Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

56:20632 Brandt, Willy. The need for a radical change in international co-operation. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1990. 12-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
In this article, the author makes the case for greater cooperation among national, regional, and international agencies toward slowing world population growth. He asserts that unless population growth is brought under control, "habitat on earth will be destroyed by ecological disaster and/or violent migration processes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20633 Bundy, McGeorge. Population: an inescapable problem. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1990. 20-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The effect of antiabortion efforts in the United States on world population programs is discussed. Citing the conservative movement's attack on U.S. funding for overseas programs promoting contraceptive use, the author concludes that "by limiting the level of American support for other kinds of birth control, they limited the overall supply of contraceptive services; they thus increased the number of pregnant women eager to avoid childbirth and so enlarged the number resorting to abortion."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20634 Donaldson, Peter J. Nature against us: the United States and the world population crisis, 1965-1980. ISBN 0-8078-1905-0. LC 89-38870. 1990. xi, 207 pp. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, North Carolina/London, England. In Eng.
"This book investigates the origins, implementation, and impact of the American effort--both private and government--to regulate fertility and thus to slow population growth throughout the developing world." U.S. economic interests in lowering fertility are examined and consideration is given to the people who implement U.S. policies and programs. "In assessing American involvement in efforts to lower developing country birth rates, [the author] examines both the American desire to provide a pragmatic solution to a perceived crisis and the nation's willingness to intervene in the family life of couples around the world. He argues that the United States' international family planning policy exemplifies the value Americans place on self-improvement, self-determination, and the control of one's environment. At the same time, population-related foreign assistance served the economic and strategic interests of the United States. Regardless of their motives, however, American population specialists and the people and institutions they supported overseas started a contraceptive revolution that has dramatically reduced birth rates in developing countries and has given women throughout the Third World more control over their reproductive lives."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina Press, P.O. Box 2288, Chapel Hill, NC 27515-2288. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20635 Mugabe, Robert G. African countries must increase support for family planning programmes. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1990. 5-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the keynote address delivered at the International Forum on Population in the Twenty-First Century, which took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, November 6-9, 1989. The author, who is the president of Zimbabwe, "points out that Africa's economic performance has been declining over the last two decades and this decline will be exacerbated if African States do not seriously address population issues." He notes that several countries have initiated and implemented population programs, and focuses on Zimbabwe's efforts to reduce population growth, reporting that contraceptive use has risen from 14 percent in 1982 to 43 percent in 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20636 Nelissen, Jan H. M.; van den Akker, Piet A. M. Are demographic developments influenced by social security? Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 1, Mar 1988. 81-114 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"On the basis of the existing literature we examined the points at which social security and family demography meet. The main conclusions are: (1) child allowances will only affect fertility if the level of benefit is rather substantial; (2) unemployment provisions may affect fertility; (3) remarriage frequency is probably affected by public assistance benefits; (4) the same possibly holds for the divorce frequency. These conclusions are tentative: the results are contradictory from many viewpoints, some fields have hardly been investigated and it is unclear whether the effects are temporary or lasting." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Tilburg University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20637 Ness, Gayl D.; Thomas, Sandra. Global population assistance: the 1989 assessment. Populi, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1989. 4-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews the 1988 UNFPA report on international population assistance for the period 1952-1988 and assesses future needs. "From very low levels in the early 1960s, the amounts (in current 1985 [U.S.] dollars) began to rise rapidly by the end of the decade. In the brief five-year period 1968-1972, the level rose rapidly from less than $100 to over $400 million. It dipped in 1982, then rose to a peak of just over $500 million in 1985 and has since fallen off again."
Correspondence: G. D. Ness, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20638 Sadik, Nafis. A time of renewed urgency. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1990. 32-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Population trends and some goals of the international population and development communities are discussed. Acknowledging a need for cooperation among governments and international agencies, the author states that "we should aim to increase contraceptive prevalence so as to reach 56 per cent of women by the end of the century...we should aim for 70 per cent literacy among women and universal enrolment of girls in primary education by the end of the century...we should aim for an increase in the average life expectancy at birth to 60 years or more for both men and women in all developing countries by the end of the century...we should aim for an infant mortality rate of less than 50 per 1,000 live births in all countries by the end of the century; [and] we should aim for a reduction in maternal mortality from all causes of at least 50 per cent by the end of the century, especially in countries where current rates are over 100 per 100,000 live births."
Correspondence: N. Sadik, U.N. Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20639 Sharpless, John B. Population ethics and policy. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1988. 99-109 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Some ethical aspects of population policy are examined. The author reviews the history of the development of population policies, with particular reference to the implications for the United States and the U.N. system. He suggests that the concern for human rights aspects of population policy has overemphasized Western cultural values and that other cultural values need to be given more consideration in the future.
