Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

56:20039 Adugna, Aynalem; Kloos, Helmut. Two population distribution maps for Ethiopia based on the 1984 census. Northeast African Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1987. 89-95 pp. East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
Rural and urban maps showing population distribution in Ethiopia are presented using data from the 1984 census. "In the analysis two variables, area cultivated by woreda [or subdistrict] and rural-rural migrations, are given special emphasis due to the dependence of the majority of the population (86 percent) on agriculture and the strong relationship between rainfall and intensity of agriculture...."
Correspondence: A. Adugna, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20040 Aiken, Charles S. A new type of black ghetto in the plantation South. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 80, No. 2, Jun 1990. 223-46 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In the wake of the Civil Rights Movement, the War on Poverty, and alterations in agriculture, the black population in the plantation regions of the [U.S.] South has been redistributed....This article assesses recent spatial changes in the municipal black population in the Yazoo Delta, a nonmetropolitan region of Mississippi. At the regional scale, unequal changes in white and black municipal populations produced an increase in segregation among the municipalities of the Yazoo Delta. At the local scale, a pattern of residential desegregation has emerged in particular municipalities. This pattern is indicative of a stage in the transformation of the municipalities into ones in which the population is essentially all black. The geography of municipalities that are now predominantly black not only has been altered by movement of blacks into the previously white residential areas, but also by construction of new federally-sponsored housing and by decline and restructuring of the business district."
Correspondence: C. S. Aiken, University of Tennessee, Department of Geography, Knoxville, TN 37996. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20041 Fanchette, Sylvie. Population density and urbanization of rural areas: the case of the Nile Delta. [Densites de population et urbanisation de l'espace rural: le cas du Delta du Nil.] Revue Tiers-Monde, Vol. 31, No. 121, Jan-Mar 1990. 29-56 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The process of increasing population density in the Nile Delta region of Egypt and its implications are analyzed. The author concludes that increased population growth in the already highly populated Delta region has only been possible because of the area's change from predominantly rural to increasingly urban in nature. The various policy initiatives that have been taken in response to the Delta region's growing population and socioeconomic development needs are reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20042 Long, Larry. Population by the sea. Population Today, Vol. 18, No. 4, Apr 1990. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author refutes the often-repeated statistic that three-fourths of the population of the United States live within 50 miles of a coastline. He presents data from the Bureau of the Census for resident populations of counties within 50 miles of coastal shorelines for the period 1940-1980. Findings indicate that the proportion is just over 53 percent for 1988 but that the population residing near the coast on a part-time basis, such as retirees and vacationers, has increased dramatically in recent years.
Correspondence: L. Long, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for Demographic Studies, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20043 Ortolani, Mario. The new population geography. [La nouvelle geographie de la population.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1989. 317-22 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a review of works and textbooks relating to population geography published since 1946. The author contends that the trend among modern scholars is toward mathematical formulas that have little to do with human populations and their spatial distribution.
Correspondence: M. Ortolani, Universita di Bologna, Istituto di Geografia, Via San Giacomo 3, Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

56:20044 Brueckner, Jan K. Analyzing third world urbanization: a model with empirical evidence. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 38, No. 3, Apr 1990. 587-610 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The purpose of this article is to develop and test an elementary model of urbanization in the developing world. "The analysis embeds the urban economist's monocentric-city model in an economy experiencing rural-urban migration. When real-income equalization between city and countryside is assumed, the model generates an equilibrium city size that depends on three key ratios, the most important of which is the rural-urban income ratio. By showing that urbanization levels in a sample of third-world countries are inversely related to the rural-urban income ratio, as predicted by the theory, the empirical work offers support for the real-income-equalization hypothesis."
Correspondence: J. K. Brueckner, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:20045 Cole, John P. Changes in the population of larger cities of the USSR, 1979-1989. Soviet Geography, Vol. 31, No. 3, Mar 1990. 160-72 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"An overview of the dynamics of Soviet cities of over 100,000 population for the period 1979-1989 is presented, based largely on maps and tables depicting five key 'subsets' or city groupings: (a) cities increasing by over 100,000 inhabitants; (b) the fastest growing cities in percentage terms; (c) their comparison with fastest growing cities, 1959-1979; (d) the slowest growing cities in percentage terms; and (e) their comparison with slowest growing cities, 1959-1979. The paper, by focusing on these parameters and utilizing extensively graphic and cartographic methods of data presentation, provides...insights into city growth trends...."
Correspondence: J. P. Cole, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20046 Dupaquier, Jacques; Oddo, Bertrand. 1789-1989: two centuries of urbanization. [1789-1989: deux siecles d'urbanisation.] INSEE Premiere, No. 44, Nov 1989. 4 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors briefly review trends in urbanization in France over the past 200 years. Regional differences in urbanization are considered.
