Volume 56 - Number 1 - Spring 1990

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

56:10188 Agounke, Akoua; Assogba, Mensan; Anipah, Kodjo. Demographic and Health Survey of Togo, 1988. [Enquete Demographique et de Sante au Togo, 1988.] Dec 1989. xvii, 169 pp. Direction Generale de la Sante, Direction de la Statistique, Unite de Recherche Demographique: Lome, Togo; Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
Results are presented of the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Togo, one in a series being conducted as part of the Institute for Resource Development's DHS program. The data concern 3,360 women aged 15-49. The methodology of the survey is first described. Chapters are included on nuptiality and other factors affecting fertility, fertility, contraception, fertility preferences, and maternal and child health and mortality.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Macro, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10189 Ainsworth, Martha. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility in Cote d'Ivoire. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 53, ISBN 0-8213-1256-1. LC 89-16412. 1989. x, 52 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of schooling and income on fertility in Cote d'Ivoire [Ivory Coast] using data from the 1985 Cote d'Ivoire Living Standards Survey. The first part presents graphically the correlations between fertility and area of residence, female schooling and household income. The second part estimates a reduced form equation in which the number of children ever born is regressed on the mother's age and schooling, the location of the household and household income variables. This equation is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS), maximum likelihood Tobit and a Poisson count model." The results suggest that in general, female schooling lowers fertility, while household income raises it.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

56:10190 Aloui, Touhami; Ayad, Mohamed; Fourati, Habib. Demographic and Health Survey in Tunisia, 1988. [Enquete Demographique et de Sante en Tunisie, 1988.] Oct 1989. xx, 224 pp. Ministere de la Sante Publique, Office National de la Famille et de la Population, Direction de la Population: Tunis, Tunisia; Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
Results are presented from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Tunisia, one in a series being conducted by the Institute for Resource Development in its DHS program. Chapters are included on the country background, survey organization and methodology, the characteristics of the sample surveyed, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, contraception, fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, and maternal and child health. Appendixes deal with the planning of the survey and sampling errors.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro Systems, DHS Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10191 Aoun, Samar. An assessment of the paired comparison procedure for measuring early changes in fertility in Syria, Tunisia and Yemen Arab Republic. CPS Research Paper, No. 89-2, ISBN 0-902657-26-7. Dec 1989. ii, 38 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
The paired comparison procedure, or truncation approach, to the life-table analysis of birth intervals is described and applied to fertility data from Syria, Tunisia, and the Yemen. The success of this approach in detecting fertility trends in these three countries is assessed, and ways to improve this method of fertility analysis are suggested.
Correspondence: University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10192 Barkat-e-Khuda; Howaldar, Sushil; Harbison, Sarah P. The impact of development programmes on fertility in Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 1-18 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts a quantification of the impact of several major development inputs on contraceptive prevalence and fertility in Bangladesh making use of Bongaarts model of the determinants of fertility to do so....[It is noted] that development programme outputs affect the socio-economic status of households, which affects the demand for children, which in turn is translated into actual fertility behaviour through changes in the proximate determinants....Changes in the socio-economic status of household members (males and females) may directly affect the proximate determinants, which finally affect fertility. The proximate determinants of the Bongaarts model include age at first marriage, proportion of currently married women, postpartum amenorrhoea, breastfeeding, induced abortion, and contraceptive usage. This paper also presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the relative efficiency of increasing contraceptive prevalence and/or decreasing fertility using increased family planning programme effort."
Correspondence: Barkat-e-Khuda, Dhaka University, Ramma, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10193 Benavente, Jaime. Social change and early fertility decline in Catalonia. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 3, Dec 1989. 207-34 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article attempts a description of the fertility and nuptiality patterns of a group of selected localities in Catalonia [Spain] from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. The pattern of fertility transition in Catalonia can be described as starting from nuptiality conditions of early and quasi-universal marriage. The pattern of nuptiality is preserved throughout the process in its essentials. The transition, then, was largely limited to a decline in marital fertility. The evidence suggests an onset occurring in the 1830s, closer to the French experience than to that of any other Western European country. Finally, the analysis of the 84 local areas supports the proposition that structural factors had a significant effect on both the mid-nineteenth century level of marital fertility and the rate of decline during the 70-year period under study."
Correspondence: J. Benavente, Community Systems Foundation, 1130 Hill Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10194 Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Skovron, Mary L.; Lapinski, Robert H.; Berkowitz, Richard L. Delayed childbearing and the outcome of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322, No. 10, Mar 8, 1990. 659-64 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The effect of advancing maternal age on the outcome of pregnancy in first births is assessed using data on 3,917 women aged 20 or older in a hospital-based cohort study undertaken in New York City between 1985 and 1987. Women over age 35 had a slightly higher risk of having a low birth-weight infant. "However, there was no evidence that women between 30 and 34 or those 35 and older had an increased risk of having a preterm delivery or of having an infant who was small for gestational age, had a low Apgar score, or died in the perinatal period....This study suggests that although older primiparous women have higher rates of complications of pregnancy and delivery, their risk of a poor neonatal outcome is not appreciably increased."
Correspondence: G. Berkowitz, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1172, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:10195 Bilsborrow, Richard; Hess, Peter; Tsui, Amy. Linkages between the demand for children, contraceptive use, and fertility: preliminary evidence from Mexico and unresolved issues. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 331-48 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we have attempted to describe and empirically test portions of an expanded Easterlin-type synthesis model of the determinants of fertility, taking into account demand factors, supply factors and the costs of fertility regulation, and incorporating community context or structural factors. Considering demand as predetermined...we operationalised and estimated a two-equation recursive model, with the dependent variables being use of contraception and fertility. In the process, we developed and used improved operational measures of several key variables: index of effective use of contraception; (excess) demand for children as a proxy for motivation to use fertility regulation; aspects of fecundity...and exposure to the risk of conception resulting from life-cycle or marital stage...; and two community measures, indexes of physical access to family planning and norms regarding the use of modern methods." Data are from the 1982 National Demographic Survey of Mexico.
Correspondence: R. Bilsborrow, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10196 Blum, Alain. Fertility trends in France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries--a regional analysis. [L'evolution de la fecondite en France aux XVIIIe et XIXe siecles--analyse regionale.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 157-77 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
A chronological analysis of the early decline in fertility that occurred in France is presented using a regional approach. "This article studies the family reconstitutions made by INED for 40 villages and presents reconstitutions of period fertility from 1740 to the end of the XIXth century for a set of regions. The time series show that the French Revolution played a central role: a clear-cut break in the fertility trend appears during this period. Normandy is the only one of the regions studied to have started this fertility decline prior to 1789. A more technical problem is then examined, related to an estimation of variance of fertility rates and of completed fertility based on the Coale-Trussell method."
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10197 Bolivia. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (La Paz, Bolivia); Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Bolivia: National Demographic and Health Survey, 1989. [Bolivia: Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud, 1989.] Jan 1990. xix, 137 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
Results are presented of the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey of Bolivia, one in a series of surveys being conducted as part of the Institute for Resource Development's DHS program. This survey included 7,923 women aged 15-49 and 5,192 children under five years old. Chapters are included on maternal and child health; nuptiality, breast-feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea; fertility levels and trends; fertility control and contraceptive knowledge and use; and fertility preferences. Details of the survey methodology are also included.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Macro, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10198 Brunetti, P. M.; Jouhet, P. An attempt to measure fertility in the French population. [Essai de mesure de la fertilite dans la population francaise.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 35-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The measurement of the biological components of human fertility is not easy when birth-control is widely used. The results discussed in this paper come from a sample of 150 women (aged 29), randomly selected among the electors in two cities of France. For 196 planned pregnancies, the mean time to conception (after cessation of all kinds of birth control) slightly exceeded 4 months. The proportion of long delays seems to be higher for miscarriages than for live births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10199 Bubnowa, Helena. Demographic swings. Causes, nature, forecasts. [Falowanie demograficzne. Przyczyny, charakter, prognozy.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/95, 1989. 35-53 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines the periodic highs and lows of births in European countries, the republics of the USSR, the United States, Canada, and Japan. Changes in the timing of births among successive female cohorts are analyzed as they affect these "demographic waves".
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10200 Butt, Abdul R. Determinants of fertility: a microeconomic approach. Economic Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, 1988. 11-21 pp. Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author identifies microeconomic factors affecting the fertility of the individual couple in Pakistan. Theoretical and methodological issues are first addressed. The results of a regression analysis are then presented.
Correspondence: A. R. Butt, University of the Punjab, 1 Shahrah-e-al-Beruni, Lahore, Pakistan. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10201 Casterline, John B. The state, social stratification, and fertility transition. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 303-13 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This essay considers the relationship between nation-state formation and fertility transition. The paper has two principal objectives: first, to specify the ways in which the development of the modern state directly and indirectly influences the emergence of a reproductive regime characterised by small family sizes (achieved chiefly through deliberate control of marital fertility); second, to interpret socio-economic differentials in reproductive behaviour...in light of the pervasive determining role of the state with respect to both socio-economic variables and reproduction."
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10202 China (Taiwan). Executive Yuan. Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (Taipei, Taiwan). Report on fertility and employment of married women, Taiwan area, Republic of China, 1988. [1989]. [202] pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng; Chi.
This is a report from an annual survey on the fertility and employment of women in Taiwan. Data are included on women aged 15-64 by marital status, whether living with parents after marriage, fertility, and employment status.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

56:10203 Compton, Paul A.; Coward, John. Fertility and family planning in Northern Ireland. ISBN 0-566-05628-3. 1989. xviii, 230 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"This book presents the main results of the [1983] Northern Ireland Fertility Survey (NIFS)....A variety of themes have been investigated using the survey data. One major topic concerns the measurement of current levels of fertility and the assessment of recent fertility trends....A second theme concerns the examination of attitudes to fertility and family planning as well as the usage of various forms of contraception....Thirdly, differences within the population regarding attitudes to fertility, use of family planning and actual patterns of fertility have been assessed. In this context, the clearly defined religious differences are an obvious topic for investigation, but variations by socio-economic status [and] region of residence...may also be examined. Fourthly, the survey, by providing data on past trends as well as anticipated family size, provides a means of assessing the future level of fertility. Lastly, the fertility survey provides the first detailed information on certain broader themes of interest concerning, for example, attitudes to abortion legislation and the incidence of mixed marriages."
Correspondence: Avebury, Gower Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10204 Congdon, Peter. Fertility forecasts and structural interpretations: an application to London and England and Wales. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 177-88 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Time series forecasts of fertility series [for London and for England and Wales] are investigated in terms of control cycles arising from fluctuations in relative cohort size. Use of autoregressive-moving average models applied to fertility series reproduces cycles longer than the generational cycles expected under the classic renewal model, both at national and regional levels. The cohort size effect is explicitly incorporated into a time series model and found to differ by age group of mother, with evidence that large cohorts tend to postpone fertility. The cohort size model is verified against other explanatory variables (e.g. changes in marriage age) and in terms of forecasts within the period of known fertility."
Correspondence: P. Congdon, London Research Centre, Population and Statistics Group, Parliament House, 81 Black Prince Road, London SE1 7SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10205 Consejo Nacional de Poblacion (La Paz, Bolivia); Pathfinder Fund (Watertown, Massachusetts). Women, work, and human reproduction in three urban environments in Bolivia, 1986-1987. [Mujer, trabajo y reproduccion humana en tres contextos urbanos de Bolivia, 1986-1987.] [1989?]. xxv, 260 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
These are the results of a 1986 survey on the relationship between women's work and fertility, carried out in Bolivia's three largest cities, La Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz. The survey involved 2,554 households and interviews with just over 3,000 women of fertile age. The results concern such topics as the role of women in Bolivian urban society; nuptiality characteristics; pregnancy outcomes and fertility; female labor force participation; contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practice; and an analysis of differential mortality in childhood.
Correspondence: Pathfinder Fund, 9 Galen Street, Suite 217, Watertown, MA 02172. Location: New York Public Library.

