Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

56:20179 Aguinaga Roustan, Josune. Fertility decline and modernization in Spanish society. A comparative analysis of the 1977 and 1985 fertility surveys. [Descenso de la fecundidad y modernizacion en la sociedad espanola. Analisis comparativo de las encuestas de fecundidad 1977 y 1985.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 7-22 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a comparative analysis of two fertility surveys carried out in Spain in 1977 and 1985, with a focus on the relationship between fertility decline and modernization. The author considers the impact of factors such as womens' status, educational level, religious beliefs and practice, labor force activity, number of children, desired and planned pregnancies, and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: J. Aguinaga Roustan, Mejia Lequerica 7, 5 izq., 28004 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20180 Bean, Lee L.; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Anderton, Douglas L. Fertility change on the American frontier: adaptation and innovation. Studies in Demography, No. 4, ISBN 0-520-06633-2. LC 89-5045. 1990. xiii, 295 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze fertility changes in the population that colonized the western American frontier in the last half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. The data are from a set of 185,000 family records concerning women born between 1800 and 1899 created from the database of the Genealogical Society of Utah. The first part of the book examines theoretical concepts and the strengths and limitations of the Mormon Historical Data Project. The second part presents results of the analysis, including the fertility and nuptiality relationship, fertility differentials by migrant origin and assimilation, and individual-level and regional differences in fertility. A final chapter "summarizes the results of the study and outlines the contextual factors that must be considered in evaluating fertility change, in historical populations and in contemporary populations marked by varying levels of social and economic modernization. The results of the study are then used to evaluate previous fertility theories and efforts to draw policy conclusions from historical demographic research based primarily on studies of European populations."
Correspondence: University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20181 Betts, Katharine. Does Australia's low fertility matter? Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 6, No. 2, Nov 1989. 102-21 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses the future effects of below-replacement fertility in Australia. "Continued below-replacement fertility would lead to a smaller maximum population, followed by population decline and an even older age structure. This paper argues that there is no need to increase the population and that a more mature age structure promises a number of benefits. Population growth imposes further costs on the already stressed natural environment and on the cities, and no economic benefits clearly offset these costs." Government policy to promote migration into Australia as a means of encouraging population growth is compared to the possible impact of a pronatalist policy. The author argues that social policies designed to reduce hardships faced by mothers are inherently desirable even if their demographic effects are uncertain.
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20182 Bhattacharyya, Amit K. An evaluation of the impact of development projects on fertility: experiences from developing countries. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 305-15 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper will review the existing studies and summarise the empirical knowledge base with regard to the nature and extent of the fertility consequence of development projects [in developing countries]. Given the fact that a vast majority of the population in the developing countries are rural, poor and agriculturally based, this paper will highlight some implications of such studies for this particular population group. However, in order to place the discussion in proper perspective, the difficult methodological issues involved in assessment studies [will be] discussed." The need for planners to consider the contribution of child labor to household economy and its effect on fertility is stressed.
Correspondence: A. K. Bhattacharyya, U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20183 Blacker, J. G. C.; Afzal, M.; Jalil, A. The estimation of fertility from distributions of births by order: application to the Pakistan Demographic Survey. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 103-11 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors describe a method developed by William Brass for deriving estimates of total fertility and parity progression ratios from births tabulated by birth order and maternal age where the numbers of women exposed to risk in each age group are unknown. The method is applied to data from Pakistan.
Correspondence: J. G. C. Blacker, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20184 Boldsen, Jesper L.; Schaumburg, Inger. Time to pregnancy--a model and its application. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 255-62 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
To determine biological fertility in a developed country, the authors use Danish data to analyze the time elapsing from a couple's decision to have a child to a clinically recognizable pregnancy. A model is developed that condenses data on the distribution of time to pregnancy. Findings indicate that multiparous women conceive more quickly than primiparous women.
Correspondence: J. L. Boldsen, University of Odense, Institute of Community Health, Department of Social Medicine, Campusvej 55, DK-5320, Odense, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20185 Brunborg, Helge. The development of cohort fertility in Norway, 1845-1988. [Kohortfruktbarhetens utvikling i Norge 1845-1988.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning/Norwegian Journal of Social Research, Vol. 30, No. 5-6, 1989. 415-30 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents an analysis of Norwegian total fertility rates for all single-year cohorts of women born after 1820 up to 1988. Cohorts are compared for replacement levels of fertility and differences in maternal age at the time of birth. The author concludes that despite an increase in the total fertility rate from 1.66 in 1983 to 1.84 in 1988, it is unlikely that Norwegian fertility will rise to replacement level in the forseeable future.
Correspondence: H. Brunborg, Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20186 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. High fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Scientific American, Vol. 262, No. 5, May 1990. 118-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The reasons why Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind the rest of the developing world in the trend toward substantial declines in fertility are explored. The authors conclude that long-standing social and family patterns that are unique to the region are the major cause of high fertility. These patterns include the dominance of agricultural production by women and children, the ownership of land by lineage or clan rather than by individual family, the prevalence of polygyny, common marital separation, and the widespread fostering of children. These and other factors encourage women to have many children and reduce the cost of a man's decision to have more children.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

56:20187 Calot, Gerard. Period fertility, generational fertility. Franco-Swedish comparisons. [Fecondite du moment, fecondite des generations. Comparaisons franco-suedoises.] Population et Societes, No. 245, Apr 1990. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a comparative analysis of fertility in Sweden and France since 1940. The author suggests that both countries are approaching a new pattern of stability in fertility patterns following a 25-year period of change associated with the contraceptive revolution. France currently shows a completed fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman and Sweden a rate of just under 2.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20188 Canada. Quebec (Province). Conseil des Affaires Sociales et de la Famille (Quebec, Canada); Canada. Quebec (Province). Secretariat a la Famille (Quebec, Canada); Canada. Quebec (Province). Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec (Quebec, Canada). Fertility decline: solutions. [Denatalite: des solutions.] Les Publications du Quebec, ISBN 2-551-08342-7. LC 89-131540. 1989. 210 pp. Publications du Quebec: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of an international conference on family policies, organized by the Council of Social and Family Affairs in Quebec, Canada. The primary geographical focus is on the province of Quebec, with some consideration given to the situation in Belgium and France. The focus of the 15 papers included in these proceedings is on low fertility and its consequences and on the measures that have been or could be adopted to increase fertility.
Correspondence: Publications du Quebec, 1279 boulevard Charest Ouest, Quebec City, Quebec G1N 4K7, Canada. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20189 Das Gupta, Prithwis. A regression approach to the projection of U.S. fertility based on past fertility data. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1989. 262-70 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper provides an outline of a general regression approach to fertility projection based on past data which would generate these...ultimate cohort characteristics [total fertility rate and mean age at childbearing]. The technique is illustrated by using the U.S. single-year age-specific fertility rates up to 1986 for total women and projecting them indefinitely into the future until they become stable for both calendar years and cohorts."
Correspondence: P. Das Gupta, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20190 De Beer, Joop. Projecting age-specific fertility rates by using time-series methods. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 4, Mar 1990. 315-46 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper discusses two stochastic time-series models developed recently for projecting age-specific fertility rates: the CARIMA model and the APC-ARIMA model. The forecasting performance of both models is examined using Dutch data. Alternatively, a deterministic time-series model is presented in which the age pattern of changes in the age-specific fertility rates between successive years is described by a cubic spline function. The model is capable of describing widely varying patterns. The model is applied to age-specific fertility rates for four countries: the Netherlands, England and Wales, Sweden and Australia."
Correspondence: J. De Beer, Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics, Department of Population Studies, P.O. Box 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20191 De Santis, Gustavo. An analysis of fertility in Italy from 1967 to 1981 using the own-children method. [Un'analisi della fecondita in Italia nel 1967-81 con il metodo dei figli propri.] Serie Ricerche Empiriche, No. 15, 1989. 253 pp. Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento Statistico: Florence, Italy. In Ita.
Fertility trends in Italy from 1967 to 1981 are analyzed using the own-children method and data from a two-percent sample of the 1981 Italian census. Seperate analyses are presented of male and female fertility. Consideration is also given to fertility differentials by educational status, female labor force participation, and generation.
Correspondence: Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento Statistico, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20192 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. Patriarchy, fertility, and women's work in rural societies. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 291-303 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The question posed in this paper is whether, and under what conditions, the employment of rural women [in developing countries]--especially those with little or no formal education or training--does (or could) challenge pronatalist patriarchal institutions or create other incentives toward lower fertility....The underlying hypothesis is that by providing alternative sources of social identity and economic support, female employment could reduce women's social and economic dependence on men and on children (especially sons); broaden girls' and women's social horizons, thus helping to counter kin-based pronatalist pressures; increase women's desire to delay marriage (or to avoid or terminate an unsatisfactory union) and to space and limit births; and contribute to greater sexual and reproductive autonomy...." The author finds that "in most cases...rural women with little schooling are unlikely to perceive employment as an adequate substitute for children in their old age....Although employed women may marginally reduce their fertility targets and even dispense with their husbands, children are likely to remain the 'superior form' of security investment."
Correspondence: R. Dixon-Mueller, University of California, Program in Population Research, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20193 Escobar, Gladys. Registered births 1985. [Nacimientos registrados 1985.] Boletin de Estadistica, No. 418, Jan 1988. 223-41 pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
Official vital statistics on births in Colombia for 1985 are presented. Data are included on registered births by sex and province for individual years, 1980-1985; age-specific fertility rates, 1980-1985; extent of completeness of registration of births; month of birth; and birth order.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:20194 Feichtinger, Gustav; Sorger, Gerhard. Self-generated fertility waves in a non-linear continuous overlapping generations model. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1989. 267-80 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"In this paper, Samuelson's simplified version of the Easterlin theory [concerning the U.S. baby boom and subsequent decline] is extended to a continuous-time model with three age groups. This approach enables one to apply the qualitative theory of non-linear differential equations to show the existence of Easterlin-type cycles. In contrast to the discrete time model we obtain information about the period length of the cycle."
For the study by Paul A. Samuelson, published in 1976, see 43:1422.
Correspondence: G. Feichtinger, Technische Universitat Wien, Operations Research and Systemtheorie, Institut fur Okonometrie, Argentinierstrasse 8, A-1040 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20195 Fialova, Ludmila; Pavlik, Zdenek; Veres, Pavel. Fertility decline in Czechoslovakia during the last two centuries. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 89-106 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the pattern of fertility decline in Czechoslovakia during the last two centuries. "The decline of fertility in Czechoslovakia on the territory of the Czech Socialist Republic began with a rise in the age at marriage; the decline of marital fertility began only after 1860. On the territory of the Slovak Socialist Republic marital fertility began to decline after 1900 without previous significant changes in the age at marriage. The differences between the demographic behaviour in the two parts of Czechoslovakia have persisted, although they are now gradually disappearing. There are other significant regional differences in the fertility decline caused by the overall process of economic and social development. The end of the demographic transition in the Czech Socialist Republic came during the 1930's and in the Slovak Socialist Republic during the 1960's."
Correspondence: L. Fialova, Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Institute of Czeshoslovak and World History, Vysehradska 49, 128 26 Prague 2, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20196 Frisch, Rose E. Adipose tissue and reproduction. Progress in Reproductive Biology and Medicine, Vol. 14, ISBN 3-8055-5066-9. 1990. x, 142 pp. Karger: Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
This volume contains papers by authors from a range of disciplines that address the interrelationship of body fat and reproduction. The articles "present recent data on the delay of menarche and the disruption of menstrual function in too lean girls and women, the restoration of reproductive ability with weight gain, and the resulting scientific implications. New data on the effects of intensive exercise on male reproductive ability are also included. Other papers describe the importance of adipose tissue as an extra-ovarian source of estrogen and its significance for reproductive dysfunction and estrogen-related cancer; the effects of body weight and diet on estrogen metabolism; the role of adipose tissue in estrogen biosynthesis; the role of hyperinsulinemia and adipose tissue in the development of hyperandrogenism in women, and changes in sex hormone-binding globulin and sex steroids in relation to pubertal and postpubertal development of the menstrual cycle. A contribution on the control of reproduction in animal species with high and low body fat reserves presents fundamental data on the ecological and evolutionary significance of the fatness-fertility relationship."
