Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

56:20547 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Demographic transition and development in Asian countries: overview and statistical tables. Population and Development Series, No. 10, Feb 1989. 78 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This volume contains an assessment of the current status of the demographic transition in Asia. Following a review of individual countries and their locations in the transition, demographic and socioeconomic data relevant to the calculation of progress in the demographic transition are compared.
Correspondence: Asian Population and Development Association, Nagatacho TBR Building, Room 710, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI. Source: East-West Population Institute, Acquisitions List, May-Jun 1989.

56:20548 Kelley, Allen C. The "International Human Suffering Index": reconsideration of the evidence. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 731-7, 792, 794-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The 'International Human Suffering Index,' published by the Population Crisis Committee, purports to show, for 130 developed and developing countries, correlations between a summary measure of the level of suffering and population growth rates. Reconsideration of the evidence indicates that the correlations are largely the result of reverse causation and/or due to the simple observation that presently developed countries began 'modern economic growth' earlier than less developed countries."
Correspondence: A. C. Kelley, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20549 Penkov, Petar. Demographic principles of social security. [Demografski osnovi na sotsialnoto osiguryavane.] LC 89-113485. 1987. 187 pp. Nauchnoizsledovatelski Institut po Profsayuzni Problemi G. Dimitrov: Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul.
This volume is concerned with demographic aspects of social security. A section on demographic processes contains chapters on methodological problems in demographic research, features of population reproduction, birth and death rates, incapacitation, and morbidity. A second section, on demographic states, includes chapters on labor force participation and its age limits; average life expectancy in the economically active ages; education and vocational training; pregnancy, maternity, and child rearing; and measurements of incapacitation and working capacity.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20550 van Imhoff, Evert. Optimal investment in human capital under conditions of nonstable population. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 24, No. 3, Summer 1989. 414-32 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The paper analyses optimal investment in physical and human capital when the (exogenous) rate of population growth changes. The growth model describes a closed economy with overlapping generations and homogeneous human capital. The optimal growth path is characterized by two groups of optimality conditions: a Generalized Golden Rule for optimal investment in physical capital; and a continuum of Golden Rules of Education, corresponding to the continuum of active generations. These conditions for optimal investment in human capital can be interpreted in terms of the familiar equality of discounted costs and returns. The model is illustrated with a numerical simulation."
Correspondence: E. van Imhoff, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, POB 955, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

56:20551 Alba, Francisco. Demographic and economic development in contemporary Mexico. [El contexto demografico y de desarrollo en el Mexico contemporaneo.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 163-7 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper briefly reviews the main features of the recent Mexican experience in demographic and economic development matters. It assesses the development pattern that prevailed between 1940 and 1970 and the ways and policies that were instrumental in accommodating the rapid population growth of the period. The author considers that by 1970 the relatively acceptable demo-economic system in place since 1940 entered a period of emerging tensions, and examines the responses to those difficulties, among them the change in population policy. It closes with a brief review of the tasks ahead considering future demographic and economic tendencies in Mexico."
Correspondence: F. Alba, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20552 Anker, Richard; Farooq, Ghazi M. Population and socio-economic development: the new perspective. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 247-65 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors review models used to analyze the relationships among social, economic, and demographic variables and their interactions with population policy in developing countries. The need for each developing country to understand its unique demographic-economic relationship when formulating population and development policies is emphasized.
Correspondence: R. Anker, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211, Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20553 Chesnais, Jean-Claude; Wang, Shuxin. Population aging, retirement, and living conditions of the elderly in China. [Vieillissement demographique, retraites et conditions de vie des personnes agees en Chine.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1989. 873-900 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Given the sharp drop in birth rates, China will have to face a rapid ageing of its population. This article has three objects: (a) to present trends in population ageing, (b) to analyze the characteristics of the elderly population, (c) to explain the principal guidelines of policies of the elderly in China....China could, by 2040, have 35% of its population aged 60 and over. The retirement system is relatively undeveloped, as it only covers State employees; health insurance covers an even smaller fraction of the population, even in urban areas. What enables the population to cope with the handicaps of ageing is the co-residence of different generations and the strength of family solidarity. But this solidarity is, in fact, regarded as more of an obligation than a matter of choice by the immense majority of young couples who prefer establishing a nuclear family. The need for social expressions of solidarity will therefore be increasing during the coming decades."
