Volume 56 - Number 1 - Spring 1990

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

56:10358 Bennett, Neil G.; Bloom, David E.; Craig, Patricia H. The divergence of black and white marriage patterns. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 95, No. 3, Nov 1989. 692-722 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article examines the patterns and determinants of first marriage among black and white women in the United States. Three major differences exist between the first-marriage patterns of black and white women: (1) lower proportions of blacks marry than whites; (2) the proportion of women who ever marry has declined substantially across cohorts for blacks but modestly across cohorts for whites; and (3) while increased education is associated negatively, if slightly, with the probability of ever marrying among whites, it is associated positively among blacks. The observed racial divergence is consistent with three factors experienced differentially by blacks and whites: the marriage squeeze, labor-market success, and out-of-wedlock childbearing."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 454).
Correspondence: N. G. Bennett, Yale University, Department of Sociology, Box 1965 Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:10359 Braun, Werner. Divorces, 1988. [Ehescheidungen 1988.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 8, Aug 1989. 508-12 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Information is presented on divorces in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988. Comparative data for earlier years are also provided. Topics covered include trends over time; number of marriages and dissolutions of marriage; regional variations in divorce; divorces by person seeking the divorce, cause, number of children, and duration of marriage; and remarriage of divorced persons.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10360 Chan, Luiza Y. W.; Heaton, Tim B. Demographic determinants of delayed divorce. Journal of Divorce, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1989. 97-112 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict delayed divorce [in the United States]. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects on delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy and socioeconomic status are relatively small."
Correspondence: L. Y. W. Chan, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, Provo, UT 84602. Location: New York Public Library.

56:10361 Cu, Jiantang. A brief analysis of marital status from 1984 to 1986, China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 4, Jul 1988. 32-3 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author gives a brief analysis of the marital status of the Chinese population for the period 1984-1986 based on official surveys.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10362 Dieleman, F. M.; Schouw, R. J. Divorce, mobility and housing demand. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 3, Dec 1989. 235-52 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors analyze the relationship between divorce and housing in the Netherlands. "We first describe the increase in the number of divorces since the early seventies as a context for our subsequent analysis of residential mobility and housing demand among the divorced. Expectations for future developments from now till the year 2000 are evaluated. We base our analysis on the general statistics compiled by the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics..., data from the 'National Survey of Housing Needs' 1981..., and a small survey we conducted in the municipality of Nieuwegein....As recently as the early seventies, divorce had a relatively minor impact on the housing market in the Netherlands. But in the last decade the role of divorce in the process of household formation and dissolution has grown dramatically [and has had] an increasing impact on mobility and housing demand...."
Correspondence: F. M. Dieleman, University of Utrecht, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 80 115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10363 Ferber, Marianne A.; Sander, William. Of women, men, and divorce: not by economics alone. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 47, No. 1, Spring 1989. 15-26 pp. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors "present an empirical exploration of the determinants of marital dissolution which begins with variables found in economic models but also incorporates at least one non-economic factor, religion. This enables us both to examine to what extent this variable adds to the explanatory power of the model, and also how it interacts with some of the economic variables. Such evidence lends credence to the view that norms also influence marital behavior." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: M. A. Ferber, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10364 Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne. The demography of polygyny in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 212-37 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, we investigate the contributions of age differences between spouses at first marriage and widow remarriage in permitting high levels of polygyny. We also examine the ways in which these associations change with different demographic regimes, in order to determine whether probable declines in future growth rates are likely to make polygyny more difficult to maintain at current levels. Our objective, however, is solely to describe the demographic conditions that allow polygyny to occur. We make no attempt to argue either that polygyny exists because African societies value universal marriage of women, or that large age differences and universal marriage exist to support polygyny." This study is based on 1976 census data for Cameroon and Senegal.