Correspondence: S. Karger, CH-4009, Basel, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20197 Gubhaju, Bhakta B.; Navunisaravi, Naibuka. Trends in fertility and mortality in Fiji based on the 1986 census. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1989. 45-66 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the trends in fertility and mortality [in Fiji] based on the 1986 census. Results from the earlier censuses and vital registration are also drawn to compare with the 1986 census. The data show that Fiji has undergone a rapid transition in fertility and mortality over the last two decades. The article provides total fertility rates, expectations of life at birth, and infant mortality rates for both Fijians and Indians."
Correspondence: B. B. Gubhaju, Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20198 Guptill, K.; Berendes, H.; Forman, M. R.; Chang, D.; Sarov, B.; Naggan, L.; Hundt, G. L. Seasonality of births among Bedouin Arabs residing in the Negev Desert of Israel. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 213-23 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"From 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1982 information on all births to Bedouin Arab women residing in the Negev Desert of Israel showed a previously unreported seasonal pattern. The peak season, November-February, coincided with the period of cool temperatures and the Bedouin Arab cultural seasons of winter and spring. This pattern is different from those of Jewish and Christian groups in the same region...[and is attributable to religion,] traditional occupations of fathers, multiparae 2+, and traditional place of residence. This pattern has persisted over the past 15 years although it is less apparent among the more recently sedentarized Bedouin Arabs."
Correspondence: K. Guptill, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Prevention Research Program, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20199 Haile, Azbaha. Fertility conditions in Gondar, northwestern Ethiopia: an appraisal of current status. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 110-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In order to study current fertility conditions, this study examines the sociocultural, economic, and demographic characteristics of 734 women aged 15-55 in the Gondar administrative region of northwestern Ethiopia. Women over age 45 in the sample were found to have, on average, 7.27 pregnancies, 0.88 abortions, 6.39 children ever-born, 1.51 child deaths, and 4.88 live offspring. The total infertility rate was 8.5 percent, and the subfertility rate was 12.7 percent....Contraceptive use was estimated at 3.6 per 1,000 women (for ages 15-49). The need for more effective family planning services is strongly indicated. The study suggests that, among other goals, policy efforts should focus on the reduction of unintended conception and unwanted fertility."
Correspondence: A. Haile, Bahir Dar Teacher's College, Department of Pedagogical Sciences, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20200 Handwerker, W. Penn. Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction. ISBN 0-8133-7787-0. LC 89-77272. 1990. v, 227 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"The authors of the chapters [in this book] explore relationships between power, human reproduction, and the social relations that reproductive behavior reflects, and may change. In the process, they help us better understand issues like why some women have large families and other women have small ones; how to reduce high birth rates in Less Developed Countries and high teenage pregnancy rates in countries like the United States; the failure of family planning programs; the intense public debate about abortion in the United States; and why some women act in ways that dramatically increase their risk of AIDS....We shall also see how shifts in power relationships transform the economic, social, and moral dimensions of human behavior."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20201 Henin, Roushdi A.; Jain, Anrudh K. Impact of socio-economic development on fertility in rural Kenya. [1989]. 63 pp. Central Bureau of Statistics: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The impact of socioeconomic development on fertility in Kenya is analyzed using data from a variety of official sources, including censuses and surveys. The focus is on the Rural Household Budget Survey of 1981-1982. The authors conclude that at this stage of Kenya's development, improvements in economic factors may increase fertility, although some social factors such as female education may be associated with declines in fertility.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Economic Planning and Development, P.O. Box 30266, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20202 Horne, Amelia D. The span of reproduction in Egypt. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1989. 255-61 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The focus of this article is on the length of the reproductive span of women in Egypt. "This study shows long reproductive spans to be associated with low levels of women's education, rural residence, remarriage, early marriage age, and high parity."
Correspondence: A. D. Horne, Central Statistics Organization, Manama, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20203 Hull, Terence H.; Singarimbun, Masri. The sociocultural determinants of fertility decline in Indonesia, 1965-1976. Population Studies Center Working Paper Series, No. 31, Oct 1989. vi, 60 pp. Gadjah Mada University, Population Studies Center: Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The focus of this paper is on the fertility decline in Indonesia and its sociocultural determinants. "First the demographics of the fertility change will be analysed to show how the decline between 1965 and 1976 is the result of changes in marriage patterns, marital fertility and the age structure of the population. Then three dimensions of social change will be described to show how the Independence period produced a falling demand for children, increased autonomy in fertility decision-making and increased availability of efficient forms of contraception....Finally, an attempt will be made to distinguish the roles of stated policies and actual program activities." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Gadjah Mada University, Population Studies Center, Bulaksumur G-7, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20204 Iglicka, Krystyna. Application of Bongaarts's fertility model in Poland. [Aplikacja modelu plodnosci Bongaartsa dla Polski.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 6, Jun 1989. 14-5 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Bongaarts's fertility model is applied to 1977 fertility data for Poland. The results show that the most important proximate determinants of fertility are contraception and abortion. The author questions the validity of previous analyses of the determinants of Polish fertility undertaken by J. Bongaarts and T. Frejka using data for 1972.
Correspondence: K. Iglicka, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20205 India. Office of the Registrar General. Demography Division (New Delhi, India). Fertility in India: an analysis of 1981 census data. Occasional Paper, No. 13 of 1988, [1989]. ii, 132 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Estimates of fertility for India, its states, union territories, and districts are presented. At the national level, the estimates are provided by women's religion, educational level, and occupations. Data are from the 1981 census. Separate consideration is given in the accompanying analysis to differentials in period and cohort fertility.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Demography Division, 4/19 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20206 Islam, M. Mazharul; Moslehuddin, M. Impact of intermediate variables on change in level of fertility in Bangladesh: an application of Bongaarts's model. Rural Demography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1987. 41-51 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The impact of intermediate variables on changes in fertility levels in Bangladesh for the period 1975-1985 is examined. Bongaarts's model is used to analyze the effects of proportion of women married, contraceptive use, induced abortion, and breast-feeding duration on fertility decline. Contraceptive use was found to have the greatest impact on reducing fertility.
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20207 Jose, Marco V.; Borgaro, Rebeca. Demographic and epidemiologic transition: problems for research. [Transicion demografica y epidemiologica: problemas para la investigacion.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 196-205 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The basic characteristics of the demographic and epidemiologic transition are described, with emphasis on differences between the European experience of the past and contemporary Latin America. The unique features of the demographic transition occurring in Mexico are described. "It is emphasized that there has been a slowing of the rate of decline in fertility in Mexico since 1980 and some factors likely associated with this phenomenon are propounded. The different schools of thought regarding the changes of infant mortality during the transition are succinctly reviewed. The hypothesis that reductions of the birth rate induce reductions of infant mortality rates is supported...."
Correspondence: M. V. Jose, 177 Francisco de P. Miranda, Unidad Plateros, 01480 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20208 Lee, David K. C.; Gan, Chin Lee. An economic analysis of fertility, market participation and marriage behaviour in recent Japan. Applied Economics, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 59-68 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors model the relationships among fertility labor force participation, and marriage rates using data for Japan for the period following World War II. The methodology is based on that developed by W. P. Butz and M. P. Ward. The results suggest that increases in male wages have a positive effect on fertility but that increases in female wages have an ambiguous effect. The authors conclude that either a larger data set than that used in this study or panel data may be necessary if this approach is to be developed further.
For the study by Butz and Ward, published in 1979, see 44:1298 and 45:4294.
Correspondence: D. K. C. Lee, London School of Economics, Room S 281, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20209 Lefevre, Francoise; Pasquet, Catherine. Fertility and families in Reunion: situation and trends. [Fecondite et familles a la Reunion: situation et dynamique.] LC 89-980241. Sep 1988. 32 pp. Observatoire Departemental de la Reunion: Saint-Denis, Reunion; Conseil General de la Reunion, Direction des Actions Sanitaires et Sociales Departementales: [Saint-Denis], Reunion. In Fre.
This report concerns a survey on fertility and marriage patterns in Reunion carried out in 1987 in order to evaluate the impact of the family policy adopted in 1967. Separate consideration is given to marital unions, fertility, contraception, and illegitimacy. The authors note changes in the attitudes toward the family over time. The problems faced by one-parent families are noted.
Correspondence: Direction Generale Adjointe, Promotion des Actions Sanitaires et Sociales, Rue Hyppolite-Foucque, Saint-Clotilde, 97488 Saint-Denis Cedex, Reunion. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20210 Lenneer-Axelson, Barbro. Low birth rates in Sweden: a question of changed family ideals and sex roles. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 1989. 5-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The determinants of Sweden's low birth rate are briefly discussed. Consideration is given to changes in the emotional aspects of marital relationships, greater equality between the sexes, delayed parenthood, and abortion legislation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20211 Martinelle, Sten. The timing of first birth: analysis and prediction of Swedish birth rates. Bakgrundsmaterial fran Demografiska Funktionen, No. 1, 1990. 61 pp. Statistiska Centralbyran: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
A method for the analysis of the timing of first births is presented and applied to data from the Swedish Fertility Register up to the end of 1988 for women born between 1930 and 1971. Particular attention is paid to the effect of delaying first births. "It is found that the risk of a fertile woman remaining childless is substantial even at the most common childbearing age. The effect of postponed births on final childlessness is demonstrated and quantified. It is shown that the higher level of childlessness among women with [higher] education can be explained by postponement of childbearing. The expression 'later means fewer' is also true for first births."
Correspondence: Statistiska Centralbyran, Karlavagen 100, S-115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20212 Matthiessen, Poul C. Family formation and reproduction in the Nordic countries for 100 years. [Familiedannelse og reproduktion i de nordiske lande gennem 100 ar.] In: Norden forr och nu: ett sekel i statistisk belysning. Nordiska Statistikermotet, No. 18e, [1989?]. 159-67 pp. Nordic Statistical Secretariat: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends in the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are analyzed for the period 1889-1989. Topics considered include changes in women's roles and fertility changes since the 1960s. The author notes that the total fertility rate has declined from just under five to the current figure of under two children.
Correspondence: P. C. Matthiessen, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Statistics, Studiestraede 6, 1455 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20213 Mroz, Thomas A.; Weir, David R. Structural change in life cycle fertility during the fertility transition: France before and after the Revolution of 1789. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 61-87 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the hypothesis that the fertility transition in France entailed a structural change in behaviour from natural to controlled fertility. We define the hypothesis in terms of an empirically estimable model of lifetime fertility. The model produces separate estimates of the three main proximate determinants: the hazard rate of conception for ovulating women, the timing of ovulation resumption after a birth, and permanent sterility. Fertility control is defined as responsiveness of the conception hazard to number of surviving children. We demonstrate key features of the model by simulated family histories. The historical application provides support for the transition hypothesis in the south of France, and mixed results for the north. We also find strong evidence of persistent couple-specific heterogeneity even after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity in fecundability."
Correspondence: T. A. Mroz, University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20214 Mroz, Thomas A.; Weir, David R. Structural change in life cycle fertility during the fertility transition: France before and after the revolution of 1789. Economics Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 88-13, Apr 1988. 45 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Economics Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Our primary interest in this paper is detecting the presence or absence of 'replacement effects'--the responsiveness of fertility to past mortality events--in rural France about the time of the fertility transition. In order to carry out this analysis, we model empirically the three stochastic processes that are the main proximate determinants of lifetime marital fertility: the hazard rate of conception leading to a live birth for ovulating women, the timing of the resumption of ovulation following a live birth, and the timing of permanent sterility....Low fertility in the South was [found to be] due to roughly equal contributions of longer periods of non-susceptibility and lower fecund hazard rates throughout the life cycle. There was no evidence of replacement effects. Conversely, the North, where fertility was higher, showed evidence of responsiveness to mortality. Both regions showed significant increases in the magnitude of replacement effects after the Revolution."