Correspondence: INSEE, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20047 Fontaine, Francois. The major regional cities and their strong points. [Les metropoles regionales a la recherche de leurs points forts.] Economie et Statistique, No. 230, Mar 1990. 17-30, 81, 83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Characteristics of the major regional urban centers of France are examined. Despite clear regional differences, the author notes a common interest among these cities in developing advanced communications, research, educational, and leisure facilities, which will provide increased opportunities for highly skilled jobs.
Correspondence: F. Fontaine, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 10-12 boulevard Vauban, 59800 Lille, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20048 Garza, Gustavo. Evolution of Mexico City in the twentieth century. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 201-9 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to analyse the urban and demographic growth stages of Mexico City during the twentieth century and [discuss] the main metropolitan problems it faces." The problems addressed include population growth, underemployment, housing, slums, land and food supplies, educational and health services, and environment.
Correspondence: G. Garza, Colegio de Mexico, Camina al Ajusco 20, Mexico DF, 10740 Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20049 George, Pierre. Urban borders: peripheral effects of urbanization. [Les franges urbaines: les effets marginaux de l'urbanisation.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1989. 357-64 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews trends in urbanization in the region of Paris since the beginning of the twentieth century. Comparisons are made with cities in Canada and Mexico.
Correspondence: P. George, Institut de France, Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, 23 quai de Conti, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20050 Guerin-Pace, France; Pumain, Denise. 150 years of urban growth. [150 ans de croissance urbaine.] Economie et Statistique, No. 230, Mar 1990. 5-16, 81, 83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Trends in urbanization in France over the past 150 years are reviewed. The authors note that over this period, the number of French cities has increased by a factor of three, and that of urban residents by a factor of seven. Regional differences in urban trends are examined. A continuity in the national urban hierarchy over time is established, with Paris in a highly dominant position.
Correspondence: F. Guerin-Pace, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Equipe P.A.R.I.S., Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20051 Kowalska, Anna; Witkowski, Janusz. Environmental and demographic characteristics of large towns in Poland. [Srodowiskowa i demograficzna charakterystyka duzych miast w Polsce.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1987. 105-27 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The environmental and demographic characteristics of major urban areas in Poland are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20052 Kozlov, G. S.; Misnikov, Yu. G. Social and demographic principles in an alternative typology of cities. Soviet Geography, Vol. 31, No. 2, Feb 1990. 83-95 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors challenge some conventional notions regarding the USSR's urban hierarchy and settlement network and the basis for functional city classifications. They assign a key role to technological and social change in the overall growth and development process and downplay the role of territorial production complexes vis-a-vis large cities as major regulators of future economic development. Considerable attention is devoted to identifying stages of urban interaction (especially via migration and innovation diffusion) with the rural hinterland and of social-demographic transformations accompanying scientific and technical progress. A city typology based on stages in the 'social-demographic transition' is outlined briefly."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya (Moscow, USSR), No. 5, 1989, pp. 101-11.
Correspondence: G. S. Kozlov, Byelorussian Urban Design and Planning Institute, Minsk, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20053 Laquian, Aprodicio. Megacities in China. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 211-24 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Large urban cities in China are discussed, with a focus on the policies that have limited both urban and population growth. The author discusses the origins of China's urban policies, its internal migration policy, and metropolitan and regional planning affecting urbanization.
Correspondence: A. Laquian, United Nations Population Fund, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20054 Le Mee, Rene. The towns of France and their population from 1806 to 1851. [Les villes de France et leur population de 1806 a 1851.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 321-93 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Statistical tables are presented for the urban population of France from 1806 to 1851. Data are from official sources, including surveys and censuses, and are presented separately by department.
Correspondence: R. Le Mee, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Laboratoire de Demographie Historique, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20055 Lee, Yok-shiu F. Small towns and China's urbanization level. China Quarterly, No. 120, Dec 1989. 771-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in urbanization in China are analyzed. The author concludes that much of the reported increase in the percentage of urban population from 20.8 in 1982 to 46.6 in 1987 is due to an administrative change whereby many rural areas have come under the administration of small towns.
Correspondence: Y. F. Lee, East-West Center, Environment and Policy Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20056 Mera, Koichi. Megacity transformations: the case of Tokyo. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 225-35 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The rejuvenation of Tokyo, Japan, during the 1980s is discussed as an example of a large metropolis reversing previous decline. "A number of factors are...[examined as] the causes of the rejuvenation. They include the structural change of the economy toward service orientation, the distribution of public investment, increased reliance of the economy on information processing and transmission, increased money flows, and the internationalisation of the financial sector."