56:10206 Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. The estimation of fertility and abortion data in small areas. [Stima di dati su fecondita ed abortivita in piccole aree.] Statistica, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1989. 89-108 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The possibilities for obtaining reliable estimates of fertility and of spontaneous and induced abortion for small areas in Italy are examined. The advantages of the own-children method are described, and the method is applied to 1971 and 1981 census data or municipal records for 1986 for the five major cities of the Veneto. "The differences in the results are discussed, comparing estimates of the same years resulting from two different surveys (1971 vs 1981 and 1981 vs 1986), and comparing the own-children estimates with the official statistics." The author then combines hospital data with official statistics in an attempt to provide the best estimates of fertility and abortion.
Correspondence: G. Dalla Zuanna, Istituto Regionale di Studi e Ricerche Economico-Sociali del Veneto, Venice, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10207 Damas, Henriette; Wattelar, Christine. A regional analysis of fertility in Belgium (1961-1981). [Analyse regionale de la fecondite en Belgique (1961-1981).] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 215-23 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Within a generation's span, fertility has declined in Belgium, like in other industrialized countries, to the point that the renewal of the population is not ensured any longer. Regional differences, still very important in 1961, are now diminishing, but the age patterns of fertility have retained some urban or rural characteristics. A comparative analysis of the intensity and tempo of regional fertility has been carried out, based on the age-specific fertility rates of the 43 Belgian 'arrondissements', computed at the time of the last censuses (1961, 1970 and 1981) and condensed into three classical parameters: average number of children per woman, mean age at childbearing, and the variance of the latter."
Correspondence: H. Damas, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10208 Dollamore, Gillian. Live births in 1988. Population Trends, No. 57, Autumn 1989. 20-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article presents the latest annual figures for live births (1988) and conceptions (1987) in England and Wales, with summary results for the United Kingdom, Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland. There were 694 thousand live births in England and Wales during 1988, 2 per cent more than in 1987. The total period fertility rate (the average number of children who would be born per woman given current age specific fertility rates) was 1.82 in 1988 compared with 1.81 in 1987. Over 25 per cent of all births in England and Wales during 1988 occurred outside marriage."
Correspondence: G. Dollamore, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10209 Duza, M. Badrud. The conditions of fertility transition in East and South-East Asia and prospects for the 1990s. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 3-13 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines the magnitude and tempo of the fertility transition in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and reflects on the prospects for the 1990s.
Correspondence: M. B. Duza, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10210 Dyrvik, Stale. Economy or culture? The introduction of birth control in the town of Stavanger, Norway, 1900-1935. [Economie ou culture? L'introduction de la prevention des naissances dans la ville de Stavanger, Norvege, 1900-1935.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 127-39 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relative importance of economic and cultural factors in the demographic transition is examined using data from the 1920 and 1930 censuses of Norway for 609 randomly selected families living in the town of Stavanger. A two-stage analysis was carried out, involving the calculation of fertility rates for various subpopulations and the classification of couples into planners and non-planners. The results indicate that differences by social or economic status were slight. "Legitimate fertility shows greater differences by place of birth, district of residence and branch of economic activity. These observations suggest that the new fertility model spread through communication networks belonging to communities on several geographical levels. Birth control is thus an essentially cultural phenomenon."
Correspondence: S. Dyrvik, University of Bergen, 5014 Bergen Universitetet, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10211 Festy, P.; Prioux, F. The analysis of fertility in the developed countries: new challenges. [L'analyse de la fecondite en pays developpes: nouveaux defis.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 285-301 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Some problems concerning the analysis of fertility trends in developed countries are considered, with particular reference to changes in marriage patterns. The authors note that it is no longer valid to assume that fertility analysis should concentrate on the period following marriage. The growing prevalence of consensual unions or previous marriages requires the demographer to redefine the concepts of cohorts, time, and birth order in fertility analysis.
Correspondence: P. Festy, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Cedex 14, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10212 Gandotra, M. M.; Padhiyar, A. C.; Dey, A. S. Interrelationship between development and fertility. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 19-28 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between levels of development and fertility in rural villages in India. Five dimensions of development were integrated to create an index of development for 37 villages. Factors considered include energy supply, sanitation, existence of health facilities, educational status, agricultural development, industry, dependency burden, and population density. The levels of development were then compared to fertility levels. Findings indicate a decrease in fertility occurring along with an increase in development.
Correspondence: M. M. Gandotra, M. S. University of Baroda, Population Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Baroda 390 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10213 Garcia, Brigida; De Oliveira, Orlandina. The effects of variation and change in female economic roles upon fertility change in developing countries. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 171-80 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to carry out an evaluation of theoretical and empirical progress concerning the relationship between women's participation in the labour market and fertility in developing countries....We are interested above all in stressing not only the way in which the relationship between work and fertility is conceived, quantified and interpreted, but also the framework of social relationships in which it is found immersed in the case of Third World countries."
Correspondence: B. Garcia, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10214 Garnot, Benoit. "Natural fertility" and the people of Chartres in the eighteenth century. [La "fecondite naturelle" et les Chartrains au XVIIIe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 91-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in fertility among the working class of the French town of Chartres during the eighteenth century are analyzed, using data from a reconstitution of 630 closed families. "The marked decrease in mean family size observed over this period is the result of several birth control strategies; two strategies appear jointly in urban families and then spread to suburban ones, whereas a third strategy which arrives later does not affect the latter." Some problems concerning the identification of natural and controlled fertility among traditional societies are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10215 Greenhalgh, Susan. Fertility trends in China: approaching the 1990s. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 8, 1989. 24 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses probable fertility trends in China in the 1990s. "The first section documents trends in fertility over the four decades since the founding of the People's Republic, noting the marked differences between urban and rural demographic patterns. The second section describes the explicit fertility policies adopted by the Chinese government in the last two decades and quantifies the concurrent changes in contraceptive prevalence and the distribution of births by parity....The following sections sketch the profound transformations in social structure and social relations, in both the cities and the countryside, that preceded the introduction of the planned birth program and greatly facilitated its success. Extrapolating forward, a final section discusses likely scenarios for the 1990s."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10216 Gulati, S. C. Fertility in India: an econometric analysis of a metropolis. Studies in Economic Development and Planning, No. 46, ISBN 81-7036-099-4. LC 88-9419. 1988. 203 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India; Institute of Economic Growth: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author formulates and tests alternative socioeconomic hypotheses concerning fertility using data from a survey of 5,624 women undertaken in Delhi, India, between 1968 and 1970. A cohort analysis is used to identify the relevance and varying importance of different socioeconomic and cultural factors. The analysis involves 34 selected variables that can affect fertility. The author considers both short- and long-term policy implications of the study's conclusions.
Correspondence: Sage Publications India Pvt, 32 M Block Market, Greater Kailash I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10217 Harbison, Sarah F.; Khaleque, T. M. Kibriaul; Robinson, Warren C. Female autonomy and fertility among the Garo of North Central Bangladesh. American Anthropologist, Vol. 91, No. 4, Dec 1989. 1,000-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between the status of women and fertility is examined using the example of a tribal people, the Garo, living in northeastern Bangladesh. The data are for 211 Garo women surveyed in 1984 and concern fertility, contraception, age at marriage, breast-feeding, infant mortality, and other socio-cultural practices that seem likely to affect fertility. The authors conclude that female autonomy and high status are neither necessary nor will they provide sufficient conditions for fertility decline among the Garo.
Correspondence: S. F. Harbison, Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10218 Heckman, James J.; Walker, James R. Forecasting aggregate period-specific birth rates: the time series properties of a microdynamic neoclassical model of fertility. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 84, No. 408, Dec 1989. 958-65 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article demonstrates the value of microdata for understanding the effect of wages on life cycle fertility dynamics. Conventional estimates of neoclassical economic fertility models obtained from linear aggregate time series regressions are widely criticized for being nonrobust when adjusted for serial correlation. Moreover, the forecasting power of these aggregative neoclassical models has been shown to be inferior when compared with conventional time series models that assign no role to wages. This article demonstrates that, when neoclassical models of fertility are estimated on microdata using methods that incorporate key demographic restrictions and when they are properly aggregated, they have considerable forecasting power." Data are from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: J. J. Heckman, Yale University, Department of Economics, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

56:10219 Henripin, Jacques. To be born or not to be. [Naitre ou ne pas etre.] Diagnostic, No. 10, ISBN 2-89224-101-4. 1989. 140 pp. Institut Quebecois de Recherche sur la Culture [IQRC]: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The process whereby the Canadian province of Quebec has changed from being one of the highest-fertility regions of the developed world to one of the lowest is analyzed. The first two chapters consider the process of human reproduction and how societies achieve, or fail to achieve, a demographic balance. The next two chapters describe the high-fertility situation in the past and the fertility decline that has occurred over the past century. Next, the brief baby boom that followed World War II and the widespread adoption of contraception and induced abortion are analyzed. The author considers the causes and consequences of below-replacement fertility in developed countries. The study concludes with a review of possible strategies and policies that could be used to reverse current trends of low fertility.
Correspondence: IQRC, 14 rue Haldimand, Quebec G1R 4N4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10220 Itoh, Tatsuya; Bando, Rieko. Marital fertility taking into account marriage duration and age at marriage in the early 1980s in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 189, Jan 1989. 51-69 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
A new method of calculating marital fertility that considers marriage duration and age at marriage is developed and applied to official Japanese data. Comparisons are made with marital fertility rates calculated using traditional methods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10221 Jones, Huw. Fertility decline in Mauritius: the role of Malthusian population pressure. Geoforum, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1989. 315-28 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The rapid decline in fertility that has occurred in recent years in Mauritius is analyzed. "It is argued that fertility decline in Mauritius has been hindered by cultural composition, assisted only modestly by ongoing development, but aided significantly by family planning programme intervention and by a remarkably wide recognition at government and individual levels of the diseconomies associated with population growth in a congested society; comparisons are made with other densely peopled, small islands. Spatial variations in fertility and in family planning activity are slight, but Western economic theories of fertility are found to be helpful in interpreting significant temporal fluctuations."
Correspondence: H. Jones, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:10222 Kaijuka, Emmanuel M.; Kaija, Edward Z. A.; Cross, Anne R.; Loaiza, Edilberto. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, 1988/1989. Oct 1989. xvi, 137 pp. Ministry of Health: Entebbe, Uganda; Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This is a report of the findings of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), which was carried out from September 1988 to February 1989. "The objectives of the UDHS were to collect data on fertility, family planning knowledge, attitudes and use among women; and on maternal and child health coverage such as immunisation, breastfeeding, diarrhoeal diseases in children, nutrition, maternity care and child morbidity and treatment." Findings indicate a continuation in the high rate of fertility, with major contributing factors being young age at marriage and low levels of contraceptive use. High rates and long duration of breast-feeding are found to offer some protection against conception, and increased educational levels have had a positive impact on family planning acceptance. It is also noted that infant and child mortality remain high and nutritional status of children is very low.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro Systems, DHS Programme, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10223 Kenya. Ministry of Home Affairs and National Heritage. National Council for Population and Development (Nairobi, Kenya); Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Kenya: Demographic and Health Survey, 1989. Oct 1989. xxii, 158 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This is a report of the findings of "the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey [which] was conducted between December 1988 and May 1989 to collect data regarding fertility, family planning and maternal and child health. The survey covered 7,150 women aged 15-49 and a subsample of 1,116 husbands of these women, selected from a sample covering 95 percent of the population. The purpose of the survey was to provide planners and policymakers with data useful in making informed programme decisions." Sections are included on nuptiality, breast-feeding, and postpartum insusceptibility; fertility; fertility regulation; fertility preferences; and mortality and health. A separate section presents data from the husbands' survey.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro Systems, DHS Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10224 Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane. The fertility of women of Florence (fourteenth to sixteenth centuries). [La fecondite des Florentines (XIVe-XVIe siecles).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 41-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends in Florence, Italy, from 1300 to 1530 are analyzed based on domestic records kept by merchant families. The data indicate that there was very little attempt to limit fertility among the upper classes and that their fertility was high. Particular attention is paid to the impact on fertility of the use of paid wet-nurses and of changes in age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10225 Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T. Women's status, education and family formation in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1989. 100-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine women's status and its relation to fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Factors affecting women's status considered include access to education and age at marriage. Findings indicate that countries that had greater equity between the sexes in education in 1960 experienced greater declines in fertility in the 1980s.
Correspondence: M. M. Kritz, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10226 Landry, Yves. Fertility and environment among the French immigrants to New France. [Fecondite et habitat des immigrantes francaises en Nouvelle-France.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 259-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The main goal of this work is to analyse, with standard indices, the fertility of a population of French women who immigrated to Canada from 1663 to 1673, according to the urban or rural nature of their place of origin in France and of their place of settlement in Canada." Although fertility differentials by residence characteristics in Canada were not significant, the fertility of immigrants was significantly influenced by residence characteristics in country of origin.
Correspondence: Y. Landry, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10227 Lelievre, Eva. Female activity and fertility. [Activite feminine et fecondite.] In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 21. bis 24. September 1987 in Rouen. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 62, 1989. 127-48 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Fre.
Longitudinal data are used to analyze the fertility and labor force activity of French women. The data, from a survey undertaken by INED, concern 2,390 women aged 45-69 in 1981 who were married during and after World War II. The focus of the article is on the active and inactive phases of women's professional lives and their correspondence to fertility levels.
Correspondence: E. Lelievre, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10228 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Vanderhoeft, Camille; Gaisie, Samuel; Delaine, Ghislaine. Regional variation in components of child-spacing: the role of women's education. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 122-66 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, our primary aim is the assessment of the effect of female education on each of the fertility components separately as well as on their overall balance with respect to child-spacing [in Sub-Saharan Africa]....Only the postpartum variables (lactation, lactational amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence) and contraception are considered. The other components of fertility, namely abortion and coital frequency, are omitted for lack of reliable data....We shall pay attention to the balance between the fertility-increasing potential of shorter lactation or abstinence and the fertility-lowering effect of contraception. This involves a more technical section in which we evaluate the joint effect of declining lactational amenorrhea and postpartum abstinence. The data used in this chapter are [from] the World Fertility Survey."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10229 Lin, Fude. The establishment of parity-variable fertility model based on family planning practice. Population Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jun 1989. 18-32 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author creates a parity-variable fertility model to examine fertility trends in China. Factors considered include marriage patterns, birth spacing, population policy, and socioeconomic and cultural conditions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10230 Lutz, Wolfgang. Distributional aspects of human fertility: a global comparative study. Studies in Population, ISBN 0-12-460470-6. 1989. xi, 282 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California. In Eng.
The distributional aspects of fertility are analyzed from both period and cohort perspectives using data from 41 WFS surveys, 14 surveys conducted in developed countries under WFS guidelines, and data from the Finnish population register for 1984. Chapter 1 introduces the general concept of demographic dimensions and develops a logit model to assess their relative effects on fertility. Chapter 2 focuses on distributions in respect to parity among countries and socioeconomic groups from a cohort perspective. Chapter 3 looks at similar questions from a period perspective. Chapter 4 "summarizes the information given in the complete parity distribution using a single distributional indicator--a coefficient of concentration. Here, special attention is given to the changing relationship between the level and concentration of fertility. In the Epilogue an effort is made to point out that--in addition to the consequences of the level of fertility--distributional aspects of reproduction have important consequences on the individual, on society, and on the economy."
Correspondence: Academic Press, Book Marketing Department, 1250 Sixth Avenue, San Diego, CA 92101-9665. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