Correspondence: NORC Librarian, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20215 Munkacsy, Ferenc. Standard of living and fertility. [Az eletszinvonal alakulasa es a termekenyseg.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 68, No. 1, Jan 1990. 5-18 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author explores the impact of economic conditions and the quality of life on fertility levels in Hungary in the early 1930s and in the period from the late 1950s to the early 1960s. It is suggested that although the economic depression of the 1930s did not have a significant impact on fertility, the decline in fertility that occurred during the 1960s seems to have been causally related to economic factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20216 Perrenoud, Alfred. The demographic transition in the Genevan urban and rural areas from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. [La transition demographique dans la ville et la campagne genevioses du XVIIe au XIXe siecle.] In: Melanges d'histoire economique offerts au Professeur Anne-Marie Piuz. 1989. 231-53 pp. Universite de Geneve, ISTEC: Geneva, Switzerland. In Fre.
The process whereby innovative practices resulting in lower fertility are spread within a community is examined using a historical example from Switzerland. The data are from a family reconstitution project involving 3,382 families in Geneva, representing 12 percent of marriages occurring between 1625 and 1810, and data on 661 families in the rural parish in the region of Geneva from approximately the same period. The results show that the change to lower fertility occurred without major economic changes or significant modernization of the society and that it took place as a gradual response to changing demographic conditions, particularly declines in mortality.
Correspondence: A. Perrenoud, rue Virginio Malnati 9, 1217 Meyrin-Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20217 Rantakallio, Paula; Myhrman, Antero. Changes in fertility and the acceptability of pregnancies in northern Finland during the last 20 years. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1990. 109-14 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The acceptability of pregnancies was studied in two birth cohorts in Northern Finland which represent 96% of all births in the region in 1966 (12,068 births) and 99% (9,362 births) in 1985-1986. The numbers of women of fertile age in the area during these years were 148,000 and 158,000, so that fertility may be said to have fallen from 81 to 59 per 1,000. The pregnancy was wanted in 63.0% of cases and unwanted in 12.2 in 1966, the rest being classified as accepted later. The corresponding figures in 1985-1986 were 91.8% and 1.0%....Acceptability was connected with age, [with]....more wanted children...born to the age group 25-34 years in the latter cohort....The reasons for the decrease in fertility and increased proportion of wanted pregnancies can...be assumed to lie in improved contraceptive methods and a freer attitude towards these and especially towards legal abortions."
Correspondence: P. Rantakallio, University of Oulu, Department of Public Health Science, Kirkkokatu 11A, PL 191, SF-90101 Oulu, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20218 Retherford, Robert D.; Rele, J. R. A decomposition of recent fertility changes in South Asia. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 739-47, 792-3, 795 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In the absence of data needed to apply sophisticated decompostion techniques to aggregate-level fertility change, a simple decomposition analysis of recent fertility trends in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka illuminates the positioning of these countries along the demographic transition. The change in the total fertility rate between 1960-64 and 1980-84 is decomposed in this exercise into two components, one due to changes in age-specific proportions married and the other due to changes in age-specific marital birth rates. Each of these two major components is further decomposed by age."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20219 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; Osman, Magued I.; El-Zanaty, Fatma; Way, Ann A. Egypt Demographic and Health Survey, 1988. Oct 1989. xxxi, 250 pp. Egypt National Population Council: Cairo, Egypt; Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Results from the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey of 1988 are presented. This is one in a series of surveys conducted by the Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems DHS program. Chapters are included on marriage, breast-feeding, and postpartum insusceptibility; fertility; knowledge, attitudes, and exposure to family planning messages; ever-use of family planning; current use of family planning; fertility preferences, unmet needs, and reasons for nonuse; infant and child mortality; and maternal and child health. Appendixes are included on survey methodology.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro Systems, DHS Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20220 Seccombe, Wally. Starting to stop: working-class fertility decline in Britain. Past and Present, No. 126, Feb 1990. 151-88 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The causes of the fertility decline that occurred in early twentieth-century Britain are examined using qualitative rather than quantitative sources of data. Specifically, the author produces evidence from "letters from working-class people in Britain, mostly women, testifying to their reproductive experience in the first quarter of the twentieth century, in the midst of the proletariat's initial phase of sharp fertility reduction. As this material casts doubt on some conventional assumptions concerning the fertility transition, other hypotheses, more compatible with the correspondence, will be considered." The results suggest that "the decisive downswing in proletarian birth-rates after decades of gradual descent appears to have been due to a convergence of men's and women's interests in limitation, and to women's increasing capacity to obtain some male co-operation to this end."
Correspondence: W. Seccombe, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1V6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20221 Simoes, Celso C. da S.; de Oliveira, Luiz A. P. Statistical profile of children and mothers in Brazil: the fertility situation; general determinants and characteristics of the recent transition. [Perfil estatistico de criancas e maes no Brasil: a situacao da fecundidade; determinantes gerais e caracteristicas da transicao recente.] ISBN 85-240-266-2. 1988. 63 pp. Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica [IBGE]: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Changes in fertility levels in Brazil from 1970 to 1984 are analyzed using census data and information from the 1984 National Housing Survey. Chapters are included on Brazil in the context of world demographic change; the historical evolution of fertility in Brazil; features of the recent fertility decline and the impact of family planning; and socioeconomic aspects of the fertility transition and implications for the future.
Correspondence: Fundacao IBGE, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt 166, 20021 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20222 Simonelli, Jeanne M. The politics of below-replacement fertility: policy and power in Hungary. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 101-11 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"Examination of the historical and contemporary circumstances surrounding the fertility decisions of women and couples in socialist Hungary reveals a complex relationship between women's rights, production, and reproduction. This chapter examines that relationship by briefly outlining the characteristics of the demographic transition in Eastern Europe, relating fertility decline to the productive needs of post World War II Hungary and, finally, through an analysis of the interaction of social, economic, and demographic policy in contemporary Hungary."
Correspondence: J. M. Simonelli, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Oneonta, NY 13820. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20223 Singal, D. S.; Kinzett, S. P. Fertility trends in India: future possibilities using the proximate determinants model. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988. 3-9 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the total fecundity rate for Indian women using the proximate determinant model developed by Bongaarts and Potter and then to estimate the decline in total fertility rate in the country by the year 2000....[The authors conclude that] increase in use of contraception is the only way to reduce fertility in the country if the goal to reach NRR [net reproduction rate] of unity is to be achieved by 2000 A.D."
Correspondence: D. S. Singal, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Planning and Evaluation, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20224 Spallone, Patricia. Beyond conception: the new politics of reproduction. Women in Society, ISBN 0-333-43531-1. LC 88-7590. 1989. ix, 251 pp. Macmillan Education: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
"This book is a critique of technologies of reproduction....One of the main purposes...is to show how technology redefines the meaning of reproduction in society to the detriment of women, how technology sets a repressive ethic of reproduction, and in turn how repressive social relations provide the conditions for the technologies to happen. I keep in mind an international perspective overall, but in particular look at the situation in Great Britain....[The focus is on] the accountability of scientists, especially medical scientists, to women....the values underlying reproductive science and technology....[and] the effect on women of the new reproductive and genetic technologies...." Chapters are included on changing definitions and status of the embryo, in vitro fertilization and infertility, the exploitation of women in the name of research, eugenics and genetics, and the role of governments and legislation in shaping attitudes toward new reproductive technologies.
Correspondence: Macmillan Distribution, Customer Services Department, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20225 Srinivasan, K.; Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind. Study of fertility through birth interval analysis. 1986. ii, 105, [4] pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India. In Eng.
Fertility trends among Indian women are analyzed using data on birth intervals. The data concern last closed and open birth intervals and are primarily from two retrospective surveys carried out in Bihar and Rajasthan in 1980-1981, which included 10,721 and 5,720 households, respectively. Following an introductory chapter on methodology, the main chapters concern the estimation of age-specific fecundability and secondary sterility from data on last closed birth intervals, open birth intervals and estimation of parity progression ratios from survey data on birth intervals, and the biological and demographic correlates of gestation. The raw data on the components of the birth interval are provided in an appendix.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20226 Stenflo, Gun A. Parity-dependent fertility in a population with natural fertility in northern Sweden 1720-1900. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1989. 211-27 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Recent discussion has questioned the usefulness of the concept of natural fertility and Swedish data have shown very poor fit to proposed models for natural fertility. Skelleftea is an example of a parish with a natural fertility regime, in which prenuptial births and conceptions cause deviation from the Coale-Trussell model. Dynamic analysis of the risk of passing from one parity to another shows that there is a systematically changing pattern over time, suggesting a change of nonparity dependent control, in a period with no sign of parity-dependent family limitation methods. It is also well known that birth intervals tend to increase with maternal age and higher parity. However, these two concepts--age of mother and parity--are highly correlated. When there is no evidence of parity-dependent limiting methods, parity dependence can be explained by coital frequency and maternal age." The results from Skelleftea for 1720-1900 are compared with results obtained using German parish data for the period 1750-1899.
Correspondence: G. A. Stenflo, Umea University, Demographic Data Base, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20227 Ubaidur Rob, A. K. Determinants of fertility in Bangladesh. Biology and Society, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1990. 31-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Determinants of fertility in Bangladesh, analysed from data from surveys in four rural areas during 1982-86 show that, as expected, marriage duration has the strongest positive effect in each area, while the lengths of birth intervals, of breastfeeding and of spouse separation have negative effects on childbearing. The results suggest that factors affecting fertility differ between regions, though in general, natural fertility is similar."
Correspondence: A. K. Ubaidur Rob, Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, Asia Regional Office, House No. 35, Road No. 12A (New), Dhanmondi R.A., Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20228 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS] (London, England). Period and cohort birth order statistics: period analyses for years from 1938-85 and cohort analyses for women born in each year from 1920. Series FM1, No. 14, ISBN 0-11-691188-3. 1987. iii, 30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The tables in this volume present analyses of births [in England and Wales] for each calendar year from 1938...up to 1985; in further tables the information is re-arranged to show cohort analyses of births at successive ages to women born in each year from 1920. In addition to analyses of births by legitimacy and birth order within marriage, tables are included in which births are analysed by their estimated birth order regardless of legitimacy. An account of the method by which these estimates were made, together with a summary of the analyses and a commentary upon the trends they reveal, is given...." Microfiche copies of birth order statistics are included.
Correspondence: HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20229 Upchurch, Dawn M.; McCarthy, James. The timing of a first birth and high school completion. American Sociological Review, Vol. 55, No. 2, Apr 1990. 224-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relationship between the timing of a first birth and high school completion among women is examined using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Employing event-history techniques, we find that a first birth influences eventual high school graduation, but not in the way previous studies have suggested. Using a modified status attainment model incorporating a life-course perspective, we find that having a baby does not predict dropping out of high school. Women who have a baby while still enrolled in school and remain in school are just as likely to graduate as women who do not. Among high school dropouts, however, a birth reduces the chances of eventual graduation. Policy and theoretical considerations are discussed."
Correspondence: D. M. Upchurch, Johns Hopkins University, 624 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20230 Vassilev, Dimiter. Birth control and declining birth rates: the Bulgarian experience. Planned Parenthood in Europe, Vol. 18, No. 2, Winter 1989. 9-13 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in fertility, contraception, and abortion in Bulgaria are reviewed using data covering the period from the first census in 1882 to the present. The author notes that Bulgaria has the lowest mean age at first marriage for women in Europe and that the abortion rate has risen during the period and now parallels the fertility rate, with both experiencing declines in the last decade. The effect of pronatalist policies on the abortion rate is also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20231 Whittington, Leslie A.; Alm, James; Peters, H. Elizabeth. Fertility and the personal exemption: implicit pronatalist policy in the United States. American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 3, Jun 1990. 545-56 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"In this paper, we estimate an aggregate fertility equation for the United States from 1913 to 1984. Fertility is modeled as a function of various economic and demographic factors, including the tax value of the the personal exemption. The primary result is that the personal exemption has a positive and significant effect on the national birthrate, and this result is robust to a variety of specifications."
