Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

56:20107 Behrman, Jere R.; Sickles, Robin C.; Taubman, Paul. Age-specific death rates with tobacco smoking and occupational activity: sensitivity to sample length, functional form, and unobserved frailty. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 267-84 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors investigate possible problems found in studies of mortality. "In this article, we estimate accelerated time-to-failure and proportional-hazard functions with about 100,000 members of the Dorn sample [a survey of U.S. veterans], finding greater hazards associated with smoking and some dependence on occupational variables that measure risk and physical activity. We answer three questions: (1) How sensitive are the estimates to sample length, using monthly data for the periods 1954-1969 and 1954-1980?...(2) How sensitive are the estimates to alternative functions for the hazard?...(3) How sensitive are the estimates to alternative controls for unobserved frailty?"
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 388).
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20108 Brandstrom, Anders; Brostrom, Goran. Life-histories for nineteenth-century Swedish hospital patients: chances of survival. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1989. 195-209 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The life histories of nineteenth-century Swedish hospital patients challenge the notion that hospitals were mainly occupied with the 'industrious poor,' and gives some support to the idea that hospitals were 'death-traps.' The latter idea is reviewed through an examination of the treatment of various diseases and of the life expectancies after dismissal in comparison with the life expectancies of people who never had to enter a hospital. The study underlines the importance of looking closely at the diseases patients suffered when we undertake to evaluate the role of nineteenth-century hospitals."
Correspondence: B. Brandstrom, Umea University, Department of Historical Demography, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20109 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Bos, Eduard; Stephens, Patience W.; Vu, My T. Projectiong mortality for all countries. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 337, Dec 1989. 30 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
New procedures to be used by the World Bank for projecting mortality in individual countries are outlined. "These procedures involve calculating rates of change for and separately projecting male and female life expectancy and infant mortality and then selecting appropriate model life tables....Changes from previous mortality projections resulting from these new procedures are mostly modest. Projected life expectancies generally stay within a few percentage points of older projections. Infant mortality and crude death rates vary somewhat more. Projected population is affected only slightly; a 2 percent change is close to the maximum effect."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:20110 Calot, Gerard; Caselli, Graziella. Mortality in China according to the census of 1982: an analysis by sex and age at national and provincial levels. [La mortalite en Chine d'apres le recensement de 1982: analyse selon le sexe et l'age au niveau national et provincial.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1989. 841-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The Chinese Census taken on July 1st, 1982, which included a question on the number of deaths in 1981, makes it possible to establish life tables of satisfactory quality, at national and provincial levels. Life expectancy at birth reaches 68.0 years (66.5 and 69.4 years respectively for males and females) for total China, [with] urban regions--where...excess male mortality is larger--showing a greater longevity than rural areas. Differences between provinces in life expectancy at birth are essentially due to differences in infant and juvenile mortality. The very high mortality that prevailed in 1958-61 is assessed at the national level."
Correspondence: G. Calot, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20111 Calot, Gerard; Caselli, Graziella. Mortality in China according to the 1982 census. [La mortalite en Chine d'apres le recensement de 1982.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 16, Jun 1988. 70; 110 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This study, which is in two parts, is concerned with recent trends in mortality in China. In the first volume, three methods are presented for developing life tables for China and its provinces using data from the 1982 census. The authors also analyze mortality differentials by age, sex, and province. The results suggest that life expectancy in China in 1981 was about 68, or 66.5 for males and 69.4 for females. Regional differences indicate higher life expectancies in the eastern provinces, especially the more highly urbanized and industrialized coastal provinces. Attention is given to the causes of excess female mortality at ages one to four and to the demographic impact of such past events as the Great Leap Forward around 1960. The second volume presents life tables for China and 28 of its provinces.
This is an expanded version of the article published by Calot and Caselli in 1989, which is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20112 Dzienio, Kazimierz; Drzewieniecka, Krystyna. Mortality changes in Poland. [Zmiany umieralnosci ludnosci Polski.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jul 1989. 13-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The authors analyze the increase in mortality rates that has been observed since the 1970s in Poland, especially among men in the 20-39 age group. The causes of this phenomenon are considered, particularly the illnessess associated with developed countries. Mortality and morbidity differentials by administrative regions are explored.
Correspondence: K. Dzienio, Centralny Urzad Planowania, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20113 Ekonomov, A. L.; Yarygin, V. N. The age-related dynamics of mortality and the Gompertz-Makeham law. [Vozrastnaya dinamika smertnosti i zakon Gompertsa-Meikema.] Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii, Vol. 50, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 236-43 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Data concerning the white population of the 48 contiguous U.S. states for the period 1969-1971 are used to demonstrate that "the real age dynamics of human mortality may differ significantly both from the Gompertz law and from the Gompertz-Makeham law."
Correspondence: A. L. Ekonomov, Second Moscow Medical Institute, Moscow, USSR. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20114 Gomez, Luis; Ruiz Salguero, Magda. Surveys on the production of information for the analysis of mortality (the Colombian experience). [Las encuestas en la produccion de informacion para el analisis de la mortalidad (la experiencia colombiana).] Boletin de Estadistica, No. 425, Aug 1988. 189-219 pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
The various indirect methods that have been developed by Brass and others for the analysis of mortality in countries with deficient vital statistics are described. The authors discuss how these and other methods have been used to study mortality in Colombia since 1960 using data from a number of surveys.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

56:20115 Haines, Michael R. The mortality decline and working conditions. [Declin de la mortalite et conditions de travail.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 139-56 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between the decline in mortality in the developed world and working conditions is examined. The author notes that much of the improvement in mortality that has occurred has been made possible "from the increased productivity resulting from industrialization and modern economic growth, but these processes, along with accompanying urbanization, have also brought with them occupational and environmental hazards. Such hazards have often retarded the reduction in death rates for both workers and their families and have also created new differentials in death rates. Mortality statistics by age, sex, cause, and occupation (or social class), as well as a variety of sources dealing with occupational medicine and environment, can assist in the understanding of the interaction of the conditions of work and mortality."