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10365 Heaton, Tim B. Marital stability throughout the child-rearing years. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 54-63 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Although there is evidence that the number and ages of children influence marital stability, studies have not systematically tracked the risk of marital disruption throughout the child-rearing years. This study uses marital and fertility histories from the June 1985 [U.S.] Current Population Survey to examine this issue. Continuous-time regression models with ages and numbers of children as time-varying covariates are estimated. Net of controls for age of marriage, year of marriage, education, and marital duration, stability increases with family size up to the third child but starts to decline as family size reaches five or more children. Aging of children is disruptive until the youngest child reaches adulthood, after which marriages become much more stable."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Department of Sociology, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10366 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Marriage dissolution tables for Japanese couples, 1935-1985. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 257, Jan 5, 1989. 47 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Life tables of marriage dissolution in Japan are presented. The data also concern marriage duration by year of marriage, delays in registration of marriage, divorce by duration of marriage, and the relative chances of ending marriage by death or divorce. The tables concern marriages in 1935, 1945, and five-year intervals up to 1985.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10367 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Kaufmann, Georgia; Meekers, Dominique. The nuptiality regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 238-337 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
Nuptiality regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa are examined in an attempt to show "the impact of different schedules of widowhood or divorce and remarriage and of different levels of fertility on a series of polygyny measures. [Most of the chapter] is devoted largely to the measurement of regional and ethnic variations in the actual incidence of polygyny and to the analysis of the connections with the social organization features used in Boserup's and Goody's theories....[The authors] assess trends in ages at first marriage for both sexes and in polygyny levels. The outcome is that not only the formal demographic potential for polygyny, but also its actual incidence, show no major sign of decline despite the widespread trend toward later ages at first marriage for women. The reasons for the essentially horizontal trend in polygyny are the age structure effects resulting from accelerations of population growth and the increase in age at first marriage for men."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10368 Liu, Zheng; Goldstein, Sidney; Goldstein, Alice. Urban-rural and educational differentials in marital status in China. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 3, No. 3, Fall 1989. 9-18, 28-32 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This article uses cross-tabulated data from China's 1982 census to assess the effects of urban-rural residence and educational level on the ages at which men and women have been marrying. The data also reveal the effects of residence and education on widowhood, divorce, and current marital status. As expected, exposure to development, indicated by urban residence and higher education, is associated with later marriage, but it also increases the likelihood of ever marrying, especially for men. Women's tendency to seek social mobility by marrying men from economically more developed areas results in bachelorhood for a substantial percentage of rural men, especially those who are illiterate."
Correspondence: Z. Liu, People's University of China, Population Research Institute, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10369 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Marriages and divorces: Rabat wilaya, 1987. [Les mariages et les divorces: wilaya de Rabat, 1987.] Jul 1989. 39, [18] pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Official data on marriage and divorce in the wilaya (administrative district) of Rabat-Sale, Morocco, is presented. Marriage characteristics considered include age of both spouses and marital history at marriage. Divorce characteristics include age, duration of marriage, number of children, and place of marriage.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10370 Otani, Kenji. Proportional hazards model analysis of marriage and first birth probabilities. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 2; 191, Jul 1989. 46-50 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Marriage and first birth probabilities in Japan are analyzed using data from the 1987 Ninth National Fertility Survey. Factors considered include age, occupation, employment status, educational status, and geographic location.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10371 Peuckert, Rudiger. The commuter marriage as an "alternative" life style. The spreading of a new form of conjugal and familial "living arrangement" in the individualized society. [Die Commuter-Ehe als "alternativer" Lebensstil. Zur Ausbreitung einer neuen Form ehelichen und familialen "Zusammenlebens" in der individualisierten Gesellschaft.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1989. 175-87 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This article deals with trends in commuter marriages in industrialized countries. "The term commuter marriages denotes marriages in which both partners pursue a professional career and are forced to establish two separate households...so that living together is only possible on weekends or after substantial intervals. The commuter marriage, offering the advantage that the partners are not restricted to a narrow regional labour market, represents a further degree of differentiation of the nuclear family under changed economic and cultural conditions." Consideration is given to the improvement of women's status and women's increased participation in the labor force, especially in professional-level occupations.