56:10231 Macunovich, D. J.; Easterlin, R. A. Application of Granger-Sims causality tests to monthly fertility data, 1958-1984. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1988. 71-88 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The authors apply Granger-Sims causality tests to monthly age-specific data to identify the effective lag between business cycles and fertility in the United States. "Male and female monthly age-specific unemployment rates are used as a proxy for the business cycle, and test results are presented for first and higher order birth rates, as well as total age-specific monthly fertility rates. The period is subdivided (January 1958-May 1973 and June 1973-December 1984) in order to identify possible trends." Results demonstrating the relationship between unemployment and fertility are presented.
This paper was originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, pp. 401-2).
Correspondence: D. J. Macunovich, University of Southern California, Department of Economics, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0152. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10232 Martinelle, Sten. A cohort model for analysing and projecting fertility by birth order. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 315-29 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper a cohort model for analysing and projecting fertility by birth order is presented. The model is formulated in...terms of progression ratios (directly related to the final parity distribution) and birth intervals. To do so the concepts of 'relative age' and 'progression function' are introduced." Data from Sweden are applied to the model.
Correspondence: S. Martinelle, Statistiska Centralbyran, Population Research Office, Karlavagen 100, S102 50 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10233 Natarajan, K. S.; Retherford, Robert D.; Singh, Phool. Fertility estimates for Kerala derived from India's 1981 census. Occasional Paper, No. 12 of 1988, [1989]. xi, 162 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India; Census Commissioner: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This report is a product of a workshop held September 9-25, 1987, on the own-children method of fertility estimation and its application to Indian data. Data from the 1981 census are used to estimate fertility for the state of Kerala using this method. The project is part of an ongoing cooperative arrangement between the United States and India concerning analysis of 1981 census data.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi, India. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

56:10234 Noin, Daniel. The decline of fertility in Europe: presentation and commentary on documents published by the Princeton Group. [La baisse de la fecondite en Europe: presentation et commentaire de documents publies par le groupe de Princeton.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 249-56 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
This is an introduction to the studies and publications resulting from the European Fertility Project carried out under the auspices of the Office of Population Research at Princeton University. It includes a selection of the maps illustrating the fertility decline over time that were produced during the course of the project.
Correspondence: D. Noin, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Geographie, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10235 Oris, Michel. Legitimate and illegitimate fertility: the poor of Huy (Belgium) from 1815 to 1875. [Fecondite legitime et illegitime: les indigents de Huy (Belgique) de 1815 a 1875.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 141-55 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The demographic transition in the Belgian city of Huy is analyzed, using family reconstitution of 482 of the poorer families in the community in the nineteenth century. The author identifies the beginning of efforts to control fertility around 1850. However, considerable differences among this social group persisted, with those having children before marriage being less likely to use birth control.
Correspondence: M. Oris, State University of Liege, F.N.R.S., Place du 20 Aout 7, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10236 Otani, Kenji. Proportional hazards model analysis of women's reproductive career in present-day Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 189, Jan 1989. 1-17 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Using data from the 1982 and 1987 Japanese National Fertility Surveys, the author constructs a proportional hazards model to analyze trends in birth intervals and abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10237 Ozgur, Servet. Fertility rates in women in rural Turkey. JPMA: Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, Vol. 39, No. 3, Mar 1989. 72-4 pp. Karachi, Pakistan. In Eng.
Fertility trends in a rural area of Turkey are analyzed using data from a survey of 450 women aged 15-44 conducted in 1981-1982 in the district of Yildizeli. The results show high rates of fertility and neonatal mortality. Information is included on age-specific fertility and on induced and spontaneous abortion. "Sixty percent of the pregnancy outcome below the age of 39 and 53% of those in the 40-44 age group survived, whereas the others were recorded as abortions, stillbirths and deaths."
Correspondence: S. Ozgur, Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Sivas 58140, Turkey. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:10238 Pantelides, Edith A. Argentine fertility since the middle of the twentieth century. [La fecundidad argentina desde mediados del siglo XX.] Cuaderno del CENEP, No. 41, Mar 1989. viii, 66 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The author describes and analyzes fertility trends in Argentina from 1947 to 1980. Introductory chapters are included on historical trends between 1869 and 1947 and on the availability of data and methods of estimation used in the study. Fertility is then analyzed by five-year age group for the country as a whole and for its individual administrative districts. The magnitude of, and possible explanations for, the increase in fertility that occurred in the 1970s are examined.
Correspondence: CENEP, Seccion Publicaciones, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10239 Pebley, Anne R.; Mbugua, Wariara. Polygyny and fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 338-64 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, our focus is limited to the association between polygyny and the fertility of individual women within marriage....To examine this association, we use data from national fertility surveys conducted in six sub-Saharan African countries in the late 1970s in connection with the World Fertility Survey program....A central objective of this analysis is to determine whether the associations between polygyny and fertility are observed in all countries in our analysis, which would imply common behavioral or biological differences between polygynous and monogamous marriage across regional and cultural boundaries. The countries involved in the analysis--Senegal, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Cameroon, Kenya, and Lesotho--include a broad range of regions and cultures in sub-Saharan Africa." Societal level effects are discussed briefly.
Correspondence: A. R. Pebley, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10240 Pfister, Ulrich. Social mobility and the fertility transition: the case of Zurich (Switzerland) in the seventeenth century. [Mobilite sociale et transition de la fecondite: le cas de Zurich (Suisse) au XVIIe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 111-25 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The fertility decline started early in Zurich, in the mid-XVIIth century. The same trend is observed for other Protestant areas, suggesting the importance of religious doctrine. The present study, based on detailed information concerning the fertile life and social status of each family and an index for distinguishing between planners and non-planners, attempts to take into account on the one hand, this general factor, and on the other hand, the specific circumstances which encouraged birth control. A freeze of the social structure, with the consequences on the cost of individual promotion for children, is at the heart of the process. The families threatened with downward social mobility and those seeking to improve their position in society more readily used birth control."
Correspondence: U. Pfister, Universitat Zurich, Ramistr. 71, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10241 Poirier, Jean; Piche, Victor; Neill, Ghyslaine. Female employment and fertility in developing countries: what does the World Fertility Survey tell us? [Travail des femmes et fecondite dans les pays en developpement: que nous a appris l'Enquete Mondiale de la Fecondite?] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1989. 159-84 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent the data of the World Fertility Survey (WFS) are useful for analysing the links between female labor and fertility. Starting with a review of the general objectives of the WFS, the authors present the theoretical expectations and the questions used for testing them. A third section is devoted to the main existing comparative studies, to the results obtained and the various interpretations to which they led. The authors conclude by assessing that the WFS data may indeed be useful, at least if due account is made of the global institutional context of each society."
Correspondence: J. Poirier, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10242 Prioux, France. Fertility and family size in Western Europe. [Fecondite et dimension des familles en Europe occidentale.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 161-76 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends in Western Europe (defined as Europe excluding Eastern Europe) since World War II are analyzed. The author notes that the shifts toward younger ages at childbearing, the two-child norm, and low rates of childlessness were superseded in the 1960s. From then on, an increasing tendency to reject both marriage and motherhood can be identified, although the trend away from large families seems to have slowed. Differences in the timing of the trends among European countries are noted.
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10243 Qu, Yibin. A discussion on causes of and measures to control the evident rise of China's birth rate. Population Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Mar 1989. 33-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author explores reasons for the rise in China's birth rate during 1985-1986. Suggestions are made for changes in family planning programs to slow the birth rate.
Correspondence: Y. Qu, Family Planning Committee, Tonghua City, Jilin Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10244 Rallu, Jean-Louis. An example of very low natural fertility: the Marquesas Islands (1886-1945). [Un cas de tres basse fecondite naturelle: les Iles Marquises (1886-1945).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 193-204 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends in the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia from the late nineteenth century to 1945 are analyzed. The author notes that fertility was already low in the late nineteenth century due to a high level of infecundity among women. "Total fertility (after correction for unregistered births) was 2.5 births per woman in generations 1866-1875 and 4.0 births per woman in generations 1876-1885." The main cause of infecundity is identified as venereal disease.
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10245 Reher, David S.; Iriso-Napal, Pedro L. Marital fertility and its determinants in rural and in urban Spain, 1887-1930. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 3, Nov 1989. 405-27 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Based primarily on census data between 1887 and 1920, the present article explores the basic structure of the social and economic factors that influenced marital fertility levels during the early part of the fertility transition in Spain. Multiple regression analysis is applied to ecological models based on separate rural and urban data. While some of the conclusions from the Princeton European Fertility Project have been corroborated, a number of the results have been quite noteworthy. Not the least of these are the sharply differing structures of causality in rural and urban areas, and the surprising and consistent role played by literacy as a stimulant of marital fertility. In the discussion of the results, we have insisted on the importance of interpreting different demographic, economic, and cultural indicators within concrete historical contexts."
Correspondence: D. S. Reher, University of Madrid, School of Political Science and Sociology, Department of Population, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10246 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Morgan, S. Philip; Swicegood, Gray. First births in America: changes in the timing of parenthood. Studies in Demography, No. 2, ISBN 0-520-05907-7. LC 87-5073. 1988. xi, 291 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
The substantial changes that have occurred in the timing of parenthood, particularly concerning first births, in the United States during the twentieth century are reviewed and the determinants of those changes analyzed. The authors consider whether current fertility trends are revolutionary or if they have historical precedents. Comparisons are made with other developed countries. The impact of socioeconomic factors on the timing of parenthood, the extent of cyclical patterns in fertility, and differences in the timing of parenthood among socioeconomic, religious, and racial groups are also considered. Data are from a variety of sources, including the Current Population Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972, and the series of U.S. fertility surveys.
Correspondence: University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10247 Rochon, Madeleine. The current reproductive life of women. The Quebec case. [La vie reproductive des femmes aujourd'hui. Le cas du Quebec.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1989. 15-61 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author reviews the current reproductive patterns of women in the province of Quebec, Canada. "Through birth control and family planning, Quebec women experience an average of two pregnancies and give birth to 1.7 children. Sexual life is not reserved any more to married women, and starts at an increasingly early age. The percentage of teenagers experiencing a pregnancy is increasing. The rate of induced abortion is the highest at age 18-24. From the age of 18, more than half of the young women use oral contraceptives. The most educated women have the smallest number of pregnancies; they start their marital and reproductive life later than other women, and declare a larger percentage of induced abortion. Less educated women resort however to sterilization at an earlier age." Data are from the Quebec Health Survey of 1987 and other official sources.
Correspondence: M. Rochon, Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux, Service des Etudes Socio-Sanitaires, Quebec, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10248 Rombouts, L.; Hagenaars, A. Determinants of the baby bust. [Determinanten van het kinderdal.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 11, Nov 1989. 13-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a multivariate analysis of data from the 1988 Netherlands Fertility Survey are presented, using female labor force participation after having a first child and age at first birth as the dependent variables. The results show that female educational status has a major impact on both variables. Particular attention is given to measures that could raise the current low levels of fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10249 Rouyer, Alwyn R. The state and fertility decline in low-income countries. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 201-14 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship of the state and political structure to fertility patterns in low-income countries. I argue that under conditions of economic backwardness, as exist in much of the developing world, the state's capacity to extract and distribute resources has a much greater effect, albeit indirectly, on the decline of fertility than the level of economic development....Under circumstances where the modern economic system is not widespread throughout the population and poverty is prevalent, the state through its capacity to implement redistributive social development and family planning policies can become the key actor in the struggle to bring population growth under control."
Correspondence: A. R. Rouyer, University of Idaho, Department of Political Science, Moscow, ID 83843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10250 Serditykh, V. N. Features of demographic behavior of the urban population of the Urals: a collection of scholarly works. [Osobennosti demograficheskogo povedeniya gorodskogo naseleniya Urala: sbornik nauchnykh trudov.] LC 88-136073. 1987. 102 pp. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Ural'skii Nauchnyi Tsentr: Sverdlovsk, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of studies by various authors concerning the demographic factors affecting both families and individuals and their subsequent effect on fertility among the urban population of the Ural region of the USSR. Papers are included on the transformation of traditional blue-collar families into modern urban families, the duration of marriage, differential fertility by marital status, and reasons for migration.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:10251 Shiwakoti, Dhruba R. Fertility and education: a case study of the teachers of Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal. Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 11, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1988. 30-6 pp. Kathmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
The relationship between fertility and education among highly educated couples in Nepal is examined using data on 85 married male teachers at Tribhuvan University.
Correspondence: D. R. Shiwakoti, Tribhuvan University, Faculty of Education, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10252 Srinivasan, T. N. Fertility and old age security in an overlapping generations model. Journal of Quantitative Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 1988. 11-7 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The impact on fertility of parents' desire to have children in order to provide support in old age is analyzed. "Two alternatives are compared with respect to their fertility outcome; one in which a parent in his old age receives a customary contribution from each of his children and another in which the society allocates the output produced by working young among the young and non-working old for their consumption. It is shown that there is no theoretical support for the view that old age security motive necessarily leads to higher fertility than socially optimal....It is [also] shown that under certain assumptions about the shape of parental preferences over consumption in their working and retired life, exogenous changes in infant mortality will have no impact on fertility."
Correspondence: T. N. Srinivasan, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10253 Thibon, Christian. Natural and controlled fertility: a review of fertility trends in Burundi and the Great Lakes region of Africa from the end of the nineteenth century to the present day. [Fecondite "naturelle" et fecondite controlee: un apercu de l'evolution de la fecondite au Burundi et dans la region des Grands Lacs, de la fin du XIXe siecle a nos jours.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 179-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews fertility trends in Burundi and the parts of Rwanda and Zaire adjacent to the Great Lakes of Central Africa. "In the case of Burundi, three distinct periods can be discerned: a pronatalist family model which, imposing a 'social regulation', structured and stabilized the pre-colonial society; a period of circumstantial, then structural fertility decline throughout most of the colonial years (1880 to 1950); finally, a rise in fertility corresponding to a compensation/recomposition of the populations, but also to a challenging of traditional family norms." The factors that promote the continuance of high levels of fertility are considered.
Correspondence: C. Thibon, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, 68 rue Montpensier, BP 576 Pau-Universite, 64010 Pau Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10254 Trussell, James; Reinis, Kia I. Age at first marriage and age at first birth. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 26, 1989. 126-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents findings on patterns of age of first marriage and age of first birth for 41 countries participating in the World Fertility Survey programme. The age distribution of first marriage and first birth is summarized with three statistics: the mean, the standard deviation and the proportion ever experiencing the event. The particular method of estimation is based on a model that ensures that estimates for all cohorts are comparable, even though some women have completed their reproductive experience while others have not. The analysis provides insights into sources of error in the reporting of age at first birth. In addition, trends and cross-country patterns are documented and conclusions are drawn about the adequacy of those statistics for the description of patterns of age at first birth and age at first marriage."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10255 Tuladhar, Jayanti M. The onset of a fertility decline in Nepal? Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep 1989. 15-30 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Fertility trends and levels in Nepal are examined using data from the 1986 Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey. Factors considered are sex ratios at birth, current levels of infant and child mortality, age-specific fertility rate, and contraceptive use. "The survey indicates that, compared with earlier periods (i.e. 1980-1985) when the total fertility rate (TFR) was around 5.6 per woman, TFR seems to have declined by 9 per cent during the past decade, with the main decline occurring during the last five years."
Correspondence: J. M. Tuladhar, Nepal Family Planning/Maternal and Child Project, P.O. Box 820, FP/MCH Building, Panchayat Plaza, Ramshah Path, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10256 Tzougas, J.; Tziafetas, G. The impact of international migration on fertility: an econometric population model. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 27, No. 4, Dec 1989. 581-94 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors develop an econometric model to examine the impact of migration on fertility in Greece in the period 1968-1986. In the model, the fertility equation is considered within a simultaneous equation system, and international migration is included as an explanatory factor of both fertility and per capita income.
Correspondence: J. Tzougas, National Technical University, Department of Mathematics, Odos 28 Octovriou 42, 106 82 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10257 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Postponed childbearing--United States, 1970-1987. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 38, No. 47, Dec 1, 1989. 810-6 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Data on maternal age at childbirth in the United States from 1970 to 1987 are presented. "The annual birth rate for women aged 30-34 years declined from 73 per 1,000 women in 1970 to 52 per 1,000 in 1975, but rose to 71 per 1,000 in 1987....A large proportion of the overall increase in birth rate for women aged 30-34 years is attributable to an increase in the rate of first births, which more than doubled (from 8.0 to 18.4 first births per 1,000 women) between 1975 and 1987....In contrast, the rate of first births for women aged 20-24 years ranged from 52.4 to 57.3 over this period. The distribution and number of first births among women aged [30 years or over] have also changed dramatically. In 1970, 4% of women having their first child were aged [30 years or over], compared with 16% in 1987....The number of first births to women aged [30 years or over] increased from 56,728 in 1970 to 250,304 in 1987."
Correspondence: CDC, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10258 van de Walle, Etienne. From nature to natural fertility. [De la nature a la fecondite naturelle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 13-9 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Eighteenth century writers were often linking Nature and fertility. In their mind, there were alternative reasons to do so, either normatively because reproduction should be subject to the Natural Law, or empirically because it fell under the rule of instinct. Louis Henry borrowed the term natural fertility from current usage among demographers, and gave it a technical meaning. The term remains useful as a first approximation to characterize the marital fertility regime of historical populations, and it applies to present day Third World populations which do not limit the size of their families."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10259 Vasary, Ildiko. "The sin of Transdanubia": the one-child system in rural Hungary. Continuity and Change, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec 1989. 429-68 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The author reviews the literature concerning fertility control practices and the one-child Hungary beginning in the late nineteenth century. This system was "a community-wide practice of rigorously controlled fertility with a comprehensive system of practices and an ethos backing it up." The focus is on the perception of the system in the literature and the subsequent attention paid to the phenomenon. Aspects considered include studies of fertility patterns, the effects of inheritance practices, economic and ethical influences, family characteristics and marriage patterns, the impact of community ideals, and nationalistic concerns.
Correspondence: I. Vasary, University College, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10260 You, Shuanglin. Several theoretical issues on China's marriage and fertility transition during 1950-1979. Population Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Mar 1989. 15-25 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author examines China's marriage and fertility transition for the period 1950-1979. The focus is on the short-term impact of fluctuations in marriage and fertility rates on the overall demographic transition. China's natural increase pattern and the differentials among urban and rural populations are described.
Correspondence: S. You, Family Planning Administrators College, Nanjing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