Correspondence: J. B. Sharpless, University of Wisconsin, Department of History, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Yale University, Kline Science Library, New Haven, CT.

56:20640 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Global population policy data base 1989. Population Policy Paper, No. 28; ST/ESA/SER.R/99, 1990. vi, 197 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This document describes a data base titled Global Review and Inventory of Population Policy, 1989, abbreviated GRIPP:1989, which is available on diskette. The purpose of the GRIPP:1989 data base is to provide current data on the population policies of 170 countries, drawn from the Population Policy Data Bank of the [U.N.] Population Division. The policy topics covered are population growth, mortality, fertility, internal migration, immigration and emigration. The diskette not only contains data on population policy but also information on selected demographic indicators, including current and projected population size, current levels of fertility and mortality, current population growth rates, and proportions foreign born."
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20641 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Trends in population policy. Population Studies, No. 114; ST/ESA/SER.A/114, Pub. Order No. E.89.XIII.13. ISBN 92-1-151187-9. 1989. viii, 387 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication "describes trends in population policy for a group of 156 countries covered for the period 1974-1989, and for a group of 14 countries whose coverage started subsequent to 1974." It provides information on government perceptions of selected population policy variables at various points in time between 1974 and 1989, including population growth, mortality, fertility, contraceptive use, international migration, and spatial distribution.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20642 van de Kaa, Dirk J. Six pillars of a population strategy. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1990. 26-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author outlines six points around which an international population strategy should be constructed. They are political commitment at the national and international levels, the development of national population strategies, community involvement, extending the outreach of population programs, strengthening the role of women, and resource mobilization.
Correspondence: D. J. van de Kaa, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Meyboomlaan 1, 2242 PR Wassenaar, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20643 Vishnevskii, A. G. Demographic policy in the modern world. [Demograficheskaya politika v sovremennom mire.] Voprosy Demografii, ISBN 5-02-013321-3. 1989. 179 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR; Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut Sotsial'no-Ekonomicheskikh Problem Narodonaseleniya: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This study is concerned with the formulation of population policy, policy goals, the methods by which they can be achieved, and how their effectiveness can be evaluated. Separate chapters are included on population policies in the USSR, Eastern European countries, China, Western developed countries, and developing countries.
Correspondence: Nauka, ul. Profsoyuznaya 90, B-485 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

56:20644 Bosman, Erwin. The demographic (in)efficacy of policy measures aimed at harmonizing parenthood and female labor force participation. [De demografische (on)doeltreffendheid van maatregelen gericht op het harmoniseren van ouderschap en buitenshuisarbeid van de vrouw.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1989. 1-30 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The present article aims at investigating the demographic efficacy of policy measures [in Western Europe] which try to harmonize the combination of female labour force participation and maternity. We investigate in particular the possible natalistic effects of child care arrangements and the increase of the flexibility of working time from the perspective of the employee....It is concluded that at the moment the natalistic effects of both kinds of measures are highly uncertain and that more interdisciplinary research is...necessary." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: E. Bosman, CBGS, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20645 Cornwell, Gretchen T.; Stokes, C. Shannon. Family planning and fertility in international context. Population Issues Research Center Working Paper, No. 1989-13, Oct 1989. 19, [2] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses three questions from the perspective of U.S. development assistance policy: (1) Should continued population growth in developing countries be a topic of policy concern? (2) Will primary reliance on family planning programs, the major thrust of past U.S. policy, make a major contribution to slowing population growth? (3) How can the U.S. assist developing nations that wish to lower fertility and slow population growth?" The authors emphasize the importance of slowing population growth by reducing family size, focusing on rural populations, supporting agricultural production and technology, improving the status of women and providing access to family planning, and investigating factors that affect the demand for children.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20646 David, Henry P. Pronatalist experience in Europe. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 1989. 2-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Pronatalist programs and their effects in Europe are reviewed from the 1930s to the present, with individual attention given to France, West Germany, and Romania. The author finds that "where there are low levels of fertility, pronatalist incentives result primarily in accelerating the birth of the second child to an earlier time, especially among younger couples. Average completed family size tends to change little, with usually only a slight increase in the proportion of women giving birth to a third child."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20647 Frinking, G. A. B.; Kinkel, M. E. Baby or job? [Baby of baan?] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1989. 135-47 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the impact of a government benefit program on women's participation in the labor force and their fertility in the Netherlands. "It is expected that the so-called '1990-measure'--that is the abolishment of extra social security benefits for breadwinners with a dependent partner who reaches the age of 18 in or after 1990--will especially affect women with lower levels of education. Given the fact that the '1990-measure' is not applicable to households with children under the age of 13, it is possible that as a reaction to this measure lower educated women [will] decide not to join the labour force but to have children instead."