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Wayne State University, Department of Economics, Detroit, MI 48202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20116 Kabir, M.; Uddin, M. Mosleh. Mortality level in Bangladesh: is it declining? Asian Profile, Vol. 17, No. 1, Feb 1989. 75-90 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
The authors examine mortality trends in Bangladesh, with an emphasis on infant and child mortality. Age-specific death rates by sex and age for the years 1964, 1974, and 1977 are presented. Differences in rural and urban child mortality levels are attributed to variations in socioeconomic characteristics such as education, literacy, income, and housing conditions, as well as the availability of and access to health services. Data are from national surveys.
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Jahangirnager University, Department of Statistics, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:20117 Perrenoud, Alfred. The reduction of crises and mortality decline. [Attenuation des crises et declin de la mortalite.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 13-29 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Factors affecting the decline of mortality that occurred in Europe before the time of the Pasteurs are examined. The hypothesis is developed that the decline reflects a change in general mortality rather than a decline in crisis mortality. This change was not linear and occurred in stages that are comparable among countries. In the absence of identifiable socioeconomic factors, the author associates climatic changes (specifically, cooling trends) with the reduction in mortality.
Correspondence: A. Perrenoud, 9 rue Virginio Malnati, 1217 Meyrin-Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20118 Rao, Madhusudana N. On "Weather and human mortality" by Kalkstein and Davis. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 80, No. 2, Jun 1990. 295-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by L. S. Kalkstein and R. E. Davis concerning the effects of weather on human mortality. He contends that they have failed to take note of many related earlier studies. A reply by Kalkstein and Davis is included (pp. 297-9).
For the article by Kalkstein and Davis, published in 1989, see 55:20133.
Correspondence: M. N. Rao, Bridgewater State College, Department of Earth Sciences and Geography, Bridgewater, MA 02325. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20119 Rodriguez Grajera, Alfonso. The mortality crisis in the High Extremadura during the seventeenth century. [Las crisis de mortalidad en la Alta Extremadura durante el siglo XVII.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 37-54 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes the mortality crisis that occurred in the High Extremadura region of Spain in the seventeenth century. Aspects considered include the extent of deaths due to the plague and other causes, territorial limits, intensity, and impact on population development. The relative effects of trends in fertility, migration, and unemployment are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20120 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality in developed countries. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 39, No. 13, Apr 6, 1990. 205-9 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report compares mortality data for the latest year available (ranging from 1984 through 1987) among 33 North American, European, and other selected developed countries....These countries have a combined population of approximately 1.2 billion, or one quarter of the estimated world total in 1986. Death rates are standardized for age but not for race/ethnicity or sex."
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20121 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Mortality patterns--United States, 1987. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 39, No. 12, Mar 30, 1990. 193-201 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
U.S. mortality trends in 1987 are analyzed using data from death certificates compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. Information is provided on main causes of death by sex and race and on notifiable diseases.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20122 Vallin, Jacques. Mortality in Europe from 1720 to 1914: long-term trends and changes in sex and age structure. [La mortalite en Europe de 1720 a 1914: tendances a long terme et changements de structure par sexe et par age.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 31-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Long-term trends in mortality from 1720 to 1914 are examined for Scandinavia, England, France, and Italy. The author examines mortality differentials in England and in France and considers the data reconstruction methods and their possible effects on these differences. Trends and differences in age- and sex-specific mortality among the countries concerned are also described.
Correspondence: J. Vallin, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

56:20123 Boklage, Charles E. Survival probability of human conceptions from fertilization to term. International Journal of Fertility, Vol. 35, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 75-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author presents a model to estimate human conceptus survival probability. "After simple adjustments for varying methods, existing data show that at least 73% of natural single conceptions have no real chance of surviving 6 weeks of gestation. Of the remainder, about 90% will survive to term....Multiple pregnancies may constitute more than 12% of all natural conceptions, of which number about 2% survive to term as twins and about 12% result in single births. In all of these situations, simple equations for exponential decay in a mixture of two populations can accurately describe the distribution of those deaths in time." Data are from published sources.
Correspondence: C. E. Boklage, East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Genetics Program, Greenville, NC 27858-4354. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20124 Casterline, John B. Maternal age, gravidity, and pregnancy spacing effects on spontaneous fetal mortality. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1989. 186-212 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Differentials in the probability of pregnancy loss are examined using pregnancy history data from eight WFS surveys in developing countries. Multiple logistic regression equations are estimated. The probability of loss varies substantially over the reproductive career. Both higher-order pregnancies and those conceived at older ages are more likely to terminate in loss. Maternal age differentials are more pronounced for lower-order pregnancies. First and second pregnancies conceived over age thirty suffer especially high levels of loss. Pregnancies conceived relatively soon after the termination of the previous pregnancy are more likely to be lost, as are pregnancies conceived after long intervals. Risk of loss is higher for women previously experiencing loss, and the effect persists beyond the pregnancy following the loss."
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20125 Corman, Hope; Grossman, Michael; Joyce, Theodore J. Demographic analysis of birthweight-specific neonatal mortality. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 2804, Dec 1988. 24 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper explores the determinants of birthweight-specific neonatal mortality rates across states in the U.S. in 1980. We are able to explore the interactions between the determinants and birthweight because of the new data available through the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS). The NIMS links birth and death certificates for each state, resulting in a data base with race-specific neonatal mortality rates by birthweight, and other characteristics. Using a reduced-form model, we find abortion and neonatal intensive care availability to be the most important determinants of overall neonatal mortality....Our results suggest that neonatal mortality rates could be lowered by policies that reduce the inequality in these health resources across states."