56:10261 Brunetta, Giovanna; Rotondi, Graziano. Regional fertility differentials in Italy since 1950. [Differenciation regionale de la fecondite italienne depuis 1950.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 189-99 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons for the deep and persistent regional differences in fertility in Italy during the period of striking fertility decline since 1950 are explored. The authors conclude that in North and Central Italy, cultural factors predominate, whereas neither cultural nor socioeconomic factors seem to have a significant impact on fertility in the South.
Correspondence: G. Brunetta, Universita de Padova, Dipartimento di Geografia, Via del Santo 26, 35123 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10262 Chauvire, Y.; Noin, D. Geographical fertility differentials in France. [Les disparites geographiques de la fecondite en France.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 261-71 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
Geographical differences in fertility in France are reviewed using data from official sources. A series of maps illustrates regional differences in the impact of various factors affecting fertility, including age at completion of education, entrance into the labor force, marriage, and birth of children.
Correspondence: Y. Chauvire, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Geographie, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10263 Gauthier, Anne H. The Quebec-Ontario fertility differential. [A propos de la difference de fecondite entre le Quebec et l'Ontario.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1989. 185-94 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Various economic, political, social and demographic factors may explain the different evolution of fertility in Quebec and Ontario. After a brief historical outlook, the author analyses more specifically the distribution of the population according to place of birth. This leads to the conclusion that the high proportion of immigrant women in Ontario, jointly with their above-average fertility, has played a major role in increasing the fertility gap between Quebec and Ontario at the beginning of the 1980's."
Correspondence: A. H. Gauthier, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10264 Gozalvez Perez, Vicente. Crises and spatial contrasts in Spanish fertility. [Crise et contrastes spatiaux de la fecondite espagnole.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 201-13 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in fertility in Spain are reviewed using data from a variety of official sources, including the 1985 Fertility Survey. The results show a decline in the total fertility rate from 2.8 in 1976 to 1.7 in 1984, a decline that is continuing. Regional fertility differentials persist, although a trend toward homogeneity can be identified. Although internal migration no longer affects regional fertility differentialss significantly, the timing of fertility remains different among regions. The impact of educational status on fertility and on contraceptive knowledge and use is noted.
Correspondence: V. Gozalvez Perez, Universidad Alicante, Departement de Geographie Humaine, 03071 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10265 Holland, Bart. Seasonality of births: stability and change in a developing country. Human Biology, Vol. 61, No. 4, Aug 1989. 591-8 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The author reports "on cyclic birth patterns in peninsular Malaysia for the period 1970-1985. Rapid economic development has occurred during this time and has brought with it demographic changes, such as a massive rise in contraceptive use and a decline in birth rates. These demographic changes have been accompanied by the loss of the pronounced seasonal pattern of births among the Malays. The seasonality of Malay births is now of roughly the same magnitude as the seasonality in the United States and Canada, whereas seasonality of births among the Chinese in Malaysia remains essentially unchanged."
Correspondence: B. Holland, UMDNJ, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Newark, NJ 07103. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10266 King, Miriam; Ruggles, Steven. American immigration, fertility, and race suicide at the turn of the century. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 20, No. 3, Winter 1990. 347-69 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The basis for nineteenth-century fears of race suicide in the United States is examined, namely "the differential fertility of immigrant women, native-born women of foreign parentage, and native-born women of native parentage. The analysis is based on the 1900 Public Use Sample, a national random sample of households drawn from the federal census, which includes information on the fertility of over 22,000 women between the ages of 15 and 44. Our study reports fertility differentials at the turn of the century and explores the determinants of contrasting levels of childbearing. The results show that overall fertility levels cannot be explained by the degree of American assimilation. We found that second-generation women experienced strikingly low overall fertility, relative to both foreign-born women and native-born women of native parentage. Moreover, the data indicate that the ethnic population had lower fertility than the third-generation native-born population."
Correspondence: M. King, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

56:10267 Leete, Richard. Overseas Chinese: towards a one-child family norm? In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 15-27 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author describes the transition toward a one-child family among Chinese living in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan. Factors affecting the below-replacement level of fertility within this ethnic group and future trends are examined.
Correspondence: R. Leete, Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department, Jalan Dato' Onn, 50502 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10268 Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei. Scenarios of the impact of regional fertility differentials on the future regional population distribution in the Soviet Union. [Modellrechnungen zum Einfluss regional unterschiedlicher Fertilitatsniveaus auf die zukunftige Bevolkerungsverteilung in der Sowjetunion.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1989. 271-92 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors analyze differentials in age-specific fertility rates for geographical regions of the USSR. Findings indicate variations from a total fertility rate as high as 5.6 to as low as or slightly below replacement level. They also project fertility and mortality rates to the year 2050 and conclude that the Central Asian republics are likely to have increasing proportions of the total Soviet population.
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10269 Poston, Dudley L.; Jia, Zhongke. Socio-economic structure and fertility in China: a county-level investigation. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 69-81 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors use regional studies of fertility patterns to "examine the relationship between socio-economic structure and fertility among the more than 2,300 counties of China....We show in this brief review that findings from some of these studies have confirmed the existence among the Chinese subregions of direct effects of socio-economic structure on fertility that are independent of the effects of family planning programmes and policies. We then use newly available data for the circa-1982 period for the counties of China and examine among them the relationships between socio-economic factors and fertility."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Cornell University, International Population Programme, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10270 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Parnell, Allan M. The varying connection between marital status and childbearing in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1989. 447-70, 603, 605 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article addresses a straightforward question: To what extent is a [U.S.] woman's marital status related to the likelihood of her conceiving a child during the following year? The answer is complex because the effect of marital status interacts with race, education, and parity. In general, the difference in the fertility behavior of married versus unmarried women is largest for white, better educated, and lower parity women....The results suggest that racial and educational variation in fertility arises from differences in behavior among members of these groups while they are unmarried rather than when they are married. The standard race and education differentials in fertility are not present among the currently married."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10271 Saw, Swee-Hock. Muslim fertility transition: the case of the Singapore Malays. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep 1989. 31-40 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article discusses the fertility transition that has taken place among the Singapore Malays in spite of their total adherence to the Islamic faith. The fertility decline to replacement level shows that Islamic teachings concerning birth control do not pose a serious obstacle to the Malays in achieving very low fertility. However, the Government's policy changes since 1987 and introduction of pronatalist incentives have resulted in a rise in the total fertility rate among the Singapore Malays."
Correspondence: S.-H. Saw, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics and Statistics, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10272 Stephen, Elizabeth H. At the crossroads: fertility of Mexican-American women. Garland Studies in Historical Demography, ISBN 0-8240-3397-3. LC 89-37797. 1989. v, 184 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The present study examines data from both Mexico and the United States in order to investigate fertility behavior among Mexican immigrant women in the United States. The fertility levels of Mexican origin women according to their age and nativity status are examined in order to discern fertility patterns that are otherwise obscured when looking at the Mexican origin population as a whole....This study seeks to determine what factors, such as age, immigrant status, and country of education, might have [an effect] on the immigrant's acquisition of the U.S. fertility norms." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses and the Mexican World Fertility Survey of 1976-1977.
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 136 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10273 Tapia Uribe, Faustino M. Women's schooling, fertility and child survival in a Mexican village. Pub. Order No. DA8915425. 1989. 147 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study poses two sets of questions regarding the relationship between women's education and fertility and child survival in a Mexican rural community. The first set focuses on how women's schooling relates to fertility and to certain child-rearing practices. The second set addresses how women's schooling relates to child mortality and child-rearing practices that increase the likelihood of survival." Data are from a survey of 178 Mexican rural women aged 15-35 who were raising a child under 48 months of age. "The path analysis models show that women's exposure to television and reading material, and to a lesser extent, women's cognitive development, as reflected by their everyday use of language, explain the connection between women's education and their child-rearing practices."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Harvard University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