Correspondence: G. A. B. Frinking, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20648 Jowett, A. John. Mainland China: a national one-child program does not exist. Issues and Studies, Vol. 25, No. 9 and 10, Sep and Oct 1989. 48-70; 71-97 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
In this two-part article on population policy in China, the author uses data from the available literature and discussions with Chinese family planning personnel to assert that the country is not seriously pursuing a national one-child policy at the current time. Instead, a variety of different policies are being developed around the country, ranging from a one-child policy in urban areas to three- or four-child policies in certain rural areas. In Part 1, the author describes regional differences in population policy. In Part 2, the author focuses on the reliability of the available data required to evaluate the effectiveness of population policy. It is concluded that changing patterns of social behavior, including earlier marriage and childbearing, contributed to rising birth rates in the 1980s.
Correspondence: A. J. Jowett, University of Glasgow, Department of Geography and Topographic Science, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20649 Malacic, Janez. Family planning, population policy and declining birth rates in Yugoslavia. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 1989. 14-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Population policy in Yugoslavia and its effect on family planning and the birth rate in the 1980s are examined. A brief demographic profile and history of population policy is first presented. The author then outlines the main problems concerning a centrally administered policy, with emphasis on the high-fertility provinces and their reluctance to control fertility and on socioeconomic factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20650 Saw, Swee-Hock. Changes in the fertility policy of Singapore. IPS Occasional Paper, No. 2, ISBN 981-00-1517-8. 1990. 73 pp. Times Academic Press: Singapore; National University of Singapore, Institute of Policy Studies [IPS]: Singapore. In Eng.
"The comprehensive and strong fertility policy [of Singapore], coupled with rapid social and economic development, has resulted in the spectacular decline in fertility from the high level in 1957 to the replacement level in 1975, and below this level until the present....It was not until 1987 that changes to the national fertility policy were made, relaxing some of the old anti-natalist measures and introducing a few pro-natalist measures. Whilst the development of the national fertility policy has been fully presented in earlier publications, this occasional paper will be devoted to a detailed discussion of the major changes introduced in 1984 and 1987." The main purpose of these fertility policy changes was "to benefit, financially or otherwise, couples producing their third child and, to some extent, their fourth child. Some of the changes have been linked to the educational attainment of the mothers or parents, and are therefore also meant, allegedly, to improve the quality of the population."
Correspondence: Federal Publications, 1 New Industrial Road, Singapore 1953. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20651 Singh, Kuldip; Fong, Y. K.; Ratnam, S. S. Sterilization and its reversal--the Singapore experience. Biology and Society, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1990. 15-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Trends in the number of sterilizations carried out annually in Singapore are examined in relation to the changes that have occurred in government policies and the law. After a peak in the mid-70's, reflecting relaxation of the earlier stringent requirements, numbers rapidly declined and the 80's were characterised by a much slower decline, apparently little affected by the change in population policy stemming from government concern at the rapidity of the fall in fertility....In 1987, with the government's change in population policy, it relaxed its control on applications for sterilization reversal: where the woman has two or fewer children, the sterilized partner can have a reversal attempted in a government hospital."
Correspondence: K. Singh, National University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20652 Vasilev, D. Population dynamics and economic measures for influencing family reproductive behavior. [Dinamika na naselenneto i ikonomicheski merki za vazdeistvie varkhu reproduktivnoto povedenie na semeistvoto.] Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1989. 19-29 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author reviews world demographic trends, emphasizing the differences between the developed and developing countries. The focus of the paper is on the use of economic measures to influence fertility trends in both situations. The author concludes that such measures have been more effective in efforts to reduce fertility than in efforts to raise it.
Correspondence: D. Vasilev, Military Medical Academy, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20653 Vinovskis, Maris. The use and misuse of social science analysis in federal adolescent pregnancy policy. Distinguished Lectures in the Social Sciences, Nov 1989. 33 pp. Northern Illinois University, Social Science Research Institute: De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
"This essay will focus on the use and misuse of social science data and analyses in the development and assessment of [U.S.] federal policies toward adolescent pregnancy....First, it will analyze the role of the Children's Bureau in the 1960s in initiating evaluations of programs designed to assist adolescent parents and their children. Next, the issue of the so-called 'epidemic' of adolescent pregnancy will be explored with particular attention to efforts by the 95th Congress in 1978 to develop a comprehensive federal program for reducing unintended adolescent pregnancies and helping young mothers. Third, the evaluation of federal care programs for pregnant teenagers in both the Carter and Reagan Administrations will be assessed. Finally, the role of social science research in the debates over the proposed parental notification regulations whenever teenagers under age eighteen obtained prescription contraceptives from federally-funded family planning clinics will be considered."
