Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

56:20489 Balaci, M.; Ghenciu, G.; Arcan, V. M.; Popescu, C. The dynamics of the central tendency in the age-related distribution of the Romanian population. Romanian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1989. 245-56 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Rum.
Changes in the age distribution of the population of Romania are analyzed. "To this end, the mean, median and quartile age were analysed in terms of the dynamics of these usual average values under the effect of the changes in the age-distribution of the Romanian population over the last decades, marked by an accelerated process of demographic aging. The official demographic data available for the years 1930, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1988 and the projections by the year 2000 were used. As shown, the indices of the central tendency of the age-distribution of the Romanian population acquire increasing values, their ascending dynamics being in accordance with the phenomenon of the demographic aging on the whole, by sex and social milieu."
Correspondence: M. Balaci, National Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20490 Buhr, Petra; Engelbert, Angelika. Childhood in the Federal Republic of Germany: trends and facts. IBS-Materialien, No. 29, 1989. 99 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The authors examine trends and characteristics of childhood in the Federal Republic of Germany. Aspects of social development and social structure are outlined, and policies, rules, and arrangements that affect childhood either directly or indirectly are considered. A description of the child population is presented, including health status, mortality rates, education, family and household characteristics, social behavior, and leisure activities; a section of tables contains data on these features. The study concludes with a discussion of childhood in light of the authors' theories concerning the protection and exclusion of children from adult activities.
Correspondence: Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Universitatsstrasse, Postfach 8640, D-4800 Bielefeld 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20491 Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione (Rome, Italy). Demographic aging in Italy and other Western societies: proceedings of the first study day, Rome, December 10, 1986. [L'invecchiamento della popolazione in Italia e nelle societa occidentali: atti della I giornata di studio, Roma, 10 dicembre 1986.] Atti, Convegni e Seminari, No. 2, LC 89-167815. Dec 1987. 381 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng; Ita.
These are the proceedings of a one-day conference on demographic aging, held in Rome on December 10, 1986. The eight papers, seven of which are in Italian, examine demographic aging in Italy and its impact on the family, the single person, society, health, and social policy. The paper in English considers the social and economic consequences of demographic aging for Europe as a whole.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20492 Florez, C. Elisa; Hogan, Dennis P. Demographic transition and life course change in Colombia. Population Issues Research Center Working Paper, No. 1989-01, Apr 1989. 28, [11] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century the early life course of Americans became increasingly age-graded with less overlap among events. This process has been alternatively attributed to demographic and social modernization, the institutionalization of the life course, or intercohort increases in personal affluence. However, research on Norway and Japan suggests considerable variablility in the occurence of these processes across populations, and evidence on recent American cohorts suggest that the transition to adulthood may have become more complex in the U.S. during the 1970s and 1980s. This study attempts to inform these issues by documenting changes and differentials in the organization of the early life course of Colombian women. Life course events of interest include school enrollment, labor force attachment, cohabitation..., and parenthood. Using a variety of measures of the timing and synchronization of events, the early life course is described for Colombian women classified according to their birth cohort..., urban and rural residence..., and economic class...."
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 419).
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20493 Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados [SEADE] (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The aged in greater Sao Paulo. [O idoso na grande Sao Paulo.] Sep 1989. 12 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
Data on the aged in the greater Sao Paulo area, Brazil, are presented, including place of residence, marital status, nationality, literacy, economic activity, income, pensions, health, and mortality. Some data are also included on the aged of Brazil as a whole.
Correspondence: SEADE, Av. Casper Libero 464--5o andar, Caixa Postal 8223, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20494 Jani-Le Bris, H. The aged in France. [Der alte Mensch in Frankreich.] Zeitschrift fur Alternsforschung, Vol. 44, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 155-68 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The situation of the elderly population in France is described. A section is included on demographic aspects.
Correspondence: H. Jani-Le Bris, CLEIRPPA, 15 rue Chateaubriand, 75008 Paris, France. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

56:20495 Kabir, M. Humayun. Aged people in Bangladesh: facts and prospects. Rural Demography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1987. 53-9 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author reviews censuses up to 1981 to determine if there has been an increase in the size of the aged population in Bangladesh. Tables are included on both current and projected numbers of the aged by sex up to the year 2025.