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20554 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. The revenge of the third world. [La revanche du tiers-monde.] Collection Libertes 2000, ISBN 2-221-05182-3. 1987. 336 pp. Editions Robert Laffont: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author develops the theme that the developing world is catching up with and even overtaking the developed world. A chapter is included on third-world demography, in which the author describes the process of demographic transition and notes that it has been completed concerning mortality and is well underway concerning fertility. He concludes that although European values have spread throughout the world, Europe itself has entered a period of relative decline, due largely to its demographic trends.
Correspondence: Editions Robert Laffont, 6 place Saint Sulpice, 75279 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20555 International Labour Office [ILO]. Programa Regional de Empleo para America Latina y el Caribe [PREALC] (Santiago, Chile). Interrelations between population and development. Bases for population policies in the Central American isthmus. [Interrelaciones entre poblacion y desarrollo. Bases para politicas de poblacion en el Istmo Centroamericano.] PREALC Documento de Trabajo, No. 339, Nov 1989. [vii], 56 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The interrelations among demographic and development variables in the countries of the Central American isthmus are investigated. The focus is on the analysis of such interrelations in terms of the population's standard of living as well as the contribution of the family to development by means of its participation in the labor force. The traditional method of emphasizing fertility control as a mechanism for resolving problems of economic development is critically examined, and suggestions are made for a new approach to formulating development policies.
Correspondence: ILO, PREALC, Casilla 618, Santiago, Chile. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20556 Jimenez Caballero, Luis P.; Galvez Rosabal, Xiomara; Millan Castillo, Magaly. Population and the new international economic order. [Poblacion y nuevo orden economico internacional.] 1988. 394 pp. Editorial de Ciencias Sociales: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This is a selection of papers by various authors presented at an international seminar held in Havana, Cuba, in July 1984. The focus of the present volume is on the close relationship between the new international economic order and recent demographic trends in developing countries, particularly the impact of this relationship on development.
Correspondence: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, Calle 14 No. 5104, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20557 Khan, M. E.; Sarma, D. V. N. Socio-economic development and population control. ISBN 81-85054-51-7. LC 88-905993. 1988. xxiii, 270 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Eleven...papers in this collection...address themselves to diverse issues like [the] relationship between fertility and socio-economic strategy, inter-agency coordination in family planning and development, demographic influences in savings behaviour, integrated population and development strategy, impact of contraception on birth rate and fertility control....They also examine the existing programmes, assess their strengths and weaknesses and suggest strategies for making the [Indian] Family Planning Programme more efficient and cost effective." The geographic focus is on India, with some attention to trends in developing countries as a whole.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Manohar Publications, 1 Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20558 Lal, D. N.; Prasad, Rudranand. On some socio-economic and population measures for fertility control. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 132-44 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Women's status, female education, and improvement in family income levels are discussed as important factors associated with fertility reduction in India. The authors encourage the use of incentives and disincentives to accelerate fertility decline. Other family planning strategies recommended include a minimum marriage age of 21 years for women, compulsory birth spacing of four to five years, and involvement of village leaders in promoting family planning programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20559 Maza Zavala, D. F. Demographic explosion and economic growth: a critical relationship. [Explosion demografica y crecimiento economico: una relacion critica.] Nuevos Planteamientos, 5th rev. ed. No. 9, ISBN 980-00-0117-4. LC 89-105606. 1987. 258 pp. Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ediciones de la Biblioteca: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The relationship between demographic and economic growth in Latin America is analyzed, with a focus on the threat of overpopulation. Chapters are included on population and underdevelopment, poverty and population increase, the relationship between population and income, natural resources and technology, urbanization, family planning and the quality of life, and population variables in development planning. A statistical appendix is provided, and an addition to this edition contains observations concerning recent events and population trends.
