**56:20663** **Alho, Juha
M.** *Estimation of exposure time distributions.*
Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 313-21 pp. Washington, D.C. In
Eng.

"In this work I derived formulas for the calculation of the
exposure time distributions in an age-structured multistate demographic
system and applied them to the modeling of exposures to
carcinogens....Many of my calculations pertain to the idealized
stationary or stable population that results from the application of
time-invariant transition rates to a base population. Formulas for the
handling of exposure time distributions in certain nonstable
populations were also derived. Both models were applied to the
analysis of exposures to carcinogens in the Finnish 15- to 64-year-old
male population."*Correspondence:* J. M. Alho, University of
Illinois, Institute for Environmental Studies and Department of
Statistics, Urbana, IL 61801. *Location:* Princeton University
Library (SPR).

**56:20664** **Andersen,
Per K.; Vaeth, Michael.** *Simple parametric and
nonparametric models for excess and relative mortality.*
Biometrics, Vol. 45, No. 2, Jun 1989. 523-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In
Eng. with sum. in Fre.

"This paper studies two classes of
hazard-rate-based models [multiplicative hazard models and additive
hazard models] for the mortality in a group of individuals taking
normal life expectancy into account....A model including both the
multiplicative hazard model and the additive hazard model is briefly
considered. The use of the models is illustrated on a set of [Danish]
data concerning survival after operation for malignant
melanoma."*Correspondence:* P. K. Andersen, University of
Copenhagen, Statistical Research Unit, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200
Copenhagen N, Denmark. *Location:* Princeton University Library
(SM).

**56:20665**
**Andjelkovich, Dragana A.; Richardson, Regina B.; Enterline,
Philip E.; Levine, Richard J.** *Assigning race to
occupational cohorts using census block statistics.* American
Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 131, No. 5, May 1990. 928-34 pp.
Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.

The main objective of this paper is to
describe a method for assigning race to persons whose race is unknown,
primarily for the purpose of determining disease frequency among
specific ethnic groups. "The method is based on block of residence and
the percentage of persons of black race residing on each block. U.S.
Census block statistics for Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas,
which report the total number of persons residing on each block as well
as the proportion of blacks, are utilized for this purpose....[The
authors conclude that this method is] useful for epidemiologic and
sociologic studies conducted in occupational or nonoccupational
settings."*Correspondence:* D. A. Andjelkovich, Chemical
Industry Institute of Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology, Research
Triangle Park, NC 27709. *Location:* Princeton University
Library (SZ).

**56:20666** **Bachi,
Roberto.** *Rational maps and parameters of
geographical-statistical data.* Espace, Populations, Societes, No.
3, 1989. 337-48 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in
Fre.

"This paper deals with progress in methods which utilize sets
of data detailed by small areas, by presenting them over 'rational
maps' and summarizing them by 'geostatistical parameters'. General
characteristics to which the various sets of data refer can thus be
evidenced and compared." The author describes the use of these methods
by Italy's Central Statistical Institute to produce a statistical atlas
of the country, illustrating the spatial distribution of various
demographic, economic, and geographical
characteristics.*Correspondence:* R. Bachi, Hebrew
University, 19 Hovevei Zion Street, Jerusalem 92225, Israel.
*Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20667** **Baydar,
Nazli; White, Michael.** *A method for analyzing backward
recurrence time data on residential mobility.* Sociological
Methodology, Vol. 18, 1988. 105-35 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.

Data on duration of current residence are used to estimate models
of duration-dependent residential mobility rates. "We use the theory
of backward recurrence times in renewal processes to infer the hazard
rate of residential mobility from the density of the duration of
current residence. We demonstrate that the inferences made using the
asymptotic solution of the density of the backward recurrence times
will be severely biased if the renewal process has not reached
stability. We present an unbiased finite time solution and estimate
univariate and multivariate models of residential mobility rates using
1980 U.S. census data on duration of current residence. These models
include mover-stayer models represented by mixture densities. The
multivariate analysis shows that the most important covariates of
residential mobility are age, homeownership, race, and presence of
school-aged children."*Correspondence:* N. Baydar, Columbia
University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027.
*Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20668** **Centro
Studi Investimenti Sociali [CENSIS] (Rome, Italy).** *The
Italy of three censuses. Research carried out by the IRI Group on the
transformation of the country.* [L'Italia dei tre censimenti.
Ricerca promossa dal Gruppo IRI sulle trasformazioni del paese.] ISBN
88-245-0410-8. LC 88-158422. Apr 1988. x, 113 pp. Edizioni di Comunita:
Milan, Italy. In Ita.