56:10274 Toros, Aykut. Average number of living children of the members of parliament. [Turkiye buyuk millet meclisi uyelerinin cocuk sayilari.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 11, 1989. 47-52 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"This study compares the average number of living children of the members of the parliament [in Turkey] with the average number of living children of the general public as found in the 1988 Population and Health Survey. The findings indicate that the average number of living children of the members of the parliament [is] substantially lower than that of the general public. Under the light of these findings the members of the parliament are invited not to refrain from speeches promoting family planning in Turkey."
Correspondence: A. Toros, Hacettepe University, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

56:10275 Kallen, Bengt. Epidemiology of human reproduction. ISBN 0-8493-6452-3. LC 87-32543. 1988. 197 pp. CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida. In Eng.
The author examines aspects of human reproductive wastage and its analysis, with a focus on enviromental factors. The data are primarily concerned with the Swedish population and are from the central health registries in Stockholm. Chapters are included on endpoints in the epidemiology of reproduction; epidemiological techniques; population characteristics that may confound analysis; drugs, diseases, and reproductive hazards; contraceptive practice and reproductive outcomes; personal and social chemicals (such as alcohol and smoking); occupational exposure; the general environment; and risk assessment and information problems.
Correspondence: CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Boulevard NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:10276 Larsen, Ulla. A comparative study of the levels and the differentials of sterility in Cameroon, Kenya, and Sudan. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 167-211 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, the discussion begins with a description of the geographic distribution of subfertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Next, theoretical models of sterility are established, previous research on differentials in subfertility is reviewed, and the covariates of sterility to be examined in this study are defined. Subsequently, age-specific sterility rates and the levels of primary sterility are estimated for all women and for selected subgroups. Finally, in order to examine the effects of several covariates simultaneously on the prevalence or incidence of sterility at different time points or across cohorts, a hazards models analysis is conducted." Data are from the World Fertility Surveys for Cameroon, Kenya, and Sudan.
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Lunds Universitet, Department of Statistics, POB 117, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

56:10277 Adjei, Sam; Adansi-Pipim, G. Biomedical issues in family planning in Africa. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 68-96 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"The main objective of this background paper...is to discuss fully and extensively the biological and medical factors that have promoted or impeded the successful implementation of family planning programmes in Africa." Aspects considered include biological determinants of high fertility, physiological consequences of family size, causes of infertility and sterility, female circumcision, contraceptive availability and effectiveness, premarital and adolescent pregnancy, and the effect on pregnancy of various medical conditions.
Correspondence: S. Adjei, Government of Ghana, Ministry of Health, Accra, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10278 Akadli Ergocmen, Banu; Kulu, Isik. Unmet need for family planning in Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 11, 1989. 5-17 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This study aims at estimating the magnitude of unmet need for family planning [in Turkey] taking into account the currently married, fecund but non-contracepting women who wish to postpone their next birth or who wish to terminate their childbearing....The analyses were performed on the basis of data from '1988 Turkish Fertility and Health Survey'. The results show that one quarter of currently married women in Turkey are in the in-need group to avoid an unplanned or unwanted birth and, in general, the unmet need for family planning is for limiting childbearing rather than spacing the births."
Correspondence: B. Akadli Ergocmen, Hacettepe University, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10279 Arango, Humberto. The MEXFAM Community Doctors Project: an innovative service delivery strategy. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1989. 96-9, 105 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author reviews the Community Doctors Project established in 1985 by the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM). "MEXFAM's objective was to develop a more effective [health and family planning] service delivery model that would require a lower initial investment than the traditional approaches, achieve self-sufficiency in a reasonable amount of time and involve the community to such an extent that its members would eventually share responsibility for the project." The organization and administration of the project are discussed and evaluated.
Correspondence: H. Arango, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF/WHR), Western Hemisphere Regional Office, 902 Broadway--10th Floor, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10280 Atoh, Makoto. Socio-economic differentials in fertility control behavior among Japanese married couples. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 2; 191, Jul 1989. 1-14 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines family planning behavior among married couples in Japan using data from the 1987 Ninth National Fertility Survey and focusing on socioeconomic differentials. Findings indicate that contraceptive efficacy increased for all couples when the purpose was fertility control rather than birth spacing. It is noted that couples of higher socioeconomic status, educational level, or occupational status utilize abortion less frequently than couples of lower socioeconomic status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10281 Behrman, Jere R. The simple analytics of contraceptive social marketing. World Development, Vol. 17, No. 10, Oct 1989. 1,499-521 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) programs have been advocated for the dissemination of contraceptives in developing countries. This paper considers CSM programs from a simple economic perspective. It begins with a review of the major economic models of private fertility determinants and the associated private demand for contraceptives, and then adds private contraceptive supply to obtain market equilibrium. Next, inefficiencies due to negative externalities of added children and due to imperfect information and distributional concerns are considered. Finally this framework is utilized to point to lacunae in our knowledge of CSM programs and their impact and to suggest some promising areas for research."
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10282 Colombia. Ministry of Health. Office of Population Dynamics (Bogota, Colombia); Colombia. Health Services of Magdalena. Maternal Child Health Division (Santa Marta, Colombia); Family Health International (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). Compliance and continuation of oral contraceptive acceptors in Magdalena, Colombia, 1986-87. Final report. Jun 1989. 194 pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Eng.
Data from a study on oral contraceptive acceptance and continuation among a rural population in Colombia in 1986 and 1987 are analyzed. The objectives of the study are "to determine how women take oral contraceptives. If they skip pills when, why and how frequently do they do so? Do they make up those missed pills and, if so, how? Do they take more pills than directed? How closely does their pill use conform to what is recommended? [and] to determine what characteristics of the user, method, and distribution system affect pill compliance and to determine the effect of these characteristics on pill compliance and on continuation rates after six months or more." Consideration is given to acceptor age, marital status, and parity; employment and educational status; knowledge, beliefs, and social support; reproductive and health history; and contraceptive history. An outline of rural health-care provider characteristics is included. An executive summary of the study's results is published separately, and Spanish translations of both reports are also available from Family Health International.
Correspondence: Family Health International, Publications Division, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10283 Entwisle, Barbara; Casterline, John B.; Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Villages as contexts for contraceptive behavior in rural Egypt. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 6, Dec 1989. 1,019-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This research joins sociological and demographic traditions in a study of villages as contexts for contraceptive behavior in rural Egypt. Using survey data collected in the early 1980s, we explore the effects of village, household, and individual characteristics on contraceptive use and expectations about future use. Primary interest centers on the effects of the village variables, including the structure of the village economy, modernization of agriculture, level of school participation, and family planning service environment. The analysis demonstrates clearly that contraceptive behavior in rural Egypt varies systematically with these features of the village setting. In addition, village effects appear to vary according to characteristics of individual respondents: women respond differently depending on the stage in their reproductive career and their motivation to regulate fertility."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 490).
Correspondence: B. Entwisle, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10284 Fayorsey, Clara. Family planning in Africa: the relevance of gender issues. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 194-229 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"This paper has attempted to examine the philosophy, content, management and delivery systems of family planning in Africa, bringing out the role of the African woman in the traditional current and future perspectives." The author emphasizes the need to improve women's status and to encourage men's participation in family planning.
Correspondence: C. Fayorsey, University of Ghana, Department of Sociology, POB 25, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10285 Filshie, Marcus; Guillebaud, John. Contraception: science and practice. ISBN 0-407-01720-8. LC 88-26213. 1989. x, 321 pp. Butterworths: Sevenoaks, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies by various authors on major issues in family planning in light of global population trends. The topics covered include "Birth control: a world view; Metabolic effects of combined oral contraceptives; Complications of combined oral contraception; Oral contraception and cancer; Practical prescribing of the combined oral contraceptive pill; The progestogen-only pill; Systemic hormonal contraception by non-oral routes; Postcoital contraception; Intrauterine contraceptive devices; Male and female barrier contraceptive methods; Natural family planning; Contraception for the older woman; Cervical ripening prior to termination of pregnancy; Abortion; Female sterilization and its reversal; Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal; [and] Progress towards a systemic male contraceptive."
Correspondence: Butterworths, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 8PH, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