Correspondence: R. Peuckert, Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen, Seminar fur Soziologie, Politikwissenschaft und Didaktik der Geschichte, Waldweg 26, 3400 Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10372 Rahman, M. Mujibur. Marriage and its consummation in Bangladesh. Biology and Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1989. 159-63 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the factors affecting the length and variations in the delay of marriage consummation in Bangladesh. The impact of increasing marriage age and higher educational levels on the decrease in the delay between marriage and comsummation are discussed. Data are from the 1975-1976 Bangladesh Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: M. M. Rahman, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, University Post Office, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10373 Timaeus, Ian; Graham, Wendy. Labor circulation, marriage, and fertility in Southern Africa. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 365-400 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter "commences with a brief description of the development of the migrant labor system within and between the countries of Southern Africa. Against this background we discuss the marriage systems of these countries and the effect of labor circulation on each of the determinants of the proportion of women of childbearing age who are living in conjugal unions. It is the household that is the locus of the labor circulation and marriage systems. The developmental cycle of domestic groups forms a framework that shapes, and is shaped by, its members' migrant careers, marital histories, and fertility. Following our analysis of these interrelationships, we examine the direct impact of labor circulation on levels of fertility. Finally we discuss the extent to which the migrant labor system is related to the adoption of modern methods of contraception in the region, and we assess the prospects for fertility decline." The geographical focus is on the rural population of Botswana and Lesotho.
Correspondence: I. Timaeus, London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10374 Tuncbilek, Ergul; Ulusoy, Mahir. Consanguinity in Turkey in 1988. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 11, 1989. 35-46 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The incidence of consanguineous marriage in Turkey is examined, with a focus on the impact of selected background variables. Data from the 1988 Fertility and Health Survey conducted by Hacettepe University are analyzed, and the results are compared with those from the 1983 survey in an attempt to determine how the rapid social change in the country during that period has affected the rate of consanguineous marriage. Factors considered include regional distribution, size of settlement place, birthplace, education, parental consanguinity, family-arranged marriage, age at first marriage, and payment of bride money.
Correspondence: E. Tuncbilek, Hacettepe University, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10375 Uhlenberg, Peter; Cooney, Teresa; Boyd, Robert. Divorce for women after midlife. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan 1990. S3-11 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study used data from the U.S. Census, Vital Statistics, and Current Population Survey to determine current divorce patterns for women aged 40+, project marriage and divorce experiences of future cohorts of elderly women, and consider the socieconomic correlates of divorce for middle-aged and older women. Given current marriage, divorce, and widowhood rates, the findings indicate a marked decline in the proportion of future elderly women who will be married or widowed, and a dramatic increase in the proportion who will be divorced. Further, the data show that the socioeconomic well-being of divorcees is significantly below that of widowed or married women."
Correspondence: P. Uhlenberg, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB3210, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

56:10376 Als, G. The crisis of the family as illustrated by statistics. [La crise de la famille illustree par la statistique.] Bulletin du STATEC, Vol. 35, No. 5, 1989. 110-20 pp. Luxembourg. In Fre.
Recent trends concerning the family in Luxembourg are reviewed. The author examines fertility, marriage, and family characteristics and the current changes that have caused many to believe that the institution of the family is in crisis. The causes of these trends are discussed, and future prospects are explored.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10377 Altmann, Michael. What makes a stopping rule sexist? Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1990. 145-61 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Parents' decisions to have children are modeled by a simple stopping rule that describes the probability of having another child as a function of the number of boys and girls already born to the parents. Because the stopping rule depends on the sex of the offspring, the rule may introduce a correlation between sex of offspring and the number of siblings the offspring has. When this is coupled with a correlation between number of siblings and well-being, a correlation between sex and well-being may emerge despite equal treatment of the two sexes within each family. The author provides sufficient conditions on a stopping rule for it to be sexist in the sense that the average well-being of one sex is higher than that of the other sex."
Correspondence: M. Altmann, University of Minnesota, Division of Health Computer Sciences, Box 511 UMHC, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10378 Bledsoe, Caroline; Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche. Strategies of child-fosterage among Mende grannies in Sierra Leone. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 442-74 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
"One of the most striking institutional features of West African families is that support for, and benefits from, raising children are rarely borne exclusively by parents, but are shared by many people. A prime case of this in West Africa is child-fosterage, in which children are sent to be raised by nonnatal caretakers: friends, relatives, neighbors, or patrons....This chapter analyzes one such fosterage relationship: elderly Mende women in Sierra Leone who take in young children. We describe how this mitigates the cost of high fertility to childbearers at times in their lives when raising many young children would pose difficulties. Conversely, for older women who provide care for children..., who may be past the age of childbearing--or, indeed, childless or neglected by their own children--we show that fostering small children gives them far more possibilities for support than their own fertility would dictate."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10379 Bonvalet, Catherine. Changing family structures and consequences on housing in France. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 21. bis 24. September 1987 in Rouen. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 62, 1989. 149-62 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
Changes in family structure in France since 1962 are analyzed, and the effect on housing needs is assessed. The author finds that "changes in family structures have created new housing demands which must be taken into account in the future. Attempts should be made to diversify the stock and encourage mobility in both the owner-occupied and rented sectors, particularly the public or local authority rented sector."