Correspondence: M. H. Kabir, University of Dhaka, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, Ramna, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20496 Kinsella, Kevin G. Living arrangements of the elderly and social policy: a cross-national perspective. CIR Staff Paper, No. 52, Feb 1990. xi, 52 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to draw together existing statistics on living arrangements of the elderly in different societies, to consider some of the basic demographic characteristics associated with residential patterns, and to explore changes in living arrangements over time. Data on housing and amenities also are examined, as are various national policies with regard to living arrangements of older citizens."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Cenus, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20497 Milovidov, A. Economic-demographic results of the life of one cohort (based on the cohort born in 1950). [Ekonomiko-demograficheskie itogi zhizni odnogo pokoleniya (na primere pokoleniya 1950 g. rozhdeniya).] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 12, 1989. 7-14 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Data from a five percent sample of the Soviet population, collected in 1985, are used to analyze the demographic and economic characteristics of the cohort born in 1950. Factors considered include mortality, marriage and divorce, income, consumption, and wealth. Differences in these factors by age and region are explored.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20498 Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] (Washington, D.C.). A profile of the elderly in Argentina. PAHO Technical Paper, No. 26, ISBN 92-75-13026-4. 1989. v, 102 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is one in a series of PAHO studies designed to understand the elderly and their needs in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The emphasis is on providing data to develop policies and programs for the elderly. This report concerns Argentina, and includes information on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, satisfaction with life, health status, physical functioning, informal care, financial situation, social relationships, and self-expressed problems and needs. Similar reports are also available concerning Guyana and Trinidad.
Correspondence: PAHO, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20499 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Stable population age distributions. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/98, 1990. xiii, 420 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the second edition of the stable population age distributions published by the United Nations. "This volume presents a set of model stable age distributions and associated parameters based on the set of model life tables developed at the United Nations...and a series of intrinsic growth rates ranging from 0 per cent per annum (the stationary population) to 4 per cent per annum. Along with the stable age distributions, the associated parameters included are the intrinsic birth and death rates, percentage of population in the 15-49 and 15-59 age groups, and the child, elderly and total dependency rates."
For the first edition, published in 1982, see 48:40010.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

56:20500 Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Jakobi, Lucienne. Familial transmission of longevity. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 81-95 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The authors "analyze familial correlations of longevity using the genealogies of the village of Arthez d'Asson...[France], reconstructed from the 18th century onwards, using a path model to distinguish a transmissible (genetic and cultural) component and a non-transmissible (particular environmental) component. This analysis has been carried out on two types of intact families: nuclear families consisting of parents and children, and extended families consisting of grandparents, parents, and children." Findings indicate the transmissibility of longevity is very weak for this population. Comparisons are made to similar data for families in Quebec, Canada; Geneva, Switzerland; and Mauritius.
Correspondence: J.-P. Bocquet-Appel, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d'Informatique pour les Sciences de l'Homme, 54 boulevard Raspail, F-75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20501 Fossett, Mark A.; Kiecolt, K. Jill. A methodological review of the sex ratio: alternatives for comparative research. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.08, 1989. 36, [20] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine conceptual, methodological, and practical issues associated with measuring the sex ratio in comparative research. We give particular attention to measuring sex ratios for the black population. Census data are used to develop empirical measures for U.S. metropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan areas of Louisiana...." The impact of the sex ratio on community-level variation in marriage patterns and family formation for the black population is addressed.
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20502 Kozlov, V. I. Longevity in Azerbaijan: a collection of papers. [Dolgozhitel'stvo v Azerbaidzhane: sbornik nauchnykh trudov.] 1989. 184 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a selection of 14 papers by various authors on aspects of longevity in Azerbaijan, USSR. The impact on longevity of factors such as the natural conditions existing in the region, traditional marriage and family structure, and nutrition is considered. Medical and biological factors affecting longevity are also examined.
Correspondence: Nauka, 90 ul. Profsojuznaja, 117495 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20503 Sharma, Krishan. Age at menarche in Northwest Indian females and a review of Indian data. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 159-62 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The present study reports data on age at menarche in a Punjabi population and analyses the overall Indian trend in menarcheal age on the basis of data available from the studies conducted so far." Data are from studies conducted during the period 1975-1987.