Correspondence: Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ediciones de la Biblioteca, Ciudad Universitaria Los Chaguaramos, Apdo. Postal 104, Caracas 1051, Venezuela. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20560 Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO] (Mexico City, Mexico). Population and development in Mexico and around the world: past trends, the current situation, and future perspectives. [Poblacion y desarrollo en Mexico y el mundo: evolucion, situacion actual y perspectivas.] ISBN 968-805-479-8. Oct 1988. [1,300] pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This work, which is in four volumes, is concerned with the relationship between socioeconomic development and population factors in Mexico. The first volume describes the demographic situation, with sections on population growth and density, age distribution, mortality, fertility, spatial distribution, and international migration. The second volume is concerned with population and well-being, with sections on inequality, health, nutrition, employment, education, and housing. The third volume continues this theme with a section on resources and environment, and then considers population and development into the twenty-first century. The fourth volume consists of a statistical appendix.
Location: University of Texas at Austin, Population Research Center Library.

56:20561 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Population and rural development. [Population et developpement rural.] 1989. 388 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a national conference held in Morocco, February 23-24, 1989, on the key role of demographic variables in rural development. Included are 14 papers by various Moroccan specialists on different aspects of rural development.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Avenue Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20562 Pernia, Ernesto M. A demographic perspective on developing Asia and its relevance to the Bank. Economics Office Report Series, No. 40, May 1987. 28 pp. Asian Development Bank, Economics Office: Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper sketches the great challenge not only to DMCs [developing member countries of the Asian Development Bank] but also to the Bank in the coming years. Although overall population growth rates in DMCs are declining, absolute population increases will be larger than in the past. More significantly, the rates of increase in labor force will not only remain high but the absolute increases will be much greater than in previous decades....Development policy in the short to medium term should therefore pay more attention to such concerns as general employment generation..., rural-based development and employment in small industries (to deflect massive urbanward migration), investments in education, health, housing and infrastructure, and food supply. Then, too, for the long run, development policy should continue to be concerned with the fertility issue as greater numbers of women will be entering the reproductive ages. The paper argues that the Bank's contribution to the development efforts of DMCs can be enhanced by a systematic consideration of demographic and human resource concerns, even without direct involvement in 'pure' population activities."
Correspondence: Asian Development Bank, 2330 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 2800, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20563 Satia, J. K. Development and population growth--needed policy and programme action. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 23-55 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the impact of development policies and programs on fertility decline in India. "The economic benefits of reduced growth rates are examined and policy implications of these findings discussed. Next, the effect of some of the other developmental variables on acceptance of family planning is studied. For this purpose data available from the Operations Research Group Survey of 1971 is analysed. Finally, the hiatus in the formulation of policies and implementation of programmes is acknowledged; the crux of the problem is to reduce...this gap and the fertility rate will fall significantly."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20564 Saxena, Pradeep K. Human capital formation and economic development in India: an interstate analysis. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 353-62 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Human capital formation and economic development in India are analyzed, with a focus on the impact of educational levels on income differentials. The author finds that not only do higher educational levels improve per capita income, but they reduce child mortality rates and indicate socioeconomic development. Data are from the 1981 Indian census.
Correspondence: P. K. Saxena, Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Indraprastha Estate, Ring Road, New Delhi 110 002 India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20565 Seal, K. C. Economic development and population growth. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 119-31 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes three schools of thought concerning the emphasis that should be placed by governments on either socioeconomic development or population control in developing countries. The debate surrounding the three strategies is discussed. The example of India is used as an illustration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20566 Simkins, Charles; van Heyningen, Elizabeth. Fertility, mortality, and migration in the Cape Colony, 1891-1904. International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1989. 79-111 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The consequences for the welfare of individuals and groups of the pattern of economic growth and social transformation in South Africa during the twentieth century are a matter of acute controversy. In part, this stems from differences in standards of evaluation. But it is also a consequence of a lack of data and of serious analysis of the information that does exist. Demographic magnitudes are important indicators of welfare....The main purpose of this study is to analyze data using modern demographic methods [and] data from the period 1891 to 1904 in the Cape Colony. The results obtained are related to the social and economic conditions of the time. They are also connected with later observations in order to extend the quantitative demographic perspective on South African development by more than forty years."
Correspondence: C. Simkins, 12 Boxer Street, Kensington, 2094 Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20567 Simmons, George B. The policy implications of the relationship between fertility and socio-economic status. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 1-22 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author "critically reviews the available literature to assess whether there is enough evidence to believe that socio-economic development [in developing countries] could be a substitute for family planning programmes and, if yes, what government interventions could accelerate the process. The paper confines its discussion to the decline in the level of infant mortality, improvement in the status of women (education and participation in paid labour) and improvements in the distribution of income, the three key developmental variables often considered important for bringing down fertility." The author concludes that improvement in these three variables cannot be substituted for a direct family planning program in order to effect a fertility decline.