Correspondence: C. Bonvalet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10380 Bumpass, Larry L.; Sweet, James A. Children's experience in single-parent families: implications of cohabitation and marital transitions. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 256-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Relationships among unmarried cohabitation, marital disruption, and family structure in the United States are examined using data from the National Survey of Families and Households conducted in 1987 and 1988. "In all, 27 percent of nonmarital births between 1970 and 1984 were to cohabiting couples....About two-thirds of cohabiting couples who had children during the 1970s eventually married; however, before these children reach age 16, 56 percent of them are likely to experience the disruption of their parents' marriage, in comparison with 31 percent of children born to married parents. Overall, about half of all children born between 1970 and 1984 are likely to spend some time in a mother-only family, and more than half of these children reach age 16 without having had a stepfather."
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10381 Cain, Mead. Family structure, women's status and fertility change. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 181-8 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper I will focus on three links between family structure and fertility change which I believe are theoretically and empirically important. I consider first the family as a welfare institution, or rather, the locus of welfare provision, be it familial or extrafamilial; second, the degree of gender inequality within the family; and, third, variations in the boundary of the corporate family group."
Correspondence: M. Cain, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10382 Cochrane, Susan H.; Khan, M. Ali; Osheba, Ibrahim K. T. Education, income, and desired fertility in Egypt: a revised perspective. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 38, No. 2, Jan 1990. 313-39 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Trends in desired fertility in Egypt are analyzed using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. Specifically, the authors use cross-sectional data to examine how education and income affect desired family size of both husbands and wives. The method selected for the analysis considers the fact that there may be more than one decision-maker in each household and takes into account the dichotomy concerning quality and quantity of children as well as differences between Lower and Upper rural Egypt and rural-urban differentials.
Correspondence: S. H. Cochrane, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:10383 De Vos, Susan. The relationship between age and household type in Sri Lanka. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 20, No. 3, Autumn 1989. 291-307 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author uses household data gathered by the 1975 Sri Lanka World Fertility Survey to examine the relationship between age and household type. She notes that Sri Lanka differs from other South Asian societies in the preference for a modified stem-family system over a joint-family system. In Sri Lanka, "the proportion living in a complex family household was lowest among children under 15 years of age (at 35%) and again at 35-49 (at 36%), and was highest among individuals 65 years or older (at 74%). However, this differed significantly by marital status and sex, the overall pattern reflecting the fact that few children are married, most middle-aged people are currently married, many old people are formerly married and that females tend to marry younger but live longer than males."
This is a revised version of a paper by the author and K. R. Murty, which was originally presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 49, No. 3, Fall 1983, p. 382).
Correspondence: S. De Vos, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10384 Deaton, Angus. The allocation of goods within the household: adults, children, and gender. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 39, Aug 1987. v, 28, 5 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author presents an empirical procedure that uses household survey data to examine the allocation of resources within the household by sex in developing countries. Specifically, it estimates the effects of additional children on household expenditures for various adult goods using data from the 1985 Living Standards Survey in the Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast). The results suggest that "additional children do indeed reduce the demand for adult goods, but that the effects are identical for boys and girls. Even so, the allocation of the adult goods themselves is heavily biased towards adult males....These results are shown to be robust to alternative empirical procedures as well as to disaggregation of the Cote d'Ivoire by region. Analysis of the demand for food shows that there is little evidence of any sex-bias in the allocation of food."