Correspondence: L. A. Whittington, University of Maryland, Department of Textiles and Consumer Economics, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20232 Wineberg, Howard. The timing of intermarital fertility. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1, Mar 1990. 175-83 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Using June 1985 [U.S.] Current Population Survey data, this study examines the extent and variation in intermarital fertility among white and black women who ended their first marriage during their reproductive years. Black women are more likely to have an intermarital birth. Proportional hazards models show that among both races intermarital fertility probabilities vary by sociodemographic variables, most notably age at disruption of the first marriage, length of the first marriage, and education."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20233 Yang, Quanhe. Age at first marriage and fertility in rural Anhui, China. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 143-57 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the changing nuptiality pattern of rural China, particularly rural Anhui in relation to the planned social changes since 1949 and their effect on fertility. The data are from the 1/1,000 Fertility Survey of China, conducted...in 1982. Before the family planning programme was introduced to rural Anhui (1972), the changing nuptiality pattern was indirectly affected by the planned social changes; after 1972, the substantial increase in age at first marriage was mainly due to the family planning programme. More recently...the nuptiality pattern seems to join the 1972 trend....Its effect on fertility is clear, and the shortening interval between marriage and first birth may bring difficulties for future population control in rural China."
Correspondence: Q. Yang, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20234 Zanamwe, Ingwani L. Fertility analysis in Zimbabwe. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 526, May 1989. 39 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
The availability and quality of data concerning the relationship between fertility and socioeconomic development in Zimbabwe are reviewed. "The paper has been able to describe fertility patterns in Zimbabwe both at the provincial and district level by developing techniques that utilise available data to estimate unavailable measures at the sub-national levels. [Wider] variations than indicated by data at the national level are found within the country. However, some errors are involved in the estimation and future research should seek more data in order to minimise errors and to improve the reliability and accuracy of the estimates."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20235 Zimbabwe. Central Statistical Office (Harare, Zimbabwe); Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, 1988. Dec 1989. xxvii, 170 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
Results are presented from the 1988 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, one in a series of surveys conducted in the Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems DHS program. Chapters are included on marriage, breast-feeding, and postpartum insusceptibility; fertility; fertility regulation; fertility preferences; mortality and health; and AIDS awareness. The survey included a nationally representative sample of 4,201 women aged 15-49. The results show high but declining rates of fertility, with significantly lower fertility in urban areas and among more highly educated women; a trend toward delayed marriage; widespread knowledge about contraception; and high levels of contraceptive usage.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro Systems, DHS Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

56:20236 Amin, R.; Becker, S.; Chowdhury, J. Recent evidence on trends and differentials in Bangladesh fertility. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 225-30 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The present study examines the effects of certain socioeconomic or proximate determinants on fertility as well as the trends and differentials in Bangladesh fertility since 1975, using more recent data available from the 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey." Fertility was found to be lower among the urban population, educated mothers, and contraceptive users.
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Institute for Urban Research, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20237 Bercovich, Alicia M. Considerations on fertility among the black population of Brazil. [Consideracoes sobre a fecundidade da populacao negra no Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1989. 61-87 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The evolution of fertility of [the] black population in Brazil is examined, with reference to the period from 1940 to 1984. In this analysis new elements and techniques are incorporated, in order to reconstruct the evolution of general fertility in the period, as well as estimates of marital fertility." Based on studies of socio-occupational categories and educational levels, it is found that marital fertility is sensitive to differences among social groups depending on spouse's ethnic group.
Correspondence: A. M. Bercovich, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, CP 1170, 13100 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20238 Brizuela de Ramirez, Fulvia R. Paraguay: geographic and socioeconomic differentials in fertility, 1970-1979. Summary. [Paraguay: diferenciales geograficos y socioeconomicos de la fecundidad, 1970-1979. Resumen.] Mar 1987. 23 pp. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos: Asuncion, Paraguay; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Spa.
Data from the Paraguayan censuses of 1972 and 1982 and other sources are used to analyze fertility in relation to various differentials. Factors considered include area of residence (rural or urban), region of residence, and grade of urbanization, as well as the education, occupation, and language spoken by the head of household. Results indicate that during the period 1960-1979, total fertility declined from 6.8 to 5.1. Charts are included for 1970-1979 showing fertility in relation to age, occupation, language spoken, and selected geographic variables. (If requesting the document from CELADE, ask for Document No. DOCPAL: 12760.08.).
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:20239 Ford, Kathleen. Duration of residence in the United States and the fertility of U.S. immigrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 1990. 34-68 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes census data on the fertility of U.S. immigrants to study trends in fertility after migration. The results showed that immigrant fertility may rise after arrival in the new country perhaps because immigrants are making up for births or marriages that may have been postponed due to the move. After a period of time, the fertility of immigrants may fall and as immigrants become more assimilated to the new country their fertility may come to be similar to cohorts of longer duration. These relationships were examined in a multivariate context so that variations between groups in socioeconomic status, fertility in the country of origin, age and marital status could be controlled. Relationships were studied for all U.S. immigrants as well as for subgroups defined by country or region of origin. The results indicate that simple measures of immigrant fertility that do not consider duration of residence are likely to be misleading if used to draw conclusions about the fertility impacts of immigration and advisable policy interventions."
Correspondence: K. Ford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20240 Furstenberg, Frank F.; Levine, Judith A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne. The children of teenage mothers: patterns of early childbearing in two generations. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 54-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze the fertility experiences of the offspring of adolescent mothers, using data from a 20-year follow-up study conducted among a sample of teenage mothers in Baltimore, Maryland, beginning in the period 1966-1968. They find that "nearly two-thirds of the daughters of adolescent mothers delayed their first birth until age 19 or later, but those who had a teenage birth may be more vulnerable than their mothers to economic dependence and less able to escape poverty."
Correspondence: F. F. Furstenberg, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20241 Huinink, Johannes; Wagner, Michael. Regional living conditions, migration, and family composition. [Regionale Lebensbedingungen, Migration und Familienbildung.] Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 41, No. 4, Dec 1989. 669-89, 817-8 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"On the basis of life history data of German birth cohorts born 1929-31, 1939-41, and 1949-51 hypotheses about the relation between regional context, migration and family formation are tested. Results of proportional hazard models do not show significant regional effects on first birth rates for stayers when sociostructural variables are controlled for. However, social background and employment status of [women], which are proved to be important factors concerning family formation, reflect differential regional opportunities on the labor market. For men including the indicator of marriage in the model makes the regional effect insignificant." The impact on fertility of rural or urban residence and of rural-urban migration is analyzed.
Correspondence: J. Huinink, Max-Planck-Institut fur Bildungsforschung, Lentzeallee 94, 1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20242 Jayasree, R. Religion, social change and fertility behaviour: a study of Kerala. ISBN 81-7022-252-4. 1989. xiii, 173 pp. Concept Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study was undertaken to identify the influence of major demographic, developmental and socio-cultural determinants of differential fertility among the three religious groups, viz., the Hindus, Christians and Muslims in the Southern-most district of Kerala [India]....The major objectives of the study were to examine the influence of each of the demographic variables, viz., age at marriage, breastfeeding, contraception...birth interval...socio-economic and social change variables and [the] value of children on fertility among the three major religious groups. This study also examined the differential fertility existing between the younger and older cohorts of women." Findings indicate age at marriage and family planning are the most important factors across all religious groups for determining fertility.
Correspondence: Concept Publishing Company, A/15-16 Commercial Block, Mohan Garden, New Delhi 110 059, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20243 King, Miriam L.; Lutz, Wolfgang. Beyond "the average American family": U.S. cohort parity distributions and fertility concentration. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-88-13, Mar 1988. vii, 41 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The authors examine differentials in parity distributions among and within cohorts of U.S. women born between 1901-1905 and 1931-1935, with a focus on the determinants of family size. They attempt to determine what proportion of American women had no children, one child, two children, or three or more; the impact of cultural expectations on fertility; the distribution of the reproduction burden among women; and fertility differentials among social classes of women. Findings reveal reproductive heterogeneity among and within the cohorts, influenced by economic conditions, race, and educational levels. Data are from the 1980 U.S. census.
Correspondence: IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20244 Lee, Bun Song; Edlefsen, Lee E.; Karel, Gordon V.; Garcia, Felipe. The influence of rural-urban migration on fertility of migrants in developing countries: an analysis of Mexican data. Final report. [La influencia de la migracion rural urbana en la fecundidad de los migrantes en paises en desarrollo: analisis de la informacion mexicana. Reporte final.] Aug 1986. 225 pp. Academia Mexicana de Investigacion en Demografia Medica: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Data from the 1979 Mexican National Fertility Survey are used to study fertility patterns of rural-urban migrants and the differences between their fertility and that of rural-rural migrants and nonmigrating rural residents. Results indicate a lower level of fertility among rural-urban migrants than among the other two groups. (To obtain this document from CELADE, ask for Document No. DOCPAL: 13384.00.).
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:20245 Livenais, Patrick; Quilodran, Julieta; Salas, Guadalupe. A comparison between levels of fertility and nuptiality characteristics at the rural level, Mexico, 1970-1976. [Comparacion entre los niveles de la fecundidad y las caracteristicas de la nupcialidad a nivel rural, Mexico, 1970-1976.] Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano Documento de Trabajo, No. DT-87-04, 1987. 60 pp. Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a comparative analysis of data from the 1969 Mexican Comparative Fertility Survey and the 1976 survey taken as part of the World Fertility Survey. Results indicate that in rural and semi-urban localities of Mexico there was a decline in consensual unions in favor of legal marriage; there was a greater tendency toward later marriage in semi-urban than in rural areas; and fertility levels were lower in urban than in rural or semi-urban areas. (If requesting document from CELADE, ask for Document No. DOCPAL:13381.00.).
Correspondence: Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:20246 Lopez, Diego; Bidegain, Gabriel. Spatial and socioeconomic differences in fertility in Venezuela (1967-1981). [Diferencias espaciales y socioeconomicas de la fecundidad en Venezuela (1967-1981).] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 35, 1989. 140 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The authors analyze spatial and socioeconomic differentials in fertility in Venezuela for the period 1967-1981. The first chapter provides a brief overview of fertility trends since 1950. In Chapter 2, the fertility decline in Venezuela is analyzed according to age, degree of urbanization, and region. In Chapter 3 the authors examine the relationships between fertility and educational level, socioeconomic status, and income. Methodology and tabular data are included in appendixes.
Correspondence: Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, Urb. Montalban, La Vega, Apartado 29068, Caracas 1021, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20247 Retherford, Robert D.; Sewell, William H. How intelligence affects fertility. Intelligence, Vol. 13, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1989. 169-85 pp. Norwood, New Jersey. In Eng.
"In an earlier study of the reproductive experience of a large, randomly selected cohort of high school seniors who graduated in 1957 in the State of Wisconsin, we found that IQ had a small but statistically significant negative effect on subsequent family size. This negative effect was considerably larger for women than for men. This paper addresses two questions not answered in the earlier study: (1) Why is the effect of IQ on subsequent family size negative? And (2) why is it considerably more negative for women than for men? Path analysis shows that the effects of IQ on subsequent family size are almost entirely indirect through education....This finding suggests the further hypothesis that, in modern societies, the direction of effect of education on family size may predict the direction of evolution of genotypic IQ."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20248 St. John, Craig; Rowe, David. Adolescent background and fertility norms: implications for racial differences in early childbearing. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1, Mar 1990. 152-62 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"An explanation for the racial difference in early childbearing among college-educated women is proposed that focuses on how differences in adolescent environments lead blacks to develop norms about premarital sex and pregnancy that are conducive to early childbearing. This hypothesis is tested with a convenience sample of [U.S.] college women. The data suggest blacks are more likely than whites to have been exposed as adolescents to early childbearing and that differences in fertility norms result."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987. p. 378).
Correspondence: C. St. John, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20249 Wadhera, Surinder; Sillins, John. Teenage pregnancy in Canada, 1975-1987. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 27-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research note focuses on fertility among Canadian teenagers. We report the numbers of pregnancies and the pregnancy rates per 1,000 15-19-year-old women from 1975-1987. Also included is a discussion of trends, age differentials, pregnancy outcomes and regional variations in rates." Data are from Statistics Canada and from estimates based on official data.