This book presents a method for statistically
analyzing demographic and other data from the Italian censuses of 1951,
1961, 1971, and 1981 and for interpreting the results. The focus is on
the changes that have occurred in Italy from 1951 to 1981, particularly
changes in family characteristics.*Correspondence:* Edizioni
di Comunita, Via Mondadori, 20090 Segrate (Milan), Italy.
*Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20669** **Convain,
Anne-Sophie; Mouillart, Michel.** *Demography and housing
construction.* [Demographie et construction de logements.] Revue
d'Economie Politique, Vol. 99, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 639-57 pp. Paris,
France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.

The authors examine how
demographic factors are taken into consideration in the development of
the macroeconomic models used to determine data on housing starts in
France. They propose an alternative model, called DELPHE, that offers
a macroeconomic approach to housing needs and gives more consideration
to the demographic factors involved. The model makes it possible to
develop alternative scenarios of housing needs according to various
economic and demographic hypotheses, and to calculate their budgetary
implications.*Correspondence:* A.-S. Convain, Universite de
Paris X, 200 avenue de la Republique, 92001 Nanterre Cedex, France.
*Location:* Princeton University Library (PF).

**56:20670** **Craig,
John.** *Effects of changing age distributions on five-year
age-specific rates.* Population Trends, No. 59, Spring 1990. 30-1
pp. London, England. In Eng.

"A sharply changing age structure can
affect age-specific rates when calculated for five-year age-groups
(e.g. a rate for 20-24 year olds)--whether the topic is fertility,
marriage, divorce, migration, or a non-demographic one. This article
shows how the passage through a five-year age-group of the cohorts born
on either side of the mid 1960s peak in births [in the United Kingdom]
could sometimes cause swings of up to 6 per cent in these rates. The
conditions for this to occur, and the relevant relationships, are
analyzed."*Correspondence:* J. Craig, Office of Population
Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics
Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England.
*Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20671** **Freedman,
Deborah; Thornton, Arland; Camburn, Donald; Alwin, Duane;
Young-DeMarco, Linda.** *The life history calendar: a
technique for collecting retrospective data.* Sociological
Methodology, Vol. 18, 1988. 37-68 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.

"This paper details the authors' selection, design, and use of a
life history calendar (LHC) to collect retrospective life course data.
A sample of nine hundred [U.S.] 23-year-olds, originally interviewed in
1980, were asked about the incidence and timing of various life events
in the nine years since their 15th birthday....The following aspects of
the LHC are described: (a) the concept, uses, and advantages of the
LHC, (b) the time units and domains used, (c) the mode of recording the
responses and the decisions and problems involved, (d) interviewer
training, and (e) coding. The following results attest to the accuracy
of the LHC retrospective data: (a) only four of the calendars had
missing data in any month; (b) the data obtained in 1980 about current
work, school attendance, marriage, and children showed a remarkable
correspondence to the retrospective 1985 LHC reports of these events;
(c) the interviewers were positive about the LHC's ability to increase
respondent recall."*Correspondence:* D. Freedman, University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. *Location:* Princeton
University Library (SPR).

**56:20672** **Gong, Gail;
Whittemore, Alice S.; Grosser, Stella.** *Censored survival
data with misclassified covariates: a case study of breast-cancer
mortality.* JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association,
Vol. 85, No. 409, Mar 1990. 20-8 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.

A number of alternative models are used to examine the relationship
of survival among breast-cancer patients to the time since diagnosis
and to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. The data concern 2,495
women aged 55-64 diagnosed with breast cancer in the San Francisco Bay
area of California. In particular, the authors examine the extent to
which the bad fit of simple models for breast-cancer survival is due to
measurement error in the covariates.*Correspondence:* G.
Gong, Stanford University, Department of Health Research and Policy,
Stanford, CA 94305-5092. *Location:* Princeton University
Library (SM).