Correspondence: World Bank, Welfare and Human Resources Division, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10385 Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. Macro-effects of changes in household preferences for children. Simulated history and future time paths. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1989. 165-88 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The basic ideas underlying the analysis in this paper are that family size can be viewed as an economic life cycle decision and that there are decision trade-offs among fertility, consumption, and leisure. A micromodel of life cycle choice is developed and embedded in an economic-demographic macromodel. The macromodel is then used in a series of computer experiments to assess the effects on the population and the economy of changes in household preferences for children. The experiments include 'factual' and 'counterfactual' simulations of Canadian historical demographic experience and simulations of alternative future scenarios. The analysis and conclusions have general relevance for countries that have been through a fertility boom-and-bust sequence."
Correspondence: F. T. Denton, McMaster University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10386 Duraisamy, P. An econometric analysis of fertility, child schooling and labour force participation of women in rural Indian households. Journal of Quantitative Economics, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jul 1988. 293-316 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"A household choice model, based on the new theory of consumer behaviour, is derived to analyse families' joint decisions concerning family size, investment in child schooling and labour force participation of wife. The comparative static properties of the model are examined and the theoretical predictions are empirically tested within a simultaneous equations system using rural household data [from India]. The empirical results, in general, confirm the a priori expectations of the model and also suggest that economic variables, namely wages (opportunity cost of time) and income are important in explaining the demographic and economic behaviour of the rural households."
Correspondence: P. Duraisamy, University of Madras, Department of Econometrics, Madras 600 005, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10387 Durr, Jean-Michel; Audirac, Pierre-Alain. Large families in France at the 1982 census. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 21. bis 24. September 1987 in Rouen. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 62, 1989. 119-26 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
Results concerning family size from the 1982 census of France are briefly reviewed. Consideration is given to the overall decrease in the number of large families, the growth in the proportion of large families headed by foreign men, the labor force activity of fathers of large families, regional differentials, and dwelling conditions.
Correspondence: J.-M. Durr, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10388 Florez, Carmen E. Changing women's status and fertility decline in Colombia. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 189-200 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The objective in this paper...is to compare the lives of two groups of urban and rural [Colombian] women representing the behaviour before and after the demographic transition. The comparison is made by examining changes between the two cohorts in the different stages of the process of family formation and expansion, and by documenting the effects of women's status on the different demographic transitions characterising the family formation process. Because of the large differences in income existing in the country, three socioeconomic strata are considered both in urban and rural areas."
Correspondence: C. E. Florez, Universidad de Los Andes, Centro de Estudios sobre Desarrollo Economico, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10389 Gordon, Chris. The Bevolkingsregisters and their use in analysing the co-residential behaviour of the elderly. NIDI Report, No. 9, 1989. vii, 118 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author utilizes Dutch population registers to reconstitute households in the past and to project future trends, with a focus on the household structure of the elderly and the importance of kin in their living arrangements. Findings indicate that the elderly show a high degree of independent living and that familial support cannot be adequately assessed by examining household composition. The author encourages a broad contemporary investigation into familial support as well as an understanding of historical experience to determine government expenditures for the care of the elderly.
Correspondence: NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, Lange Houtstraat 19, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10390 Grundy, Emily. Demographic change, household evolution and housing needs: England and Wales. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 148-58 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author "describes the effect of demographic trends on household formation and housing demand in Britain. Two groups are discussed in more detail; the young and the elderly. These groups are of particular interest because they constitute the two main groups either entering the housing market for the first time through household formation, or leaving it altogether through household dissolution. Other trends, such as household fission, will also continue to influence housing demand." Life cycle stages in household formation and development and secular changes in housing composition are discussed.
Correspondence: E. Grundy, King's College, Age Concern Institute of Gerontology, Chelsea Campus, 552 Kings Road, London SW10 0UA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10391 Haskey, John. Families and households of the ethnic minority and white populations of Great Britain. Population Trends, No. 57, Autumn 1989. 8-19 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the family and household composition of the different ethnic minority populations in terms of the numbers of persons per household, dependent children per family, families by type--including lone parent families--and the demographic characteristics of heads of families. Some results are also presented for each ethnic group of the extent to which multi-family households are effectively extended families. On all these topics, corresponding results are presented for the White and total populations."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10392 Hendershott, Patric H.; Smith, Marc T. Transfer programs and aggregate household formations. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1989. 227-45 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The number of households in the United States increased by over fifty percent in the 1960s and 1970s, nearly double the rate of population growth. Part of the increase is explained by the movement of large cohort groups of the population into prime household-forming age categories, but higher headship rates also contribute. Age-specific headship rate increases result from non-demographic factors, and this paper focuses on the role of government transfer payment programs. Specifically considered are Social Security, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, and Food Stamps. These programs are found to have accounted for as many as 4 million net household formations between 1961 and 1984. The findings have implications for expected household formations in the 1990s."