Correspondence: S. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Center for Health Information, Health Status Section, Ottawa K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20250 Ward, Martha C. The politics of adolescent pregnancy: turf and teens in Louisiana. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 147-64 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"I do not intend to present the familiar picture of adolescent childbearing as a social problem in American society, to argue its 'epidemic' status, or to recommend strategies for amelioration or prevention. My goal is to describe and analyze the cultural definitions and responses to the 'problem,' acting as an anthropologist in the role of participant-observer. I want to delineate the differences between ideal and real, to decipher the 'messages' passed, and to explicate the cognitive structures of groups of care-givers or gate-keepers who have staked out their territories in the 'problem'....The culture area under study is Louisiana with its major urban area, New Orleans."
Correspondence: M. C. Ward, University of New Orleans, Department of Anthropology, New Orleans, LA 70148. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20251 Wineberg, Howard. Childbearing after remarriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 1, Feb 1990. 31-49 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using June 1985 [U.S.] Current Population Survey data, this study provides a detailed analysis of childbearing that occurs after the second marriage among women who remarry during their reproductive years. For both whites and blacks, approximately half of the women give birth in the second marriage; most of these births occur within 24 months of remarriage. Proportional-hazards models showed that, among whites, childbearing probabilities varied by sociodemographic differentials, most notably, age at second marriage and parity at second marriage. Sociodemographic differentials had less effect on the childbearing probabilities of blacks. Possible implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, Center for Population Research and Census, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20252 Wright, Paul. An examination of factors influencing black fertility decline in the Mississippi Delta, 1880-1930. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1989. 213-39 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Although the fertility decline in the black population in the Mississippi Delta between the late 1870's and the early 1930's closely paralleled that of the national black population, it rose much more dramatically in the 1940's and 1950's to almost 1880 levels. Given the especially rural and oppressed conditions of blacks there, the initial decline seems puzzling. Low fertility rates in the 1930's reflected a large proportion of childless females. Investigations of changing contraceptive usage and mate exposure suggest both were minor components at most. Several physiological impairments were investigated including dietary deficiencies, malaria, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Evidence suggests STD played the major role, facilitated by nutritional and other health problems."
Correspondence: P. Wright, University of California, Department of Earth Sciences, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

56:20253 Bertrand, Jane T.; Chirhamolekwa, C.; Djunghu, B.; Chibalonza, K.; Mahama, K. Post-partum events and fertility control in Kinshasa, Zaire. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 197-211 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The authors describe postpartum contraceptive use and changes in contraceptive behavior in Zaire. "Contraceptive prevalence surveys from sub-Saharan Africa typically show low rates of method use. The current study of one zone in Kinshasa, Zaire, provides a more detailed view of fertility control in an urban population by examining the relative duration of breast-feeding, amenorrhoea and sexual abstinence during the post-partum period. While motivations to prevent pregnancy remain high until the youngest child is over 24 months, the average duration of abstinence is only 4 months."
Correspondence: J. T. Bertrand, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1501 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20254 Bowen-Simpkins, Peter. Contraception by age group. Practitioner, Vol. 232, No. 1441, Jan 1988. 15-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The needs for contraception and the specific problems which are encountered with it [in the United Kingdom] are addressed for the three arbitrary age groups menarche to 18 years, 18 to 35 years and 35 years to menopause. The woman's circumstances, behaviour, parity and attitudes are all relevant factors."
Correspondence: P. Bowen-Simpkins, Singleton Hospital, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Swansea, Wales. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20255 Cleland, John. Cash payments for family planning in Bangladesh. IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1990. 3-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews results from a compensation payments study commissioned by the government of Bangladesh and the World Bank. "The study is a unique attempt to assess empirically the merits and demerits of financial payments to promote contraceptive adoption. While many of the findings and interpretations apply to the specific context of Bangladesh, the implications for progamme management and for the understanding of reproductive decision making are much wider. The purpose of this article is to report a few key findings of the study and their implications."
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20256 Costa, Sarah H.; Ramos Martin, Ignez; da Silva Freitas, Sylvia R.; Pinto, Cristiane S. Family planning among low-income women in Rio de Janeiro: 1984-1985. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1990. 16-22, 28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The survey described in this article was designed to measure patterns of contraceptive practice in seven slum communities (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro in late 1984 and early 1985. The results will be compared with data gathered in the 1986 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) for the urban area of Rio de Janeiro....The findings from the 1984-1985 survey show relatively high levels of contraceptive use...; nearly one-half of all respondents and three-quarters of those at risk of pregnancy were practicing family planning. What is more, the leading methods used were generally the most highly effective--the pill and female sterilization....However, it is notable that women in the favelas were using very few methods other than the pill and sterilization to regulate their childbearing, probably because access to other methods was limited."
Correspondence: S. H. Costa, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Department of Epidemiology and Quantitative Methods, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20257 DeBuono, Barbara A.; Zinner, Stephen H.; Daamen, Maxim; McCormack, William M. Sexual behavior of college women in 1975, 1986, and 1989. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322, No. 12, Mar 22, 1990. 821-5 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"To compare sexual practices in [U.S.] college women before and after the start of the current epidemics of Chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpesvirus, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, we surveyed 486 college women who consulted gynecologists at a student health service in 1975, 161 in 1986, and 132 in 1989 at the same university....Oral contraceptives were used by 55 percent of the women in 1975, 34 percent in 1986, and 42 percent in 1989; the use of condoms as the usual method of birth control increased....In 1975, only 12 percent reported the regular use of condoms during sexual intercourse, in some cases in conjunction with other methods of contraception, as compared with 21 percent in 1986 and 41 percent in 1989....We conclude that in this population there has been little change in sexual practices in response to new and serious epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases, with the exception of an increase in the use of condoms (which still does not reach 50 percent)."
Correspondence: S. H. Zinner, Roger Williams General Hospital, Department of Medicine, 825 Chalkstone Avenue, Providence, RI 02908. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:20258 Dyrvik, Stale. Birth control as innovation in Stavanger, 1900-1935. [Barnebegrensing som innovasjon i Stavanger 1900-1935.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning/Norwegian Journal of Social Research, Vol. 30, No. 5-6, 1989. 431-45 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"The debate over whether economic or cultural factors predominate in the demographic transition is pursued in this study of a limited population: a few hundred families in the Norwegian town of Stavanger during the first third of the 20th century. The sample consists of 609 families randomly selected from the 1920 and 1930 population censuses. In addition to demographic data, information was collected on occupation, income, residence, and housing conditions." The results suggest that cultural rather than economic factors predominated in the spread of fertility control.
Correspondence: S. Dyrvik, Universitetet i Bergen, Historisk Institutt, 5014 Bergen Universitetet, Norway. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20259 Glor, Jeffrey E.; Severy, Lawrence J. Frequency of intercourse and contraceptive choice. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 231-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effects of frequency of intercourse on perceptions of two of the most widely used contraceptive methods, the pill and condom, were assessed in 128 [U.S.] female college students currently involved in a sexual relationship. Intercourse frequency was found to be strongly associated with knowledge of both methods. People experiencing more frequent sexual intercourse were more favourably disposed towards the pill and less towards the condom than people experiencing intercourse less frequently. Implications of these results are discussed."
Correspondence: J. E. Glor, University of Florida, Department of Psychology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20260 Jain, Anrudh K.; Sarma, D. V. N. Some explanatory factors for statewise differential use of family planning methods in India. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 78-118 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors explain geographic variations among Indian states in family planning program performance. Their analysis indicates that wife's educational status, level of urbanization, and illiteracy rates are important factors explaining interstate variation. Their findings also reveal that family income influences acceptance of specific contraceptive methods, with spacing methods being more popular among higher-income groups.
Correspondence: A. K. Jain, Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20261 Karkal, Malini; Pandey, Divya. Studies on women and population: a critique. LC 89-901944. 1989. 106 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This book has its origins in a report on women's issues and the family planning policy of the Indian government. It includes sections on the demographic situation in India, women and health, and women's issues in population policy. The authors suggest that change in a target-oriented approach of the Indian family planning program had occurred at the expense of women's health needs. "Women were just the targets of family planning programmes without a proper follow-up by the health staff. This affects their health and creates a negative impact on the minds of acceptors. The programmes were never designed from the women's point of view, though directed to them. Poor health of women has serious implications on the quality of population."
Correspondence: Himalaya Publishing House, Ramdoot, Dr. Bhalerao Marg, Girgaon, Bombay 400 004, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20262 Kaufman, Joan; Zhang, Zhirong; Qiao, Xinjian; Zhang, Yang. Family planning policy and practice in China: a study of four rural counties. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 707-29, 790, 792 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In 1987, the authors conducted a micro-level survey of the Chinese family planning program in rural Fujian and Heilongjiang provinces. Using survey data obtained from interviews with government and family planning officials and with a random sample of rural Chinese women, they shed light on variations in local implementation of the one-child policy and address claims of coercion....Examination of the characteristics of sterilization and IUD acceptors suggests that, while guidelines exist on what categories of women should receive sterilizations and IUDs, compliance with these guidelines is not mandatory. Most abortions reported by women in the survey resulted from contraceptive failure, usually with the IUD."
Correspondence: J. Kaufman, Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20263 Keller, Alan; Severyns, Pierre; Khan, Atiqur; Dodd, Nicholas. Toward family planning in the 1990s: a review and assessment. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 127-35, 159 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors summarize the main conclusions of a United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) review and assessment of the constraints, challenges, and opportunities for expanding coverage of family planning services in the 1990s and beyond in developing countries. A number of broad strategies are defined, including "heightening political commitment, generating greater demand for family planning services, increasing the accessibility of services (including involving the private sector more extensively), improving acceptability of services, increasing community participation, and developing adequate personnel and financial bases."
Correspondence: A. Keller, United Nations Population Fund, Africa Division, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20264 Kumar, Sanjiv; Reddaiah, V. P. Lactational amenorrhea in urban poor women and its implications for use of contraception. Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 25, No. 10, Oct 1988. 987-92 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In a cross sectional study, 543 urban poor mothers with the youngest child less than three years of age were interviewed regarding breastfeeding practices, time of return of menstruation after child birth and use of contraception and if they had become pregnant again or not." The data concern Indian women living in an urban settlement colony in the New Delhi region. The results indicate that lactating women should start using contraception by 10.5 months following childbirth.
Correspondence: S. Kumar, University College of Medical Sciences, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20265 Lande, Robert E.; Blackburn, Richard. Pharmacists and family planning. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 37, Nov 1989. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The role of pharmacists in supplying contraceptives around the world is reviewed, with a focus on improving their services in developing countries. The authors examine the sale and distribution of contraceptives, encouraging greater pharmacy involvement in distribution, teaching pharmacists about family planning, and evaluating pharmacist training.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20266 Mastroianni, Luigi; Donaldson, Peter J.; Kane, Thomas T. Developing new contraceptives: obstacles and opportunities. ISBN 0-309-04147-3. LC 89-13654. 1990. ix, 193 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is the work of the Committee on Contraceptive Development, which is jointly staffed and administered by the [U.S.] National Research Council's Committee on Population and the Institute of Medicine's Division of International Health. The report analyzes the process by which contraceptives are developed and approved for use in the United States and suggests ways to change that process to facilitate the development of safer, more effective, more convenient, and more acceptable new contraceptive methods....This report reviews the effects of factors that are widely believed to have slowed the development of new contraceptives, including the impact of the U.S. tort law system, the federal government's regulatory procedures, the organization of research and development activities, the distribution of scientific personnel and financial resources, as well as attitudes toward the control of reproduction."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20267 May, John F.; Mukamanzi, Monique; Vekemans, Marcel. Family planning in Rwanda: status and prospects. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 20-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the status and future prospects of family planning in Rwanda. The use of traditional contraceptive methods is examined and major constraints to modern contraceptive use are discussed, both for potential users (low demand) and family planning delivery systems (poor supply). Current contraceptive prevalence, as well as evidence of potentially higher demand, are analyzed....An attempt is also made to target future contraceptive prevalence rates needed to attain specific levels of fertility. Finally, the prospects for family planning as well as recommendations to increase contraceptive use are reviewed."