**56:20673** **Guercilena,
S.; Zocchetti, C.; Pesatori, A. C.** *Mortality: comparison
of some epidemiological measures.* [Mortalita: alcune misure a
confronto.] Medicina del Lavoro, Vol. 80, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 341-7
pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.

"SMR (Standardized
Mortality Ratio) is a useful epidemiological measure but it cannot be
computed when person-years distributions (denominators) are not
available. In this situation PMR (Proportionate Mortality Ratio) and
MOR (Mortality Odds Ratio) represent possible alternatives.
Definitions of PMR and MOR are presented, and properties and drawbacks
of these measures are discussed in relation to SMR's estimates.
Fictitious data representing factual situations are used as working
examples."*Correspondence:* S. Guercilena, Istituto Clinici
di Perfezionamento, Clinica del Lavoro L. Devoto, via San Barnaba 8,
20122 Milan, Italy. *Location:* U.S. National Library of
Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

**56:20674**
**Gusein-Zade, Sabir M.** *On sets of noninteracting
urban places and one model of Curry.* Geographical Analysis, Vol.
22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 171-6 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.

"The purpose
of this paper is to describe the correspondence between the rank-size
dependence for sets of noninteracting urban places (obtained in
Gusein-Zade 1975) and Curry's model of the distribution of cities by
size (of population) from Curry (1964)." The author describes a
deduction of Curry's model. The new model "has a wide field of
applicability besides city size distributions. In particular it
describes the distribution of letters by frequency of occurrence in a
number of languages, the distribution of letters by frequency of
occurrence as the first letters of geographical names, as the first
letters of surnames, the distribution of key words by frequency of
occurrence, and so on."*Correspondence:* S. M. Gusein-Zade,
Moscow M. V. Lomonosov State University, Department of Geography,
117234 Moscow, Leninskie gory, USSR. *Location:* Princeton
University Library (UES).

**56:20675** **Hadeler, K.
P.** *Pair formation in age-structured populations.* Acta
Applicandae Mathematicae, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1989. 91-102 pp. Dordrecht,
Netherlands. In Eng.

The modelling problems associated with pair
formation in age-structured populations are discussed in this paper.
The author also formulates a class of models for pair formation in
human populations and derives some results on persistent
distributions.*Correspondence:* K. P. Hadeler, Universitat
Tubingen, Lehrstuhl fur Biomathematik, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-7400
Tubingen, Federal Republic of Germany. *Location:* Princeton
University Library (SM).

**56:20676** **Hodge,
Robert W.; Ogawa, Naohiro.** *Some simple methods for the
evaluation of causal models.* NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 53,
Aug 1989. vi, 34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.

"This paper reviews
several simple methods for evaluating causal models. A straightforward
method for computing the correlations implied by an estimated causal
model is presented. The use of the frequency distribution of model
errors and the plot of actual vs. implied correlations to examine the
overall performance of a model are discussed. Explicit hypotheses
about the sources of model errors are introduced and examined in an
illustrative data set. These hypotheses concern the signs and
magnitudes of the initial correlations, the variable content of the
correlations, and the path distance between the variables. Small
systematic errors are detected in the illustrative model, despite the
fact that its overall fit appears quite
good."*Correspondence:* Nihon University, Population
Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101,
Japan. *Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20677** **Hoem, Jan
M.** *Identifiability in hazard models with unobserved
heterogeneity: the compatibility of two apparently contradictory
results.* Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1, Feb 1990.
124-8 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.

"A nonidentifiability result
by G. Rodriguez for a mixture model in hazard regression is generalized
and its compatibility with an apparently contradictory result by Elbers
and Ridder is noted. The latter result turns out to hinge on an
assumption whose tenability must be assessed by means of some
underlying substantive theory. It cannot be established only from the
data normally available in the simple decrement situation for which the
mathematical theory has been developed."*Correspondence:* J.
M. Hoem, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm,
Sweden. *Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20678** **Houllier,
Francois; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Pontier, Dominique.**
*Sampling properties of the asymptotic behavior of age- or
stage-grouped population models.* Mathematical Biosciences, Vol.
95, No. 2, 1989. 161-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.