Correspondence: K. Sharma, Panjab University, Department of Anthropology, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20504 Weiss, Kenneth M. The biodemography of variation in human frailty. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 185-206 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Genetic variation in susceptibility to disease and death is analyzed, and its applications to demography are explored. "To understand the potential applications to demography, it is necessary first to understand the nature of variation at the basic genetic level. The first part of the following review will provide this. The second part will suggest how one can relate variation in underlying genetic susceptibility to variation in frailty relative to the individual hazard function....Finally, the third part will show that not only the variation in but also the shape of the hazard function is constrained biologically. This may be important in determining what kinds of hazard function to use as well as how measured environmental and social variables may affect it."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 403).
Correspondence: K. M. Weiss, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20505 Wellens, Rita; Malina, Robert M.; Beunen, Gaston; Lefevre, Johan. Age at menarche in Flemish girls: current status and secular change in the 20th century. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 145-52 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper has two objectives: first, it provides an estimate of the age at menarche in a national sample of Flemish girls in Belgium, and second, it considers secular change in the age at menarche in Flemish girls during the 20th century." Data are from a 1979-1980 survey of 4,894 Flemish girls aged 6-18 and official sources for the period 1930-1981.
Correspondence: R. Wellens, Catholic University of Leuven, Institute of Physical Education, Tervuursevest 101, B-3030 Leuven (Heverlee), Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20506 Whelan, Elizabeth; Sandler, Dale P.; McConnaughey, D. Robert; Weinberg, Clarice R. Menstrual and reproductive characteristics and age at natural menopause. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 131, No. 4, Apr 1990. 625-32 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from women who enrolled between 1935 and 1939 in a long-term prospective study [in Minnesota] of menstrual and reproductive health, in which menstrual cycles and other events were recorded as they occurred, were analyzed to examine factors associated with age at natural menopause. Analysis was restricted to 561 women who enrolled before age 25 years and recorded data through at least age 44 years." Factors considered include menstrual cycle length, pregnancy history, parity, and age at menarche.
Correspondence: E. A. Whelan, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology Branch, Mail Drop A3-05, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

56:20507 Abel, Andrew B. Birth, death and taxes. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jun 1989. 1-15 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the effects of lump-sum tax policy in an overlapping generations model in which consumers have uncertain longevity. It extends previous analyses by considering the case in which private insurance arrangements are actuarially unfair. In addition, it considers the polar case of actuarially fair insurance and the polar case of no insurance. A general condition for debt neutrality is derived. This condition depends explicitly on the degree of actuarial unfairness in insurance and on the extent to which parents care about the utility of their children."
Correspondence: A. B. Abel, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6367. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20508 Berger, Mark C.; Allen, Jacqueline F. Black-white earnings ratios: the role of cohort size effects. Economics Letters, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1988. 285-90 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"While black-white earning ratios have been rising over time across cohorts [in the United States] there is some evidence that they have been dropping over time within cohorts of recent entrants to the labor market. This has coincided with the entry of the large baby boom cohorts into the labor market. This paper examines the role of race differences in cohort size effects on black-white earnings ratios for male high school graduates using Current Population Survey data. In larger cohorts, the black-white earnings ratio is lower at entry and falls as the cohort progresses through the career, consistent with recent evidence."
Correspondence: M. C. Berger, University of Chicago, NORC, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637-2799. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20509 Bourguignon, Francois. Family size and social utility: income distribution dominance criteria. Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 42, No. 1, Sep 1989. 67-80 pp. Lausanne, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper generalizes previous results on income distribution dominance in the case where the population of income recipients is broken down into groups with distinct utility functions. The example taken here is that of income redistribution across families of different sizes. The paper first investigates the simplest assumptions that can be made about family utility functions. A simple dominance criterion is then derived under the only assumptions that family functions are increasing and concave with income and the marginal utility of income increases with family size."
Correspondence: F. Bourguignon, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, DELTA, 75014 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20510 Cain, Mead. The material consequences of reproductive failure in rural South Asia. In: A home divided: women and income in the third world, edited by Daisy Dwyer and Judith Bruce. 1988. 20-38 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
The factors affecting economic mobility among the elderly in rural South Asia are examined using data collected between 1976 and 1983 in Bangladesh and India. "Of particular interest are the material consequences of reproductive failure, defined as failure to produce a son who survives and is able and willing to assume responsibility for parents who are no longer able to care for themselves. Emphasis is given to the fate of elderly women...." The results indicate the persistence of the joint family system, with elderly people continuing to depend on their sons for support.