Correspondence: J. F. May, The Futures Group, Francophone Programs, 1101 Fourteenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20268 Misra, B. D.; Simmons, Ruth; Ashraf, Ali; Simmons, George B. Reflections on the future of family planning. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 167-88 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the empirical findings from the authors' research concerning India's family planning program. "The primary purpose of this research has been to understand the functioning of the programme at its operational level and to provide an organisational perspective to the determinants of programme performance." Specific problems with organizational processes, client and personnel relations, absence of local decision-making, and a centralized bureaucratic structure are discussed. Organizational and administrative reforms are recommended.
Correspondence: B. D. Misra, Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Powai, Bombay-76, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20269 Mosher, William D.; Pratt, William F. Contraceptive use in the United States, 1973-88. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 182, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 90-1250. Mar 20, 1990. 12 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Changes in contraceptive methods chosen in the United States are described using data from the 1973, 1982, and 1988 National Surveys of Family Growth. The results indicate that by 1988, some 60 percent of women aged 15-44 were current users of contraception and that there had been a switch from oral contraception to sterilization as the primary method of choice. Consideration is given to differences in methods chosen by race, age, and marital status.
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20270 Mosher, William D. Use of family planning services in the United States: 1982 and 1988. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 184, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 90-1250. Apr 11, 1990. 8 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Trends in the use of family planning services in the United States are analyzed using data from the National Survey of Family Growth for 1982 and 1988. Factors analyzed include age, income level, and race.
Correspondence: National Center for Health Statistics, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20271 Oni, Gbolahan A.; McCarthy, James. Contraceptive knowledge and practices in Ilorin, Nigeria: 1983-88. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 104-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes changes in knowledge and use of contraceptives in Ilorin, Nigeria between 1983 and 1988....The report is based on the analysis of two surveys of married women aged 15-35 years who lived in the city of Ilorin. By 1988, knowledge of modern methods of contraception had become virtually universal in Ilorin, even among women with no education and among those living in the poorest areas of the city. Current use of contraceptives had also increased considerably since 1983, reaching prevalence rates of 15 percent among women with primary education, 20 percent among those with secondary education, and 40 percent among those with postsecondary education. Each of these groups of women experienced at least a doubling of contraceptive prevalence between 1983 and 1988."
Correspondence: G. A. Oni, University of Ilorin, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20272 Paul, Charlotte; Skegg, D. C. G.; Smeijers, Judith; Spears, G. F. S. Contraceptive practice in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 101, No. 859, Dec 14, 1988. 809-13 pp. Dunedin, New Zealand. In Eng.
Contraceptive practice in New Zealand is analyzed using data for a population-based sample of 1,000 women aged 25 to 54 from a survey conducted in the early 1980s. "The results showed that sterilisation has become the most common means of family limitation. Overall, 45% of women aged 25 to 54 were in a union where one or the other partner had been sterilised. Vasectomy was the most common method of contraceptive sterilisation. The frequency of hysterectomy contributed to the high rates of sterilisation; 12% of women had had a hysterectomy. Over 80% of New Zealand women had used an oral contraceptive at some time, but only 11% were using the pill at the time of the survey."
Correspondence: C. Paul, University of Otago Medical School, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20273 Pillsbury, Barbara. The politics of family planning: sterilization and human rights in Bangladesh. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 165-96 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The author evaluates worldwide response to Bangladesh's population and family planning program. Charges that the program was coercive and violated human rights are examined, with a focus on the provision of sterilization services. U.S. and international decisions to fund the Bangladesh program are assessed. The author finds that "Bangladeshis who choose to use sterilization do so voluntarily, typically after long and careful consideration, without coercion, and with their informed consent...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20274 Sai, F. T.; Newman, K. Ethical approaches to family planning in Africa. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 324, Dec 1989. 24 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Problems concerning foreign intervention in the development of family planning in Africa are examined. "Until recently in Sub-Saharan Africa, advocacy of family planning by non-Africans was unacceptable and by Africans politically inadvisable. This has changed in the 1980s. The health rationale for family planning is backed by strong evidence, especially in Africa, where infant and maternal mortality and morbidity rates are high. Population growth in many African countries impedes development, which--however impressive--cannot keep up with needs. Earlier attempts to offer family planning aid were often politically inept and endangered the needed partnership between donor and developing countries. Theoretical arguments and abstract demographic projections are less persuasive than carefully designed programs geared to the health and well-being of communities that help plan them."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:20275 Segal, Sheldon J.; Tsui, Amy O.; Rogers, Susan M. Demographic and programmatic consequences of contraceptive innovations. Reproductive Biology, ISBN 0-306-43384-2. LC 89-23083. 1989. xx, 318 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This volume contains papers presented at the Conference on the Demographic and Programmatic Consequences of Contraceptive Innovations, which was sponsored by the Committee on Population and held at the National Academy of Sciences, October 6-7, 1988. The papers consider how new contraceptive methods currently being developed and changes in the use of already available contraceptives could affect contraceptive practice, levels and patterns of abortion use, and the health of women. In addition, several of the papers review the probable consequences of introducing new technology into family planning programs in developing countries."
Correspondence: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20276 Simmons, Ruth; Simmons, George B.; Ashraf, Ali; Misra, B. D. Family planning and development: issues in inter-agency coordination in Uttar Pradesh. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 145-66 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Interagency coordination and organizational aspects of the Indian family planning program are examined. Using data from Uttar Pradesh, the authors describe organizational problems, specifically in the area of client interaction. They conclude that the lack of interagency coordination, the inability of the family welfare workers to assimilate into the local community, inadequate supervision and follow-up, and the payment of high out-of-pocket incentives have hindered the program. They contend that solving these problems is necessary for program success.
Correspondence: R. Simmons, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, 109 South Observatory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20277 Siriboon, Siriwan; Saengtienchai, Chanpen; Knodel, John. Who forgets to take the pill? The Thai experience. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1990. 23-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Rural women with modest or no education are capable of using oral contraceptives correctly and may even do so more often than educated urban women, according to the reports of 1,170 current pill users in the Thai Demographic and Health Survey who were asked whether they had forgotten to take a pill in the last month, and, if so, how many pills they had forgotten. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of pill use and background characteristics revealed that rural women, especially those working in agriculture, are less likely to forget to take a pill than are their urban counterparts. Poorly educated women are also less likely to forget to take a pill than are women with at least a secondary education, although they are more likely to forget to take three or more pills within a cycle when they do forget. Correct pill use is associated with older age, longer duration of method use and desire for no more children. Women who purchase pills from drugstores or from government sources are also more likely to forget to take them than are women who obtain them free from government outlets."
Correspondence: S. Siriboon, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20278 Sri Lanka. Department of Census and Statistics (Colombo, Sri Lanka); Family Health International (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Sri Lanka Contraceptive Survey, 1985: an innovative approach to the study of traditional and modern contraceptive practices. ISBN 955-577-010-7. LC 89-902609. 1987. xi, 130 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The preliminary results of the 1985 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Survey are presented. This survey was designed as a follow-up to the 1982 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. It included a sample of 2,310 currently married women and a subsample of 577 of their husbands. The report is particularly concerned with the identification of obstacles to the effective use of temporary methods of contraception, which are widely used in Sri Lanka.
Correspondence: Family Health International, 1 Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:20279 Wagatsuma, Takashi. Progress of contraceptive methods: oral contraceptives and IUDs. Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica, Vol. 40, No. 8, Aug 1988. 1,067-72 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The current situation concerning the use of oral contraceptives and IUDs in Japan is described. The author notes that traditional methods, primarily the condom, continue to be used by most Japanese. Although use of the IUD was approved in 1974, it is not widely used, and oral contraception remains on an experimental basis. The author recommends government approval of the manufacture, import, and sale of the new generation of low-dosage pills and of medicated IUDs.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

56:20280 Meng, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Kyu Sang. Profile of the Billings Ovulation Method acceptors and use-effectiveness of the method in Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1989. 29-34 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
The use-effectiveness of the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning is evaluated using data on 200 acceptors of the method in the Republic of Korea. "The cumulative life table rate for unplanned pregnancies at the end of 12 months of use was 7...per 100 women, and women ever attending the learning sessions as couples experienced relatively [fewer] unplanned pregnancies compared to those women attending the sessions alone."
Correspondence: K.-H. Meng, Catholic University Medical College, 505 Banpo-dong, Socho-Ku, Seoul 137-701, Republic of Korea. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20281 Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.; Lesko, Samuel M.; Shapiro, Samuel. Oral contraceptive use and the risk of myocardial infarction. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 131, No. 6, Jun 1990. 1,009-16 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relation of oral contraceptive use to the risk of myocardial infarction was assessed in a hospital-based case-control study of [U.S.] women aged 25-64 years conducted from 1985 to 1988 in New England; 910 women with first myocardial infarctions were compared with 1,760 control women....The results suggest that long-term oral contraceptive use, after discontinuation, does not influence the risk of myocardial infarction. There were few current users and the results for current use were inconclusive...."
Correspondence: L. Rosenberg, Boston University, School of Medicine, Slone Epidemiology Unit, 1371 Beacon Street, Brookline, MA 02146. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:20282 Trussell, James; Hatcher, Robert A.; Cates, Willard; Stewart, Felicia H.; Kost, Kathryn. Contraceptive failure in the United States: an update. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 51-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report provides an update of the authors' previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception. Estimates are provided of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct use at every act of intercourse). The difference between these two probabilities provides a measure of how forgiving of imperfect use each method is. These revisions are prompted by recent studies that provide the first estimates of failure during perfect use for periodic abstinence and the cervical cap, by more complete evaluations of implants, and by the appearance of the Copper T 380A and disappearance of other IUDs from the U.S. market. Also provided is a more complete explanation of how the previous estimate of the probability of becoming pregnant while relying solely on chance should be interpreted, and this estimate is revised slightly downward."
For an earlier version of this article, published by Trussell and Kost in 1987, see 53:30367.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20283 Trussell, James; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence. Contraceptive failure of the ovulation method of periodic abstinence. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1990. 5-15, 28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from a World Health Organization clinical trial of the ovulation method of periodic abstinence were used to provide the first correctly calculated measures of method and user efficacy and to determine the characteristics that distinguish women who consciously take risks from those who do not....We strongly suspect that all methods of periodic abstinence will prove to be more unforgiving of imperfect use than will other methods of contraception, because breaking the rules of periodic abstinence involves having unprotected intercourse at times during the menstrual cycle when pregnancy is most likely to occur....We believe that method failure rates for periodic abstinence computed by the standard (but incorrect) procedure are less likely to be underestimated than are those for other methods of contraception. User failure rates for periodic abstinence computed by the standard procedure, in contrast, are grossly underestimated." The WHO study was conducted in centers in New Zealand, India, Ireland, the Philippines, and El Salvador.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20284 Zimmerman, Margot; Haffey, Joan; Crane, Elisabeth; Szumowski, Danusia; Alvarez, Frank; Bhiromrut, Patama; Brache, Vivian; Lubis, Firman; Salah, Maher; Shaaban, Mamdouh; Shawky, Badria; Poernomo Sigit Sidi, Ieda. Assessing the acceptability of NORPLANT implants in four countries: findings from focus group research. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 92-103 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report from a workshop on a study assessing the acceptability of NORPLANT. "In 1986-87, a qualitative research project was conducted in the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Indonesia, and Thailand to expand understanding of the acceptability of NORPLANT contraceptive implants....In each of the four study sites, focus group discussions or in-depth interviews were held with potential acceptors, current NORPLANT users, discontinuers, husbands of women in these three groups, and service providers....The study focused on attitudes, perceptions and experiences of each group regarding NORPLANT implants. Results suggest that factors having an impact on the acceptability of NORPLANT implants fall into three general categories: medical/technical, cultural/religious, and informational/educational. This article discusses each of these categories, including programmatic implications of the findings, and puts forward recommendations for enhancing NORPLANT introduction efforts on the basis of these findings."