Correspondence: G. B. Simmons, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, 109 South Observatory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20568 Torrado, Susana. Population and development in Argentina. [Poblacion y desarrollo en la Argentina.] [1989?]. 27 pp. Honorable Senado de la Nacion, Comision de Familia y Minoridad: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
Recent population trends in Argentina are reviewed. Consideration is given to population size and rate of growth, age and sex distribution, spatial distribution, regional differences, and the potential for future growth. The relationship between demographic factors and development is assessed. The report concludes by examining the role population policy can play in influencing demographic trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20569 Webb, Steven B.; Zia, Heidi S. The effect of demographic changes on saving for life-cycle motives in developing countries. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 229, Jul 1989. 27 pp. World Bank, Country Economics Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The potential importance of saving for retirement in developing countries is examined by developing a simulation model that translates population projections into savings-rate projections. The authors conclude that "declining fertility and the transition to stable populations is likely to increase aggregate saving rates measurably. Saving for retirement will probably increase but not dominate total saving changes."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:20570 Zanamwe, Lazarus. Population change and socio-economic development in Zimbabwe: a literature review. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 504, Jan 1988. 37 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature on population and development in Zimbabwe. "The review is divided into four main sections. The first discusses the issue of population and development in general. The second poses questions and issues which have been and need to be investigated. The third highlights the literature on the broader world context. The fourth focuses on the specific context of Zimbabwe." The author concludes that "as far as the literature on Zimbabwe is concerned, few attempts have been made that link population change and socio-economic development directly."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

56:20571 Aasbrenn, Kristian. The thinning-out community--the sparsely populated but not depopulated area. [Uttynningssamfunnet--det demografisk uttynnede--men ikke avfolkede-utkantsamfunn.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning/Norwegian Journal of Social Research, Vol. 30, No. 5-6, 1989. 509-19 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the spatial distribution of Norway's population and the special problems faced by areas experiencing a "thinning-out" or population decrease. The focus is on the capacity of these peripheral communities to support the welfare of their inhabitants through local private and public services.
Location: New York Public Library.

56:20572 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Human investment and population-related aspects of economic growth in East Asia: a European perspective. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 52, Aug 1989. vi, 28 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The recent modernization in Japan and the four 'dragons' (Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea) is a well-known success story. They achieved in a quarter of a century what required a full century in the West....A crucial factor of productivity growth seemed to be the structural shift in the quality of labor force and adoption of modern technology. Two underlying dimensions of this experience, which are not yet sufficiently understood, are examined in this paper: the intensity of the change in human capital; and patterns of demographic transition in East Asia. A major argument of this paper is that the principles of the original theory of demographic transition in Europe are relevant but their application in East Asia is often misinterpreted among scholars."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20573 Denton, Frank T.; Feaver, Christine H.; Spencer, Byron G. An integrated set of models for exploring the possible long-term futures of the Canadian population and economy: a report on work in progress. QSEP Research Report, No. 227, Jun 1988. 34 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper represents a progress report on an ongoing project. The purpose of the project is to develop a set of computer-based models that can be used to explore the possibilities for future changes in the Canadian population, the implications of such changes for the economy, and the manner in which the population and the economy might be expected to interact with each other over the next several decades." The project and models are called MEDS, which stands for Models of the Economic-Demographic System. MEDS "can be used to explore the possible futures of the population, the labour force, and the levels and rates of growth of national income, production, consumption, capital stock, and other elements of the macro-economy. The system can also be used to provide information on such things as the age distribution of the capital stock, the effects of population change on patterns of government expenditure, the allocations of human time at the aggregate level among labour market, home production, child care, and so on, and a variety of other aspects of the economic-demographic system that may be of interest."