Correspondence: M. Cain, Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20511 Chin, Peggy T. C. The relationship between poverty and fertility in Peninsular Malaysia: a district analysis. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 80, No. 5, 1989. 284-301 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A historical examination of Malaysia's economic and social development shows a spatial bias in favour of the west coast where the Chinese are concentrated....Factor analysis is used to investigate poverty....[and] shows firstly, that poverty is bipolar in nature with urban-Chinese poverty being simple differences in the provision of electricity, sanitation and piped water, but rural-Malay poverty is more severe being poorer in material possessions and higher in low-paying jobs, in addition to a greater need for government help in meeting basic needs; secondly, there continues to be a spatial bias in wealth towards the west....Regression shows that fertility tends to increase with rural-Malay poverty. In view of current research indicating that socioeconomic development often brings about a decline in fertility, efforts to reduce poverty and improve the Malay situation become even more significant."
Correspondence: P. T. C. Chin, National University of Singapore, Department of Geography, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20512 Clark, Don P.; Thompson, Henry. Factor migration and income distribution in some developing countries. Bulletin of Economic Research, Vol. 42, No. 2, Apr 1990. 131-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A three factor, two sector general equilibrium model is used to determine long run income distributional impacts of factor supply changes associated with international migration in developing and newly industrializing countries. Factor intensity rankings among three factors (capital, skilled and unskilled labor) between two industries (agriculture and manufacturing-services) play a critical role in determining which factors are natural friends with respect to migration. A result common to all countries is observed friendship between capital and unskilled labor: reducing (increasing) the supply of one will lower (raise) payments to the other."
Correspondence: D. P. Clark, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0550. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20513 Corcoran, Mary; Gordon, Roger; Laren, Deborah; Solon, Gary. Effects of family and community background on economic status. American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 2, May 1990. 362-6 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"Policy-oriented discussions of poverty in the United States repeatedly have stressed the large influence of family and community background on income status....In this paper, we use a simple statistical model to explain how problems of measurement error and unrepresentative samples have caused previous statistical studies to underestimate the magnitude of background effects. We then summarize a series of our own studies, in which we have corrected for the biases in earlier studies and estimated substantially larger background effects." The empirical analysis is based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.
Correspondence: M. Corcoran, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20514 Fritzell, Johan. The dynamics of income distribution: economic mobility in Sweden in comparison with the United States. Social Science Research, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1990. 17-46 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper examines economic mobility in Sweden in comparison with earlier American findings. A primary focus of attention is to explore whether the great impact of 'family composition changes,' as a major cause of economic change in the United States, is also present in Sweden. The findings show the importance of changes in family composition in both countries, but this impact varies strongly both between different subgroups of each population and when comparing the subgroups cross-nationally. Whereas family composition changes are tied to changes in economic well-being for women in both countries, this connection does not hold for American men and Swedish children."
Correspondence: J. Fritzell, University of Stockholm, Swedish Institute for Social Research, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20515 Henson, Mary F. Trends in income, by selected characteristics: 1947 to 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-60: Consumer Income, No. 167, Apr 1990. vi, 90 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report examines the median incomes of households, families, and individuals over the period 1947-1988 by a variety of characteristics, including race, region, age of householder, household size, and educational status of householder.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20516 House, William J. Demography, employment and poverty at the household level in urban Juba, Southern Sudan. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 168, ISBN 92-2-106896-9. Dec 1989. v, 116 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author examines the nature and determinants of income distribution and poverty at both the individual and household level in an urban setting in Sudan. He "explores some of the complex interrelationships between various indicators of income status and poverty, and numerous demographic indices. The former include income as well as household asset holdings, water sources, nutritional status, subjective feelings of deprivation and aspects of well-being which are themselves demographic in nature, such as infant mortality. The latter include achieved and desired fertility, mortality, knowledge and use of family planning, and child survival. The paper concludes that economic status is largely determined by access to labour market opportunities which are improved with education, ethnic association, certain work statuses and capital resources. Life cycle, and dependency factors are also important." Data are from a five percent sample of a 1982-1986 survey of urban Juba, Sudan.
Correspondence: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20517 Jalil, M. A. A multivariate analysis of measurements of socio-economic status in rural Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1987. 31-40 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Multivariate analysis is used to estimate the socioeconomic status of the rural population of Bangladesh. The author contends that the available data are insufficient for the analysis.