Correspondence: P. H. Hendershott, Ohio State University, Department of Finance, 1775 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10393 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Does very low fertility accelerate nuclearization? Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 189, Jan 1989. 42-6 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author estimates the impact of different fertility levels on the trend toward the establishment of the nuclear family in Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10394 Hooimeijer, Pieter; Linde, Marianne. Demographic change, household evolution and housing needs: the Netherlands. In: Contemporary research in population geography: a comparison of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, edited by John Stillwell and Henk J. Scholten. 1989. 158-71 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors "concentrate on household evolution over the period 1960-1981 in the Netherlands and on the housing market behaviour of the different types of households which have come into existence as a result of this evlolution. Before turning to these issues they provide some insight into the data available for the analyses. They conclude by making a tentative speculation about the future and stating some policy implications." Housing needs are discussed and household changes during the life cycle are described, including formation, expansion, contraction, and dissolution.
Correspondence: P. Hooimeijer, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Geografisch Instituut, Postbus 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10395 Kojima, Hiroshi. Coresidence of young adults with their parents in Japan: do sib size and birth order matter? Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 2, Jul 1989. 43 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of sib size and birth order on the coresidence of never-married youth with their parents in Japan, where eldest sons are often expected to live with their parents after marriage. Logistic regressions are performed using the data from 1982 National Fertility Survey (Single Youth Survey) conducted by the Institute of Population Problems in Tokyo. While sib size has a significant and negative effect among both sexes, eldest-child status has a significant and positive effect among males only. Age affects coresidence positively among males but negatively among females. Unexpectedly, self-employment of father has a significant and negative effect among both sexes, though that of youth has a significant and positive effect among males."
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 511-2).
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10396 Kojima, Hiroshi. Determinants of perinuptial parent-child coresidence in Japan: an analytical framework. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 3, Aug 1989. 33 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"In this paper I...propose a theoretical framework for the analysis of determinants of parent-child coresidence in Japan at the following two life course stages surrounding marriage: prenuptial adult and early postnuptial stages. I focus on these two stages because the coresidence at the latter is found to have significant effects on nuptiality and fertility in Japan....Prenuptial coresidence of each spouse should also have effects on these demographic behaviors because it is observed to affect postnuptial coresidence...."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10397 Lehrer, Evelyn L. Preschoolers with working mothers: an analysis of the determinants of child care arrangements. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1989. 251-68 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This research examines the determinants of child care mode choice for the preschool-age children of working mothers. Attention is focused on two main questions. First, do increases in economic resources raise the likelihood that center care arrangements will be employed? And second, is there a quality-quantity tradeoff in the context of child care? A multinomial logit analysis of data on preschoolers from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (conducted in the United States) yields positive answers to both of these questions."
Correspondence: E. L. Lehrer, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10398 Levine, David. Reproducing families: the political economy of English population history. Themes in the Social Sciences, ISBN 0-521-33256-7. LC 86-26372. 1987. x, 251 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Reviewing the course of English population history from 1066 to the present, this book challenges current orthodoxies about the evolution of English family forms, and offers a bold new interpretation of the inter-connections between social, economic, demographic, and family history." The focus of the study is on how changes in the labor process affected family formation. "The author argues that the explosive transformations of family and demography that occurred between 1780 and 1815 were the culmination of a protracted transition from a feudal to a capitalist social structure; and that the post-1870 decline in marital fertility took place within a context of demographic, familial, social and political adjustments which were themselves a response to the earlier population explosion." The author also offers a new interpretation of the data provided in Wrigley and Schofield's "The Population History of England".
