Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

56:20375 Bailey, Adrian J. Getting on your bike: what difference does a migration history make? Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 80, No. 5, 1989. 312-7 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This research is an investigation of the relationship between individuals' histories of migration and their durations of residential sojourns. The use of longitudinal data makes it possible to directly verify the hypothesis that previous migrants will migrate sooner than individuals with no history of migration. The research also provides a random utility justification for a model of residential sojourns." The model is applied to data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Correspondence: A. J. Bailey, Dartmouth College, Department of Geography, Hanover, NH 03755. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20376 Bulusu, L. Migration in 1988. Population Trends, No. 58, Winter 1989. 33-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This...article presents the latest annual statistics for international migration and for internal population movements in the United Kingdom." Data are from official sources and are for 1988.
Correspondence: L. Bulusu, OPCS, Population and Hospital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20377 Chang, H. C.; Pendleton, Brian F. Migration as a demographic response: the age differentials. Regional Science Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1986. 3-23 pp. Manhattan, Kansas. In Eng.
"This study uses the theory of demographic response as the background against which regional human migration is examined as a response to selected environmental conditions for the 1,056 counties in the North Central Region [of the United States]. Specifically, this study addresses two migration-related questions concerning county populations in the North Central Region: (1) What are the socioeconomic, demographic, and ecological factors to which county populations respond in adjusting their migration behavior? (2) Do socially important age cohorts respond to these factors differently or in a similar manner?" Factors affecting migration are employment status, income levels, educational status, ethnic group, residence location, marital status, home ownership, and age. Data are from the U.S. Census Bureau for the period 1965-1970.
Correspondence: H. C. Chang, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

56:20378 Foss, Olaf; Sorlie, Kjetil. Demographic explanation of regional population change--a component and life span perspective. [Regionaldemografiske endringer i Norge--studert ved hjelp av dekomponering og livslopsanalyse.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning/Norwegian Journal of Social Research, Vol. 30, No. 5-6, 1989. 493-507 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The demographic factors affecting migration patterns in Norway during the 1980s are analyzed. The authors demonstrate that behavioral change (such as a shift in the propensity of an age group to leave an area) is but one of several demographic factors having an impact on regional population change.
Correspondence: O. Foss, Norsk Institutt for By- og Regionforskning, Nycoveien 1, Oslo 4, Norway. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20379 Hugo, Graeme. Internal and international migration flows: some recent developments in Asia. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 239-60 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Migration in Asia since 1970 is addressed, including discussion of changes in patterns and types of population movement and the major forces shaping them. Destination countries of international migrants from Asia are identified, and migration flows due to refugee resettlement or labor migration are analyzed. The effects of labor migration, rural-to-urban migration, urbanization, and return migration on internal migration are outlined, and the regional variations in these movements are discussed.
Correspondence: G. Hugo, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20380 Kontuly, T.; Bierens, H. J. Testing the recession theory as an explanation for the migration turnaround. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb 1990. 253-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the so-called recession theory explanation for the decline of net migration to large metropolitan core areas of industrialized countries is tested with an econometric time-series model. In the explanation it is contended that the migration turnaround represents only a temporary fluctuation in the general trend of urban economic and demographic spatial concentration, caused by the business cycle downturns of the 1970s. Our results show that the migration turnaround cannot be attributed exclusively to these business cycle fluctuations. For many of the countries tested, the business cycle operated simultaneously with other factors suggested as explanations for the turnaround. We conclude that several explanations should be combined to build a theory of the migration turnaround."
Correspondence: T. Kontuly, University of Utah, Department of Geography, 270 H OSH, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20381 Lakshmanna, C. Dead ends in migrations: emerging trends in demographic dynamics. Journal of Sociological Studies, Vol. 8, Jan 1989. 48-58 pp. Jodhpur, India. In Eng.
The focus of this article is on the limitations inhibiting free-flow internal and international migration in developing countries using the example of India. Trends in urbanization, demographic transition, and mobility are examined for their impact on migration and the population. The author discusses the effects of natural increase and the extent to which increased net migration affects both overpopulation and the loss of professionals through out-migration. Data are from national censuses for 1961-1981.
Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

56:20382 Massey, Douglas S. Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration. Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 1, Spring 1990. 3-26 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This review culls disparate elements from the theoretical and research literature on human migration to argue for the construction of a theory of migration that simultaneously incorporates multiple levels of analysis within a longitudinal perspective. A detailed review of interconnections among individual behavior, household strategies, community structures, and national political economies indicates that inter-level and intertemporal dependencies are inherent to the migration process and give it a strong internal momentum. The dynamic interplay between network growth and individual migration labor, migrant remittances, and local income distributions all create powerful feedback mechanisms that lead to the cumulative causation of migration. These mechanisms are reinforced and shaped by macrolevel relationships within the larger political economy."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, National Opinion Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20383 Shields, Gail M.; Shields, Michael P. Families, migration and adjusting to disequilibrium. Economics Letters, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1988. 387-92 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Unlike the case for individual migration, education may reduce the migration of families by enhancing their ability to adjust to local disequilibrium and stay at their preferred location. Estimates of family migration probabilities in Costa Rica support this hypothesis."
Correspondence: G. M. Shields, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-4515. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20384 Sixirei Paredes, Carlos. Emigration. [A emigracion.] Coleccion Patrocinida Polas Diputacions de Galicia, ISBN 84-7154-642-6. 1988. 226 pp. Editorial Galaxia: Vigo, Spain. In Spa.
This is an analysis of out-migration from the Spanish region of Galicia. It includes a review of past out-migration from the region as well as an examination of the present situation. Both international migration and migration to other parts of Spain are considered.
Correspondence: Editorial Galaxia, Reconquista 1, 36201 Vigo, (Pontevedra), Spain. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20385 Steyn, H. P.; Boersema, N. Making a move. Perspectives on black migration decision making and its context. Human Sciences Research Council Report, No. S-176, ISBN 0-7969-0619-X. LC 89-126503. 1988. vi, 137 pp. Human Sciences Research Council: Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
This report presents results from the first phase of a research project on the pattern, tempo, and direction of black migration in South Africa. It includes reports on urbanization and labor migration in the Eastern Cape; migration motives: a case study in Qwaqwa; migration decision-making in a rural community; and a case study of motivating factors for labor migration and urbanization among the Mathibela of Lebowa.
Correspondence: Human Sciences Research Council, 134 Pretorius Street, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20386 Tienda, Marta; Booth, Karen. Migration, gender and social change: a review and reformation. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-15, [1988]. 31 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The effect of migration on women's status is explored using case studies from Latin America and Africa. "Section II identifies the conceptual and methodological issues which bear on the assessment of changing gender relations, and emphasizes the importance of conceptualizing women's roles in a familial context....This discussion makes an explicit distinction between economic exchanges in the market (distribution) and noneconomic exchanges within the household (redistribution) as separate forces producing gender inequality. Section III delineates how migration alters gender roles both within and outside a familial context....Our objective is to determine (whenever possible) whether migrant women are better or worse off than they were prior to migration, and in what ways. Section IV summarizes the major findings in an attempt to distinguish issues which cross-cut social settings from those which are country-specific. From this discussion we identify issues for further research, and question the analytical utility of migrant status as a social category independent of social class and gender."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

56:20387 Aguiar, Cesar A. International emigration: balance and prospects for research on the issue. [La emigracion internacional: balance y perspectivas de la investigacion sobre el tema.] SUMA, Vol. 3, No. 4, Apr 1988. 69-88 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This is a review of research concerning emigration from Uruguay. The prospects for future emigration are reviewed, and the author notes that although the political factors that encouraged emigration from within Uruguay are no longer influential, other factors outside the country attracting migrants might exert an increasing pull that would encourage continued emigration.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:20388 Barsotti, Odo; Lecchini, Laura. Immigration from the third world to Italy. [L'immigration des pays du Tiers-monde en Italie.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1989. 45-63 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors examine the determinants of international migration to Italy from developing countries since 1975. Special attention is given to labor migration, the numbers of migrants, and their demographic and social characteristics. Acculturation and Italian migration policies are discussed.