Correspondence: M. A. Jalil, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, MCH-FP Extension Project, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20518 Jamison, Ellen. Updated statistics on scientists and engineers in industrialized countries. CIR Staff Paper, No. 51, Nov 1989. xv, 63 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents the latest information [on the number and characteristics of scientists and engineers (S/E)] for France, West Germany, and Japan, and makes some comparisons with the United States. It represents the most recent update of statistics in the S/E data base maintained for the National Science Foundation (NSF) by the Center for International Research of the U.S. Bureau of the Census....Sources of information are presented in the individual country sections, where previous reports are also cited. Some sources are repeated so each country section can stand alone." Data are for the period 1982-1987 and include gender differentials.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20519 Jones, John P.; Kodras, Janet E. Restructured regions and families: the feminization of poverty in the U.S. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 80, No. 2, Jun 1990. 163-83 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine the geographic dimensions of the feminization of poverty in the U.S. from 1970-80. County-level maps of growth in female-headed family poverty show strongest concentration in the Northeast and North Central regions. Three explanations for these variations are presented: the breakdown of the traditional nuclear family, changes in welfare programs, and the status of women's work. The last is integrated into a broader thesis focusing on sectoral and spatial economic restructuring. We estimate dynamic regression models of growth in poverty among black and white female-headed families, using county-level data, for the entire U.S. and stratified by census region. The results confirm the importance of female-headed family formation across all region and race subfiles....The conclusion argues for state intervention to support female-headed families and to improve the status of women's work."
Correspondence: J. P. Jones, University of Kentucky, Department of Geography, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20520 Joshi, Heather. The cash opportunity costs of childbearing: an approach to estimation using British data. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 41-60 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The opportunity costs of rearing British children in terms of cash earnings foregone by their mother are estimated for a typical family. Data [are] from the Women and Employment Survey (1980)....Earnings foregone as a result of bearing and rearing two children are roughly equally composed of three effects, on participation, hours and pay. They exceed direct costs, and do not rise proportionally with family size. They are sensitive to the spacing of births but not, undiscounted, to the timing of the first one. The method and results contrast markedly with those of a similarly motivated study of U.S. women, by Calhoun and Espenshade. It is argued that the non-linearity of the earnings function and state dependence in British labour force transitions would violate the assumptions which permitted the U.S. exercise to be based on a multi-state labour force life-table."
Correspondence: H. Joshi, Birkbeck College, Department of Economics, 7-15 Gresse Street, London W1P 1PA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20521 Latten, J. J.; De Mas, P. Moroccans, Turks, and Dutch: an image of bipartitions. An exploration based on correspondence analysis. [Marokkanen, Turken en Nederlanders: tweedelingen in beeld. Een exploratie op basis van correspondentie-analyse.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1989. 31-52 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors utilize correspondence analysis "to explore differences in the quality of life between Dutch, Moroccans and Turks in the Netherlands. Based on a large-scale representative sample of male heads of households and following a stepwise approach the correspondence analysis demonstrates...marked differences in quality of life between the Dutch on the one hand and Moroccans and Turks on the other hand. Furthermore it reveals the existence of some difference in quality of life between the better educated of each group and the members with a lower level of education."
Correspondence: J. J. Latten, Postbus 955, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20522 Reed, W. Robert; Harford, Kathleen. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1989. 237-65 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods--such as children; and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste-generated are shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and lesser nonpecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: W. R. Reed, Texas A and M University, Department of Economics, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20523 Sakamoto, Arthur; Chen, Meichu D. Stratification, inequality, and the issue of selection into the dual labor market among prime-age men. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.04, 1989. 23, [10] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This study uses the 1979 [U.S.] Current Population Survey data to investigate earnings determination in the dual labor market among prime-age male employees....Results from multivariate analyses of both dollar and log earnings indicate smaller effects of schooling and labor market experience in the secondary sector....In our models and data...the evidence for selectivity is mixed, and does not compromise the basic finding of a substantial sector differential in the effects of schooling and experience."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20524 Schubert, Renate. On the importance of nonparametric approaches for a comparison of income inequality in different countries. [Zur Bedeutung nichtparametrischer Ansatze fur den Vergleich von Einkommensdisparitaten verschiedener Lander.] Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, Vol. 73, No. 4, 1989. 367-74 pp. Gottingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"A comparison of income inequality in different countries can be made on the basis of parametric or nonparametric approaches. Using nonparametric instead of parametric approaches may raise the validity of such comparisons in some respects. However, new sources of validity reduction may be linked with nonparametric approaches. An important source of validity reduction is the influence of the type of data grouping on inequality measures. Therefore, nonparametric approaches are not strictly preferable to parametric approaches when comparing income inequality in different countries."