56:10286 Fort, Alfredo L. Investigating the social context of fertility and family planning: a qualitative study in Peru. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1989. 88-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Focus-group sessions conducted in 1986 and 1987 with Peruvian women living in two cities far from the capital indicated that women's control of their fertility is undermined by their low status in society and their ignorance of reproductive physiology. Contributing factors are their lack of any concept of planning for the future and a weak family planning program. Although there has been some increase in the use of modern methods of contraception, nearly half of all current users rely on traditional methods such as rhythm, which is often used in reverse and is therefore ineffective....Focus-group discussions revealed that women who were using modern methods were as fearful of harmful effects as women who were not using such methods." Another major deterrent to the use of modern contraceptives is its association with marital infidelity.
Correspondence: A. L. Fort, University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, London WC1E 7HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10287 Ghana. Statistical Service (Accra, Ghana); Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Ghana: Demographic and Health Survey, 1988. Sep 1989. xxii, 190 pp. Accra, Ghana. In Eng.
This is a report on the findings of "the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey [which] is a nationally representative self-weighting sample survey of 4,488 female respondents aged 15-49 and a subsample of 943 co-resident husbands of the interviewed women. The survey was carried out by the Ghana Statistical Service between February and June 1988. The basic objective of the survey is to make available to planners and policymakers current information on fertility levels and trends, reproductive intentions of men and women, knowledge and use of contraception, and the current state of maternal and child health." Data are also included on nuptiality, mortality, and health.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro Systems, DHS Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10288 Head, Anne-Lise. Fertility control in a pre-Alpine environment: the example of Protestant parishes in the Glarus region (eighteenth and nineteenth centuries). [Le controle de la fecondite en milieu prealpin: l'exemple de paroisses protestantes dans le pays glaronais (XVIIIe-XIXe siecles).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 99-109 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The development of fertility control in a rural Protestant community in the Swiss canton of Glarus in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is explored using family reconstitution data from parish records. Evidence of fertility control is apparent as early as the 1761-1790 marriage cohort. A clear relationship between falling fertility and age at marriage is noted.
Correspondence: A.-L. Head, Universite de Geneve, 3 place de l'Universite, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10289 Issacs, Stephen; Fincancioglu, Nuray. Promoting family planning for better health: policy and programme implications. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 26, 1989. 102-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Renewed emphasis is being given to the role of family planning in health-care programmes. This review of the lessons learned during the past decade provides guidance to policy-makers and programme managers on ways to improve maternal, infant and child health through family planning and related health and development activities. It covers policies and laws, accessibility to services, acceptability and quality of services, provision for the special needs of high-risk groups, the use of communications programmes, the importance of improving the status of women and the quality of life, and the resources needed to implement such a programme globally. Practical steps for integrating family planning fully into maternal and child health care are described."
Correspondence: S. Issacs, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10290 Jain, Anrudh K. Revising the role and responsibility of the Family Welfare Programme in India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 49, Dec 9, 1989. 2,729-37 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The achievements and limitations of India's national family planning program are reviewed. The author proposes that "instead of remaining solely responsible for decreasing population growth rate, the family planning programme should become responsible for delivering quality services. The overall responsibility of reducing the rate of population growth should be assumed by some other organisation, such as the planning commission, which is also responsible for co-ordinating and influencing relevant development sectors."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10291 Jejeebhoy, Shireen. Measuring the quality and duration of contraceptive use: an overview of new approaches. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 26, 1989. 1-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper provides an overview of recently developed approaches to the measurement of contraceptive continuation and failure rates, using retrospective survey data....The approaches fall into two categories, one relying on retrospective contraceptive histories and the other on current status information. The first section of the paper discusses the need for new methodologies; conventional applications using clinic and acceptor data are described, some recent results from the less developed countries presented, and their limitations illustrated. In the second section, each new approach is presented in terms of its data requirements, methods of calculation and empirical applications. Finally, potential sources of bias and the ability of the approaches to accommodate them are discussed." The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on developing countries.
Correspondence: S. Jejeebhoy, Family Planning Association of India, Research and Evaluation, Bajaj Bhavan, Nariman Point, Bombay 400 021, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10292 Jones, Elise F.; Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Henshaw, Stanley K.; Silverman, Jane; Torres, Aida. Pregnancy, contraception, and family planning services in industrialized countries. A Study of the Alan Guttmacher Institute, ISBN 0-300-04474-7. LC 89-5475. 1989. x, 276 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study utilizes a comparative international approach to examine the relationships between fertility, pregnancy (especially unintended pregnancy), and contraceptive use and between contraceptive use and public policies and programs related to family planning. The U.S. experience is compared with that of a group of similarly advanced countries in order to identify ways in which the level of unintended pregnancy in the United States might be reduced." The focus is on the period 1982-1986. Data are from a variety of sources, including a country-level survey undertaken by the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Case studies are included on the United States, Ontario and Quebec, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. The authors conclude that "the service-delivery system in the United States is different from other Western countries' in ways that make it less conducive, on the whole, to use...the modern, highly effective methods of contraception. In addition, readily available information about contraceptive methods and services is lacking in the United States, especially simple, objective materials in the mass media. The high U.S. incidence of abortion and unplanned births can be attributed at least partially to these circumstances."
Correspondence: Yale University Press, 302 Temple Street, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10293 Leridon, Henri. Natural fertility and birth spacing. [Fecondite naturelle et espacement des naissances.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 21-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The concept of 'natural fertility' had been introduced to provide a reference that could be used to detect the spreading of family limitation in a population. From this point of view, the concept (and the various indices that have been built on it) is still valid and useful, and it has been unduly criticized. Attempts to space births, which eventually affect also the final size of the family, are much more difficult to prove, as it is demonstrated in the second part of the paper. A proposal is made to call 'pseudo-natural' a situation where only signs of spacing behavior have been found."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10294 Lewis, Maureen; Kenney, Genevieve. The private sector and family planning in developing countries. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 96, Sep 1988. x, 140, 20 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The role of the private sector in the provision of family planning services in developing countries is examined. The authors conclude that "in harnessing the private sector to provide more family planning services to both middle and low income people, governments can use incentives to stimulate private sector investment and can ensure quality control through regulation."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10295 Logan, David; Friedman, Matthew; Lown, Marianne. Mobilizing the resources of the for-profit sector to support the expansion of family planning services in the developing world. Population Technical Assistance Project Occasional Paper, No. 3, Pub. Order No. 88-045-102. Dec 7, 1989. v, 35, [20] pp. International Science and Technology Institute, Population Technical Assistance Project: Arlington, Virginia. In Eng.
"Drawing upon the experience of for-profit projects undertaken by A.I.D. [U.S. Agency for International Development], this paper outlines a plan to enlist the varied resources of the for-profit sector to increase access to and transfer the costs of family planning services in the developing world." Topics discussed include goals, objectives, and overall strategy of future work in the for-profit sector; working with the organized employment sector; working with service providers; and working to leverage corporate resources.
Correspondence: International Science and Technology Institute, Population Technical Assistance Project, 1601 North Kent Street, Suite 1014, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10296 Marcil-Gratton, Nicole; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. North America at the hour of the third contraceptive revolution: the spectacular rise of sterilization to the first position among methods used. [L'Amerique du Nord a l'heure de la troisieme revolution contraceptive: la montee spectaculaire de la sterilisation au premier rang des methodes utilisees.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 239-48 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents the main trends in contraceptive use in North America from the sixties to the eighties, focusing on Canada's geographic and cultural regions. The authors examine the changing contraceptive behavior of young at the beginning of their marital life, and the recourse to sterilization at ever younger ages."
Correspondence: N. Marcil-Gratton, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10297 Measham, Anthony R.; Rochat, Roger W. Slowing the stork: better health for women through family planning. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 66, Jul 1988. 24 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors review family planning needs in developing countries. They point out that each year, some 500,000 women die from causes related to pregnancy. Nearly all of these deaths occur in developing countries; many of these pregnancies are unwanted and could have been prevented by better family planning. It is noted that "there is also a huge pool of women of lower risk who want no more children and whose health would benefit substantially from limiting the number of children they bear. In virtually all developing countries, the number of women who want no more children exceeds the number of contraceptive users. [The authors consider] what factors determine women's use of contraceptives, and how...family planning programs [can] reach the large numbers of women at risk from further pregnancies."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10298 Mugwagwa, N. O. Evolution and growth of family planning in Zimbabwe. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 523-47 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The author traces the evolution of family planning in Zimbabwe. The status of women and related gender issues are first considered. The history of the country's family planning movement is then outlined, and the orientation, objectives, and achievements of family planning programs are assessed. It is found that "despite the magnitude of Zimbabwe's population problem, the combination of a clear political commitment and sizable resource inputs, systematic application of strategic analysis, planning and management of well-designed programmes, a clear articulation of short and long-term goals and objectives and an objective selection of appropriate strategies, has enabled its population programme to be one of the best in Sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: N. O. Mugwagwa, National Family Planning Council, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10299 Ness, Gayl; Sattar, Ellen. Strategic management of population programmes. Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series, Vol. 7, Feb 1989. xxix, 326 pp. ICOMP: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international conference on the strategic management of population programs, held in Beijing, China, May 2-6, 1988. Included are six theme papers on aspects of program management, including service delivery, the provision of quality family planning services, and women in management, as well as country case studies concerning West Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Colombia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, and Pakistan.
For a related publication by Sattar, also published in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: ICOMP, 141 Jalan Dahlia, Taman Uda Jaya, 68000 Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

56:10300 Olusanya, P. O. Evolution and status of family planning in Nigeria. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 408-50 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The development and current status of family planning in Nigeria are described. The author first considers trends in the perception of the country's population problem and the impact on official policy. Family planning activities since the early 1960s are then outlined. The national population policy approved in 1988 is assessed, with a focus on program activities, impact, and sociocultural and other constraints.
Correspondence: P. O. Olusanya, University of Lagos, Faculty of Social Sciences, Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10301 Oppong, Christine. Women's roles and gender issues in family planning in Africa. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 143-93 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"This paper first examines a number of aspects of women's roles relating particularly to reproduction [in Africa] and then briefly notes some of the findings of recent surveys regarding contraceptive prevalence and fertility, and some of the variations in these in different countries, culture areas and socio-economic categories of women. It then goes on to highlight some of the issues which may be especially critical for women in the light of their changing roles and the variety of African traditions from which they come. These issues...include evidence provided by abortion of unmet needs and the special dilemmas of the young; the design and replication of delivery systems suited to women's needs; the provision of methods adapted to local systems of belief and practice and finally the type of operational research required to facilitate the identification of needs specific to particular cultures and the design of the modes and means to respond to them."
Correspondence: C. Oppong, International Labour Organisation, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10302 Parnell, Allan M. Contraceptive use and controlled fertility: health issues for women and children. Background papers. ISBN 0-309-04096-5. LC 89-63018. 1989. x, 161 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on the Health Consequences of Contraceptive Use and Controlled Fertility: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This volume contains four papers by different authors commissioned by the Working Group on the Health Consequences of Contraceptive Use and Controlled Fertility, set up by the National Research Council's Committee on Population. The papers deal "with different aspects of the relationships among changing reproductive patterns, contraceptive use, and the health of women and children [in developing countries]....Two of the selected papers combined biomedical and demographic perspectives in a particularly useful way, while a third provides an unusually comprehensive overview of technical issues of great concern to those interested in fertility and health. The fourth suggests a framework for thinking about the psychosocial consequences to women of contraceptive use and controlled fertility."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
For a related publication, also published in 1989, see 55:40628.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10303 Perrenoud, Alfred. Spacing and stopping in fertility control. [Espacement et arret dans le controle des naissances.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 59-78 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The early development of fertility control in Switzerland is analyzed. The data are from family reconstitution projects and concern 3,000 families in the city of Geneva for the period 1625-1810, and 661 rural Genevan families for the period 1700-1879. The results show that the spread of birth control is associated with an initial rise in fertility and that a population that does not practice birth control will tend to reduce its fertility by other means resulting in birth spacing. Causes of the observed rise in fertility associated with the adoption of birth control are examined.
Correspondence: A. Perrenoud, Universite de Geneve, Departement d'Histoire Economique, 3 place de l'Universite, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10304 Phillips, James F.; Chamratrithirong, Apichat; Mundigo, Axel. Correlates of continuity in contraceptive use: a review of research needs. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 239-53 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper reviews research on contraceptive continuation and presents an analytical framework for characterising the role of various determinants. It reviews methodological implications of this framework, and a summary of future research needs." The emphasis is on the social, behavioral, and programmatic determinants of reproductive behavior. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10305 Pullum, Thomas W. Alternative estimates of fertility control by using parity distributions: a comment on David et al. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 175-83 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author comments on a procedure proposed by David et al. for inferring the existence of fertility control by using parity distributions. The author focuses on a component "which compares the observed and natural distributions to generate an interval estimate of the proportion at each observed parity who have practiced control....I shall suggest that their method is more sensitive to its assumptions than potential users might at first recognize." A reply by Paul David and Warren Sanderson is included (pp. 179-83).
For the paper by David et al., published in 1988, see 54:20369.
Correspondence: T. W. Pullum, University of Texas, Population Research Center, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10306 Sai, Fred. The problems of fertility regulation in Africa. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 57-67 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The author examines problems of fertility control in Africa, with a focus on the increasing recognition of the importance of government-sponsored family planning programs over the past 10 years. He outlines some of the principal determinants of fertility, including economic conditions, education, cultural and legal issues, gender differences in attitudes toward family size, incidence of abortion, and patterns of marriage, sexual activity, and breast-feeding. Various program constraints are also discussed.
Correspondence: F. Sai, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10307 Sangoi, Jean-Claude. The control of fertility in Bas-Quercy (1751-1872). [Le controle de la fecondite dans le Bas-Quercy (1751-1872).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 79-90 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The development of fertility control in the Bas-Quercy region of southern France from 1751 to 1872 is analyzed using data from local sources. The author shows that birth spacing was the principal method used during the eighteenth century. Fertility control began among wealthier families before the Revolution and subsequently spread through the social classes, becoming widespread by 1840. Changes in marriage age over time are also noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10308 Sattar, Ellen. Country studies on strategic management in population programmes. Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series, Vol. 8, May 1989. xii, 132 pp. ICOMP: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
This publication includes background papers prepared for the 1988 ICOMP biennial conference held in Beijing, China, May 2-6, 1988, on the strategic management of population programs. The volume presents country studies on Brazil, Ghana, India, Jordan, Liberia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
For a related publication by Sattar and Gayl Ness, also published in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: ICOMP, 141 Jalan Dahlia, Taman Uda Jaya, 68000 Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

56:10309 Sowa, Nii K.; Ohadike, P. O. Economic constraints in family planning and contraceptive use in Africa. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 97-114 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The author investigates economic constraints that act against the implementation of family planning programs and contraceptive use in Africa. Aspects considered include sociocultural conditions, marketing techniques, involvement of women in family planning programs, government commitment to providing low-cost and effective contraception, and the need for increased education and public awareness programs.
Correspondence: N. K. Sowa, University of Ghana, Department of Economics, POB 25, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10310 Toulemon, Laurent. Survey of Fertility and Contraception INED-INSERM 1988: a presentation. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 21. bis 24. September 1987 in Rouen. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 62, 1989. 45-73 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author reviews the results of several fertility surveys conducted in France since 1967, when contraception became legal. Calling the dramatic rise in contraceptive use a "revolution", he considers abortion levels, changes in the rate of unwanted births, and socioeconomic characteristics of contraceptive users. Fertility projects and questions from a proposed 1988 survey are also discussed.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10311 Tsui, Amy O.; de Silva, Victor; Thapa, Shyam. The dynamics of traditional contraceptive use: the role of fertility awareness and coital behaviour. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 255-71 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper reviews estimates of the levels and trends of traditional fertility regulation, discusses the need for improving survey-based measures, introduces the significance of fertility awareness and coital behaviour as factors in the dynamics of traditional method use, and illustrates their role with prospectively collected data from Sri Lanka." Traditional coitus-dependent methods studied include the condom, rhythm or periodic abstinence, withdrawal, douche, and sexual abstinence.
Correspondence: A. O. Tsui, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27541. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10312 Weinberger, Mary B. Trends in contraceptive prevalence: are prevalence rates stagnating? In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 217-38 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Contraceptive prevalence in developing countries is examined. The author notes that fertility projections imply an increase in contraceptive use in these countries that will continue until rates there are similar to levels found in the developed world. She questions whether the data support this assumption or if there are signs of stagnation in the growth of contraceptive prevalence. She also considers whether the pace of change has declined in those countries that show continuing growth in prevalence.
Correspondence: M. B. Weinberger, U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10313 Woycke, James. Birth control in Germany, 1871-1933. Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine, ISBN 0-415-00373-3. LC 88-15791. 1988. x, 180 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The demographic transition that occurred in Germany between 1871 and 1933 is analyzed using data taken primarily from medical sources. The author argues that the decline in fertility was primarily due to a radical innovation in popular behavior related to the introduction of new methods of birth control that made fertility control on a national scale possible. "He deals in detail with the dissemination and acceptance of ideas of birth control of that period, and shows the variety of methods that were in use--condoms, pessaries, diaphragms, caps and most notably, abortion. [He also] argues that attitudes quite similar to those found in liberal circles today were widespread among ordinary men and women in Germany, in contrast to, for example, the pro-natalist ideologies dominant in France in the same period. This despite the regional, class and religious differentials which influenced the German picture."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