Correspondence: O. Barsotti, Universita degli Studi, Istituto di Sociologia, Via Sera Fini 3, 56 100 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20389 Darvish, Tikva. Interindustry mobility after migration: theory and application. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 38, No. 3, Apr 1990. 611-23 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study examines the interindustry mobility of Jewish immigrants who arrived in Israel between 1948 and 1952 from five Middle Eastern countries, as individuals and as groups. Short-term effects are avoided by comparing industrial employment before migration to industrial employment in 1961, approximately 10 years after arrival."
Correspondence: T. Darvish, Bar-Ilan University, 52 100 Ramat-Gan, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:20390 Davila, Alberto; Saenz, Rogelio. The effect of maquiladora employment on the monthly flow of Mexican undocumented immigration to the U.S., 1978-1982. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1990. 96-107 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Some controversy has surrounded the extent to which employment in maquiladoras (assembly plants located along the Mexican border) has stimulated undocumented immigration to the United States. This study uses monthly data of maquiladora employment and INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] apprehensions in a 'push-pull' migration framework to study the association between these two variables during the April 1978 to January 1982 period. The findings suggest that there is a significantly negative relationship between the one month lag of maquiladora employment and INS apprehensions. Employment growth in the maquiladora sector tends to be followed by a reduction of apprehensions one month later. The study also finds that male and female apprehensions appear to respond to relatively similar economic factors."
Correspondence: A. Davila, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20391 Dejardin, Claude. Migration, the European melting pot. [Les migrations, creuset d'Europe.] In: European yearbook/Annuaire europeen. Vol. 35, ISBN 90-247-2332-9. LC 55-3837. 1987. 27-45 pp. Martinus Nijhoff: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between industrial development and international labor migration in Europe is analyzed. The author notes that no European country has yet developed a coherent migration policy and that migration is primarily governed by changes in economic conditions. The attempts to control immigration through legislation following the economic crises of the early 1970s are described. The author examines the human rights aspects of migration in Europe and the conflicting pressures on migrants to preserve cultural links with their country of origin or to integrate into their country of adoption.
Correspondence: C. Dejardin, Council of Europe, Committee on Migration, Refugees and Demography, F-67006 Strasbourg Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

56:20392 Domenach, Herve; Picouet, Michel. Institutional systems and migration networks: the framework for a political and economic analysis in the Caribbean basin. [Systemes institutionnels et reseaux migratoires: elements d'analyse politico-economiques dans le bassin caraibe.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 173-83 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
International migration in the Caribbean is examined, with a focus on the relationships among socioeconomic factors, political systems, and migration networks. The migration experience of Haitians is discussed as an example. The impact on migration policies in countries of origin of pressure from the migrant communities in countries of destination is noted.
Correspondence: H. Domenach, ORSTOM, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20393 Erickson, Charlotte J. Emigration from the British Isles to the U.S.A. in 1841: Part II. Who were the English emigrants? Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 21-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Samples from the U.S. passenger lists are used to focus upon the emigrants from England to the U.S.A. during 1841. Probably as many as three-quarters of the English emigrants of that year made the U.S.A. their destination [and]....appear very largely to have spurned the unusual opportunities for assisted emigration to colonies that were available that year. The occupations of male emigrants are compared with occupations reported in the population census of 1841....The movement was not predominantly an exodus of labourers from agriculture, nor from some of the most depressed occupations such as framework knitters and nailers. Various occupational groups are analyzed according to travelling companions, dependants and age, in an effort to distinguish between the more cycle-sensitive groups and those seemingly intent on permanent emigration."
For Part I of this paper, published in 1989, see 56:10453.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20394 Fergany, Nader. The international migration process as a dynamic system. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 145-58 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author develops a conceptual framework for the study of international migration, with a focus on current in-migration flows. It is concluded that an interdisciplinary approach is essential.
Correspondence: N. Fergany, 14 Ramez Street, Almohandiseen, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20395 Findlay, A. A migration channels approach to the study of high level manpower movements: a theoretical perspective. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1990. 15-23 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"There can be little doubt that major changes have taken place in recent years in the nature and organisation of skilled manpower moves. This short article sets out to investigate the ways in which these trends in high level manpower moves might be analysed. It arises from the discussions of a group of British geographers who commenced investigations on this topic in 1985 under the auspices of a working party of the Institute of British Geographers. The article commences by briefly considering the significance of skilled international migration before turning to consider a theoretical framework by which such movements might be analysed. It pays particular attention to the impact of skilled international migration on sub-national units or regions [of developed countries], and tries to link together the findings of the working party on this topic with particular reference to a set of papers presented to a workshop held at the University of Liverpool in March 1989."
Correspondence: A. Findlay, University of Glasgow, Applied Population Research Unit, Glasgow G12 8LS, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20396 Guinness, Patrick. Indonesian migrants in Johor: an itinerant labour force. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Apr 1990. 117-31 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The links between Indonesia and Johor, Malaysia, across the narrow straits have been strong for centuries. Many Johoreans trace their origins to various islands in the Indonesian archipelago. In recent years the presence of large numbers of Indonesian migrant workers in Malaysia has become the focus of media and political debate; it is seen not only as undermining working conditions but as aggravating fragile ethnic relations within Malaysia. The aim of this article is to examine the presence and employment of Indonesians in the southern area of Johor, and the responses of government and the public to this phenomenon."
Correspondence: P. Guinness, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20397 Hill, Kenneth. Indirect estimation of international migration. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 87-102 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Indirect estimation techniques for analyzing international migration under various circumstances are reviewed and new strategies are suggested. Models are applied to data from Paraguay.
Correspondence: K. Hill, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20398 Husson, Bernard. Demographic pressures in Africa. [La pression demographique de l'Afrique.] Economie et Humanisme, No. 310, Nov-Dec 1989. 37-46 pp. Lyons, France. In Fre.
A comparison of the demographic, economic, cultural, and political interrelationships in Europe and Africa is presented. The author notes that many factors influence African emigration to Europe. The consequences of this trend for France are considered, particularly concerning policies regarding refugees and immigrants from Africa in general.
Correspondence: B. Husson, Institut d'Etudes Sociales, Lyons, France. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20399 Lim, Lin Lean. Processes shaping international migration flows. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 131-44 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper highlights the dynamic process linking labour migrant sending and receiving countries in an increasingly interconnected global economy and draws attention to the constantly changing configuration of world conditions that differentially affects the genesis and the continuation of international migration flows and alters their magnitude, composition and directionality....Processes are separately identified as 'economic', 'political', 'institutional', and 'social', [and] the emphasis of the paper is on the implications of changing relational dynamics in the international political economy on the interactions among these processes themselves, their effects on internal population movements and the linkages with other global flows of commodities, capital, [and] technology...."
Correspondence: L. L. Lim, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific, G.P.O. Box 1759, 10th Floor, U.N. Building, Sala Santitham, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20400 Looney, R. E. Macroeconomic impacts of worker remittances on Arab world labor exporting countries. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1990. 25-45 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses the effect of remittances from workers in oil-producing states in the Arab world on macroeconomic development patterns in non-oil-producing regions. Consideration is given to the impact of remittances on consumption and domestic growth and their interrelationships with foreign exchange.