Correspondence: R. Schubert, Fachbereich Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Residenzschloss, 6100 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20525 von Weizsacker, Robert K. Demographic change and income distribution. European Economic Review, Vol. 33, No. 2-3, Mar 1989. 377-88 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Income distribution in industrialized countries is examined in the light of current demographic trends. "Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, the present paper establishes an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes....Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, two income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends...."
Correspondence: R. K. von Weizsacker, Universitat Bonn, Institut fur Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Finanzwissenschaftliche Abeitlung, Adenauerallee 24-42, 5300, Bonn 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20526 von Weizsacker, Robert K. Demographic change and state income support: an incidence analysis. [Demographischer Wandel und staatliche Einkommenssicherung: eine Inzidenzanalyse.] Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 206, No. 3, 1989. 181-207 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, two income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. Several policy conflicts arise."
Correspondence: R. K. von Weizsacker, Universitat Bonn, Institut fur Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Finanzwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Adenauerallee 24-42, 5300 Bonn 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

56:20527 Applebaum, Richard P. Counting the homeless. In: Homelessness in the United States. Volume II: data and issues, edited by Jamshid A. Momeni. 1990. 1-16 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The problems inherent in measuring the extent of homelessness in the United States are described. Three major attempts to provide estimates of this kind are reviewed. The author concludes that the problems involved in counting the homeless are intractable and are likely to produce an undercount of the population concerned.
Correspondence: R. P. Applebaum, University of California, Department of Sociology, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20528 Burt, Martha R.; Cohen, Barbara E. A sociodemographic profile of the service-using homeless: findings from a national survey. In: Homelessness in the United States. Volume II: data and issues, edited by Jamshid A. Momeni. 1990. 17-38 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors present a sociodemographic profile of the population using services provided for the homeless in the United States. Data are from a 1987 nationally representative sample of 1,704 homeless individuals.
Correspondence: M. R. Burt, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20529 Griffith, Jeanne E.; Frase, Mary J.; Ralph, John H. American education: the challenge of change. Population Bulletin, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 1989. 40 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report examines the challenges to the American elementary and secondary education system brought about by the demographic changes over the past few decades, and looks at prospects for improvements from current reform movements. An overriding concern is the lagging performance of disadvantaged students, who comprise a growing share of school enrollments and the future labor force."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20530 Kingkade, W. Ward. Estimates and projections of educational attainment in the USSR to the year 2000. CIR Staff Paper, No. 54, Mar 1990. x, 74 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines postwar trends in educational attainment in the USSR, and projects the distribution of educational attainment to the year 2000. The analysis makes use of an education model to estimate age detail not provided by available Soviet data, as well as to project future trends in educational attainment. The principal finding is that educational attainment in the USSR has increased significantly since 1959....By the year 2000, the projections indicate that the share of the population completing secondary education will be 61.7 percent and the share completing higher education will be 10.0 percent, while less than 2 percent of the population will have less than an elementary education." Comparative data are presented for the United States.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20531 Knodel, John; Wongsith, Malinee. Monitoring the education gap in Thailand: trends and differentials in lower and upper secondary schooling. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 3, No. 4, Winter 1989. 1-10, 25-35 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Using 1980 census and 1987 survey data on birth cohorts to examine recent primary and secondary school enrollment trends [in Thailand], this study reports that primary enrollment is nearly universal but secondary enrollment is much less prevalent. The study assesses several factors thought to influence enrollment and finds that urban residence, parents' completion of primary school, the mother's positive attitude toward education, and the family's being comfortable economically to be associated with children's enrollment in secondary school. It also indicates that, for moderately well-off families, proximity to schools has a major influence on secondary school attendance. For the wealthiest families, however, distance is not a hindrance to attendance, and for the poorest families, having a school nearby is not sufficient to ensure attendance."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20532 Kominski, Robert. Estimating the national high school dropout rate. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 303-11 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article reviews some of the current measures and presents a new measure of the [U.S.] high school dropout rate--the proportion of high school students who drop out in a defined period of time (1 year). The estimates show that the national yearly high school dropout rate was about the same in 1985 as it was in 1968. Improvement has occurred, however, since 1968 for specific racial groups as well as for some grade levels."