Correspondence: M. Zimmerman, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

56:20285 Bertrand, Jane T.; Stover, John; Porter, Robert. Methodologies for evaluating the impact of contraceptive social marketing programs. SOMARC II Practical Guide, No. 5, [1990?]. ii, 15 pp. Futures Group, Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is an overview of the different methodologies currently in use to evaluate the impact of contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs. Issues considered include whether CSM increases the overall level of contraceptive prevalence, its effect on other components of national family planning efforts, and its cost-effectiveness compared with other delivery approaches. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
This is an excerpt from an article by the same authors, published in 1989 and cited in 55:40348.
Correspondence: Futures Group, SOMARC, 1101 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20286 Bruce, Judith. Fundamental elements of the quality of care: a simple framework. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 61-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article argues for attention to a neglected dimension of family planning services--their quality. A framework for assessing quality from the client's perspective is offered, consisting of six parts (choice of methods, information given to clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, follow-up and continuity mechanisms, and the appropriate constellation of services). The literature is reviewed regarding evidence that improvements in these various dimensions of care result in gains at the individual level; an even scarcer body of literature is reviewed for evidence of gains at the level of program efficiency and impact. A concluding section discusses how to make practical use of the framework and distinguishes three vantage points from which to view quality: the structure of the program, the service-giving process itself, and the outcome of care, particularly with respect to individual knowledge, behavior, and satisfaction with services." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. Bruce, Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20287 Centro Paraguayo de Estudios de Poblacion [CEPEP] (Asuncion, Paraguay). Prevalence of use and effect of family planning programs. [Prevalencia de uso y efecto de los programas de planificacion familiar.] [1989?]. 34 pp. Asuncion, Paraguay. In Spa.
This is a report on the results of recent studies carried out in Paraguay by the Centro Paraguayo de Estudios de Poblacion. Information is included on the 1987 family planning survey; a 1987-1988 investigation into methodologies for increasing the coverage of family planning services in the Asuncion area; and a 1987-1989 study on developing a model for increasing family planning services in rural areas of Paraguay.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20288 Dandekar, Kumudini. Impact of contraception on the birth rate of Maharashtra. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 206-46 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the impact of male and female sterilization on the birth rate in Maharashtra, India. The author finds that "for every 3.7 per cent increase in the percentage of sterilised couples in Maharashtra, there is a fall of one point in birth rate. Similarly, for every sterilisation, 1.9 births are averted." She also considers the effect of socioeconomic variables on fertility reduction and concludes that "given financial constraints, achieving reduction in fertility in a poor country like India through welfare measures like female literacy, employment, increased per capita income...is quite difficult and hence a good family planning programme with attractive incentives is perhaps a more feasible proposition."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20289 Dasgupta, S.; Ghosh, B. N. Post insertion fertility behaviour of I.U.C.D. acceptors. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 237-47 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Results are presented from a follow-up study of 504 IUD acceptors at a family planning clinic in Calcutta, India. The study, which began in 1969-1970 and concerned acceptors under 34 years of age who were followed over an 11-year period, showed a decline in fertility rates among IUD acceptors.
Correspondence: S. Dasgupta, R. G. Kar Medical College, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Calcutta 700 004, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20290 David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.; Osler, Mogens; Rasmussen, Niels K.; Jensen, Birgitte. United States and Denmark: different approaches to health care and family planning. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 1-19 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The findings of this study suggest that, compared to the United States, Danish health care policies and family planning services delivery systems are, in the aggregate, more conducive to the promotion of effective contraceptive practice, more instrumental in conveying information to high-risk groups, and more successful in reducing the incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. One of the major reasons for this difference may stem from the positive and nonambivalent climate of public opinion about sexuality in Denmark and the manner in which health care and family planning services are delivered to all segments of the population regardless of age, income, or location of residence."
Correspondence: H. P. David, Transnational Family Research Institute, 8307 Whitman Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20291 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Singh, Susheela. Public-sector savings resulting from expenditures for contraceptive services. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 6-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides current national estimates of the savings that result from public-sector expenditures for family planning services [in the United States]....The new methodology used in this article allows savings to be estimated directly, by applying contraceptive failure rates, distributions of pregnancy outcomes and the public-sector costs to the actual numbers of publicly funded contraceptive users." Findings indicate that savings in fiscal year 1987 represent an average of $4.40 saved for every dollar of public funds spent to provide contraceptive services.
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20292 Gwatkin, Davidson R. Towards an integrated population and development strategy. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 56-77 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
An argument is presented for the integration of family planning and development programs. The author contends "that the cost of family planning programmes is generally so little that they do not compete to any significant degree with any other welfare programmes....The best strategy is to adopt an integrated population and development approach which on the one hand should make cheap contraceptives easily available to all and on the other hand aim to achieve an equity-oriented overall development for the country." A cost-effectiveness study of family planning programs in various geographical regions of India is used to support the author's viewpoints.
Correspondence: D. R. Gwatkin, World Bank, International Health Policy Programme, Room S 6133, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20293 Kumaran, T. Vasantha; Norbert, S. Anthony. Family welfare planning programmes in Tamil Nadu: an appraisal of fertility trends. Geographia Medica, Vol. 19, 1989. 35-54 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
The impact of organized family planning efforts on fertility in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu is evaluated. The authors conclude that fertility declined faster in the period of intensive program activity from 1971 to 1986 than in the previous period from 1956 to 1971. Consideration is also given to the impact of socioeconomic development factors on fertility, including infant mortality, female employment, and female educational status.
Correspondence: T. V. Kumaran, University of Madras, Department of Geography, Chepauk, Triplicane PO, Madras 600 005, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

56:20294 Bongaarts, John. The measurement of wanted fertility. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 10, 1990. 35 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"A review of existing approaches to the estimation of wanted fertility concludes that these measures typically contain an upward bias. An alternative methodology is therefore proposed to estimate wanted fertility from survey questions about women's desire to continue childbearing. This new methodology is then applied to data from 48 surveys in developing countries. The results from this exercise indicate that in these populations on average 26 percent of fertility is unwanted, which is substantially more than estimates derived with other methods. The proportion unwanted apparently varies systematically over the course of the fertility transition: it is lowest at the beginning and end and highest in countries in mid-transition."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20295 Chowdhury, A. I.; Phillips, James F. Analysis of motivation to contraceptive use applying the weighting procedure. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1989. 279-83 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper presents a technique for scaling contraceptive use motivation for the sample population of the Family Planning Health Services Project in Matlab [Bangladesh]....The analysis shows that two factors explain use motivation. Scale 1 is weighted for demographic variables and desire for additional children, while Scale 2 is comprised of education and intentions of contraceptive use. Both scales have a pronounced independent predictive power. We conclude that scaling has improved upon the predictive power of indicators of reproductive motivations."
Correspondence: A. I. Chowdhury, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20296 De Jong, Gordon F.; Robinson, Warren C.; Hoque, M. Nazrul; Cornwell, Gretchen T. Rural electrification and fertility attitudes and behaviour in Bangladesh. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 317-28 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of electrification in Bangladesh villages on attitudes about ideal family size and family planning behaviour....We test a model which states that fertility-related attitudes and behaviour are determined by household-level development and demographic variables (HDV), household electrification variables (HEV), and village-level development variables (VDV)....The model is tested for households in electrified and non-electrified villages."
Correspondence: G. F. De Jong, Pennsylvania State University, Population Issues Research Center, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20297 Deven, Freddy. Are voluntarily childless women that different? [Vrijwillig kinderloze vrouwen: een contrastgroep?] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1989. 111-33 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The author identifies a subgroup of voluntarily childless women and contrasts them with mothers of one or two children as well as with women clearly intending to become a mother....First, the conceptual problems related to delineating accurately a subgroup of voluntarily childless women within the population are dealt with....The subgroups...are compared on a number of sociodemographic and social psychological variables. Differences are found in religiosity, age at marriage, the attitude towards the motherhood mandate and abortion, as well as in some expectations related to not having a/another child." Data are from a 1982-1983 Belgian survey involving Flemish women aged 20-44 years.
Correspondence: F. Deven, Markiesstraat 1, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20298 Fakeye, O.; Babaniyi, O. Reasons for non-use of family planning methods at Ilorin, Nigeria: male opposition and fear of methods. Tropical Doctor, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1989. 114-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Reasons given for nonuse of contraception in Ilorin, Nigeria, are analyzed. The data are for 646 nonpregnant women aged 15-44 from a stratified cluster sample interviewed using a questionnaire. "Almost one-third (31.4%) of respondents gave male opposition to family planning as the reason for current non-use. Another 13.3% expressed fear of methods, 6.3% did not want to use contraception until the first child was born, and 13.6% until the desired number of children were born." Consideration is also given to factors such as age, educational status, religion, residence, and accessibility to contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: O. Fakeye, University of Ilorin, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ilorin, Nigeria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20299 Klein, Thomas. Postmaterialism and fertility. [Postmaterialismus und generatives Verhalten.] Zeitschrift fur Soziologie, Vol. 19, No. 1, Feb 1990. 57-64 pp. Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Though changes in values have been analysed [for] two decades, their impact on actual behaviour has almost been neglected. This especially is the case with values concerning marriage and the family which [have been] responsible for behavioural changes. Here, the impact of emerging postmaterialistic values on fertility are analysed, deriving from the assumption that the effect of children on the general life-style is large enough to let fertility behaviour be influenced by general value orientations. The main result is that the emergence of postmaterialism has led to postponement of parenthood whereas the number of children is left untouched."
Correspondence: T. Klein, Universitat Karlsruhe, Institut fur Soziologie, Kollegium am Schloss, Bau 2, Postfach 6380, D-7500 Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20300 Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Marlena. Women's opinion concerning methods of birth control. [Metody regulacji urodzen w opinii kobiet.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 9, Sep 1989. 5-7 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Polish women's attitudes toward methods of birth control are compared using data from a survey undertaken in 1985 among newly married women and women married for at least 12 years. The results show that of the women who have been married longer, more are opposed to all methods of family planning, although fewer women in this group approve of natural family planning methods only.
Correspondence: M. Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Departament Badan Spolecznych i Demograficznych, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00 925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20301 Leone, Catherine L. The politics of parenthood: fairness, freedom, and responsibility in American reproductive choices. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 113-26 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter shows that, in a new context created by changes in the status of women, individualism and its associated values have become integral elements of the choices [U.S.] women make to have or not to have children. I have found that three such values, fairness, freedom, and responsibility, are crucial in the reasoning surrounding women's reproductive decision making. Further, examination of how these values are acted out clarifies the connections between reproductive decisions at the individual level and fertility trends at the national level....This analysis is based on interviews with 31 women in Washington State conducted between 1980 and 1983."
Correspondence: C. L. Leone, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300 A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20302 Radloff, Scott R.; Seligman, Barbara H.; Seltzer, Judith R.; Cornelius, Richard M. Reproductive risks and intentions in six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 136-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from six Sub-Saharan countries found that reproductive risk factors (age, parity and interval since last birth) were highly correlated with women's intentions to limit births. Women who had had four or more live births were as much as 79 percent more likely than lower parity women to express a desire to have no more children. Women who were educated, those who were 35 or older, those who had some awareness of family planning methods and those who had a living male child were also more likely to want to limit their births." Comparisons are made among Zimbabwe, Botswana, Burundi, Liberia, Mali, and Senegal.
Correspondence: S. R. Radloff, U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Population, Policy Development Division, Washington, D.C. 20523. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20303 Retherford, Robert D.; Thapa, Shyam; De Silva, Victor. Strength of fertility motivation: its effects on contraceptive use in rural Sri Lanka. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1989. 21-44 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the effect of strength of fertility motivation on contraceptive use among rural Sinhalese Sri Lankan couples. Measures of strength of motivation are derived from questions on how strongly respondents want or do not want another child. Among those who want no more children, strength of motivation against having more children makes little difference in contraceptive use rates, which are quite high. Among those who want more children, however, strength of motivation makes a substantial difference in use rates. Strength of motivation has a larger effect on use of traditional methods than on use of modern methods. Even among women who want another child very strongly, contraceptive use rates are moderately high, indicating widespread use of contraception for birth spacing."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20304 Sakondhavat, Chuanchom; Kanato, Manop; Leungtongkum, Pichet; Kuchaisit, Chusri. KAP study on sex, reproduction and contraception in Thai teenagers. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Vol. 71, No. 12, Dec 1988. 649-53 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
Results of a KAP study carried out in 1985-1986 and covering 502 Thai students are presented. The primary focus is on the impact of sex education on adolescent behavior, including contraception, unwanted pregnancy, and induced abortion.