Correspondence: R. E. Looney, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943-5100. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20401 Palmer, Howard. Ethnicity and pluralism in Northern America: a comparison of Canadian and U.S. perspectives. [Ethnicidad y pluralismo en America del Norte: comparacion de las perspectivas canadiense y estadounidense.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 4, No. 12, Aug 1989. 257-86 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Canadian and U.S. attitudes and policies concerning immigration are compared. The main characteristics of migrant flows to the two countries from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1980s are described. Aspects considered include changes in attitudes toward the ethnic origins of migrants and immigration policy changes, the impact on immigration of changes in economic conditions, and the response to the growing demand for immigration from third world countries.
Correspondence: H. Palmer, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20402 Pastor, Robert A. Migration and development: implications and recommendations for policy. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 1989. 46-64 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"The conventional wisdom on the relationship between migration and development in the Caribbean Basin can be summarized in two propositions: that migration from the region to the United States is an 'escape valve,' benefitting the sending countries; and that development reduces the pressures for migration. This article examines both propositions and concludes they are misleading or inaccurate. Emigration costs the sending countries in serious ways and often impedes development. Secondly, development does not stem migration; in the short-term, rapid development is more likely to exacerbate the pressures of migration than to reduce those pressures. Besides analyzing the relationship between migration and development in the Caribbean Basin, this article offers development proposals to reduce pressures leading to migration and enhance the positive effects of migration on development."
Correspondence: R. A. Pastor, Emory University, Carter Center, 1 Copenhill, Atlanta, GA 30307. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20403 Pittau, Franco; Sergi, Nino. Emigration and immigration: new solidarities. [Emigrazioni e immigrazioni: nuove solidarieta.] 1989. 209 pp. Edizioni Lavoro: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This book is a product of the Second National Conference on Emigration, held in Italy in 1988, and consists of six papers by various authors on aspects of emigration from Italy. The focus is on problems faced by Italian communities overseas. An appendix presents statistical data on Italian emigrants overseas.
Correspondence: Edizioni Lavoro, Via Boncompagni 19, 00187 Rome, Italy. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20404 Quibria, M. G.; Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L. International migration and real wages: a resolution note. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jul 1989. 193-4 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of international labor migration on wages in country of origin. Two types of emigration are distinguished: bundled emigration, which can result in a reduction of real wages; and pure labor emigration, which results in an increase in real wages.
For related articles by Quibria and Rivera-Batiz, also published in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, 2330 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 2800, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20405 Quibria, M. G. International migration and real wages: is there any neo-classical ambiguity? Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jul 1989. 177-83 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Recent research has shown that while labor emigration increases the nominal wage rate, the impact on the real wage rate remains quite ambiguous. The present paper reexamines the issue under the standard two-factor, two-commodity international trade model normally employed for this purpose. The principal finding of this paper is that once the problem is correctly formulated and analyzed, introducing utility-maximizing consumers, no such ambiguity exists. Indeed, labor emigration always leads to an increase in the welfare (real wage) of labor in the source country."
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, 2330 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 2800, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20406 Quibria, M. G. On international migration and the social welfare function. Bulletin of Economic Research, Vol. 42, No. 2, Apr 1990. 141-53 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In defining optimum population, economists have used two distinct concepts of the social welfare function: the Millian and the Benthamite. Although analytically the issue of the welfare impact of international migration is closely related to the concept of optimum population, the migration analysis has been based almost exclusively on the Benthamite welfare function. As its point of departure, the present note explores the implications of the alternative Millian welfare function for migration analysis. An interesting aspect of the results derived from the present exercise is that they are in sharp contradiction with the results based on the Benthamite social welfare function. This highlights the sensitivity of the results to the welfare criteria used and the need for greater caution in policy formulation."
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, Economics and Development Resource Center, PO Box 789, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20407 Ricca, Sergio. International migration in Africa: legal and administrative aspects. ISBN 92-2-106502-2. 1989. xii, 190 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a review of recent international migration trends in Sub-Saharan Africa. The book, which is addressed primarily to the general reader, attempts to answer the following questions: "Is there anything African States can do to reduce the notorious disorder of migration in Africa? How can the whole collection of legal instruments and administrative machinery be improved to ease the movement of persons? [and] is it possible to regulate migratory flows so that certain countries are not drained of their populations while others are flooded with growing numbers of new immigrants whom they simply cannot take in without serious risk of tension?" The study is also available in the original French.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, ILO Publications, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: University of Texas at Austin, Population Research Center Library.

56:20408 Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L. The impact of international migration on real wages: another look. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jul 1989. 185-92 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the issue of how emigration alters real wages in the source country. The analysis is carried out first using the two-class framework developed by Rivera-Batiz (1984) and then by means of a simple model of scale economies and imperfect competition. Our results indicate that, within these contexts, real wages are likely to decline in response to emigration if (1) the migrants possess a large fraction of physical or human capital that they take with them when migration occurs, or (2) emigration reduces the scale of operation of domestic firms. Our conclusions are compared to those of Quibria (1989)."
For the paper by M. G. Quibria, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: F. L. Rivera-Batiz, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20409 Rochefort, Renee. New aspects of international migration? [Apporter du nouveau sur les migrations internationales?] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1989. 323-6 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses new topics being considered in the contemporary study of international migration. Included are comparative studies, family migration, the life cycle of international migrants, and migrants' communication networks.
Correspondence: R. Rochefort, Universite de Lyon 2, 5 avenue Pierre Mendes-France, Case 11, 69676 Bron-Parilly Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20410 Sanchez Alonso, Blanca. A contemporary view of Spanish migration. [La vision contemporanea de la emigracion espanola.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 4, No. 13, Dec 1989. 439-66 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The views on Spanish mass emigration between 1880 and 1916 in different contemporary written sources and laws are analyzed here. Generally speaking, the issue of mass migration is encompassed within the broader concept of Spanish decline and is consequently perceived as another expression of this decline. Unlike Italian mass emigration, the emigration of Spaniards is considered basically a negative phenomenon."
Correspondence: B. Sanchez Alonso, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20411 Sell, Ralph R. Gone for good? Egyptian migration processes in the Arab world. Cairo Papers in Social Science, Vol. 10, No. 2, ISBN 977-424-179-7. LC 88-177917. Summer 1987. 97 pp. American University in Cairo Press: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
The author develops the hypothesis that a significant percentage of Egyptian labor migration abroad is permanent rather than temporary in nature, particularly migration to the oil-producing Arab countries. A social process model is developed and used to analyze Egyptian migration throughout the Arab world during the 1980s.
Correspondence: American University in Cairo Press, P.O. Box 2511, 113 Sharia Kasr el Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20412 Simmons, Alan B. World system-linkages and international migration: new directions in theory and method, with an application to Canada. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 159-72 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The present paper is concerned primarily with research design and measurement issues related to new international migration system models. The methodological issues...[are] set in the context of conceptual challenges emerging from previous models and research. Part one of the paper briefly reviews the major challenges for second generation World Systems models. Part two outlines major elements of a particular new model: the World System-Linkages model. Part three discusses research design and operational features of [this] approach. A final section provides findings from an illustrative study of emigration from 66 countries around the world to Canada."
Correspondence: A. B. Simmons, York University, Centre for Research on Latin America and the Caribbean, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario N3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20413 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.); Canada. Statistics Canada (Ottawa, Canada). Migration between the United States and Canada. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 161, Pub. Order No. 91-528 E. Feb 1990. x, 71, [85] pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using 1980 United States and 1981 Canadian census data, this unique study describes and assesses the background and characteristics of the U.S.-born population in Canada and the Canadian-born population in the United States." Chapters are included on annual migration flows, changing levels of migrant stock, comparative demographic characteristics of the immigrant stock, and social, labor force, employment, and income characteristics. A concluding chapter looks at possible future trends.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20414 Waldinger, Roger. Immigration and urban change. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 15, 1989. 211-32 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"The immigrants to the United States since 1965 are overwhelming an urban population; they have converged on a small number of large metropolitan areas. This article describes the characteristics of the new immigration and its geography. It then focuses on the key immigrant-receiving metropolitan areas and discusses the relationship between the restructuring of their economies and land markets and the employment and settlement patterns of the new immigrants."