Correspondence: R. Kominski, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20533 Momeni, Jamshid A. Homelessness in the United States. Volume II: data and issues. Contributions in Sociology, No. 87, ISBN 0-313-26792-8. LC 88-10964. 1990. xix, 197 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 11 studies by various authors on aspects of homelessness in the United States. It forms part of a two-volume work on the subject, the first volume of which "concentrates on the statewide distribution, variations, trends, and characteristics of the homeless population. The present volume...deals with the problem of data collection and specific causes and issues that relate to homelessness."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20534 Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France). School attendance and schooling. [Scolarite et scolarisation.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1990. 173 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng; Fre. with sum. in Fre; Eng.
This special issue is devoted to problems of education and schooling. The papers, which are in French or English with summaries in both languages, examine problems of education in France, England, Poland, and Belgium. The emphasis is on inequalities in educational opportunities and their causes.
Correspondence: Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

56:20535 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Demographic sources of the changing ethnic composition of the Soviet Union. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 609-56, 791, 793 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article discusses the changing ethnic composition of the Soviet population as a whole and by region. It examines the proximate demographic sources of change for different regions of the country, with special emphasis on fertility and migration. It shows that differences in population growth rates during the last 30 years have led to marked changes in the ethnic composition of the USSR and that such changes will continue in the future. The analysis focuses on the population of the USSR as a whole as well as of the 15 union republics that comprise the federal state structure." Data are from 1959, 1970, 1979, and 1989 Soviet censuses.
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20536 Bourbeau, Robert. 1986 census of Canada. Canada--a linguistic profile. [Recensement Canada 1986. Le Canada--un profil linguistique.] Focus on Canada, No. 31, Pub. Order No. 98-131. ISBN 0-660-54023-1. Dec 1989. 37, 37 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This is one in a series of analyses of data from the 1986 census of Canada. It concerns language trends in Canada and includes chapters on the diversity of languages in the country, the appeal of English, and the growth of bilingualism.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: University of Texas at Austin, Population Research Center Library. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 105, Mar 1990.

56:20537 Dumond, Don E. Fertility, mortality, and the mean age at death: a model of a population under stress. American Anthropologist, Vol. 92, No. 1, Mar 1990. 179-87 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents the model of a population that is stable but under long-term stress from some of the diseases that afflicted many native populations of the world following their first contacts with expanding Western civilization....[The model] is based on the reconstructed demography of an Eskimo-speaking population of southwestern Alaska in the years around 1880...." It is found that the age distribution of mortality does not conform to the pattern of stable populations modeled by Coale and Demeney; although the highest age-specific death rates under age 50 occur at ages 0-4, and particularly in the first 12 months of life, death rates are lowest between ages 5 and 14 and rise steadily thereafter.
Correspondence: D. E. Dumond, University of Oregon, Department of Anthropology, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20538 Henripin, Jacques. The 1986 census. Certain long-term trends subside. [Le recensement de 1986. Certaines tendances seculaires s'attenuent.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 251, [1988]. 4 pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Recent trends in languages spoken in Canada are analyzed using data from the 1986 census. The author notes a continuation of trends toward the use of French in Quebec and its decline elsewhere in Canada, coupled with an increase in bilingualism.
This paper is reprinted from Langue et Societe (Ottawa, Canada), No. 24, Autumn 1988, pp. 6-9.
Correspondence: Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Case Postale 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20539 Hirschman, Charles; Kraly, Ellen P. Racial and ethnic inequality in the United States, 1940 and 1950: the impact of geographic location and human capital. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1990. 4-33 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the trend in ethnic stratification from 1940 to 1950, a decade that has been viewed as a critical turning point in race and ethnic relations in the United States....It begins with a brief overview of ethnic diversity in the United States and a descriptive account of ethnic differentiation and inequality. Then it tests--in a preliminary fashion--several hypotheses about the role of socioeconomic and geographical forces in shaping ethnic occupational inequality across this significant interval of American history. Based upon an analysis of the newly released Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) files of the 1940 and 1950 Population Censuses, the study concludes that racial minorities and Hispanics experienced a qualitatively different occupational attainment process than did men in the white majority and white ethnic populations."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 445).