Correspondence: NBER, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20126 Pinnelli, Antonella; Cislaghi, Cesare; Cataldi, Gianfranco. A provincial analysis of fetal and infant mortality in Italy: 1974-1986. [Un'analisi provinciale della mortalita feto-infantile in Italia: 1974-1986.] Rivista Italiana di Economia, Demografia e Statistica, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 79-105 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The authors analyze changes in fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality in Italy between 1974 and 1986. Fetal death and mortality during and after the first week are examined by province and region.
Correspondence: A. Pinnelli, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 0016 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20127 Somchiwong, Malinee. Trends in perinatal mortality attributed to congenital malformations in England and Wales during 1974-81: a study of the variations among regional health authority areas. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 159-72 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study was carried out to analyse trends in perinatal mortality attributed to congenital malformations in England and Wales during the 8 years 1974-81 and to identify some of the possible causes of the trends." Data are from birth and death registers and reveal "regional variations in the reduction in the perinatal mortality rates attributed to congenital malformations, with considerably larger percentage declines in most of the regions with the highest mortality rates."
Correspondence: M. Somchiwong, Khon Kaen University, Faculty of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics and Demography, 123 Friendship Highway, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

56:20128 Al-Khorazaty, Nabil. Levels and trends of infant and childhood mortality in selected Arab countries. In: Infant and Childhood Mortality in Western Asia. Pub. Order No. E/ESCWA/SD/89/10. Dec 1989. 3-89 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA], Social Development, Population and Human Settlements Division: Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
Patterns and trends of infant mortality in the Arab countries of Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates are examined. "Vital registration statistics [from 1955 to the present] are evaluated in relation to completeness of infant and childhood mortality data. The purpose of this study is thus twofold: (1) to review the scattered and fragmented literature on estimates of infant and childhood mortality for the six Arab countries; and (2) to derive overlapping mortality measures, calculated using several data sources, in order to provide a basis for assessing the relative reliability of these sources and of vital registration systems."
Correspondence: N. Al-Khorazaty, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20129 Beenstock, Michael; Sturdy, Patricia. The determinants of infant mortality in regional India. World Development, Vol. 18, No. 3, Mar 1990. 443-53 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Factor analysis is used to estimate a model in which infant mortality across Indian states is explained by socioeconomic variables. Twelve such variables are condensed into four factors which are statistically significant. The resulting model implies that all but one of these variables affect infant mortality in the way one would normally expect. We also test for sex bias in infant mortality as well as regional biases. The statistical performance of linear and logistical models is compared."
Correspondence: M. Beenstock, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20130 Bourne, D. E.; Rip, M. R.; Woods, D. L. The spatial variation of mortality among children under 5 years of age in South Africa. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 75, No. 12, Jun 17, 1989. 565-70 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
Child mortality rates for ages one to four and under five are presented for the statistical regions of South Africa for the white and Coloured populations. The results show that there are significant geographical differences in child mortality and that mortality rates are particularly high in rural areas.
Correspondence: D. E. Bourne, University of Cape Town, Department of Community Health, Private Bag, Rondesboch 7700, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20131 Chackiel, Juan; Gough, Hew. Errors and biases in procedures for estimation of infant mortality from survival of the last-born child. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 113-27 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Errors and biases in infant mortality estimation procedures based on the survival of the last-born child are examined. Specifically, two methods are analyzed: the first utilizing data on the survival of the last-born child from censuses and surveys, and the second using data concerning the survival of the preceding birth collected from health and maternity clinics. The methods are tested using data from the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey of the Dominican Republic.
Correspondence: J. Chackiel, CELADE, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20132 Collins, James W.; David, Richard J. The differential effect of traditional risk factors on infant birthweight among blacks and whites in Chicago. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 80, No. 6, Jun 1990. 679-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Despite the dramatic improvements in perinatal care during the past 30 years, Black infants are twice as likely as White infants to die during their first month of life. This is primarily related to the high incidence of low birthweight (<2500 grams) infants among Black mothers." In this study, the authors analyze "103,072 White and Black births in Chicago from the 1982 and 1983 Illinois vital records, using 1980 median family income of mother's census tract as an ecologic variable. Thirty-one percent of Blacks and 4 percent of Whites resided in census tracts with median family incomes [less than or equal to] $10,000/year. Only 2 percent of Black mothers, compared to 16 percent of White mothers, lived in areas where the median family income was greater than $25,000/year....Independent of residential area, low-risk Whites had half the occurrence of LBW [low birth weight] infants as Blacks. We conclude that the extremes of residential environments show dramatic racial disparity in prevalence, yet the few low-risk Blacks still do less well than low-risk Whites. Traditional risk factors do not completely explain racial differences in neonatal outcome."
Correspondence: J. W. Collins, Northwestern University, Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20133 Creighton-Zollar, Ann. Infant mortality by socioeconomic status and race in Richmond, Virginia 1979-1981: a research note. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1990. 133-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study an ecological approach, in which the census tract of the mother's usual residence is the basic unit of analysis, is used to study the general association between infant mortality and socioeconomic status for the total white and black population of Richmond, Virginia 1979-1981. The analysis reveals that for the total black and white populations of the city, the traditional, inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and infant mortality exists. For the city's black population, on the other hand, there does not appear to be any relationship between the economic or family life characteristics of census tract populations and their level of infant mortality."