Correspondence: R. Waldinger, City University of New York, City College, Department of Sociology, New York, NY 10031. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

56:20415 Yanez Gallardo, Cesar. Argentina as a destination country. Spanish emigration from 1860 to 1930. [Argentina como pais de destino. La emigracion espanola entre 1860-1930.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 4, No. 13, Dec 1989. 467-97 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A survey of Spanish immigration in Argentina as compared to other Latin American destinations between 1860 and 1930 is presented here. Statistical sources are examined and compared (inclusions and omissions) and an estimation of migratory balance is presented. Regional differences in emigration flow and variations following shifts in economic trends and in migration policies are considered in [the] search for an explanation [of] the Spanish emigrants' preference for Argentina."
Correspondence: C. Yanez Gallardo, Universidad de Barcelona, Gran Via de Las Cortes Catalanes 585, 08007 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20416 Zhang, Wei-Bin. Brain drain and economic cycles with international migration: a case of minimum wage in the unskilled sector. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan 1990. 191-203 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to establish the existence of economic cycles in Rodriguez's descriptive growth model with brain drain. We guarantee limit cycles in the case of minimum wages in the unskilled sector. The expression, period and stability conditions of the economic cycle are explicitly given."
Correspondence: W.-B. Zhang, Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20417 Zibani, Nadia; Bouchez, Denis. Migration of the Egyptian labor force and its significance in respect of the Infitah: results of two national surveys. [Les migrations egyptiennes de main-d'oeuvre et leurs enjeux du point de vue de l'"Infitah": bilan de deux enquetes nationales.] Revue Tiers-Monde, Vol. 31, No. 121, Jan-Mar 1990. 119-43 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors analyze the role of the emigration of the Egyptian labor force in the process of Infitah, or the opening of Egypt to international economic forces, which has taken place since the early 1970s. Data are from two official national surveys carried out in 1985 and 1987. The authors conclude that the emigration of some 3.5 million Egyptian workers has benefited the country's economy both by reducing pressures due to too many workers seeking too few jobs and by providing the financial resources for the development of small businesses in Egypt.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

56:20418 Boden, Peter; Stillwell, John; Rees, Philip. Linking census and NHSCR migration data. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 511, May 1988. iii, 62 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"The National Health Service Central Register and the Census provide data on internal migration within the United Kingdom. A previous paper...reported results from a preliminary comparison of the two data sources. This paper extracts results from the preliminary work and compares them with results from a more accurate analysis using NHSCR information accessed from primary unit data (PUD). In this second stage of the comparison a number of more precise alignment and adjustment procedures are adopted which include...the assignment of all age, sex and origin not-stated flows and the matching of the NHSCR age-time plan of observation to that of the Census. The paper illustrates NHSCR-Census differences at a number of spatial scales and levels of age and sex disaggregation for both stages of the comparison."
For the earlier paper by Boden et al., published in 1987, see 54:10806.
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20419 Bolton, Nicola; Chalkley, Brian. The rural population turnround: a case-study of North Devon. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1990. 29-43 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The change from depopulation to population increase in the more remote rural areas of England is analyzed using data from a survey of 300 households in North Devon. The heterogeneous nature of the migrants and their reasons for migration are stressed. "The reasons for leaving the former area of residence tended to relate to lifestyle, personal or environmental factors whereas the reasons for choosing North Devon were more often about jobs and house prices. This complexity and diversity clearly makes difficult the quest for a single theory of the repopulation process."
Correspondence: N. Bolton, Sports Council for Wales, Cardiff, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20420 Bonaguidi, Alberto. Italy. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 239-55 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the main characteristics of internal migration in Italy, the importance of more recent changes, and the meaning and social-economic implications of the new trends. More precisely...we will illustrate the long-term evolution of internal mobility, both over a short distance (intraregional) and over a long distance (interregional). Then, we analyze some important aspects of migration, such as its level and demographic and socioeconomic selectivity. This is followed by an analysis of the interregional migration pattern (recent changes, demographic and socioeconomic impact, regional scale of preferences). In a concluding section, we will summarize the results and assess their main implications."
Correspondence: A. Bonaguidi, University of Pisa, Department of Statistical Science, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56100 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20421 Brosnan, Peter; Wilson, Moira. Differentials in Australian interstate migration 1911-21 to 1961-66 by place of birth, sex and age. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 6, No. 2, Nov 1989. 85-101 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Without direct census data on migration prior to 1971, there is a deficit of information on Australian interstate migration this century. This paper uses the Census Enumeration Ratio technique to produce estimates of net interstate migration by birthplace, sex and age for the intercensal periods between 1911 and 1966. Contrasts in the propensity to migrate of different segments of the population are revealed. These correspond with overseas research and Australian findings for the subsequent period."
Correspondence: P. Brosnan, Victoria University, Industrial Relations Centre, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20422 Cebula, Richard J.; Koch, James V. Welfare policies and migration of the poor in the United States: an empirical note. Public Choice, Vol. 61, No. 2, May 1989. 171-6 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The impact of geographic welfare benefit differentials on the migration patterns of the poor in the United States is analyzed. "The evidence strongly suggests that the net in-migration of the poor is positively and significantly influenced by higher nominal AFDC levels and by higher real AFDC levels. These findings support the 'welfare magnet hypothesis,' which alleges that relatively high welfare levels act to attract poor migrants."
Correspondence: R. J. Cebula, Emory University, Department of Economics, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20423 Cobbe, James. Botswana. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 17-29 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Internal migration in Botswana is examined, with an emphasis on migration trends that have emerged since independence in 1966. Patterns considered include rural-urban migration and its effect on urbanization, seasonal agricultural migration, permanent migration between rural areas, and temporary migration. The effect of male labor migration to mines in South Africa and Botswana on the socioeconomic status of women and children left behind is discussed. Data are from the 1981 census and from occasional surveys.
Correspondence: J. Cobbe, Florida State University, Department of Social Sciences, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20424 Courgeau, Daniel. France. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 125-44 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The focus of this chapter is on the changes that occurred in the internal migration process in France as the country changed from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. The author analyzes population movements at national, interregional, and urban and rural levels. Also presented are the demographic, social, economic, and political consequences of redistribution at aggregate and individual levels. The main sources of data are censuses and retrospective surveys.
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20425 Dekkers, L.; Noordam, R. No further increase in changes of residence in the Netherlands in 1988. [Geen verdere stijging in 1988 van het aantal verhuizingen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 2, Feb 1990. 14-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in internal migration in the Netherlands in 1988 are analyzed using official data. The review includes residential mobility as well as interprovincial migration. The authors note that the level of internal migration declined slightly, compared with 1987.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20426 El-Attar, Mohamed. Egypt. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 103-24 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Internal migration patterns in Egypt are examined, with a focus on lifetime in-migration, out-migration, and net migration rates for individual governorates for the years from 1927 to 1976. "The migration process has contributed substantially to population redistribution in Egypt over time. Migration has been affected by elements of social and economic development. In turn, the impact of population transfers, especially from rural areas to the nation's capital and other centers, has resulted in apparent overurbanization with its dysfunctional consequences of shortages of housing, transportation, employment, service, facilities, and amenities...."
Correspondence: M. El-Attar, Mississippi State University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, P.O. Box C, Mississippi State, MS 39762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20427 Friedlander, Dov; Ben-Moshe, Eliahu. Israel. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 225-37 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Trends in internal migration in Israel are described, with a particular focus on the impact of the mass immigration that has occurred since 1951. The authors consider Israel's cultural and geographic uniqueness, its short and dramatic demographic history, and the fact that over half of its population is concentrated in a relatively small area made up of three urban centers. Data are from the 1961, 1972, and 1983 censuses and the National Registration Office.
