondence: N. Nelson, Goldsmith's College, Lewisham Way, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30459 Pitrou, Agnes; Gaillard, Anne-Marie. Families in France and Sweden: the search for new models. [Familles de France et de Suede: a la recherche de nouveaux modeles.] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1989. 415-28 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Examination of the evolution of family models in France and Sweden reveals many similar trends: increase in the divorce rate, fall in marriage and fertility rates, decrease in the size of the average family, increase in the number of single parent families, diversity of rearranged households, etc. However, the authors stress the extent to which the historical and ideological context of this evolution is different in the two countries. Whereas new conjugal models are diffused rapidly in Sweden without provoking reactions of rejection, a certain ideology in France recommends an ideal of conjugal stability and demands a policy openly favouring an increased birth rate. The Swedes find contraception and abortion natural whereas they are still the subject of impassioned debates in France. The attitude to children is very different in the two countries. However, in both cases, although the evolution of family ties still has an experimental aspect it seems sufficiently radical to make it necessary to rethink the nature of social ties in general."
Correspondence: A. Pitrou, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d'Economie et de Sociologie du Travail, 35 avenue Jules-Ferry, Aix-en-Provence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30460 Poston, Dudley L.; Falbo, Toni. Scholastic and personality characteristics of only children and children with siblings in China. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 45-8, 54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A study of the effects of being an only child on academic achievement and personality characteristics was undertaken in 1987 among Chinese schoolchildren in Changchun, Jilin Province. The findings did not support reports in the Chinese and Western press that China's one-child-per-family policy is creating a generation of spoiled children. Overall, the only children performed significantly better than children with siblings on academic measures but scored similarly on personality ratings."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30461 Quesnel, Andre; Vimard, Patrice. The plural family in a rural African environment. An example of plantation economy: the Dayes plateau in Southwest Togo. [Famille plurielle en milieu rural africain. Un exemple en economie de plantation: le plateau de Dayes (Sud-Ouest Togo).] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1989. 339-55 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Study of the transition to a plantation economy in populations on the Dayes plateau (SW Togo) shows the progressively preponderant role of the domestic group. Responsibility for production, for continuity of the labour force and for the demographic continuity of groups which used to be held by lineal authorities is now exercised at [the] domestic unit level. Although this results in greater autonomy for women, it also results in radical changes in the marriage rate. The loss of control of lineal structures over marriages appears to have led to increasing conjugal instability to link in particular with the number of unmarried couples. The authors carry out a comparative study of autochthonous groups (Ahlon and Ewe) and an immigrant group (Kabye) and study the consequences of this situation with regard to both demography and family structures. They show that autochthonous and immigrant groups are interdependent in the forming of demographic structures and report that there are many family models, essentially in the autochthonous population."
Correspondence: A. Quesnel, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Departement M.A.A., 213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30462 Ram, Bali. New trends in the family: demographic facts and features. Current Demographic Analysis, Pub. Order No. 91-535E. ISBN 0-660-12957-4. Mar 1990. xi, 96 pp. Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Research and Analysis Section: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Recent changes in the demographic profile of the family in Canada are examined. Trends considered include families in which both parents work outside the home, increases in single-parent families, childless couples, nonmarital cohabitation, decreasing family size, and divorce. The impact of these changes on the demand for child care is examined, and social policies concerning the family and household are discussed.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Research and Analysis Section, Ottawa K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30463 Robineau, Claude. Families is transformation: a Polynesian case (Maatea, Moorea, Society Islands). [Familles en transformation: un cas polynesien (Maatea, Moorea, iles de la Societe).] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1989. 383-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Using a survey of a set of households in a village community in Moorea (Society Islands, French Polynesia), the author examines family transformations using a 'substantive' approach. Analysis of the resources of each household in the context of the recent opening up to the consumer society gives information on the evolution of incomes, the subsistence level, the building up of surpluses and the degree of 'equipment'. Analysis of the social form of households reveals the multiplicity of family types and variable cycles of transformation from one type to another. This information, which cuts across the social form and mode of management of the households, leads the author to identify five distinct types of household, each with a coherent model of operation. Far from observing a uniform evolution of the extended family towards the nuclear family, the author shows that the opposite evolution is just as possible. The plural, fluctuating nature of the family institution in Polynesia today is noted above all."
Correspondence: C. Robineau, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Departement S.D.U., 213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30464 Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina. Theoretical aspects of the family systems of the less and more industrialised countries: are all family systems converging? In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 119-27 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author assesses the extent to which changes in family systems in developing countries indicate a convergence toward the type of family systems prevailing in developed societies. She first examines the validity of the assumptions underlying such a theoretical exercise by comparing varying cultural, socioeconomic, and religious contexts within and among developed and developing countries. She concludes that "transitions in family systems are not exclusively tied to the processes and concomitants of urbanisation and industrialisation but may be also due to different socio-cultural and religious factors prevalent in different societies."