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20540 Johnson, Robert A. Measurement of Hispanic ethnicity in the U.S. census: an evaluation based on latent-class analysis. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 85, No. 409, Mar 1990. 58-65 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Two models, the U.S. census model and the latent-class model, are compared in their application to evaluating measurements of ethnicity. Although the census approach assumes that the response categories of a questionnaire item correspond to groups in the population, the latent-class approach seeks to assess whether any set of response categories can represent observed ethnic heterogeneity. Data collected using the 1990 census Hispanic-origin question and other instruments for measuring ethnicity suggest that the latent-class approach is superior whenever the response categories are not known to be valid. In particular, using the latent-class model, this article rejects the census model's assumption of a single dimension of meaning underlying responses to the Hispanic-origin question."
Correspondence: R. A. Johnson, U.S. General Accounting Office, General Government Division, Washington, D.C. 20548. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

56:20541 Khan, Muhammad M. A. Demographic changes in the Muslim population of Soviet Russia: facts and fiction. Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan 1988. 134-58 pp. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In Eng.
The author analyzes demographic trends among the Muslim populations of the USSR. The analysis is presented separately by republic. Consideration is given to both historical and current trends and to problems concerning available sources of data. The author reviews probable future developments in the Muslim population up to the year 2000.
Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:20542 Kingkade, Ward. USSR ethnic composition: preliminary 1989 census results. Population Today, Vol. 18, No. 3, Mar 1990. 6-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Some preliminary results concerning ethnic distribution and language spoken from the 1989 census of the USSR that have been published in the Soviet media are summarized. Comparative data for 1979 are also provided.
Correspondence: W. Kingkade, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20543 Park, Insook Han; Fawcett, James T.; Arnold, Fred; Gardner, Robert W. Korean immigrants and U.S. immigration policy: a predeparture perspective. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 114, ISBN 0-86638-123-6. LC 89-71490. Mar 1990. xi, 119 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This study provides a detailed portrait of a large, representative group of recent Korean immigrants to the United States--their backgrounds before immigration, their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their family networks, and their plans, perceptions, and hopes regarding life in the United States." Data are from two surveys undertaken in 1986, the Korean Immigrant Pre-Departure Assessment Survey involving 1,834 new immigrants interviewed in Seoul, and the Status Adjusters Survey of 549 adult Koreans already in the United States who changed their visa status to immigrant.
Correspondence: East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20544 Tienda, Marta. Looking to 1990: immigration, inequality and the Mexican origin people in the United States. Economics Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 88-4, Mar 1988. 25 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Economics Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"My purpose in this essay is to discuss themes that illustrate the social content of Mexican origin in the U.S. stratification regime. My concern...with immigration and integration processes emphasizes the persistence and perpetuation of structured inequities between people of Mexican origin and native whites. From a sociological standpoint, the strong correspondence between socioeconomic disadvantage and Mexican origin raises challenging questions about the relative weight of continued immigration from Mexico versus institutionalized discrimination in maintaining the minority status of the Chicano/Mexican-American population."
Correspondence: NORC Librarian, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:20545 Tienda, Marta. Puerto Ricans and the underclass debate: evidence for structural explanations of labor market performance. Economics Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 88-9, Jun 1988. 20, [3] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Economics Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the [U.S.] Current Population Surveys (CPS) of 1975, 1980 and 1985 and the 1980 Census of Population to investigate why the economic status of Puerto Ricans has declined more than that of Mexicans and Cubans....Results based on the CPS show that Puerto Ricans are distinct from Mexicans and Cubans in that their labor market instability and complete withdrawal began earlier (mid- compared to late-1970s) and was more extreme. Furthermore, the analysis of Census data showed that the constraints on Puerto Ricans resulting from ethnic labor market divisions and high unemployment rates were stronger than those for Mexicans or Cubans, lending support to structural interpretations of Puerto Ricans' economic distress."
Correspondence: NORC Librarian, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

56:20546 Veltman, Calvin. The status of the Spanish language in the United States at the beginning of the 21st century. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1990. 108-23 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study presents population projections for different linguistic components of the Spanish language group, that is, for English dominant bilinguals, Spanish dominant bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals [in the United States]. The population model combines parameters obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census for nonlinguistic characteristics with linguistic parameters estimated from the 1976 Survey of Income and Education. The number of persons speaking Spanish on a regular basis will climb to an estimated 16.6 million persons at the turn of the century. Further analysis reveals, however, that an additional 4.5 million persons will have left the group by ceasing to speak Spanish. In fact, in the absence of continued immigration, this language minority cannot maintain its current size and will undergo progressively more rapid decline over the course of time."
Correspondence: C. Veltman, University of Quebec at Montreal, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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