Correspondence: A. Creighton-Zollar, Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Afro-American Studies Program, Box 2040, Richmond, VA 23284. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20134 Fernandez Castilla, Regelio E. The effects of maternal age, birth order and birth spacing on indirect estimation of child mortality. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 65-86 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines indirect estimation techniques that use data on fertility, maternal age, and birth intervals to estimate child mortality. The primary example uses data for Peru, with some limited data provided for Bolivia, Guatemala, and Brazil.
Correspondence: R. E. Fernandez Castilla, CEDEPLAR, Rua Curitiba 832, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20135 Hill, Allan G.; David, Patricia H. Measuring childhood mortality in the third world: neglected sources and novel approaches. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 33-45 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors review two new approaches to measuring childhood mortality in developing countries. "One of them requires the more imaginative use of data collected by the health services in order to measure recent childhood mortality....An alternative approach relies more heavily on the identification of significant trends in the 'process' indicators or 'proximate determinants' of mortality rather than outcome measures such as death rates themselves. This second approach is in its infancy, so only a few remarks are possible at present." The methods are applied to data on child mortality for Peru and Jordan.
Correspondence: A. G. Hill, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Center for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20136 Hill, Kenneth; Pebley, Anne R. Child mortality in the developing world. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec 1989. 657-87, 791, 793 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article reexamines an important and controversial issue relating to the effect of current economic conditions and public health programs on trends in child mortality in the developing world....The authors find little basis for the conclusion that the pace of mortality decline has slowed in general. On the other hand, the effects of declining rates of economic growth and of structural-adjustment policies on mortality, if they occur, take more time to become apparent. In addition, there is little evidence to support the notion that public health interventions merely change the causes or delay the occurrence of child deaths rather than actually prevent them."
Correspondence: K. Hill, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20137 Hill, Kenneth. Socio-economic differentials in child mortality: the case of Jordan. In: Infant and Childhood Mortality in Western Asia. Pub. Order No. E/ESCWA/SD/89/10. Dec 1989. 91-124 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA], Social Development, Population and Human Settlements Division: Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"This study of socio-economic differentials in childhood mortality in Jordan is one of a series of such studies using similar data and analytical methods carried out under the auspices of the United Nations Population Division and covering countries from all regions of the developing world. The objective...is to identify categories of children at high risk of child mortality, to investigate patterns of differentials in childhood mortality in diverse national contexts, and to see how such patterns are changing over time....Data for Jordan [are] from two broadly similar household surveys, conducted respectively in 1976 and 1981...." Results indicate the existence of substantial child mortality differentials by urban or rural residence and parental education.
Correspondence: K. Hill, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20138 Honggokoesoemo, S. The evolution of infant mortality in Belgium from 1900 to 1981 in three postnatal periods. [De evolutie van de zuigelingensterfte in Belgie, van 1900 tot 1981 naar de 3 postnatale perioden.] Archives Belges de Medecine Sociale, Hygiene, Medecine du Travail, Medecine Legale, Vol. 46, No. 5-6, 1988. 268-83 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in infant mortality in Belgium over the period 1900-1981 are analyzed. Separate consideration is given to mortality in the first day after birth, early and late neonatal mortality, and postneonatal mortality. Comparisons are made with other developed countries.
Correspondence: S. Honggokoesoemo, Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, Fakulteit Geneeskunde, School voor Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg, Afdeling Gezondheidsecologie, Louvain, Belgium. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20139 Jimenez Ornelas, Rene. Marginality and infant mortality. [Marginalidad y mortalidad infantil.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 50, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1988. 171-85 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This study is concerned with differentials in infant and child mortality among low-income urban groups in Mexico. Mortality differentials within and among marginal socioeconomic groups in suburbs of Mexico City and Leon are analyzed and compared using data collected in interviews in 1980 and 1983. The results indicate that the health benefits associated with modernization, such as improved sanitation, can sometimes be offset by their negative impact on mortality, such as industrial accidents and environmental pollution.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20140 Koenig, Michael A.; Phillips, James F.; Campbell, Oona M.; D'Souza, Stan. Birth intervals and childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 251-65 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study investigates the relationship between birth intervals and childhood mortality, using longitudinal data from rural Bangladesh known to be of exceptional accuracy and completeness. Results demonstrate significant but very distinctive effects of the previous and subsequent birth intervals on mortality, with the former concentrated in the neonatal period and the latter during early childhood....The findings are discussed in terms of the potential for family planning programs to contribute to improved child survival in settings such as Bangladesh." Data are from the Demographic Surveillance System conducted by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research in rural Matlab.
Correspondence: M. A. Koenig, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20141 Lunn, Peter G. Nutrition, immunity, and infection. [Nutrition, immunite et infection.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 111-24 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationships among malnutrition, infection, and the breakdown of the immune system and their impact on infant and child mortality in developing countries are examined. "Though individuals with a poor nutritional status are more at risk to infection and have been shown to have a compromised immune system, the inter-relationship between these factors is far from simple. Malnutrition for example is not simply a reflection of food availability; disease itself frequently causes more severe loss of weight and growth faltering than diet alone. Moreover some illnesses such as measles cause an impairment of immune status which lasts for many months."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20142 Morel, Marie-France. The care lavished on children: the impact of medical innovations and of medical institutions (1750-1914). Medicine and the decline of infant mortality. [Les soins prodigues aux enfants: influence des innovations medicales et des institutions medicalisees (1750-1914). Medecine et declin de la mortalite infantile.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 157-81 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The role of medical advances and interventions in the decline in infant mortality that has taken place in France and other countries since the middle of the eighteenth century is explored. The author notes that the impact of medical intervention remained slight during much of the nineteenth century in comparison with improvements in public hygiene and that the major impact of medicine on infant mortality followed the introduction of Pasteurian techniques of hygiene and vaccination at the end of the century.