For further information on the MEDS machine-readable data files, published by the same author, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: McMaster University, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20574 Feeney, Griffith. The demography of aging in Japan: 1950-2025. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 55, Feb 1990. vi, 46 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Japan is midway through an aging transition that will multiply the number of old persons in relation to working-age persons by perhaps fourfold. Examination of age-distribution data indicates that this transition began around 1950, and population projections suggest that it will continue through the early decades of the next century. To assess the reliability of projection results, however, it is necessary to consider their robustness against the uncertainty of future trends in fertility and mortality. This is gauged by studying long-term trends in fertility and mortality as well as by considering relevant arguments. Population aging over the next years turns out to be remarkably insensitive to future trends in fertility and mortality. The aging that will occur derives primarily from the current age distribution of the population. In consequence, it may be predicted with more than usual confidence."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101 Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20575 Kendig, Hal. Social change and family dependency in old age: perceptions of Japanese women in middle age. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 54, Oct 1989. vi, 62 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Massive postwar change could be expected to have had major impacts on intergenerational exchange in Japan. This paper draws on the Mainichi national fertility surveys to analyze the ways in which views on dependence on children in old age have changed as married Japanese women passed through mid-life during the postwar years. The women's expectations of family support in their old age were found to fall rapidly as options for retirement income improved in the early 1960s. Change was led by the expanding middle classes, emergent cohorts and other groups at the forefront of social change but gaps between generations and social positions appear to have narrowed over recent decades. Adherence to the norm of filial support, however, remained consistently strong over the years....The findings show the adaptability of cultural beliefs concerning intergenerational exchange and the influence of life-span progression, cohort succession, and social structural change on those beliefs."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20576 Komlos, John. Nutrition and economic development in the eighteenth-century Habsburg monarchy: an anthropometric history. ISBN 0-691-04257-8. LC 89-30637. 1989. xvii, 325 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The relationships among food supply, nutrition, population growth, and industrialization in eighteenth-century Europe are examined. Using as a model the Hapsburg territories of Austria and Czechoslovakia, the author shows the existence of a Malthusian crisis during the second half of the eighteenth century. He suggests that the food shortages brought about by accelerated population growth in the 1730s forced the government to adopt reforms that opened the way to the industrial revolution. Comparisons are made with the industrial revolution in Britain. The author argues that the model can be applied to explain demographic and economic growth in Europe as a whole. "The main feature of the model is the interplay between a persistent, even if small, tendency to accumulate capital and a population with an underlying tendency to grow in numbers while remaining subject to Malthusian checks, particularly a limited availability of food. According to Komlos, modern economic growth in Europe began when the food constraint was finally lifted."
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20577 Speigner, Wulfram; Winkler, Gunnar. How does our tree of life grow? [Wie wachst unser Lebensbaum?] Okonomie Aktuell, ISBN 3-320-01181-2. LC 89-123940. 1988. 80 pp. Dietz: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
The relationships between population and socioeconomic development in the German Democratic Republic are examined, and policy aspects are discussed. Sections are included on population trends and economic strategies, the relationship between population and labor resources, spatial distribution of the population and economic production, population policy, health policy goals, the effects of economic and social policy on the situation of the elderly, and the question of whether population is a global problem.
Correspondence: Dietz Verlag Berlin, Wallstrasse 76-79, Postfach 273, DDR-1020, Berlin, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20578 Torrey, Barbara B.; Kingkade, W. Ward. Population dynamics of the United States and the Soviet Union. Science, Vol. 247, No. 4950, Mar 30, 1990. 1,548-52 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Future population trends and their implications in the United States and the USSR are analyzed and compared. "Since the 1970s, labor force growth in both countries is slowing even more than population growth, and both countries are aging. Economic effects of slowing growth can be compensated for by increased participation in the labor force and increased productivity and by adjustments in the military forces. Economic flexibility and policy choices will determine how successfully the trends to slower population growth will be accommodated."
Correspondence: B. B. Torrey, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

56:20579 Ubaidullaeva, R. A.; Volkov, A. G. Socio-demographic development: regional human resources in the USSR. [Sotsial'no-demograficheskoe razvitie: trudoobespechennykh raionov SSSR.] ISBN 5-02-013351-5. 1989. 205 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of articles by different authors on development and human resources in the various regions of the USSR. The first section, on socioeconomic aspects of population development, contains articles on the availability and use of human resources; the relationship between population dynamics and economic development; marriage, family relations, and family size; women's professional and domestic roles; and female labor force participation and fertility levels. The second section, on projections of population, human resources, and employment, presents articles on improving employment planning and the use of resources; economic specialization; occupational training; women, youth, and the aged in the labor force; projecting employment by territory and economic sector; modeling the demographic transition in developing countries; urbanization and life expectancy; and employment in regions with rapid population growth.