Correspondence: D. Friedlander, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20428 Friedrich, Klaus. Federal Republic of Germany. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 145-61 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines internal migration in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and finds that it is an important indicator of the process of regional development, despite its low intensity. "Three factors predominantly characterize the development and the present structure of the internal migration process in the FRG: 1. A long-term reduction of the migration volume with obvious stabilizing tendencies since the mid-seventies. 2. A distinct selectivity of migration behavior owing to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. 3. A dramatic turnaround in the direction of the spatial population development with consequences at the national, interregional, and intraregional levels." Net migration flows and directional flows between states are described based on annual migration registration for the period 1970-1985.
Correspondence: K. Friedrich, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Geographic Institute, Karolinenplatz 5, 6100 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20429 Fuller, Theodore D. Thailand. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 345-69 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Trends in internal migration in Thailand are described. "Internal migration in Thailand has contributed greatly to the growth of Bangkok and thus to the country's overall level of urbanization. Internal migration has had relatively little impact, however, on regional population redistribution or levels of urbanization outside Bangkok. Although it might be anticipated that the overall rate of migration increased as Thailand underwent social and economic development, such is not the case. Instead, the five-year migration rate was lower in the second half of the 1970s than it was in the second half of the 1960s. Closer examination shows that, while the rate of rural-rural migration declined, there were increases in the rate of rural-urban, urban-rural, and urban-urban migration." Data are from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses and from special migration surveys.
Correspondence: T. D. Fuller, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20430 Gardiner, Peter; Oey-Gardiner, Mayling. Indonesia. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 207-24 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This examination of internal migration addresses a variety of migration processes in Indonesia. The authors analyze "levels and trends in population movements between major island regions and, within these regions, between specific provinces....[They also consider] a variety of types of permanent and temporary internal migratory movement and, more specifically...their impact on levels of urbanization and urban population growth--with a particular focus on major regional urban centers and on the capital city of Jakarta." Data are from the 1971 and 1980 censuses and from the 1976 and 1985 intercensal population surveys.
Correspondence: P. Gardiner, United Nations Consultant to the Institutionalization of the National Urban Development Strategies Projects, Ministry of Public Works, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20431 Goldstein, Sidney; Goldstein, Alice. China. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 63-83 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter will briefly review some of the evidence [on internal migration in China] available from diverse sources--the 1982 census, studies based on registry samples, surveys of migration in specific locations, and general surveys with a migration component. In order to fit the findings from these studies into a national framework, it is necessary, first, to review some of the general information trends since 1949 and to discuss the state's policies on migration as they had evolved by the 1980s and how they are carried out. Because the primary goal of China's migration policies is control of city growth, the primary focus of the [paper is] on migration in relation to urbanization and industrialization."
Correspondence: S. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20432 Gray, Alan. Aboriginal migration to the cities. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 6, No. 2, Nov 1989. 122-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"An analysis of actual patterns of Aboriginal migration to the large Australian cities (major urban areas), using data from the 1981 and 1986 Australian Censuses, shows that the major urban areas of New South Wales and Victoria were...losing Aboriginal population through net migration throughout the period 1976 to 1986. At both inter-State level and country-to-city level, any Aboriginal migration flow in one direction tends to be almost cancelled out by a flow of similar size in the opposite direction. However, there are definite age-specific patterns. In particular, there is movement of young single adults to the cities, often counterbalanced by migration of somewhat older adults with their children to the country. Aboriginal migrants have higher levels of labour-force participation than equivalent categories of non-migrants."
Correspondence: A. Gray, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20433 Gupta, Surendra K. Inter-state migration and national integration. Journal of Sociological Studies, Vol. 8, Jan 1989. 59-74 pp. Jodhpur, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to assess the pattern of social mobilization, and also to identify the heterogeneity profile of the different states of the Indian union." Interstate migration flows are analyzed, and open or hospitable states are compared with insular ones in terms of net migration hospitality ratios. Findings indicate that geographical and cultural proximity of states encourages migration and thus integration. Data are from the 1961 and 1971 national censuses.
Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

56:20434 Haight, Alan D. Internal migration and urban employment: comment. American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 3, Jun 1990. 637 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"Recently in this journal William E. Cole and Richard D. Sanders (1985) criticized the Todaro migration model and offered a different approach. A lively and interesting debate followed, but the Cole and Sanders (CS) model was not actually solved. Indeed, Michael Todaro...suggested that the model yielded no unique algebraic solution, a charge to which CS...did not respond. This [one-page] note identifies the changes needed to provide closure of the CS model."
For the article by Cole and Sanders, published in 1985, see 51:20541.
Correspondence: A. D. Haight, Bates College, Department of Economics, Lewiston, ME 04240. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20435 Hughes, Gordon; McCormick, Barry. Migration and regional unemployment rates 1981-86. Department of Economics Discussion Paper, No. 3, Apr 1989. 26, [11] pp. University of Edinburgh, Department of Economics: Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"Our primary concern in this paper is to investigate the extent to which migration acts as an equilibrating mechanism with a net flow of migrants from high unemployment to low unemployment regions [in Great Britain]....This paper focuses on three important aspects of migration behaviour. First, we examine how far individual migration decisions are affected by whether or not the individual was unemployed prior to making the migration decision. Second, we try to assess the impact of regional labour market conditions on the migration behaviour of all those engaged in the labour force....[Finally,] we have devoted considerable effort to compiling a dataset which is disaggregated by occupation and then to identifying the differences between both broad and narrow occupational categories....[Findings reveal] that migration may be an important response to unemployment at an individual level, but it offers no prospect of reducing the severity of the disparities between regional unemployment rates in the North and the South."
Correspondence: University of Edinburgh, Department of Economics, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20436 Johnson, James H.; Roseman, Curtis C. Increasing black outmigration from Los Angeles: the role of household dynamics and kinship systems. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 80, No. 2, Jun 1990. 205-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We analyze relationships between migration and household structure through an examination of the outmigration component of the metropolitan Los Angeles black migration system. Using data from the 1980 U.S. Census Public Use Microdata Samples, which allow direct observation of both individuals and the households in which they live, we identify spatial patterns of outmigration, link those patterns to longer-term black population redistribution processes affecting Los Angeles, explicate the links between kinship and household factors and the evolving spatial patterns of migration, analyze the extent to which household change accompanies migration, and identify the range of household situations in which Los Angeles outmigrants find themselves, specifically the role of household factors in the migration process."
Correspondence: J. H. Johnson, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20437 Joseph, K. V. Migration and economic development of Kerala. ISBN 81-7099-092-0. LC 88-905764. 1988. xiv, 212 pp. Mittal Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study is concerned with peasant migration within the Indian state of Kerala. The focus is on the movement of peasants from Travancore to such undeveloped areas of the state as Malabar and their cultivation of previously unexploited land. Factors affecting this migration are the desire for better education, rising prices for cash crops, and population pressure. The impact of this migration on the economic development of Kerala is assessed.
Correspondence: Mittal Publications, 4528/12 Jai Mata Market, Trinagar, Delhi 110 035, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20438 Joshi, K. G. Migration and mobility: a sociological study of urban Karnataka. ISBN 81-7040-026-0. LC 89-902311. 1989. xiii, 231 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and change in occupational status in India is examined, using the example of Raicur, Karnataka. The author examines the effect of these two processes on the basic patterns of urban social order.