Correspondence: K. Mera, Tokyo International University, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20057 Min, Mal-Soon. A territorial division of labor in the Seoul metropolitan area. Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center, Vol. 18, 1989. 1-11 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
Changes in urban spatial distribution associated with rapid economic development in the Republic of Korea are analyzed. The author notes that Korea has followed a pattern similar to that of other developing countries. "Along with its economic development, improvements in transportation and communication technologies have accelerated decentralization of population and industries, and have widened the daily urban system of this large primate city. As a result, a territorial division of labor as well as a separation of work place from home has occurred. In spite of the early stage of suburbanization, the central city of the Seoul Metropolitan Area is proceeding from a goods-processing center to an information-processing one."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20058 Nath, V. Urbanization and urban development in India: some policy issues. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1989. 256-81 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger; Spa.
Urban trends in India over the period 1961-1981 are analyzed, and prospects for further urban growth until the end of this century are assessed. "Trends in distribution of the urban population by cities and smaller urban places, inter-state variations in urbanization and changes in the contribution of the urban population to the national GDP are reviewed, and the implications of the trends and projections for national policies on urban and regional development are referred to briefly." Particular attention is given to the social and economic problems associated with urbanization and to their resolution.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20059 Neumann, Hans; Usbeck, Hartmut. Trends and perspectives of city regions. [Trends und Perspektiven von Grossstadtregionen.] Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, Vol. 133, No. 4, 1989. 255-64 pp. Gotha, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Future trends in urbanization in East Germany are examined. The focus is on the impact that technological and industrial change will have on urban trends. Consideration is given to changes in area utilization and employment as well as to changes in urban spatial distribution.
Correspondence: H. Neumann, Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Institut fur Geographie und Geookologie, Georgi-Dimitroff-Platz 1, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

56:20060 Oberai, A. S. Rapid population growth, employment and housing in mega-cities in developing countries. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 187-99 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author describes problems in urban population growth and poverty in the large cities of developing countries. "The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to examine the implications of rapid urban population growth for employment, poverty and access of the poor to housing and basic social services. Second, to assess institutional and other constraints on increasing employment opportunities and meeting the needs of the urban poor for shelter."
Correspondence: A. S. Oberai, ILO, Employment Planning and Population Branch, Employment and Development Department, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20061 Palumbo, George; Sacks, Seymour; Wasylenko, Michael. Population decentralization within metropolitan areas: 1970-1980. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar 1990. 151-67 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
Using a data set that maintains geographic and fiscal continuity over time and across a sample of major U.S. metropolitan areas, the authors identify factors of economic and population decentralization that affected central city areas between 1970 and 1980. The problems of annexation are resolved by estimating population changes for central cities and suburban areas with constant 1980 boundaries, and by calculating fiscal variables from overlapping jurisdictions by city area as opposed to municipal city government only. "The empirical investigation supports the view that demographic and housing stock variables seem to have had a greater impact on decentralization than central city-suburban fiscal differences."
Correspondence: G. Palumbo, Canisius College, Department of Economics, 2001 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14208. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20062 Petrakos, George; Brada, Josef C. Metropolitan concentration in developing countries. Kyklos, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1989. 557-78 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"We examine the economic, political and cultural determinants of urban concentration in developing countries using a sample of 53 countries. We find that as countries develop, urban concentration, measured as the largest city's share of the population, at first increases and then decreases. We also find that foreign investment influences concentration in a similar way since foreign investors tend to locate in the main city at low levels of development but are willing to locate outside the center in more developed countries. Political and cultural factors such as lack of democracy, government instability and religiously and [ethnically] homogeneous populations all contribute to high levels of urban concentration. For many developing countries these non-economic factors have led to primate cities whose size far exceeds what would be justified by economic considerations."
Correspondence: G. Petrakos, Arizona State University, Department of Economics, Tempe, AZ 85287-3806. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

56:20063 Dupaquier, J. The filling up of the countryside in France. [Le plein rural en France.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1989. 349-56 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The growth and spatial distribution of the rural French population in the first half of the nineteenth century are examined. Past trends in rural-urban migration and urbanization are discussed.
Correspondence: J. Dupaquier, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Laboratoire de Demographie Historique, 54 Boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20064 Olinto Rueda, Jose. Population dynamics of the rural Colombian population: 1951-1985. [Dinamica demografica de la poblacion rural colombiana: 1951-1985.] Revista de Planeacion y Desarrollo, Vol. 21, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 25-46 pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
The author analyzes demographic trends in rural areas of Colombia for the period 1951-1985, noting a large decline in fertility, improved life expectancy, and trends in internal migration. He also examines changes in the age and sex structure of the rural population and discusses the implications of these changes.
Correspondence: J. Olinto Rueda, Departamento Nacional de Planeacion, Unidad de Desarrollo Social, Division Sociodemografica, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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