Correspondence: Nauka, ul. Profsojuznaja 90, 117495 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

56:20580 Collomb, Philippe. Demographic transition, transition in nutrition. II. From the logic of population growth to the logic of demand for food. [Transition demographique, transition alimentaire. II. De la logique demographique a la logique alimentaire.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1989. 777-807 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This is the second of a two-part article on the relationship between food supply and population in the developing world. The estimation of the amount of cereals imported and its relationship to demographic characteristics and development are discussed. The author concludes that the consequences of population growth vary according to the level of the birth rate, in that the lower the birth rate the more cereals the country is able to import, whereas countries with high birth rates are unable to increase food imports.
For Part 1 of this article, also published in 1989, see 56:10607.
Correspondence: P. Collomb, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20581 Krishnaji, N. Land and labour in India: the demographic factor. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 18-19, May 5-12, 1990. 1,037-42 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper [first] discusses the deteriorating land-man ratio in India and the manner in which demographic factors induce changes in the distribution of land and thereby in the ratio of agricultural labourers to cultivators and [then] speculates on the shape of things to come during the next two or three decades. The author focuses on inter-regional variations both in population growth and agricultural development and also refers briefly to the decisive role the state has played in promoting technological change and exacerbating regional disparities in the productivity of land which, along with the distribution of land, contributes significantly to the relationship between land and labour."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20582 Nayar, K. R. Environment and international worldviews: two steps backward. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 9, Mar 3, 1990. 457-62 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The global perspectives on environment are influenced by a predominant worldview imbued with an overriding concern for population growth in third world countries. The Club of Rome has the distinction of spreading the awareness of doomsday with puissant reports linking environmental issues with population growth. This paper attempts to show the neo-Malthusianism inherent in some global perspectives on environment and the reflection of these perspectives on Indian policies and programmes."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20583 Urquidi, Victor L. Population and the environment. [Poblacion y medio ambiente.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 212-6 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper discusses, on the basis of the Bruntland Report on development and environment, the relationship between population and development possibilities, and its consequences on natural and man made resources. The author emphasizes the need to design development policies in which the protection of the environment is a priority, especially in Latin American countries."
Correspondence: V. L. Urquidi, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

56:20584 Bowlby, Sophie. Women, work and the family: control and constraints. Geography, Vol. 76, Pt. 1, No. 326, Jan 1990. 17-26 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the ways in which women's access to paid work in Britain has been and still is constrained by the lack of appropriate childcare provision. The first section examines the development of the social and spatial separation of home and paid work in the nineteenth century and its implications for women. The second section examines the contemporary situation and the potential contributions of geographical research to developing better childcare policies. A central theme of both sections is the importance of the interrelated constraints of time, space and social beliefs in shaping women's access to childcare and the level of their participation in paid work."
Correspondence: S. Bowlby, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 2AH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20585 Burr, Jeffrey A.; Galle, Omer R.; Fossett, Mark A. The retrospective construction of metropolitan areas for longitudinal analysis: an application to racial occupational inequality. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.07, 1989. 17, [7] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"We analyze a theoretical model of racial occupational inequality using alternative boundary definitions for southern metropolitan areas [in the United States]. These include both 'fixed' and 'decade-specific' metropolitan boundary definitions. The findings show remarkable consistency among the statistical results across the two types of definitions. Our analysis suggests that defining Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas according to a specified time point and moving back in time can yield important benefits to the researcher, including larger sample sizes with increased statistical power."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20586 Charmes, Jacques. Two studies on employment in the Arab world. [Deux etudes sur l'emploi dans le monde arabe.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 11, ISBN 2-87762-012-3. Feb 1990. 37 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This publication contains two papers by the same author. "A first paper entitled 'Employment and unemployment in Tunisia, methodological and conceptual prerequisites to a chronological and comparative use of sources' deals with the comparability of labour force statistics in different data collection operations carried out at different times in Tunisia. Variations in definitions and concepts used are studied--especially the measure of women's activity--and their incidence on activity and unemployment rates is measured. In the second paper, entitled 'Comparative analysis of informal employment in the Maghreb countries and in Egypt'...coherent and comparative data on informal employment [are presented and an attempt is made] to analyse their variations from one country to another."