Correspondence: M.-F. Morel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 31 avenue Lombart, 92260 Fontenay aux Roses, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20143 Palloni, Alberto. Health levels and care in Latin America: the case of infant mortality, 1900-1985. CDE Working Paper, No. 89-17, [1989]. 28, [20] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper I present an iconoclastic view of the decline in infant mortality in Latin America, one that is not consistent with prevailing views about the paths followed by mortality and the forces responsible for its change during the post-World War II (WWII) period. I show that the initial stage of the transition in Latin America is far from being a stunning deviation from the Western European experience. Quite the contrary, the evidence shows that most countries proceed at an equal or slower pace than that experienced by Western Europe....And the role of economic factors and levels of well-being is of paramount importance in the transition from high to low values....Different countries proceed along different paths: there is no such thing as a 'Latin American' pattern of mortality decline; instead there are at least four different routes toward lower mortality."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20144 Razzaque, Abdur; Alam, Nurul; Wai, Lokky; Foster, Andrew. Sustained effects of the 1974-5 famine on infant and child mortality in a rural area of Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 145-54 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the sustained effects of the 1974-75 famine on cohort mortality in a rural area of Bangladesh are studied. In the analysis, mortality rates for children born and conceived during the famine are compared with those from a post-famine cohort. In the famine-born cohort, mortality was higher during the first and second years of life, while in the famine-conceived cohort it was higher during the first year and lower during the second compared to the non-famine cohort. No significant differences in mortality by cohort were observed between the ages of 24 and 59 months." Mortality differentials by sex, age of mother, and socioeconomic status are also analyzed.
Correspondence: A. Razzaque, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, GPO 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20145 Shah, Nasra M.; Shah, Makhdoom A. Socioeconomic and health care determinants of child survival in Kuwait. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 239-53 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the socioeconomic and health care determinants responsible for the decline over the last two decades in infant mortality in Kuwait....[using] published data and the results of a national health survey conducted in 1984-85....Despite...[high rates of hospital births, immunizations, and breast-feeding,] differences still exist between social classes. The risk of stillbirth remains much higher among the poorer women, those without any education and those who gave birth at home."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, POB 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20146 Vajpayee, A.; Govila, A. K. Effect of family structure, family size, and crowding on neonatal mortality in Indian villages. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 33, No. 5, Oct 1987. 261-2 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study was carried out in Indian villages to see the influence of family structure, family size, and crowding in the family on neonatal mortality. Seventy families in which neonatal deaths occurred (Study Group) and 115 families in which a baby survived through the neonatal period (Control Group) were included in the study. It was observed that the babies born in joint and large sized families and in the families with crowded homes had greater risks of mortality during the neonatal period (first 28 days of life)."
Correspondence: A. Vajpayee, F-64, Doctor's Colony, Medical College, Jabalpur 482 003, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20147 Wiesner, Gerd E.; Wiesner-Balcke, Waltraud; Engelmann, Ingeborg. Mortality in infancy under European conditions. [Kleinkindersterblichkeit unter europaischen Verhaltnissen.] Zeitschrift fur Klinische Medizin, Vol. 44, No. 15, 1989. 1,325-8 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in infant mortality in 27 European countries from the 1950s to the 1980s are analyzed and compared using WHO data. The results show declines in mortality rates in all countries concerned, together with continued differences in levels of infant mortality among countries.
Correspondence: G. E. Wiesner, Institut fur Sozialhygiene Organisation des Gesundheitswesens Maxim Zetkin, Noeldnestrasse 34-36, Berlin DDR-1134, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

56:20148 Hayes, Richard; Mertens, Thierry; Lockett, Geraldine; Rodrigues, Laura. Causes of adult deaths in developing countries: a review of data and methods. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 246, Jul 1989. 41 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors review premature adult mortality in developing countries and evaluate available sources of data. "After reviewing methods used in previous studies to diagnose the causes of death in children and adults, the authors recommend developing and validating diagnostic algorithms to determine the causes of adult deaths, for use in single-round surveys, using lay interviewers to conduct retrospective interviews of relatives of the deceased. Techniques for determining cause-specific adult mortality require thorough field testing and validation. The authors discuss several possible approaches, and categorize selected major causes of death according to whether they are likely to be diagnosed or excluded, on the basis of symptoms reported by relatives. They consider methods for classifying and presenting data on cause of death and conclude with recommendations for further methodological research."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:20149 Malarska, Anna; Mikulska, Halina; Stepien, Czeslawa. Youth mortality in Poland. [Umieralnosc mlodziezy w Polsce.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 7 and 8, Jul and Aug 1989. 18-22; 23-7 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
In this two-part article, mortality among young people in Poland is analyzed. Comparisons are made with mortality for the population as a whole. Factors examined include sex, place of residence, and major causes of death.
Correspondence: A. Malarska, Uniwersytet Lodzki, 90-131 Lodz, Narutowicza 65, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

56:20150 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 42nd abridged life tables (April 1, 1988-March 31, 1989). Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 262, Jan 16, 1990. 25 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Life tables for Japan are presented by sex for the period 1988-1989 by five-year age groups and single years of age.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20151 Sulaja, S. Life tables for India and the states--1986. 1990. 52 pp. University of Kerala, Department of Demography and Population Studies: Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
Abbreviated life tables are presented for India and its 16 major constituent states for 1986 by rural and urban area and sex.
Correspondence: University of Kerala, Department of Demography and Population Studies, Kariavattom 695 581, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20152 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1987. Volume II, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 90-1104. Feb 1990. 19 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Life tables for the United States for 1987 are presented. Subject headings are abridged life tables by race and sex; number of survivors at single years of age by race and sex; life expectancy at single years of age by race and sex; life tables by race and sex, 1900-1987; and life expectancy by race and sex, 1900-1987.