Correspondence: C. Safilios-Rothschild, Agricultural University, Salverdaplein 11, POB 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30465 Schlemmer, Bernard. On some characteristics of Tahitian family groups. Standards, behavior, projection. [De quelques caracteristiques du groupe familial tahitien. Normes, comportements, projections.] Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1989. 393-405 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"[This is a] study of the evolution of the Tahitian family group through systematic analysis of a set of files of candidates for low cost housing. This first showed a set of frequently little-known standards: the normal nature of concubinage, relatively late marriage, the establishment of the family only considered as being effective with the third child, the generalization of adoption, etc. The trend towards nuclear families is then questioned. The nuclear family model is spreading rapidly and even appears to be consciously desired by many young couples. However, the extended family in various forms (with a tendency to favour matrilineal extensions) remains preponderant and conserves an essential social integration function in Tahitian society."
Correspondence: B. Schlemmer, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Departement S.D.U., 70-74 route d'Aulnay, 93410 Bondy, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30466 Spitze, Glenna; Logan, John. Sons, daughters, and intergenerational social support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 2, May 1990. 420-30 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the effects of the number and gender composition of children on the receipt of social support by older persons [in the United States]. Effects vary with type of support: having daughters is most salient for telephone contact, while frequency of visiting is affected by both gender and number of children. Living with children is influenced by the number but not gender of children. Finally, the key to receiving help is having at least one daughter, but there is no advantage of additional children of either gender....Findings are discussed in relation to models previously applied to support from different types of primary groups."
Correspondence: G. Spitze, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Social Science 340, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30467 Szucs, Zoltan. Changes in the conceptual system of the censuses of population relating to family and household. [A nepszamlalasok csalades haztartasfogalmainak valtozasai.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 68, No. 4-5, Apr-May 1990. 325-49 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author reviews Hungarian census methods concerning measurement of families and households, and the different definitions the government has used to define these terms since World War II. "The changes in the concepts of the household and family make [it] necessary to analyse how the conceptual systems used in different periods can be adapted to the concepts of our days. Moreover, the study makes an attempt to estimate, if possible, the number and structure of households and families for the years when such data collection (or processing) has not been carried out."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30468 Toulemon, Laurent. The stages toward adulthood: toward a new statute for women. The history of the generations born in France between 1941 and 1960. [Les etapes vers l'age adulte: vers un nouveau statut des femmes. Histoire des generations nees en France entre 1941 et 1960.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 247-67 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Changes in the process by which young French women pass from adolescence to adulthood are examined using data from a retrospective survey conducted by INED in 1986. The survey included data on the life course of 2,193 women and 1,886 men born between 1941 and 1964. The primary focus is on changes over time in the age at which young people leave home, are first employed, become part of a couple, and get married. Consideration is also given to the age at which women have their first child. The author concludes that a consequence of these changes has been the development of a status for women apart from their spouses and a diminution of inequality between the sexes.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30469 Wasserman, Pamela. Planning the ideal family: the small family option. ISBN 0-945219-02-4. LC 89-16632. 1990. 20 pp. Zero Population Growth: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is an overview of the issues surrounding choosing to have a small family in the United States. Sections are included on trends in family size; economic considerations, including the cost of raising children; societal and familial pressures on childless couples; and the demographic and environmental effect that smaller families have. Notes are included on birth order and spacing.
Correspondence: Zero Population Growth Publications, 1400 Sixteenth Street NW, Suite 320, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30470 Weinstein, Maxine; Sun, Te-Hsiung; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Freedman, Ronald. Household composition, extended kinship, and reproduction in Taiwan: 1965-1985. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jul 1990. 217-39 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between extended family households and fertility trends in Taiwan during the period 1965-1985 is explored. "Co-residence of a married couple with the husband's parents continues....despite Taiwan's industrialization and convergence with a Western model of consumption, and despite the increase in the prevalence of nuclear households over the past twenty years. Increases in nuclear units are associated primarily with declines in proportions living in households that are extended both laterally and across generations, while the percentage living with a parent in a stem household has declined only modestly since 1973. In all, declines in co-residence notwithstanding, in 1985 nearly half the respondents resided in extended units. In 1985, as in 1980, a history of residence in an extended household was related to more traditional reproductive behaviour."
Correspondence: M. Weinstein, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30471 Werbner, Pnina. Enclave economies and family firms: Pakistani traders in a British city. In: Migrants, workers, and the social order, edited by Jeremy Eades. 1987. 213-33 pp. Association of Social Anthropologists [ASA]: London, England; Tavistock Publications: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I discuss the underlying processes generating the immigrant 'economic enclave', and examine the management of relations within the household and wider kin networks in the context of immigrant enterprise. My aim is to elucidate the way family, capital, and labour interrelate under conditions of both immigrant community growth and development, and family growth." The focus is on Pakistanis who have migrated to Manchester, England, since the end of World War II.
Correspondence: P. Werbner, Victoria University, Department of Sociology, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30472 Yamamoto, Chizuko. The recent demographic situation of the people living outside their families by prefecture. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 4, Jan 1990. 59-69 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The demographic situation of people in Japan who live apart from their families is examined for the period 1920-1985. The distribution of Japanese people living alone is presented for the years 1960, 1975, and 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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