Correspondence: CEPED, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20587 Clark, Robert L.; Anker, Richard. Labour force participation rates of older persons: an international comparison. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 171, ISBN 92-2-107394-7. Dec 1989. 63 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This study reports the findings of an analysis of labour force participation of older persons across nations in 1980. Patterns in labour force participation rates for males and females for age groups 55 to 59, 60 to 64, and 65 and over are analyzed....The next section...reviews previous retirement studies and outlines a model of the retirement decision that identifies the primary factors influencing the labour supply of older persons. This discussion forms the framework for the analysis of retirement patterns estimated in this paper....National labour force participation rates of older men and women [are presented and compared] by level of per capita income and geographical region....Findings from our econometric estimation of labour force participation equations for men and women [are included]....The final section considers the importance of these findings for understanding world-wide patterns of labour supply of older persons." Data are from the International Labour Office, the World Bank, and the United Nations.
Correspondence: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20588 Clark, Robert L.; Anker, Richard. Labour force participation rates of older persons: an international comparison. International Labour Review, Vol. 129, No. 2, 1990. 255-71 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This article investigates the labour force participation rates of older men and women around the world on the basis of data covering 151 countries. It analyses how these rates are related to a number of economic, demographic and policy variables. The authors find that the well-known decline in participation rates of older persons that accompanies economic development can be traced, to a large extent, to increasing income levels and structural changes in employment associated with increasing urbanisation and non-farm activity. Also found to be important in reducing participation rates of older persons are social security programmes and (for older men only) the ratio of older persons to persons of standard working age."
Correspondence: R. L. Clark, North Carolina State University, Department of Economics and Business, NCSU POB 7505, Raleigh, NC 27650. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

56:20589 Crispell, Diane. Workers in 2000. American Demographics, Vol. 12, No. 3, Mar 1990. 36-40 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Future trends in labor force participation in the United States and the types of occupations that will be available in the year 2000 are projected using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1989.
Correspondence: D. Crispell, American Demographics, 108 North Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14805. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20590 Dutta, Bhaskar; Gang, Ira N.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis. Subsidy policies with capital accumulation: maintaining employment levels. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1989. 301-18 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"We study a dual economy model of growth and unemployment in the presence of Harris-Todaro type labor migration. The model is a discrete time model of economic growth with given population but endogenous migration of labor. The economy tries to reach 'development' in the quickest possible time while not allowing unemployment to rise above a 'socially acceptable' level. We characterize situations under which maximizing the accumulation of capital in each period is optimal. We also study how particular taxes and subsidies affect unemployment and capital accumulation. Finally, we show that a higher initial capital stock does not necessarily mean a quicker attainment of self-sustained full employment." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: B. Dutta, Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi Centre 7, S.J.S. Sansanwal Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20591 Falcon, Luis M.; Gurak, Douglas T.; Powers, Mary G. Labor force participation of Puerto Rican women in greater New York City. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 74, No. 2, Jan 1990. 110-7 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Labor force behavior of Puerto Rican women in the New York area is analyzed using data from the 1985 New York Fertility, Employment and Migration study. "This paper focuses on how the labor force behavior of Puerto Rican women relates to nativity, and to major correlates of nativity such as age, education, and use of the English language. In addition, the effects of family and household characteristics--such as presence of children at home and female headship--on labor force behavior are examined."
Correspondence: L. M. Falcon, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20592 Hansen, Bent. Unemployment, migration, and wages in Turkey, 1962-85. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 230, Jul 1989. iii, 74 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author analyzes the status and development of Turkey's labor market since 1962. He concludes that "the long upward trend in unemployment in Turkey is partly a matter of the voluntary unemployment of a better-educated population of youth, and partly a matter of involuntary unemployment related to the stabilization program."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:20593 Hart, Peter E. Types of structural unemployment in the United Kingdom. International Labour Review, Vol. 129, No. 2, 1990. 213-28 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author assesses the importance of each classification of "structural unemployment, namely technological, mismatch of skills, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidities, 'unemployability', and capital-restructuring unemployment." in the United Kingdom. He also reviews recent evidence on regional wage differential adjustments and their impact on the disequilibrium within the British labor market.