Correspondence: Himalaya Publishing House, Ramdoot, Dr. Bhalerao Marg, Girgaon, Bombay 400 004, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20439 Korcelli, Piotr. Poland. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 305-22 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Internal migration in Poland since World War II is described. The author finds that migration during this time was characterized by large-scale spatial mobility owing to postwar reconstruction and extensive industrialization. "Since then, large-scale rural-to-urban flows, as well as net population relocations from small- to middle-sized and large urban places, have remained among the salient features of internal migrations in Poland. The evolution of the age composition of the population, together with changes in spatial development policies, have contributed to fluctuations in the overall migration volume which decreased notably during the late 1960s, expanded again during the 1970s, and fell sharply in the 1980s." Data are from the 1978 census and a number of special migration surveys conducted since 1975.
Correspondence: P. Korcelli, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20440 Lattes, Alfredo E. Emerging patterns of territorial mobility in Latin America: challenges for research and action. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 261-72 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Trends in internal migration in Latin America since 1930 are examined. "The purpose of this paper [is]...to reflect upon and draw attention to emerging issues and questions that territorial mobility poses to scientific investigation, policies, and to the design and implementation of actions for development."
Correspondence: A. E. Lattes, Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20441 Ledent, Jacques. Canada. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 47-61 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes internal migration in Canada, including the size of migration movements, migrant characteristics, intercity migration, and interprovincial migration. It is noted that during the second half of the twentieth century, internal migration in Canada has been very influential in determining spatial growth patterns, with the steady movement of the population westward being the dominant trend. The propensity of migrants to move based on their mother tongue is analyzed. Data are from censuses, annual migration data from Statistics Canada, and income tax files.
Correspondence: J. Ledent, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-Urbanisation), Universite du Quebec, 3465 Rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20442 Liaw, K.-L. Neutral migration process and its application to an analysis of Canadian migration data. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 22, No. 3, Mar 1990. 333-43 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the notion of a neutral migration process (NMP) is introduced and applied to an analysis of the interprovincial migration patterns of young adults and the elderly in Canada during the 1976-81 intercensal period. The paper is motivated by one basic question: Does the redistribution potential of an observed migration process depend more on the departure process, or on the destination choice process? It turns out that the NMP can not only help answer the basic question but also yield further insights into observed migration processes."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Department of Geography, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20443 Lichter, Daniel T.; De Jong, Gordon F. The United States. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 391-417 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we highlight recent patterns of internal migration in the United States. Specifically, we examine: (1) issues of data availability and quality; (2) the volume and character of U.S. migration flows; (3) migration selectivity; (4) reasons for moving; and (5) the effect of migration on individual lives." The authors conclude that despite the changing nature of recent trends in internal migration, "the past decade has produced a more balanced pattern of net migration and population redistribution in the United States." Data are from decennial censuses and migration surveys.
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Population Issues Research Center, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20444 Long, Larry. Americans on the move. American Demographics, Vol. 12, No. 6, Jun 1990. 46-9 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The frequency of moves and the characteristics of those who move in the United States are discussed using data from the American Housing Survey, conducted in 1987 among 44,000 households. Consideration is given to length of residence by age, region, and income level; distance moved; and mobility rates.
Correspondence: L. Long, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for Demographic Studies, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20445 Martine, George. Brazil. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 31-46 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Brazilian internal migration patterns from the 1930s to the 1980s are described, with emphasis on the significant increase in migration to cities and to the frontier regions of the interior. Profiles of migrants are included according to income, sex, occupational status, and educational status. Data are from the decennial censuses covering the period 1940-1980.
Correspondence: G. Martine, Ministry of Planning, ILO/UNDP Technical Assistance Project, Brasilia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20446 Micklin, Michael. Guatemala. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 163-87 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Internal migration in Guatemala is analyzed. "Internal migration has been a significant feature of Guatemalan society since the middle of the last century when both temporary and permanent labor migration became critical to the development of export agriculture. Moreover, as Guatemala City, the national capital, has grown to be the country's only metropolitan area, it has attracted increasing numbers of migrants from rural areas and small towns and cities....On the whole, women migrate more frequently than do men, and the non-Indian component of the population is more likely to move than are Indians. During the past two decades a sizeable segment of the population has been displaced from rural communities as a result of civil disruption." Emphasis is placed on data from the 1973 and 1981 censuses.
Correspondence: M. Micklin, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20447 Nam, Charles B.; Serow, William J.; Sly, David F. International handbook on internal migration. ISBN 0-313-25858-9. LC 89-7487. 1989. xv, 438 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This work contains 21 original case studies on internal migration. The case studies adhere to a common outline for comparative purposes. Aspects considered include definitions of migration, sources of data, principal population movements, migrant characteristics, consequences of migration at the aggregate and individual level, and reasons for migration.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20448 Odland, John; Bailey, Adrian J. Regional out-migration rates and migration histories: a longitudinal analysis. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 158-70 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"Some elements of a longitudinal approach to migration behavior are described...and are then used to develop a model of the relations between out-migration levels and the history of in-migration. Hypotheses suggested by the model are examined....Information on durations of residence in particular localities is necessary in order to carry out these empirical analyses and we investigate associations between in-migration and out-migration on the basis of data on the behavior of a sample of young [U.S.] adults reported in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the period January 1978 through December 1981."
Correspondence: J. Odland, Indiana University, Department of Geography, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20449 Otomo, Atsushi. Japan. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 257-74 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses aspects of internal migration in Japan. Especially significant are the age differences in the propensity to migrate, with heavy out-migration of young adults to metropolitan regions creating regional variations in population aging. Data are from annual resident registers beginning in 1954 and from the decennial censuses during the period 1920-1980.
Correspondence: A. Otomo, Utsunomiya University, 350 Mine-machi, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20450 Oucho, John O. Kenya. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 275-86 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The causes and consequences of internal migration in Kenya are examined, and variations in migratory patterns are analyzed for individuals, households, and communities of origin and destination. Using data from surveys and censuses for the period 1948-1979, the author finds that "rural-urban migration has contributed to the rapid growth of many urban centers, but the rural population of the country has continued to grow and at a rate not substantially lower than that found in the urban population. Thus, although rural-urban migration is helping to alleviate the population pressure in rural areas, it is also contributing to economic pressures and demands in urban centers."
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, POB 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20451 Palacios, Diego. Ecuador. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 85-101 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Migration patterns and spatial distribution of the population of Ecuador are examined. "Population redistribution in Ecuador since 1950 has largely been influenced by the transformation and modernization of agriculture, and the commercial cycles of the export economy. Population redistribution resulted in rapid urban growth and concentration in the two principal cities, Quito and Guayaquil, and in some secondary urban centers. Since the 1970s, the eastern provinces (the Oriente) have received a significant flow of migration with the rise of the petroleum industry and a vast colonization zone. Urban-to-urban migration has been the largest flow, followed by the rural-to-urban stream. Only in the Oriente region has rural-to-rural migration remained important." Data are from the 1950, 1962, 1974, and 1982 censuses and two surveys conducted in 1975 and 1979.
Correspondence: D. Palacios, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20452 Plane, David A. Population migration and economic restructuring in the United States. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1989. 263-80 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This article demonstrates that sectoral employment shifts associated with the migration pattern changes of the 1970s are very different than those for the period 1955-60 to 1965-70. Changing competitiveness for jobs in manufacturing and other traditional basic sectors of the economy cannot account for the greatly accelerated levels of core-periphery net outflow that have been the dominant characteristic of interstate movement during the 1970s and 1980s. Instead, an interconnected set of activities that includes government, services, trade, and construction is associated with the broadscale shifts in the geographic pattern of the United States' population. The causal linkage from migration to employment change assumed heightened importance during the 1970s."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20453 Premi, Mahendra K. India. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 189-205 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Internal migration in India is examined for lifetime migrants by sex, age, place of birth, place of enumeration, state, and rural or urban residence for the period 1961-1981. It is noted that internal migration has led to greater concentrations of the population in urban areas. "This has meant differentials in rural and urban population growth rates, in the sex-age-marital status distributions of these populations, in the occupational and industrial distributions of the workers, and in the overall quality of life of the people living in rural and urban areas, respectively. Furthermore, because of the sex-age selectivity in migration, the phenomenon affects the fertility and mortality rates of both the sending and receiving areas."