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

56:10399 Marcoux, Richard; Mongeau, Jael. Did your household have a new "boss" between 1971 and 1981? [Votre menage a-t-il change de "boss" entre 1971 et 1981?] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1989. 115-36 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The number of women head of the household has more than doubled in Canada between 1971 and 1981. This paper investigates to what extent this increase may be imputed to changes in household structure (for instance, the rise in the number of lone-parent families) and to what extent it may be due to the introduction, in 1981, of a new concept to identify the person who is 'head' of the household....The existence of wide interprovincial disparities leads to the hypothesis that the change of concept may have had a different impact according to the characteristics of the household, and of the spouses."
Correspondence: R. Marcoux, Universite du Quebec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique--Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10400 Menahem, Georges. The influence of family background on domestic relationships between spouses. [Les rapports domestiques entre femmes et hommes s'enracinent dans le passe familial des conjoints.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 515-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines the impact of spouses' family background on the relationship between husbands and wives in families with children. The data concern France and are from a sample of 1,739 households with children, which was taken from a survey on fertility and living standards undertaken in 1981.
Correspondence: G. Menahem, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Recherche sur l'Epargne, le Patrimoine et les Inegalites, 26 rue Boyer, 75971 Paris Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10401 Nelissen, J. H. M.; Vossen, A. P. Projecting household dynamics: a scenario-based microsimulation approach. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 3, Dec 1989. 253-79 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Two methods are brought together to estimate and analyse future household structure [in the Netherlands]. Application of a scenario method results in the construction of differing context scenarios. These context scenarios function as alternative societal environments of the future household system. Given these context scenarios and, tentatively derived, general hypotheses relating relevant elements of the context scenarios and household processes, future input parameters of the household model are postulated. Subsequently, microsimulation is used to calculate the future household structure. Emphasis in the article is on methodology, rather than on substantive issues which have a mainly illustrative function."
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Tilburg University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10402 Page, Hilary J. Childrearing versus childbearing: coresidence of mother and child in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 401-41 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the prevalence of nonmaternal child rearing and its determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nonmaternal residence of children is found to be a widespread phenomenon with implications for fertility and child health. The findings "confirm the fundamental importance of family systems, as opposed to education and, to a lesser extent, urbanization, in determining the prevalence of nonmaternal residence....The overwhelming importance of lineage and marriage patterns for the level of child circulation is of considerable importance because it suggests that child circulation and proparenthood are likely to remain common for quite a long time. In general, family systems and the underlying familial values they reflect change much more slowly than such socioeconomic characteristics as educational and occupational diversity or urbanization." Data are from World Fertility Surveys for Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, and Sudan.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, pp. 459-60).
Correspondence: H. J. Page, Rijksuniversiteit te Gent, Department of Sociology, St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 25, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10403 Petrov, P. P.; Kasymova, G. P. Medico-demographic characteristics of young large families in the Kazakh SSR. [Mediko-demograficheskaya kharakteristika molodykh mnogodetnykh semei v Kazakhskoi SSR.] Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie, No. 12, 1988. 29-33 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in family size in the Kazakh Republic, USSR, are analyzed. The authors associate the observed trend toward smaller families with rises in the standard of living, female employment, and high rates of induced abortion and contraceptive use. They emphasize the benefits for both parents and children of living in an extended family, a trend that is widespread in the region.
Correspondence: P. P. Petrov, 111 Kraevoi Patologii Minzdrava Kazakhskoi SSR, Alma-Ata, USSR. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:10404 Poschl, Hannelore. Forms of living together in 1988. [Formen des Zusammenlebens 1988.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 10, Oct 1989. 627-34 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Household and family characteristics in West Germany are examined using data from the 1988 microcensus. Information is included on household members by age group and household size, households by number and age of children, family relationships within households, one-parent and two-parent families, and families by age of children.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10405 Ray, Ranjan. Household composition and optimal commodity taxes: do demographic variables matter? Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1988. 213-24 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper investigates conditions under which demographic variables will have no impact on commodity taxes. We allow nonlinear and nonseparable preferences, a general demographic demand procedure, and a demogrant scheme linked to the number of children. Formulae for demographic revision of tax estimates are presented in a form that can be easily applied, and the only marginal data requirement is the number of children in the household. The paper extends an earlier exercise...in avoiding the need for equivalence scales, and in using a demogrant scheme that is consistent with current practice in several European countries. The study confirms the robustness of the earlier discussion to the demogrant scheme adopted."