56:10314 Bongaarts, John; Rodriguez, German. A new method for estimating contraceptive failure rates. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 6, 1989. 49 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The first part of this study addresses the common perception that contraceptive effectiveness is not a main determinant of fertility levels. Our analysis indicates that contraceptive failure rates--which thus far have been primarily of interest to clinicians and couples choosing a method--can also be of considerable demographic importance. This is particularly the case in populations with moderate to low levels of both desired family size and contraceptive effectiveness....The main purpose of this paper is to propose a simple new approach to the estimation of average contraceptive failure rates from survey data, which does not require detailed retrospective information and does not involve complicated life table calculations. This approach is illustrated with applications to data for developing countries collected as part of the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10315 Lee, Nancy C.; Peterson, Herbert B.; Chu, Susan Y. Health effects of contraception. In: Contraceptive use and controlled fertility: health issues for women and children, edited by Allan M. Parnell. 1989. 48-95 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on the Health Consequences of Contraceptive Use and Controlled Fertility: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a comprehensive evaluation of the health effects of various contraceptive methods. The health risks, health benefits, and failures of the methods are discussed. Methods studied are oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, spermicides, diaphragms, contraceptive sponges, injectables, implants, tubal sterilization, and vasectomy. The data are from studies carried out in developed countries.
Correspondence: N. C. Lee, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Epidemiologic Studies Branch, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10316 Mastroianni, Luigi; Donaldson, Peter J.; Kane, Thomas T. Development of contraceptives--obstacles and opportunities. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322, No. 7, Feb 15, 1990. 482-4 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This is a summary of a report by "the National Research Council's Committee on Contraceptive Development...on a two-year study of new contraceptives and the impact on such development of the process by which contraceptives are developed and approved for use in the United States....Among the topics considered were the pace at which new products were being brought to the market, the effects of organizational and policy issues on the contraceptive-development process, and ways of changing that process to facilitate the development of safer, more effective, more convenient, and more acceptable contraceptive methods....[The report] focuses on the need for the development of new contraceptives and the impact on such development of the organization of research and development activities, the distribution of scientific personnel and financial resources, the federal government's regulatory procedures, and the U.S. tort law system."
Correspondence: L. Mastroianni, National Research Council, Committee on Contraceptive Development, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, HA 176, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:10317 Mojarro Davila, Octavio; Cardenas Lopez, Carmen; Hernandez Franco, Daniel; Martinez Manautou, Jorge. Continuities in the use of IUDs in patients using the family planning services of the Mexican Institute for Social Security. [La continuidad en el uso del DIU en poblacion usuaria de servicios de planificacion familiar del Seguro Social en Mexico.] Revista Medica de Instituto Mexicano del/Seguro Social, Vol. 27, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 125-33 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons for continuing to use IUDs or for abandoning the method are analyzed using data on 2,864 women who use family planning services provided by Mexico's social security system. The authors find that women aged 20-34 with one or two children are more likely to continue using IUDS and that method side effects are the main cause of discontinuation. Problems associated with IUD insertion immediately following a birth or abortion are considered.
Correspondence: O. Mojarro Davila, Instituto Mexicano de Seguro Social, Jefatura de Servicios de Planificacion Familiar, Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:10318 Ross, John A. Contraception: short-term vs. long-term failure rates. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 275-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Contraceptive failure rates and cumulative risks to individual users in the United States are analyzed. "Four conclusions follow from this analysis. First, in actual practice, almost every contraceptive method carries a nontrivial annual risk of accidental pregnancy. Second, this risk mounts to a surprisingly high level of failure in the long term....Third, the long-term risk should be taken into account not only by persons finished with their childbearing but also by younger individuals who have many years of sexual exposure before their first wanted birth. Fourth,...couples will experience a substantial amount of unwanted childbearing in the absence of abortion."
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10319 Sivin, Irving. IUDs are contraceptives, not abortifacients: a comment on research and belief. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1989. 355-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author critically examines the argument that IUDs are abortifacients. "The key element underlying the myth is that IUDs act only at the uterine level, either to prevent implantation or to destroy developing embryos in the uterus before implantation. Today, however, the weight of scientific evidence indicates that IUDs....prevent fertilization, diminishing the number of sperm that reach the oviduct and incapacitating them." Using data from assays of early pregnancies, microscopic searches for embryos and eggs, and analyses of IUDs' effects on spermatozoa, the author concludes that "no studies show that IUDs destroy developing embryos at rates higher than those found in women who are not using contraceptives."
Correspondence: I. Sivin, Population Council, Center for Biomedical Research, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10320 Vessey, M. P.; Villard-Mackintosh, L.; McPherson, K.; Yeates, D. Mortality among oral contraceptive users: 20 year follow up of women in a cohort study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 299, No. 6714, Dec 16, 1989. 1,487-91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The results of a long-term study of mortality among oral contraceptive users in the United Kingdom are presented. The data are from a nonrandomized cohort study of 17,032 women attending family planning clinics in England and Scotland who were followed up on an annual basis for an average of nearly 16 years. The results "contain no significant evidence of any overall effect of oral contraceptive use on mortality. None the less, only small numbers of deaths occurred during the study period and a significant adverse (or beneficial) overall effect might emerge in the future."
Correspondence: M. P. Vessey, Radcliffe Infirmary, Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, Oxford 0X2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

56:10321 Adansi-Pipim, G.; Kwafo, S. K.; Gardiner, Charlotte. Family planning and maternal and child health: the experience in Ghana. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 319-50 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to examine the experience of Ghana in the field of family planning and maternal and child health. We begin by discussing population growth and related demographic characteristics in the country. We then examine the current status and future potential of MCH programmes in relation to family planning. This is then followed by a discussion of family planning programmes and activities in the country. We also identify some of the factors that hinder the formulation and implementation of family planning programmes, and finally make recommendations to overcome these problems in Sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: G. Adansi-Pipim, University of Ghana, Institute of Statistical Social and Economic Research, POB 25, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10322 Aryee, A. F. Socio-cultural policies and programmes for efficient family planning in Africa. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 115-42 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The author explores reasons why fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa has generally not responded to policies and programs aimed at lowering the birth rate, with a focus on the lack of official government support. The need to consider sociocultural characteristics when developing family planning programs is emphasized.
Correspondence: A. F. Aryee, University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10323 Bhatt, R. V.; Engineer, A. D.; Gupta, S.; Kambo, I. P.; Mehta, S.; Moses, V. I.; Purandare, V. N.; Saxena, B. N.; Saxena, N. C. Evaluation of laparoscopic sterilisations in rural camps. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 148-60 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a report to India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on the efficacy and safety of the rural laparoscopy sterilization camps instituted in India in recent years. Data are included on sterilization failures and "the characteristics of acceptors, site and organization of the camps, surgical difficulties and complications following the procedure."
Correspondence: R. V. Bhatt, Baroda Medical College, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Baroda, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10324 Liang, Jimin. China's family planning programme is advancing. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 31-41 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
An overview of China's family planning program during the period from 1979 to 1989 is presented. A significant reduction in the population growth rate has occurred, due to trends toward later marriage and delayed childbirth.
Correspondence: J. Liang, China Family Planning Association, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10325 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Ross, John A. Methods for measuring the fertility impact of family planning programs: the experience of the last decade. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 7, 1989. 44 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The chief methods for assessing the impact of family planning programs on fertility were codified in the 1970s through a collaboration between the United Nations Population Division and the IUSSP Committee on the Comparative Analysis of Fertility and Family Planning. Since then there has been no attempt to review the actual use of such methods in research, training, and policy formulation. This paper critically reviews the way in which these methods have been used in the last decade. It is based on an inquiry to numerous institutions and individuals, as well as an extensive literature search. We point out the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and make recommendations as to their suitability in a variety of settings. The conclusions emphasize the value of population-based methods for measuring net program impact..., the importance of well-designed and well-documented software, and the growing interest in family planning evaluation in Africa...."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10326 Maneno, J. Family planning and gender issues in Kenya. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 291-318 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between changes in the status of women and the success of family planning programs in Kenya. The aims of the 1989-1993 Kenya National Development Plan concerning women are outlined, with a focus on women's health, education, knowledge and use of family planning, rural and urban women's workloads, employment opportunities, and the legal status of women.
Correspondence: J. Maneno, UNICEF, Kenya Country Office, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10327 Mauldin, W. Parker. The effectiveness of family-planning programmes. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 27, 1989. 69-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes fertility trends in developing countries from the 1960s to the mid-1980s and assesses the impact of family planning programs. Although social and economic modernization have been taking place, the author claims that the availability of contraceptive methods through family planning programs has had the greatest effect on the increase in contraceptive use and the consequential fertility decline observed in many developing countries.
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10328 Srikantan, K. Sivaswamy. Family planning and fertility control in India. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 273-82 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses population growth in India and the impact of the family planning program on fertility trends. It is noted that acceptance of family planning is dependent upon changes in the social structure that encourage smaller family size preferences and also on women's status, educational level, and economic security.
Correspondence: K. S. Srikantan, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune 411 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10329 Teklu, Tesfay. Family planning evaluation--data, methods and research issues with special reference to Africa. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 230-56 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"The purpose here is to investigate the extent to which the family planning programmes in Sub-Saharan African countries, especially those that have adopted national population policies, have fared." Sources of data on family planning acceptors are assessed, with a focus on service statistics and sample surveys. The impact of programs is evaluated in terms of changes in knowledge, attitude, and number of acceptors and in fertility reduction measurements.
Correspondence: T. Teklu, University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10330 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Population Division (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). The impact of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) programmes on fertility, infant and childhood mortality and maternal health. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 257-87 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The impact of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) programs on fertility, infant and child mortality, and maternal health in Africa is analyzed. Problems in measuring changes in these trends and determining the extent to which the changes are due to MCH/FP programs are discussed. The importance of providing better access to health care facilities and of improving service quality is noted.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10331 University of Ghana. Regional Institute for Population Studies (Legon, Ghana). Developments in family planning policies and programmes in Africa. Proceedings of the Colloquium on the Impact of Family Planning Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa: current issues and prospects. ISBN 9964-6-5042-6. 1989. xvii, 685 pp. Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a colloquium on the impact of family planning programs in Sub-Saharan Africa, held in Ghana in April 1989. Part I contains the report and recommendations of the colloquium. Part II is concerned with the theoretical framework and includes papers on fertility regulation, biomedical issues and economic constraints in family planning, sociocultural policies, gender issues, program evaluation, and the impact of maternal-child health and family planning programs. Part III presents nine country case studies on Africa and seven on Asia.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: University of Ghana, Regional Institute of Population Studies, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