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

56:20153 Bengtsson, Calle; Mardh, Per-Anders; Stenberg, Kristina; Linder, Bertil; Takolander, Rabbe. The long life of women--a societal problem? [Kvinnors langa liv--ett samhallsproblem?] Lakartidningen, Vol. 85, No. 49, Dec 7, 1988. 4,297-300 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
The increase in women's life expectancy in Sweden since 1850 is analyzed. The authors examine mortality and morbidity differentials by sex, the relationship between body fat and life expectancy, marital status, and the implications for society of a growing aged female population.
Correspondence: C. Bengtsson, Goteborgs Universitet, Allmanmedicinska Institutionen, Vasaparken, 411 24 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20154 Farchi, Gino; Mariotti, Sergio; Menotti, Alessandro; Seccareccia, Fulvia; Torsello, Stefania; Fidanza, Flaminio. Diet and 20-y mortality in two rural population groups of middle-aged men in Italy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 50, No. 5, Nov 1989. 1,095-103 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relationships between individual diet, measured in 1965 on the two Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study on Cardiovascular Disease, and subsequent mortality from all and specific causes of death [over a 20-year period] are studied. The analysis covers 1,536 men aged 45-64...at entry to the study. By using a cluster analysis technique, individuals are aggregated into four groups so that the elements within a group have a higher degree of similarity in dietary nutrients than between groups. Impressive differences in death rates between groups are found especially at the 10- and 15-[year] anniversaries."
Correspondence: G. Farchi, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20155 Hoffmans, M. D. A. F.; Kromhout, D.; Coulander, C. de L. Body mass index at the age of 18 and its effects on 32-year-mortality from coronary heart disease and cancer. A nested case-control study among the entire 1932 Dutch male birth cohort. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 42, No. 6, 1989. 513-20 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In a nested case-control design the Body Mass Index at 18 years of age was related to 32-year mortality from coronary heart disease...and cancer...among the 1932 Dutch male birth cohort." The risk ratios were estimated for four body weight categories using a logistic regression model. The results show that mortality from coronary heart disease was highest for men in the fattest group and mortality from cancer was highest for those in the leanest group.
Correspondence: D. Kromhout, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20156 Hu, Yuanreng; Goldman, Noreen. Mortality differentials by marital status: an international comparison. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 233-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We use log-linear rate models to analyze marital-status-specific death rates for a large number of developed countries. The results indicate that divorced persons, especially divorced men, have the highest death rates among the unmarried groups of the respective genders; the excess mortality of unmarried persons relative to the married has been generally increasing over the past two to three decades; and divorced and widowed persons in their twenties and thirties have particularly high risks of dying, relative to married persons of the same age. In addition, the analysis suggests that a selection process is operating with regard to single and divorced persons: the smaller the proportion of persons who never marry or who are divorced, the higher the resulting death rates."
Correspondence: Y. Hu, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20157 Hughes, Kenneth; Lun, K. C.; Yeo, Peter P. B. Cardiovascular diseases in Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore. I. Differences in mortality. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 24-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality differentials from the main cardiovascular diseases among Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore are analyzed using national death registration data for the period 1980-1984. The results indicate that "there are significant differences in mortality from the three main cardiovascular diseases in the different ethnic groups in Singapore."
Correspondence: K. Hughes, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20158 Nolan, Brian. Socio-economic mortality differentials in Ireland. Economic and Social Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jan 1990. 193-208 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"Differences in mortality rates between socio-economic groups for Ireland are analysed, using the standard methodology which has been extensively applied in other countries. This involves relating data on deaths by socio-economic group, gathered at time of death, to the total population in each group as shown in the Census of Population. Based on 1981 data for men aged 15-64, significant differentials in standardised mortality rates are found between professional/managerial occupational groups and semi-skilled or unskilled manual categories. Problems which arise due to the nature of the data are discussed, drawing on British experience."
Correspondence: B. Nolan, Economic and Social Research Institute, 4 Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20159 Potter, Lloyd R.; Galle, Omer R. Racial and residential mortality differentials in the South by cause of death. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.06, 1989. 16, [5] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Racial and residential mortality differentials are examined in the [U.S.] South using measures of life expectancy. We focus on how both socioeconomic conditions and cause-specific mortality vary across race and residence. Using U.S. Vital Statistics and Census data for 1980, life tables are constructed for Southern sub-populations and differences in the life expectancies are decomposed by cause of death. Our results suggest that racial mortality differences are slightly greater in metropolitan areas of the South when compared to the nonmetropolitan South. We also find that residential mortality differences in the South are greater for whites than for blacks. By isolating specific cause of death differentials, we are able to speculate about social and economic differences that may be causally linked to the maintenance of racial and residential life expectancy differentials."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20160 Rogers, Andrei; Gard, Kathy. Interstate mortality differentials in the United States: a parameterized description. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1989. 327-36 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines [U.S.] interstate mortality differentials in 1979-1981. It begins with a quick overview of the data set which...reveals wide variations across states in life expectancies at birth. A Heligman-Pollard model mortality schedule is fitted to data for all U.S. states and a comparison is made of the parameters associated with each state. A clustering of similar parameter values reveals the presence of several families of mortality age profiles, their principal characteristics and their differences across states."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

56:20161 A-Bustan, Mahmond; El-Zein, Fawzi M. A.; Kohli, B. R. Potential gains in life expectancy of Kuwaiti nationals through partial and complete elimination of infectious and parasitic disease mortality. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988. 10-4 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The study attempts to estimate potential gains in life expectancy in 1984 through partial and complete elimination of infectious and parasitic diseases among Kuwaiti nationals. In order to derive these estimates, [a] multiple decrement life table approach was applied. The results revealed that complete elimination of infectious and parasitic disease mortality would further add 0.45 years to the life expectancy at birth of Kuwaiti males and 0.54 years to that of Kuwaiti females."