"The
discrete-time linear recurrent models proposed by Leslie in 1945 and
Usher in 1966 for age or stage-grouped populations are discussed with
emphasis on the random nature, due to sampling variations, of their
well-known asymptotic behavior. The statistical properties of the
estimated asymptotic multiplication rate, stage, or age stable
structures and mean generation time are inspected by both a theoretical
approach and a simulation procedure. Illustrative case studies provide
some order of magnitudes of the sampling bias and variance of these
statistics."*Correspondence:* F. Houllier, Ecole Nationale
du Genie Rural des Eaux et des Forets, 14 rue Girardet, 54042 Nancy
Cedex, France. *Location:* Princeton University Library (SM).

**56:20679** **Jagers,
Peter.** *The Markov structure of population growth.*
Acta Applicandae Mathematicae, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1989. 103-14 pp.
Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.

Some problems concerning the
development of general models of population growth are examined, with
particular reference to Markovian modelling. The tenet of the paper is
that such models can be more realistically attempted by focusing on
temporal rather than spatial modifications. Specifically, the time
concept considered is linked to the dependent structure inherent in the
partial order of descent from mother to child. The author attempts to
develop "a general theory of populations of individuals under what
might be called free reproduction. Hence, the only dependence assumed
between individuals is that from mothers to children." He suggests
that the results "can be translated into assertions about evolution in
real, physical time and also about the final, stable or balanced,
composition of populations, over ages, types, family structure, and
many other aspects of populations."*Correspondence:* P.
Jagers, Gothenburg University, Department of Mathematics, S-412 96
Gothenberg, Sweden. *Location:* Princeton University Library
(SM).

**56:20680** **Kondo,
Hitoshi.** *International factor mobility and production
technology.* Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec
1989. 281-99 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic
of. In Eng.

"The present paper systematically investigates the
pattern and effect of international factor mobility caused by
international differences of production technology in an
endogenous-population-growth and overlapping-generations model. We
show here that if the autarkic steady state in each country is
characterized by under-investment relative to the Golden Rule,
international labour migration will take place to the country with a
more capital-saving or a neutrally superior technology, and then the
capital-labour ratio and the demand for children per family in that
country will be lower."*Correspondence:* H. Kondo, Nanzan
University, Faculty of Economics, 18 Yamazato-cho, Showa-Ku, Nagoya
466, Japan. *Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20681** **Rao, B.
Raja.** *Life expectancy for a class of life distributions
having the "setting the clock back to zero" property.* Mathematical
Biosciences, Vol. 98, No. 2, Mar 1990. 251-71 pp. New York, New York.
In Eng.

"It is demonstrated that the expression for the life
expectancy of an individual in biomedical investigations can be greatly
simplified if the class of life distributions possesses what has been
called the "setting the clock back to zero" property....It is shown
that the Gompertzian growth process, Krane's family of life
distributions, and the linear hazard exponential distribution have this
property. To illustrate the use of this property, an individual's life
expectancy is tabulated for several choices of the parameter values
when the individual's life distribution belongs to a Gompertzian growth
process."*Correspondence:* B. R. Rao, University of
Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Department of
Biostatistics, Pittsburgh, PA 15261. *Location:* Princeton
University Library (SM).

**56:20682** **Sharma, H.
L.; Tiwari, H. C.** *Fitting two parameter discrete
distributions to migration data having one common parameter.* Rural
Demography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1987. 21-9 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.

The focus of this paper is on fitting two parameter discrete
distributions to migration data that have one common parameter. The
data are from a 1978 survey of rural development and population growth
in India.*Correspondence:* H. L. Sharma, J.N.K.V.V.,
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Jabalpur, India.
*Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

**56:20683** **Vaupel,
James W.** *Relatives' risks: frailty models of life history
data.* Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 37, No. 1, Feb 1990.
220-34 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.

The author develops "a method
for applying frailty models based on biological theory to life-history
data on related individuals and events....[He] concisely summarizes the
essence of the proposed method and then adumbrates some illustrative
applications. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the
three general purposes of frailty modeling of life history data." The
model is tested using Danish data on the longevity of
twins.*Correspondence:* J. W. Vaupel, University of
Minnesota, Humphrey Institute, Center for Population Analysis and
Policy, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455.
*Location:* Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1990-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.