Correspondence: P. E. Hart, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 2AH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

56:20594 Hill, M. Anne. Intercohort differences in women's labor market transitions. American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 2, May 1990. 289-92 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the extent to which the labor force behavior of recent cohorts of women [in the United States] has actually changed by comparing the early labor force experience of women who were between the ages 16 and 21 in 1968, with those between the ages 16 and 21 in 1979. Eight-year samples from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Youth form the data base for this research. For comparability, the NLS-Young Women are followed from 1968 through 1975, while the NLS-Youth include observations from the period 1979 through 1986."
Correspondence: M. A. Hill, City University of New York, Department of Economics, Queens College, Flushing, NY 11367. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20595 Hoem, Britta. Employment during the child-rearing years among Swedish women born 1936-1950. [Sysselsattningen under familjebildningsfasen bland svenska kvinnor fodda 1936-50.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 58, ISBN 91-7820-045-8. Dec 1989. 61 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This is a report on how women in Sweden divide their time between paid work in the labor force and unpaid work in the home during the years when they have small children. Data are from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey for women in the three oldest five-year age groups. The author considers the relative significance of age, education, type of employment, and marital status.
Correspondence: University of Stockholm, Section of Demography, S-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20596 Jones, Rose. The politics of reproductive biology: exclusionary policies in the United States. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 39-51 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines a newly emerging, yet familiar form of sexual discrimination and labor exploitation in the United States--the exclusion of women from male-dominated occupations based on reproductive issues." The exclusionary policies of several U.S. industries are described, with a focus on economic, political, and legal considerations. The history of such policies in the United States is briefly outlined, and implications for the future are discussed.
Correspondence: R. Jones, Southern Methodist University, Department of Anthropology, Dallas, TX 75275. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20597 Klerman, Jacob A.; Leibowitz, Arleen. Child care and women's return to work after childbirth. American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 2, May 1990. 284-8 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author examines the effects of child-care costs on women's return to work after childbirth in the United States. "We briefly discuss a model of women's return to work and our implementation of that model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS-Y). Empirical estimates of the effect of child care costs on return to work after childbirth follow."
Correspondence: J. A. Klerman, Rand Corporation, Economics and Statistics Department, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20598 Light, Audrey; Ureta, Manuelita. Gender differences in wages and job turnover among continuously employed workers. American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 2, May 1990. 293-7 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a significant number of [U.S.] women work continuously during their early careers, which women are likely to do so, and how these women compare to men in terms of their interfirm mobility and earnings. The data are from the young men and young women cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS)....Continuous employment is by no means the norm among young women, but it appears to be a growing trend....In comparing starting wages of men and women, we find that the wage gap is less pronounced among continuously employed workers than among the full sample in almost every race-cohort-schooling group, and the gap is narrowing far more rapidly among the continuously employed."
Correspondence: A. Light, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20599 Morozova, Galina F. Is there an extra labor force in Central Asia? [Trudoizbytochna li srednyaya Aziya?] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 6, 1989. 74-9 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author challenges the widely held conception that there is a largely untapped source of additional labor in the Central Asian republics of the USSR. She suggests that this apparent surplus of labor is primarily due to past years of mismanagement and that as development proceeds more efficiently, the available labor supply will be absorbed locally. Ways to employ the labor force effectively are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20600 Plewes, Thomas J. Labor force data in the next century. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 113, No. 4, Apr 1990. 3-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author, a manager at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, speculates on possible enhancements in labor force data collection, analysis, and dissemination to the year 2015. The expansion of both household and establishment surveys and greater use of administrative data are considered.
Correspondence: T. J. Plewes, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

56:20601 Schultz, T. Paul. Women's changing participation in the labor force: a world perspective. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 38, No. 3, Apr 1990. 457-88 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article assesses patterns in women's labor force participation and the composition of this participation among wage earners, self-employed, and unpaid family workers....[It] considers whether recent trends in women's labor-force participation and the type of jobs held are explained by the intersectoral shifts in the distribution of employment or by trends within these sectors." The data are from official labor force statistics reported by some 60 countries around the world.
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).


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