Correspondence: R. Ray, Manchester University, Faculty of Economics and Social Studies, Department of Econometrics and Social Statistics, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10406 Schlesinger, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Rachel. Postponed parenthood: trends and issues. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 20, No. 3, Autumn 1989. 355-63 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in delayed childbearing in the United States and Canada are discussed, and the literature relevant to such trends is reviewed. Issues related to postponed parenthood include biological and economic factors; changes in women's status, educational achievement, and labor force participation; older age at marriage; new reproductive and contraceptive technologies; and such psychological factors as maturity and ability to cope with the stress of parenthood.
Correspondence: B. Schlesinger, University of Toronto, Faculty of Social Work, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10407 Shorter, Edward. Some demographic effects of postmodern family life. [Einige demographische Auswirkungen des postmodernen Familienlebens.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1989. 221-33 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Changes in family structure and characteristics in developed countries during the past 20 years are examined. The author attempts to clarify what is meant by "postmodern" as it applies to the emerging trends in the family and the demographic effects of these changes.
Correspondence: E. Shorter, University of Toronto, Department of History, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10408 Sotoudeh-Zand, Mahmoud; Malik, Farrukh J.; Najeeb-ur-Rehman, Agha. The economic value of children: a pilot survey. 1988. 95 pp. National Institute of Population Studies: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The results of a study on the economic value of children in Pakistan are presented. Following a description of the survey methodology, the characteristics of the survey respondents are outlined, including age and sex distribution, age at marriage, duration of marriage, income, housing, literacy, and employment and occupation. The study also compares desired and actual fertility and the determinants of fertility.
Correspondence: National Institute of Population Studies, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

56:10409 Trost, Jan. Scandinavian families. Familjerapporter, No. 15, 1990. 32 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
The author examines changes in fertility, marriage and divorce patterns, cohabitation, and employment in Scandinavia and the impact of these changes on family structure since the mid-nineteenth century.
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10410 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Households, families, marital status, and living arrangements: March 1989 (advance report). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 441, Nov 1989. 15 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Preliminary data on families, households, marital status, and living arrangements for the United States in March 1989 are presented from the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Retrospective data from 1940 are also included.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10411 Wall, Richard. Leaving home and living alone: an historical perspective. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 3, Nov 1989. 369-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides a temporal and spatial perspective on a variety of household forms in present-day Europe. Compared with the situation in pre-industrial England, many more people now live on their own but there are some surprising continuities in household forms. Notably, pre-industrial households were no more likely than present-day ones to include distant relatives, and the recent rise in the proportion of one-person families has simply returned the position to that produced by early widowhood in the seventeenth century. Nor has the general increase during recent decades in the proportion of one-person households reduced the variation within Europe in the frequency of living alone which remains much less likely in southern and parts of eastern Europe than in western Europe and Scandinavia....It is suggested that a standard set of tables [describing household types] should be agreed and produced for different national populations."
For a related study, published in 1988, see 55:20473.
Correspondence: R. Wall, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10412 Watanabe, Yoshikazu. Changes in Japanese households between five-year intervals. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 189, Jan 1989. 31-41 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes recent changes in Japanese household types. Data are from the 1985 Demographic Survey of Family Life-Course and Household Change.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10413 Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Garfinkel, Irwin. The growth of families headed by women: 1950-1980. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 19-30 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this article, we use U.S. census data from 1950 to 1980 to consider the extent to which population growth, fertility change, decreased marriage, increased divorce, and increased household headship have contributed to the growth of female-headed families. For white women, the major source of growth during the 1960s and 1970s was an increase in the number of formerly married mothers due to increased divorce and decreased remarriage. There is a similar pattern for black women for the 1960-1970 period. During the 1970-1980 decade, however, the major source of growth for black women was an increase in the number of never-married mothers due to decreased marriage and increased fertility among nonmarried women."
For an earlier version of this paper, published in 1988, see 55:10492.
Correspondence: R. A. Wojtkiewicz, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology and Center for Life Course and Population Studies, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10414 Yamamoto, Chizuko. Statistics on family households in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 189, Jan 1989. 47-50 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
A selection of statistics on families and households in Japan is presented. The data are from the 1985 census and from a number of surveys undertaken between 1982 and 1986.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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