Correspondence: M. K. Premi, Jawaharal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20454 Rees, Philip; Stillwell, John. The United Kingdom. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 371-89 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors consider the effects of internal migration on regional population dynamics in the United Kingdom. "One region (East Anglia) gained 18 percent in population over the 1971-86 period, while another (Greater London) lost 10 percent. In some instances fertility differences, mortality differences, or the pattern of external migration have had an important influence on population change, but most of the redistribution has been effected by internal migration. This chapter examines the principal population movements that have changed and continue to change the demographic map of the country. Comments on the characteristics and motivations of migrants, and on the consequences of migration are...[included]." Data are from the 1961, 1966, 1971, and 1981 censuses, population registers, and migration surveys.
Correspondence: P. Rees, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Population Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20455 Rogers, A.; Belanger, A. The importance of place of birth in migration and population redistribution analysis. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb 1990. 193-210 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Researchers on migration during the past two decades have increasingly interpreted geographical mobility as more than a one-time event in the lives of most people. This perspective has elevated the relative importance of the previous migration 'event histories' of individuals as variables in explanations of observed migration patterns. The role of migration away from and toward the place of birth has in particular received considerable attention. In this paper, U.S. Census data is used to examine further the importance of place of birth on migration streams and to trace the impacts of such 'native dependence' on age patterns of migration, multiregional life expectancies, and spatial population projections."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20456 Roppelt, Gerd. Determinants of net migration rates of urban and rural districts. [Determinanten der Nettowanderungsraten von kreisfreien Stadten und Landkreisen.] Forschungsmaterialien, No. 16, LC 88-152500. 1987. 151 pp. Universitat Bayreuth, Fachgruppe Geowissenschaften: Bayreuth, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This dissertation focuses on the determinants of net migration rates in urban and rural districts of the Federal Republic of Germany. Various types of migration studies are first reviewed in terms of their ability to explain net migration. The results of an empirical analysis are then presented. Findings indicate that housing quality has the strongest influence on net migration, followed by job and training opportunities and accessibility to the highway network.
Correspondence: G. Roppelt, Universitat Bayreuth, Fachgruppe Geowissenschaften, 8580 Bayreuth, Postfach 101251, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20457 Rowland, Richard H. The Soviet Union. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 323-43 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines internal migration in the USSR. He finds that it follows expected migration patterns and thus generally supports the tenets of migration theory. "Migration processes in the USSR as elsewhere in the world have also been largely age selective, voluntary, and dominated by such economic motives as availability of jobs and higher wages. Although an internal passport system and a certain amount of forced labor migration do exist, these should not obfuscate the basic similarities between the Soviet migration experience and the experience of migration in other areas of the world." Data are for the period 1959-1987 and are based on annual Union republic total population estimates and crude birth and death rates in the national statistical series.
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, Department of Geography, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northbridge, CA 91330. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20458 Rybakovskii, L. L.; Tarasova, N. V. A review of migration problems in the USSR. [Sovremennye problemy migratsii naseleniya SSSR.] Istoriya SSSR, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 68-81 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Recent trends in internal migration in the USSR are analyzed. The authors note that migration is affected by the scientific and technological change in the country that is associated with socioeconomic development. The rural exodus is examined as well as the concentration of the population in major cities. The problems caused by a spatial distribution of population that is inappropriate to the country's needs are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20459 Stillwell, John; Boden, Peter; Rees, Philip. Internal migration change in the U.K.: trends based on NHSCR movement data, 1975-6 to 1985-6. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 510, Apr 1988. 48 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, trends in internal migration in the United Kingdom are examined using annual data on the movement of NHS [National Health Service] patients between FPCAs [Family Practitioner Committee Areas] from 1975-6 to 1985-6. In absolute terms, the pattern of population redistribution has been influenced in particular by changes in the balance of movement to and from Greater London. At a broader spatial scale, the net loss of total migrants from the North to the South of the country has continued to increase....Spatial interaction models are calibrated in a comparative static analysis of the changing frictional effect of distance on movement, and the results of a selection of migration projection models are evaluated."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20460 Strzelecki, Zbigniew. The family life cycle and migration. [Cykl zycia rodziny a migracje.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 296, 1989. 220 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationship between stages in the family life cycle and migration in Poland is explored. Chapters are included on migration associated with marriage, the duration of periods in the family life cycle and the course of migration, and stages in the family life cycle and the intensity of migration. Data are from a survey carried out in 1983 involving the reconstruction of 4,799 marriage histories between 1935 and 1983. The focus is on internal migration.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20461 Tunali, Insan. Migration and remigration as interdependent decisions: a bivariate probit formulation. Department of Economics Working Paper, No. 408, May 1988. 36 pp. Cornell University, Department of Economics: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper formulates a Bivariate Probit Model of the migration/remigration decision which allows for interdependence between the initial and subsequent migration decisions. The joint model is tested on longitudinal internal migration data from Turkey. The empirical study addresses a number of specification issues that applied researchers have to confront."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Economics, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20462 Vergoossen, Dick. The Netherlands. In: International handbook on internal migration, edited by Charles B. Nam, William J. Serow, and David F. Sly. 1989. 287-304 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Internal migration flows in the Netherlands have been characterized by changes in the intensity of migration and its spatial distribution during the postwar period due to rapidly changing economic processes. The author discusses these and other aspects of internal migration, including the withdrawal of the labor force from the agricultural sector, the subsequent rural exodus toward the cities, and suburbanization. Also considered is a migration policy aimed at controlling suburbanization and distributing the population throughout the country more evenly. Data are from the population registration system and different national surveys.
Correspondence: D. Vergoossen, University of Nijmegen, Faculty of Policy Sciences, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 9044, 6500 KD Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

56:20463 Barry, Deborah; Serra, Luis. A national diagnosis of Nicaragua concerning the refugee, repatriated, and displaced populations, 1988. [Diagnostico nacional de Nicaragua sobre refugiados, repatriados y poblacion desplazada, 1988.] Cuadernos de Pensamiento Propio: Serie Documentos, No. 5, Aug 1989. 79 pp. Coordinadora Regional de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales [CRIES]: Managua, Nicaragua. In Spa.
The authors examine the situation of the refugee, repatriated, and displaced populations in Nicaragua during the 1980s. The descriptive study is based on information gathered in 1988 from various governmental institutions, preliminary reports from other investigations, and fieldwork in different regions of the country. Emphasis is on identifying members of the displaced populations who will be subject to proposed integral care programs. The first chapter is a description of the demographic characteristics of the refugee population in Nicaragua. Chapter 2 considers the problem of repatriation, with a focus on the North Atlantic Autonomous Region. In Chapter 3, the authors briefly describe the phenomenon of internal displacement of the population as a consequence of war during the period 1981-1988, based primarily on information provided by Presidential delegations in three regions of the country.
Correspondence: Coordinadora Regional de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, Apartado C-163, de la Iglesia El Carmen una cuadro al lago, Managua, Nicaragua. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20464 Kayongo-Male, Diane. African refugee migration: a model and research agenda. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, Vol. 15, No. 2, Spring-Summer 1989. 133-56 pp. Arcata, California. In Eng.
"This article elaborates upon the problems of the refugee crisis in Africa. With around 4 million refugees, heavily concentrated in particular African nations like Sudan and Somalia, the impacts on the host country can be severe. A model, dealing with the process of refugee migration, with particular reference to impacts on host countries, is developed. Negative impacts include military attacks on communities in the host country. One positive impact is the increase in the number of development-type projects which go beyond the mandate of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. A tentative research agenda on African refugee migration is put forward."