Correspondence: C. Sakondhavat, Khon Kaen University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Family Planning Units, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20305 Shuaib, M.; Islam, M. Ataharul. Odds ratio analysis of factors affecting the use of contraception. Rural Demography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1987. 79-87 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author attempts to identify some of the socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting contraceptive behavior in Bangladesh. The odds ratio method of estimation is applied to data from a 1985 survey. Findings indicate that home visits by family planning personnel have a significant impact on the acceptance and use of contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: M. Shuaib, University of Dhaka, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, Ramna, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20306 Vlassoff, Carol. The value of sons in an Indian village: how widows see it. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 5-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In a micro-study in rural India the old-age security motive for high fertility among widows, who are generally considered to be a particularly vulnerable group was investigated. Thirty of the 123 village widows, representing different economic situations and living arrangements, were selected for in-depth interviews. Comparisons were made between widows who were primary breadwinners and had dependent sons living with them, widows who lived with earning sons but were not totally dependent on them; and widows who resided with and were economically dependent on their sons, as well as those who lived with their daughters. Economic factors alone did not account for the pervasive son-preference in the community: sons has a deeper cultural significance which persisted even when widows were financially well-off or independent. It is argued that the emphasis given to economic explanations in previous fertility research has masked the importance of cultural factors which still remain largely unexplored."
Correspondence: C. Vlassoff, World Health Organization, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20307 Warren, Charles W.; Hiyari, Fahad; Wingo, Phyllis A.; Abdel-Aziz, Abdallah M.; Morris, Leo. Fertility and family planning in Jordan: results from the 1985 Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 33-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The 1985 Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey (JHFS) was designed to assess husbands' attitudes and behavior toward fertility and family planning....The results from the 1985 JHFS point to the usefulness of collecting fertility and family planning information from husbands. These findings showed that nearly 40 percent of the husbands do not believe in practicing contraception, and more than 50 percent of the husbands report that family size should be 'up to God.'"
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, Centers for Chronic Disease Control, Division of Reproductive Health, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

56:20308 Atrash, Hani K.; Lawson, Herschel W.; Smith, Jack C. Legal abortion in the U.S.: trends and mortality. Contemporary OB/GYN, Vol. 35, No. 2, Feb 1990. 58-69 pp. Oradell, New Jersey. In Eng.
The authors examine trends in induced abortion in the United States since 1969 using data collected by the Centers for Disease Control. They find that "women getting abortions are older and more likely to be single. Curettage is the leading method and more than half are done before 8 weeks. Mortality, which is way down, is more likely to be caused by anesthesia rather than infection or embolism....For 1972 through 1985, the risk of death due to abortion complications was higher among older than among younger age groups. The risk was also higher among blacks and other minorities, women obtaining abortions at a later gestational age, and women having abortions performed by instillation, hysterectomy, or hysterotomy."
Correspondence: H. K. Atrash, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Pregnancy and Infant Health Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20309 Avdeev, A. A. Abortion and fertility. [Aborty i rozhdaemost'.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 3, 1989. 54-63 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in induced abortion in the USSR are reviewed, with particular reference to the impact on fertility. The author notes that because of the low level of contraceptive practice, abortion is the primary method used to control fertility. A historical review of abortion policy in the USSR is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20310 Barroso, Carmen. On research concerning abortion in Latin America and studies on women. [As pesquisas sobre o aborto na America Latina e os estudos de mulher.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1989. 35-60 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Research on abortion is important for the Latin American women's movements. Rates of illegal abortion seem quite high. Cuba is the only country where abortion is legal. Policies on abortion are closely related to attitudes towards sexuality and women. Contraception has, in addition to health and economic costs, social and psychological costs, therefore unwanted pregnancies are the normal results of behavior that follows a certain rationality. Consequences of abortion depend on a woman's integration in her social network. The Latin American scene has two main differences from industrialized countries: mass poverty and the influence of the Catholic Church. Conditions of poverty affect less the motivation for abortion and more the conditions of its use."
Correspondence: C. Barroso, Fundacao Carlos Chagas, CP 11478, Avenue Prof. Francisco Morato 1565, 05513 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20311 Henshaw, Stanley K. Induced abortion: a world review, 1990. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 76-89 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Worldwide trends in induced abortion up to 1990 are discussed. The author notes that "in 1987, an estimated 26 to 31 million legal abortions and 10 to 22 million clandestine abortions were performed worldwide. Legal abortion rates ranged from a high of at least 112 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in the Soviet Union to a low of five per 1,000 in the Netherlands....In most Western European and English-speaking countries, about half of abortions are obtained by young, unmarried women seeking to delay a first birth, while in Eastern Europe and the developing countries, abortion is most common among married women with two or more children....National health insurance covers abortions needed to preserve the health of a pregnant woman in all developed countries except the United States, where Medicaid and federal insurance programs do not cover abortion unless the woman's life is in danger."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20312 Hern, Warren M. The politics of choice: abortion as insurrection. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 127-45 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the tactics used by antiabortion radicals to harass and interfere with abortion service providers in the United States, based on his own experiences as an abortion provider for the past 15 years. The effect on national policy of President Reagan's opposition to abortion is examined. Reasons for the existence of the abortion controversy are considered, with a focus on fertility limitation throughout history, attitudes toward pregnancy, and political implications.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20313 Infante-Castaneda, Claudia; Cobos-Pons, Yolanda. Induced abortion in figures: analysis of the dissemination of statistics in the press. [El aborto inducido in cifras: analisis de la difusion de las estadisticas en la prensa.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 385-93 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors evaluate the data and other information contained in 771 articles published by the Mexican press between 1974 and 1982 on induced abortion in Mexico. "The results show a great inconsistency in the statistics on the numbers of abortions and the number of maternal deaths due to this cause. On the other hand, the information published on the characteristics of the women that have had an abortion in Mexico was found to be congruent. These elements point to the fact that the health sector has to produce and publish reliable statistics on abortion."
Correspondence: C. Infante-Castaneda, Fco. de P. Miranda 177-3o, Unidad Plateros, 01480 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20314 Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Tanska, Irena. Legally induced abortions in 1987. [Legalt provokerede aborter 1987.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 150, No. 40, Oct 3, 1988. 2,406-7 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
Official Danish statistics concerning legaly induced abortions in Denmark are presented. Age-specific abortion data are given by residence for 1986 and 1987, and data by residence for 1987 are presented by type of hospital facility used for the abortion.
Correspondence: L. B. Knudsen, Sundhedsstyrelsen, Medicinalstatistisk Afdeling, St. Kongensgade 1, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20315 Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.; Rothman, Stanley. Abortion and social change in America. Society, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jan-Feb 1990. 8-15 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in the United States are examined in the context of ideology and social change, "particularly in reference to the rise of new occupational groups that have grown in influence and power in our advanced industrial society. These groups are made up of secular intellectuals, the media, and other members of what some social critics refer to as 'the new class.' Using this perspective, we anticipate a continued shift in support toward the pro-choice position, despite short-term, heated debate over abortion policy."
Correspondence: R. Lerner, Smith College, Center for the Study of Social and Political Change, Northampton, MA 01063. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20316 Llovet, Juan J.; Ramos, Silvina. The practice of abortion among women in the poorer areas of Buenos Aires. [La practica del aborto en las mujeres de sectores populares de Buenos Aires.] Documento CEDES, No. 4, 1988. 45 pp. Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad [CEDES]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
These are the results of a survey on induced abortion, carried out between 1983 and 1985 in some of the poorer parts of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The focus of the study was on the factors that affected fertility choices made by 121 women who had had two or three previous pregnancies. The authors conclude that illegal abortion is a major health problem in Argentina and a primary cause of maternal mortality.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad, Pueyrredon 510, Piso 7, 1032 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20317 Smolinski, Zbigniew. Demographic aspects of abortion. [Demograficzne aspekty przerywania ciazy.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 9, Sep 1989. 7-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The author discusses the need to emphasize the use of contraceptive methods in Poland, where women's desired family size is 2.0 to 2.2, and this number is realized by the age of 30-35. It is asserted that a higher cultural level, which includes a more sophisticated attitude toward sex, would eliminate the need to pass antiabortion legislation.
Correspondence: Z. Smolinski, Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Departament Badan Spolecznych i Demograficznych, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00 925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20318 Teutsch, Georges; Philibert, Daniel. RU 486. [Ulmann, Andre.] Scientific American, Vol. 262, No. 6, Jun 1990. 42-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The development of RU 486 is described. "This controversial drug is now used widely in France to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Yet the compound was not invented for that purpose and actually has many possible applications."
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

56:20319 Becerra, Jose E.; Smith, Jack C. Breastfeeding patterns in Puerto Rico. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 80, No. 6, Jun 1990. 694-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We used data from the 1982 Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment to describe the trend in the incidence of breastfeeding in Puerto Rico over time and to ascertain some of its determinants. From 1946 through 1982, 5,884 infants were born among this statistically representative sample of reproductive-aged women. The proportion of infants who had ever been breastfed was 59 percent for births before 1960..., dropped to 25 percent for infants born from 1970 to 1974..., and rose to 38 percent for births delivered from 1980 to 1982....Prior breastfeeding experience was an important determinant of breastfeeding a newborn....The 38 percent of infants who were breastfed in Puerto Rico in the early 1980s is below the 74 percent to 97 percent reported in Latin America and below the 54 percent reported in the United States for the same period."
Correspondence: J. E. Becerra, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health (C06), Pregnancy Epidemiology Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20320 Benedictow, Ole J. Breast feeding and sexual intercourse in medieval Norway. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 245-68 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author critically analyzes a paper by Solvi Sogner concerning the existence of a taboo on sexual intercourse during lactation in medieval Norway. A reply by Sogner (pp. 265-8) and a further comment by Benedictow (p. 268) are also included.
For the paper by Sogner, published in 1986, see 53:20406.
Correspondence: O. J. Benedictow, University of Oslo, Department of History, Postboks 1008, Blindern N-0315 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20321 Goldman, Noreen; Montgomery, Mark. Fecundability and husband's age. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1989. 146-66 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The effect of husband's age on the probability of conception is evaluated from World Fertility Survey data in five developing countries: the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Kenya, the Sudan, and Syria. Proportional hazards models, which include wife's age, husband's age, marriage duration, union type, and post-partum exposure as covariates, are used to describe the monthly conception rate for second and higher-order birth intervals in which no contraception was used. With the exception of Syria, the resulting models indicate that the effects of male age are generally small in relation to the influences of marital duration and the age of the woman."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20322 Jones, Robert E. The effect of initiation of child supplementation on resumption of post-partum menstruation. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 173-89 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effects of initiation of solid and liquid supplementation on resumption of post-partum menstruation are examined, using data from a 2-year prospective study of birth interval dynamics from central Java, Indonesia....Multivariate hazard model analysis was used to assess the significance of supplementation, various breast-feeding covariates, and age and parity of the dependent variable."
Correspondence: R. E. Jones, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

56:20323 Cooksey, Elizabeth C. Factors in the resolution of adolescent premarital pregnancies. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 207-18 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article examines the effect of family background factors on first premarital pregnancy resolution for adolescents in the United States. Teenage fertility constitutes a sizable percentage of total fertility, and each outcome has a potentially different type of family structure associated with it. Not only are there marked racial/ethnic differences in the ways such pregnancies are resolved, but the effects of family structure, age at first conception, family size, and working mother also differ between blacks, whites, and Hispanics. Parental education is a highly significant predictor for all groups: the higher the level of education, the less likely the pregnancy will be carried to term."
Correspondence: E. C. Cooksey, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, CB 8120, University Square, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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