Correspondence: Northern Illinois University, Social Science Research Institute, De Kalb, IL 60115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20654 Zuhlke, Werner. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 1989. 17-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Family policy and planning in West Germany are described. The author points out that family planning incorporates a total life plan that considers gender roles, division of labor between the home and work, housing conditions, and consumer aspirations. The objectives of the government's family policy are outlined, including child benefits, tax allowances, childcare allowances and parental leave, student grants, tax breaks for dependent care, and day-care and nursery facilities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

56:20655 Brubaker, William R. Immigration and the politics of citizenship in Europe and North America. ISBN 0-8191-7428-9. 1989. viii, 187 pp. University Press of America: Lanham, Maryland/London, England; German Marshall Fund of the United States: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book is the product of a conference held in November 1987 by the German Marshall Fund of the United States. The conference focused on the policy choices facing Western countries with regard to granting citizenship to resident immigrant communities. The present volume consists of seven papers by various authors in which the citizenship and naturalization policies of Canada, France, Sweden, West Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States are compared.
Correspondence: University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20656 Cornelius, Wayne A. Impacts of the 1986 U.S. immigration law on emigration from rural Mexican sending communities. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 689-705, 791-2, 794 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"From the perspective of traditional labor-exporting communities in rural Mexico, this article examines how the 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) has affected perceptions of the U.S. labor market, the propensity to migrate, settlement patterns in the United States, and the economies of migrant families and their home communities. The analysis draws upon sample survey interviews conducted in 1988-89 in three communities....The data reveal that most residents...continue to view U.S. labor markets as relatively accessible, with or without legal entry documents, even though employer sanctions have increased the perceived difficulty of finding work in the United States."
Correspondence: W. A. Cornelius, University of California at San Diego, Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20657 Courtenay, Philip. Malaysia's village regrouping policy and an example from Malacca. Geography, Vol. 75, Pt. 2, No. 327, Apr 1990. 128-34 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"Rural development has been a major concern of Malaysian governments since the 1950s. In production terms, the adoption of technological advances in agriculture has been successful. Rice, rubber and oil-palm output have all shown substantial increases. Average rural incomes however, have improved less dramatically. In the 1980s new policies have been developed in attempts to tackle the continuing problems of rural poverty. Village regrouping is one such policy that has the potential to re-cast settlement geography in Malaysia's rural areas. The strategy is examined with reference to a scheme in Malacca state."
Correspondence: P. Courtenay, James Cook University of North Queensland, Cairns Campus, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20658 Espenshade, Thomas J. A short history of U.S. policy toward illegal immigration. Population Today, Vol. 18, No. 2, Feb 1990. 6-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Changes in U.S. policy toward illegal immigration are briefly reviewed. The author discusses the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 and its present and future impact on illegal migration.
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20659 Gondowarsito, Ria. Transmigrasi Bedol Desa: inter-island village resettlement from Wonogiri to Bengkulu. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Apr 1990. 48-68 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The largest rural resettlement program in the world today--transmigration in Indonesia--began for demographic reasons at the turn of the century, and was then referred to as 'colonisation'. In post-independence years, it soon became apparent that the program should go beyond organised population movement and assume the broader purposes of national security, regional development and improved livelihood for farmers who either were landless, wanted to own more land, were keen to work as contract labourers at plantation sites, or had lost their lands through natural disasters or major construction works. Wonogiri's sponsored Bedol Desa program belongs to the last category and lasted from 1976 to 1981. This article examines the motivations and experience of stayers and movers from one 'sending' and one 'receiving' area in the scheme."
Correspondence: R. Gondowarsito, Mercu Buana University, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20660 Martin, Philip L.; Miller, Mark J. Guests or immigrants? Contradiction and change in the German immigration policy debate since the recruitment stop. Migration World, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1990. 8-13 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The authors review major points in the policy debate over immigration in West Germany since the 1973 recruitment stop legislation. Special emphasis is placed on the labor force effects of migration to West Germany and their impact on migration policy. The authors find that "government immigration policy since 1973 has embraced three contradictory goals: reduce the influx of foreigners, integrate those who intend to settle in West Germany, and encourage the return of migrants who are inclined to leave. The internal contradictions between these policy goals have prevented them from being fulfilled and thereby have generated considerable frustration."
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20661 Martin, Philip L. Harvest of confusion: immigration reform and California agriculture. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1990. 69-95 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Agriculture was a major stumbling block to immigration reform [in the United States], largely because Congress was unwilling to assign explicit priorities to the competing goals of protecting American workers and admitting supplemental immigrant farmworkers. This article describes the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated 700,000 applications in California and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to the United States to do farmwork. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs have contributed to the harvest of confusion on farm labor."
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20662 Wattenberg, Ben J.; Zinsmeister, Karl. The case for more immigration. Commentary, Vol. 89, No. 4, Apr 1990. 19-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Arguments concerning the optimal level of immigration to the United States are reviewed in light of current legislative concern with changing immigration laws. The authors make the case for increasing levels of immigration using a merit system to select immigrants.
Correspondence: B. J. Wattenberg, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


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