Correspondence: D. Kayongo-Male, South Dakota State University, Rural Sociology Department, Brookings, SD 57007. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20465 Leinbach, Thomas R. The transmigration programme in Indonesian national development strategy: current status and future requirements. Habitat International, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1989. 81-93 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews the Indonesian transmigration program. He notes that over four million people moved in the period from the program's 1904 inception through mid-1986. "Despite considerable success the programme has been plagued by numerous problems. These include inadequate income levels, improper site selection, poor matching of settlement models to the specific sites, environmental deterioration, migrant adjustment, land conflicts and financing." Current efforts to improve existing settlements, encourage spontaneous migraton, and involve the private sector are also described.
Correspondence: T. R. Leinbach, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20466 Zegeye, Abebe; Ishemo, Shubi. Forced labour and migration: patterns of movement within Africa. African Discourse Series, No. 1, ISBN 0-905450-36-1. LC 89-30267. 1989. 405 pp. Hans Zell Publishers: New York, New York/Sevenoaks, England; Oxford Centre for African Studies: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This work is a product of the Conference on Forced Labour and Migration, held at Nuffield College, Oxford, England, in February 1987. It consists of 11 chapters by various authors on the causes and consequences of forced labor and labor migration in Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. "It examines forced labour within African societies; the contract labour system of Southern Africa; the take-over of land by white settlers; the impact of colonial capitalism; the role both of foreign companies and local labour recruiters; and it looks at the impact of labour migration on African social structures and the position of women."
Correspondence: Hans Zell Publishers, Butterworths, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 8PH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

56:20467 Benattig, Rachid. Assisted returns to country of origin: a study of Algeria. [Les retours assistes dans les pays d'origine: une enquete en Algerie.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1989. 79-102 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes trends in government-assisted return migration to Algeria. Factors considered include employment and occupational status and individual and family readjustment to the local community.
Correspondence: R. Benattig, 9 rue du Moulin-Paillasson, 42300 Roanne, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20468 Cazorla Perez, Jose. Return to the south. [Retorno al sur.] ISBN 84-323-0673-8. Feb 1989. xiv, 249 pp. Siglo Veintiuno Editores: Cadiz, Spain; Oficina de Coordinacion Asistencia a Emigrantes Retornados [OCAER]: Cadiz, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes the return to Spain of some two million Spanish workers in other parts of Europe, particularly West Germany, that occurred in 1985-1986. The available data sources and theoretical and methodological aspects of return migration are first considered. Chapters are included on reasons for original emigration, the return home, reentering the labor market, reentering the community, economic behavior, and political activities of returning migrants.
Correspondence: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 6 Santiago Terry, 11004 Cadiz, Spain. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20469 Gould, W. T. S. Occupational continuity and international migration of skilled workers: the case of Mersey Port workers. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1990. 3-13 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"As part of a current concern among geographers to identify the local specificity of labour markets...and the regional impacts of international migration from [the United Kingdom], this paper considers one case of regional specificity--the Port of Liverpool--and how the traditional skills of the port and associated activities, on and off-shore, have provided important linkages with international demand for skills in these occupations, and have spontaneously maintained international but non-permanent flows of skilled workers from Merseyside."
Correspondence: W. T. S. Gould, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, POB 147, Liverpool L69 38X, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20470 Grindle, Merilee S. Searching for rural development: labor migration and employment in Mexico. Food Systems and Agrarian Change, ISBN 0-8014-2109-8. LC 87-47970. 1988. xii, 196 pp. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Using the example of Mexico, the author challenges the hypothesis that successful rural development can be achieved based primarily on the development of the agricultural sector. She also considers the potential for linking rural communities more effectively to regional and urban activities in order to address the employment problem even when smallholder agricultural modernization is not a viable option. Particular attention is paid to the role of temporary labor migration in relieving rural poverty in the face of overpopulation and land shortages and on the consequences of such migration.
Correspondence: Cornell University Press, 124 Roberts Place, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

56:20471 Banister, Judith; Taylor, Jeffrey R. China: surplus labour and migration. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1989. 3-20 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Surplus labor force and migration trends in China are examined, with emphasis on the impact of underemployment in rural areas. "Government policy encourages surplus labourers to transfer out of crop farming into agricultural sidelines or non-agricultural work. Peasants are urged to stay where they are, shifting jobs without shifting location; however, many rural areas are poorly endowed for providing alternative employment, so their surplus workers must also leave the village to find work. Many do not formally migrate, but rather move on a seasonal basis or set up 'temporary' residence in an urban place. This 'floating' population has been escalating rapidly in recent years....[The authors argue] that China's cities and towns can absorb millions of surplus labourers from rural areas each year, to the mutual benefit of sending and receiving areas."
Correspondence: J. Banister, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, China Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20472 Farrell, Gilda; Pachano, Simon; Carrasco, Hernan. Travelers and returnees. [Caminantes y retornos.] 1988. 167 pp. Instituto de Estudios Ecuatorianos [IEE]: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The authors analyze migration in Ecuador, with a focus on the definitive character of rural-urban movements and the complexity of the migration process. Sections are included on historical and contemporary migration in Ecuador; migration patterns of peasants and the urban labor force; and a case study of migrants from Puesetus in Quito.
Location: New York Public Library.

56:20473 Goldstein, Sidney. Changing forms of migration to big cities: Bangkok and Shanghai compared. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 273-87 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The relationship between migration and urban economic development in Shanghai, China, and Bangkok, Thailand, is examined and compared. Consideration is given to the impact of in-migration on the growth of both cities, changes in their migration patterns, and the effect of each city's migration policy on its migration patterns. Implications for cities in other developing countries are discussed. Data are from official sources for China and Thailand.
Correspondence: S. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20474 Rakowski, Witold. Translocation directions and demographic structure of migration from rural areas. [Kierunki przemieszczen a struktura demograficzna migrantow wiejskich.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jul 1989. 28-30 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Differences in rural-urban migration patterns and characteristics among the major cities of Poland are analyzed and compared. The focus is on how differences in the age distribution of the migrant population affect the population dynamics of the cities concerned.
Correspondence: W. Rakowski, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02 554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20475 Suda, Kazuhiro; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Nishida, Toshisada. Decrease of households in a rural community of Japan in relation to demographic and occupational change. Journal of Human Ergology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Dec 1988. 139-50 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The depopulation of rural communities in Japan during the twentieth century is examined using the example of Kitakawachi in the Noto peninsula. The authors note that whereas a shortage of available land was the main cause of out-migration in the early 1900s, rural-urban migration to find salaried employment has become widespread since the 1960s. The consequence of out-migration is that only 8 of the 37 households in the community now contain a married couple of reproductive age.
Correspondence: K. Suda, Hokkaido University, Department of Behavioral Science, Sapporo 060, Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20476 Yadava, K. N. S. Determinants of rural-urban migration in India: a micro approach. Rural Demography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1987. 1-20 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author examines the determinants of rural-to-urban migration in India. Findings indicate that rural out-migration is most affected by the number of persons who had previously migrated from the same village, the distance from the village to the nearest large city or town and main road, the sex ratio of the village, and the educational level of its inhabitants. Data are from a 1984 survey.
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20477 Yadava, K. N. S. Rural-urban migration in India: determinants, patterns and consequences. LC 89-900753. 1989. xx, 295 pp. Independent Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The broad objective of this study is to examine the nature of rural to urban migration [in India] in order to provide theoretical answers to some of the questions concerning the determinants, patterns and consequences of the movement process at the micro level, i.e. at the level of individual, household and village. The work tries to identify and explain the stress situations which cause people to move out of their native villages, to determine the kinds of opportunities which people usually look for at the urban destination, to study the volume and pattern of migration, and to examine the socio-economic and demographic implications of migration."
Correspondence: Independent Publishing Company, 4774 Deputy Ganj, Sadar Bazar, Delhi 110 006, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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