Correspondence: M. A-Bustan, Kuwaiti University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20162 Blum, Alain; Fargues, Philippe. Rapid estimations of maternal mortality in countries with defective data: an application to Bamako (1974-85) and other developing countries. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 155-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We have proposed two methods for estimating maternal mortality in developing countries without data on cause of death....In general, the first method, based on the ratio of women's to men's mortality by age, gives lower estimates than the second, based on extrapolation by smoothing the observed profile of women's mortality. In the case of Bamako [Mali] where maternal mortality can be split into its two components, we have found that the first estimates are close to mortality from obstetric causes while the second estimates are closer to the overall maternal mortality, including indirect obstetric causes. Whatever the method, a quick idea of level, age pattern and trend of maternal mortality can be drawn from a simple processing of life tables. Moreover, the availability of age-specific fertility rates enables us to distinguish between the effects of decreasing exposure to risk and decline of fertility, when maternal mortality is falling."
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20163 Caselli, Graziella. The health transition and the structure of mortality by cause: old and new causes. [Transition sanitaire et structure par cause de la mortalite: anciennes et nouvelles causes.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 55-77 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in different causes of death over time and their effect on the health transition that has taken place in Europe since the middle of the nineteenth century are analyzed. The data are for England from 1871 to 1951, Italy from 1881 to 1951, and Norway from 1910 to 1951. The change in causes of death from infectious diseases to that from cardiovascular diseases and cancers is described. The relationships among the health transition, socioeconomic and health trends, and changes in living conditions are explored and compared for the countries studied.
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Citta Universitaria, 001000 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20164 Chu, Kenneth C.; Horm, John W.; Smart, Charles R. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data. Public Health Reports, Vol. 105, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 36-46 pp. Rockville, Maryland. In Eng.
"A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM....The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: K. C. Chu, National Cancer Institute, Early Detection Branch, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20165 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. Cancer mortality in Italy, 1983. Tumori, Vol. 75, No. 3, Jun 1989. 196-201 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"This report presents data and statistics on cancer death certification in Italy in 1983, thus updating previous work available from 1955." Data are presented by age, sex, and cancer site. The results show that cancer mortality remained stable for females and rose by two percent for males, due primarily to an increase in lung cancer.
For a report by the same authors concerning 1982, see 55:40193.
Correspondence: A. Decarli, Istituto di Biometria e Statistica Medica, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20166 Franks, Adele L.; Atrash, Hani K.; Lawson, Herschel W.; Colberg, Karen S. Obstetrical pulmonary embolism mortality, United States, 1970-85. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 80, No. 6, Jun 1990. 720-2 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To investigate pulmonary embolism as a cause of obstetrical death [in the United States], vital records data from 1970 through 1985 were analyzed. Results showed that the number of obstetrical pulmonary embolism deaths per 100,000 live births declined by 50 percent for both Whites and Blacks. However, Black women maintained more than a 2.5-fold higher risk, and women over age 40 had a ten-fold higher risk of embolism mortality. Thus, although the risk of obstetrical pulmonary embolism death has declined, some subgroups of women remain at higher risk."
Correspondence: A. L. Franks, Centers for Disease Control, Centers for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Pregnancy and Infant Health Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20167 Friman, Patrick C.; Finney, Jack W.; Leibowitz, J. Michael. Years of potential life lost: evaluating premature cancer death in men. Journal of Community Health, Vol. 14, No. 2, Summer 1989. 101-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Two indexes of premature death, years of potential life lost (YPLL) and potential years of life lost per death (YPLL/D), are calculated using U.S. data for 10 leading causes of cancer death in men from 1974 to 1983. "Each cancer was then ranked from most to least significant according to each index. The analyses show that using YPLL and YPLL/D to evaluate cancer death in men results in rankings that differ from those obtained when using death rates alone. The premature death indexes, when used in combination with traditional mortality indexes, would enhance the data base used by funding agencies who select and evaluate cancer treatment and prevention programs."
Correspondence: P. C. Friman, Meyer Children's Rehabilitation Institute, 444 South 44th Street, Omaha, NE 68131. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20168 Higgins, Millicent W.; Luepker, Russell V. Trends in coronary heart disease mortality: the influence of medical care. ISBN 0-19-505297-8. LC 87-24728. 1988. xvi, 302 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this book is to examine trends and variation in morbidity and mortality from CHD [coronary heart disease] in the United States and to assess the contribution that medical care has made to the decline in the past quarter of a century....Although this book examines the situation in the United States, issues that it addresses are relevant to the practice of medicine wherever CHD is prevalent. In the following pages, experts in epidemiology, preventive and community medicine, cardiology, internal medicine, and cardiovascular surgery review and evaluate evidence from vital statistics, epidemiological observations, clinical studies, and randomized controlled trials. They also identify needs and opportunities for clinical and epidemiological research. Time trends and regional patterns of CHD and medical care are presented. The impact of diagnostic procedures, and the contributions of medical care for risk factors, and of out-of-hospital and in hospital management of acute myocardial infarction and chronic coronary disease are assessed. Mortality statistics for CHD are provided in an appendix."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

56:20169 Ingram, Deborah D.; Gillum, Richard F. Regional and urbanization differentials in coronary heart disease mortality in the United States, 1968-1985. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 42, No. 9, 1989. 857-68 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Differentials in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the United States among white males aged 35-74 are analyzed for the periods 1968-1978 and 1979-1985. The authors note that many of the regional and residential differentials in CHD mortality persisted over the two time periods. "Fringe metropolitan (suburban) areas had low rates, and CHD death rates continued to decline, albeit at a faster rate. The urbanization pattern observed for the south differed from that for other regions; the core metropolitan area had the lowest CHD death rates in the south, but the highest in the other regions."
Correspondence: D. D. Ingram, National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Analysis and Epidemiology, 3700 East-West Highway, Room 2-27, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20170 Kowalski, Gregory S.; Duffield, Don. The impact of the rural population component on homicide rates in the United States: a county-level analysis. Rural Sociology, Vol. 55, No. 1, Spring 1990. 76-90 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"Using 3,130 U.S. counties or county equivalents, this paper provides a test of the impact of rural population on the violent crime of homicide, while controlling for the effects of other correlates. The results indicate that the traditional bond of group cohesion assumed to be associated with the rural environment and its residents continues to have an inhibiting effect on homicide for counties in the United States."
Correspondence: G. S. Kowalski, Auburn University, Department of Sociology, Auburn, AL 36849. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20171 Magnin, Pierre; Raudrant, Daniel; Thoulon, Jean-Marie; Magnin, Guillaume; De Rochambeau, Bertrand. Maternal mortality in France and its uncertainties. [La mortalite maternelle en France et ses incertitudes.] Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine, Vol. 172, No. 8, Nov 1988. 1,213-22 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Problems concerning the measurement of maternal mortality rates in France are examined. Specifically, the authors note the differences between the maternal mortality rate calculated using data from death certificates by the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and rates calculated by obstetrics departments at selected hospitals. An example using data for Lyons for the period 1983-1988 is presented.
Correspondence: D. Raudrant, Hotel-Dieu, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, 61 quai Jules Courmont, 69288 Lyons Cedex 02, France. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20172 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). International comparison of mortality from suicide. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 71, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1990. 22-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to examine the trend of mortality from suicide in the United States and compare it with that in Canada, Europe, and other developed countries. The analysis is based primarily on data supplied by the World Health Organization....Death rates are shown in 10-year age brackets, with the rate for ages 15-74 being adjusted for the variation in each country's age distribution in order to make comparison between nations valid."
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20173 Puranen, Bi. Tuberculosis and mortality decline in Sweden. [La tuberculose et le declin de la mortalite en Suede.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 79-100 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The tuberculosis epidemic that has occurred over the last 300 years in Europe is investigated using data for Sweden and Finland for the period from 1750 to 1980. Changes in nutrition, urbanization, and medical intervention and their relative impacts on tuberculosis mortality are assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20174 Rogot, Eugene; Hrubec, Zdenek. Trends in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke among U.S. veterans, 1954-1979. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 42, No. 3, 1989. 245-56 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in a cohort of nearly 300,000 insured U.S. veterans is analyzed for the period 1954-1979. The results show that this group experienced a much greater decline in CHD mortality than the U.S. population as a whole. Consideration is given to factors such as smoking, occupational status, socioeconomic status, and age.
Correspondence: E. Rogot, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Social and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20175 Stellman, Steven D.; Garfinkel, Lawrence. Proportions of cancer deaths attributable to cigarette smoking in women. Women and Health, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1989. 19-28 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
Trends in cancer mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among U.S. women are analyzed. Data are from a prospective mortality study involving over two-thirds of a million women over age 45 who were enrolled in 1982 and followed for four years. The results indicate that "cigarette smoking, despite increases in smoking cessation, is still responsible for well over half of the deaths from these six types of [smoking-related] cancer in women."
Correspondence: S. D. Stellman, New York City Department of Health, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiologic Research, 125 Worth Street, Box 22, New York, NY 10013. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20176 Sytkowski, Pamela A.; Kannel, William B.; D'Agostino, Ralph B. Changes in risk factors and the decline in mortality from cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322, No. 23, Jun 7, 1990. 1,635-41 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We analyzed the 10-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and death from cardiovascular disease in three groups of men [in Framingham, Massachusetts] who were 50 to 59 years old at base line in 1950, 1960, and 1970 (the 1950, 1960, and 1970 cohorts) in order to determine the contribution of secular trends in the incidence of cardiovascular disease, risk factors, and medical care to the decline in mortality....Significant improvements were found in risk factors for cardiovascular disease among the men initially free of cardiovascular disease in the 1970 cohort as compared with those in the 1950 cohort, including a lower serum cholesterol level...and a lower systolic blood pressure....Our data suggest that the improvement in cardiovascular risk factors in the 1970 cohort may have been an important contributor to the 60 percent decline in mortality in that group as compared with the 1950 cohort, although a decline in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and improved medical interventions may also have contributed to the decline in mortality."
Correspondence: P. A. Sytkowski, New England Research Institute, 9 Galen Street, Watertown, MA 02172. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:20177 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC]. Alcohol-related mortality and years of potential life lost--United States, 1987. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 39, No. 11, Mar 23, 1990. 173-8 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Estimates of alcohol-related mortality and years of potential life lost are presented for the United States for 1987. These estimates include both mortality from injuries associated with alcohol use and from chronic diseases resulting from long-term alcohol consumption.
Correspondence: CDC, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20178 United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Office on Smoking and Health (Rockville, Maryland). Bibliography on smoking and health, 1988. Public Health Service Bibliography Series, No. 45, Pub. Order No. DHHS (CDC) 89-8399. Apr 1989. 483 pp. Rockville, Maryland. In Eng.
The 1988 edition of this bibliography, the last in the present series, contains approximately 2,000 citations to recent literature on the relationship between smoking and health. The bibliography is organized by subject and includes sections on mortality and morbidity, neoplastic diseases, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and pregnancy and infant health. Author and subject indexes are provided. The geographical scope is worldwide.
For the 1986 edition, published in 1987, see 54:30184.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Technical Information Center, Park Building, Room 116, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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