56:10332 Akande, B. Some socio-cultural factors influencing fertility behaviour: a case study of Yoruba women. Biology and Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1989. 165-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Sociocultural factors influencing fertility patterns in Yoruba women of Nigeria are examined. Consideration is given to the impact of child value, desired family size, patriarchy, sex preference, and low women's status. Data are from a 1987 survey of 330 married Yoruba women.
Correspondence: B. Akande, Cornell University, International Population Program, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10333 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. Psychosocial consequences to women of contraceptive use and controlled fertility. In: Contraceptive use and controlled fertility: health issues for women and children, edited by Allan M. Parnell. 1989. 140-59 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on the Health Consequences of Contraceptive Use and Controlled Fertility: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to suggest a framework for thinking about the psychological consequences to women of contraceptive use and controlled fertility. The literature based on empirical studies is scant. Instead, this paper draws primarily on common-sense possibilities and on ethnographic reports [from developing and developed countries] of how women talk about their lives....The discussion...will be directed primarily to the phenomenon of anxiety, which, cross-culturally, is probably the most common disorder that women experience in relation to their sexual and reproductive capacities....The major focus of this anxiety, I propose, is the way in which threatening reproductive events or conditions, such as failure to bear a child, fear of an unwanted pregnancy, or expectation of ill health from contraceptive use, affect women's perceptions of their ability to perform those essential social roles upon which their survival, security, and well-being depend."
Correspondence: R. Dixon-Mueller, University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10334 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey in 1987. Volume II. Attitudes toward marriage and the family among unmarried Japanese youth. Field Survey Series, Mar 1, 1989. 188 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
These are the results of a 1987 survey of young people in Japan concerning marriage and the family. The focus is on changes in attitudes, the reasons for those changes, and the probable effect on future trends in fertility. The data concern 7,246 males and females aged 18-35.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10335 Lesthaeghe, Ron. Social organization, economic crises, and the future of fertility control in Africa. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 475-505 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
Changes in attitudes toward family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa are examined. In the first part of this paper, the author explores "Ester Boserup's proposition (1985) that a fertility transition could also be triggered off by the realization that expectations with respect to enhanced personal welfare and high returns to parents or community from greater investment in the education of children may not materialize. Two responses are possible: either investments in children drop and fertility remains unaltered, which is the continuation of or a return to an earlier situation, or investments are concentrated in a smaller number of children. Given the current heterogeneity of the continent with respect to economic trends and the recurrence of politically or ecologically induced disasters, both responses are likely to emerge depending on the region." In the second part, he assesses Africa's ability to deal with population growth in the face of the economic and ecological crises it aggravates.
For the paper by Boserup, published in 1985, see 51:40334.
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10336 McGinn, Therese; Sebgo, Pascaline; Fenn, Thomas; Bamba, Azara. Family planning in Burkina Faso: results of a survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1989. 325-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A survey of women of reproductive age was undertaken during April and May 1986 as part of an operations research project in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Data were collected on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of contraception. Although the government family planning program had been operating only since February 1985, knowledge of modern methods was surprisingly high....Use of traditional methods was high in this traditional society, with 41 percent of women currently practicing abstinence. Both knowledge and current use varied significantly across several background characteristics, the most important of which was education. The respondents were very vocal about their fertility desires regarding both the spacing and limitation of births."
Correspondence: T. McGinn, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10337 McGinn, Therese; Bamba, Azara; Balma, Moise. Male knowledge, use and attitudes regarding family planning in Burkina Faso. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1989. 84-7, 95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article summarizes findings from a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices...survey and four focus-group discussions on family planning conducted among males in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso." Findings show "fairly high levels of knowledge of family planning, although much of this knowledge appeared to be superficial. Use of contraceptives, particularly current use, was shown to be low."
Correspondence: T. McGinn, Columbia University, Operations Research Program, Center for Population and Family Health, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10338 Ozyurda, Ferda; Durmusoglu, Meral. Women's behavior and knowledge concerning family planning in the region of the Park Health Center. [Park egitim saglik ocagi bolgesinde kadinlarin aile planlamasi konusundaki bilgi, tutum ve davranislari.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 11, 1989. 61-75 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"In this study, the behavior and knowledge of 1,082 women who are married and in fertile age are investigated retrospectively in the region of Park health center [in Turkey]. It is observed that 74.2% of these women who are married and in fertile age and who are under the risk of pregnancy are users of a contraceptive method. It is also seen that the modern contraceptive methods are being utilized by 66.2% of these contraceptive method users....According to the collected data...the education and services of family planning should be directed towards women who cannot use any of the contraceptive methods owing to the objection of their husbands and towards women aged between 35 and 44 who have a very low percentage of contraceptive use."
Correspondence: F. Ozyurda, Ankara University, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10339 Sakai, Hiromichi. Child-sex effects on further births. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 189, Jan 1989. 18-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1982 National Fertility Survey are used to analyze trends in child sex preference and their effect on family size in Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10340 Trost, Jan. Fertility and the process of decision making. Familjerapporter, No. 16, 1990. 55 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this paper a model is presented on the process of fertility decision making. The model is theoretically discussed and illustrated with data from a qualitative interview study of [Swedish] pregnant women and one of young non-mothers. The model builds...upon the idea of critical events and a conceptual clarification of the terms wanted and unwanted, planning, and satisfaction."
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10341 Worth, Dooley. Sexual decision-making and AIDS: why condom promotion among vulnerable women is likely to fail. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1989. 297-307 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the reasons for resistance to condom use among high-risk women (primarily intravenous drug users and/or the sexual partners of intravenous drug users) in two New York City AIDS prevention programs. The data collected indicate that a lack of economic, social, cultural, sexual, and technological options combine to lead vulnerable women to concentrate on addressing the more immediate risks in their lives: poverty, homelessness, and the frequent disruption of socioeconomic support systems. Resistance to condom use was also found to be related to its negative associations (promiscuity, for example)."
Correspondence: D. Worth, Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Women's Center, Bronx, NY 10467. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

56:10342 Adetoro, O. O. A 15-year study of illegally induced abortion mortality at Ilorin, Nigeria. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 29, No. 1, May 1989. 65-72 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Trends in illegal abortion in Ilorin, Nigeria, over a 15-year period are analyzed. "Fifty-three women died from complications of illegally induced abortion over a 15-year period. Seventeen (32.2%) of them were under 20 years of age, while 28 (52.8%) were nulliparous....Sepsis and hemorrhage were the two commonest avoidable causes of death, and preventable measures were discussed."
Correspondence: O. O. Adetoro, University of Ilorin, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

56:10343 Blayo, Chantal. Abortion in Europe. [L'avortement en Europe.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1989. 225-38 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"After a review of the legal aspects of abortion in more than 25 European countries, both Western and Eastern, the author makes a comparative study of the frequency of abortion, highlighting the historical, cultural and legal specificities of the various countries of the continent. The problems of measure and quality of the data are studied so as to shed light on the limitations to comparisons. The most striking result is the great variability of situations, between countries as well as between regions of a same country. Available data does not allow in-depth differential analyses, but it evidences the variety of roles that abortion plays in the various European societies and the complexity of relations between abortion, fertility and contraception."
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10344 Frejka, Tomas; Atkin, Lucille C.; Toro, Olga L. Program document: research program for the prevention of unsafe induced abortion and its adverse consequences in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Office, Latin America and the Caribbean, Working Papers, No. 23, Sep 1989. vi, 48 pp. Population Council, Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean: Mexico City, Mexico. In Eng.
This publication is the result of a meeting held in Bogota, Colombia, in October 1988 by the Population Council's Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean to discuss its program and research priorities concerning the prevention of unsafe induced abortion in the region. The publication is also available in Spanish.
Correspondence: Population Council, Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Apartado Postal 105-152, C.P. 11560, Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10345 Kochanek, Kenneth D. Induced terminations of pregnancy: reporting states, 1987. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 38, No. 9, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 90-1120. Jan 5, 1990. 36 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Data on induced abortion in the United States in 1987 are presented from the 14 states reporting such data. The total of 330,310 abortions represented a decrease of one percent from 1986. The data on abortion are provided by age and race, marital status, educational status, previous pregnancies, period of gestation, type of procedure, and residential characteristics.
For a previous report concerning 1985 and 1986, see 55:20379.
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10346 Lim, Jong-Kwon; Lee, Sang-Young; Bae, Hwa-Oak. Prevalence of induced abortion in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1989. 23-59 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze recent trends in the prevalence of induced abortions in South Korea. They attempt to determine motivations for abortion, examine its side effects, and investigate the impact of induced abortions on infertility. The focus is on creating recommendations for population policy and maternal and child health care. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey.
Correspondence: J.-K. Lim, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10347 Mahmood, Tahir A.; Lim, Boon H.; Lees, D. A. Russell. The characteristics of and the contraceptive practice among women seeking therapeutic termination of pregnancy in the Scottish Highlands. Health Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov 1988. 330-6 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
Characteristics and contraceptive practice of 355 patients undergoing induced abortion in 1986 at a hospital serving the Scottish Highlands are analyzed. Nearly a quarter of patients requested termination within two years of a previous termination, and 17 percent were uncertain about their future contraceptive use following termination, indicating the need for a reappraisal of family planning services in this region.
Correspondence: T. A. Mahmood, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cornhill Road, Aberdeen, Scotland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:10348 Maleckova, J. The first year of the new law on induced abortion in Czechoslovakia. [Prvni rok platnosti noveho zakona o umelem preruseni tehotenstvi v CSSR.] Ceskoslovenske Zdravotnictvi, Vol. 37, No. 4, Apr 1989. 185-90 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The impact of a change in the abortion law in 1986 on the incidence of induced abortion in Czechoslovakia in 1987 is analyzed.
Correspondence: J. Maleckova, Ustav Zdravotnickych Informaci a Statistiky, W. Piecka 98, 100 00 Prague 10, Czechoslovakia. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

56:10349 Stloukal, Libor. Abortion rate in the Czech Socialist Republic during 1980-1987. [Vyvoj potratovosti v CSR mezi lety 1980 a 1987.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1989. 299-313 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The impact of the 1987 legislative changes concerning induced abortion in Czechoslovakia on the fertility rate and contraceptive use is examined for the period 1980-1987 for the Czech part of the country. The results show an increase in the total number of abortions performed as well as an increase in abortions performed earlier in the gestation period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10350 Zabin, Laurie S.; Hirsch, Marilyn B.; Emerson, Mark R. When urban adolescents choose abortion: effects on education, psychological status and subsequent pregnancy. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 248-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors explore the effects of induced abortion on female urban adolescents' educational level, psychological status, and risk of subsequent pregnancy. Data are from a sample of 360 black adolescent girls who sought pregnancy tests from two family planning providers in Baltimore, Maryland, and who were followed up over a two-year period. "After two years, the young women who had terminated their pregnancies were far more likely to have graduated from high school or to still be in school and at the appropriate grade level than were those who had decided to carry their pregnancy to term or those whose pregnancy test had been negative. Those who had obtained an abortion were also better off economically....[and] had experienced no greater levels of stress or anxiety than had the other teenagers at the time of the preganacy test....The teenagers who had obtained abortions were also less likely than the other two groups to experience a subsequent pregnancy during the following two years....Thus, two years after their abortions, the young women who had chosen to terminate an unwanted pregnancy were doing as well as (and usually better than) those who had had a baby or who had not been pregnant."
Correspondence: L. S. Zabin, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

56:10351 Biswas, Suddhendu; Sehgal, Vijay K. A note of the efficacy of the abstinence period for preventing reconception in the context of the period of post-partum amenorrhoea. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 139-47 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"An attempt is made here to analyze the efficacy of 'abstinence' occasioned by the tradition of husband and wife staying separately following a child birth. The problem is to examine how far this practice prevents a reconception during post-natal period; especially when the lactational amenorrhoea or post-partum amenorrhoea already helps in preventing reconception." Data are from Indian surveys conducted in 1969 and 1973.
Correspondence: S. Biswas, University of Delhi, Department of Mathematical Statistics, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10352 Cunningham, William E.; Segree, Winsome. Breast feeding promotion in an urban and a rural Jamaican hospital. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1990. 341-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Breast feeding promotion has been a national priority in Jamaica since the mid-1970s. Despite this effort, breast feeding rates have continued to decline there, especially in urban areas....In the context of declining breast feeding in a nation committed to promoting it, the goal of this study was to explore the relationship between specific health professional practices, mothers' breast feeding, and mothers' knowledge of breast feeding in rural and urban Jamaica. To accomplish this goal, a structured interview was administered to 113 mothers of infants age 0-6 months at one urban...and one rural...hospital....This study suggests that merely educating mothers about breast feeding is insufficient. Efforts to promote breast feeding must emphasize specific health professional practices that support early initation of breast feeding."
Correspondence: W. E. Cunningham, University of California, Department of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10353 Feyisetan, Bamikale; Pebley, Anne R. Premarital sexuality in urban Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1989. 343-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines changes and differentials in premarital sexual activity in Nigerian cities. The incidence of sexual activity before marriage provides an indication of the extent of erosion in traditional practices and in family control of young women's behavior in urban areas. Pregnancy and childbirth outside of marriage and traditional family support systems have also become a matter of increasing concern in many African cities, especially in the public health community. The results suggest that premarital sexual behavior has become more common over time....[and that] relatively few premaritally sexually active women attempted to avoid pregnancy by using a contraceptive method...."
Correspondence: B. Feyisetan, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10354 Komlos, John. The age at menarche in Vienna: the relationship between nutrition and fertility. Historical Methods, Vol. 22, No. 4, Fall 1989. 158-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to join the debate on the effect of nutrition on fertility rates in chronically malnourished populations." The author uses data collected at a women's public clinic in Vienna during the early twentieth century to explore this relationship. Findings indicate that "a statistically significant positive relationship was found between the age at menarche and the age at first birth among chronically malnourished, lower-class Viennese women born in the late-nineteenth century....Thus, if menarche is sensitive to nutrition and if it could influence the onset and frequency of intercourse and thereby the number of conceptions, then the hypothesis that the age at first marriage, the age at first birth, and the crude birth rate could all be functions of nutritional status in a chronically malnourished population cannot be rejected out of hand."
Correspondence: J. Komlos, University of Pittsburgh, Department of History and Economics, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10355 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Eelens, Frank. The components of Sub-Saharan reproductive regimes and their social and cultural determinants: empirical evidence. In: Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989. 60-121 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter focuses on empirically testing the various social and cultural dimensions underpinning the Sub-Saharan reproductive regimes. It "essentially links the components of the spacing pattern of reproduction (i.e., breastfeeding, lactational amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence, and contraception) to indicators of both traditional social organization and recent socioeconomic change. The demographic data base used here is derived from the World Fertility Surveys (WFS) that were held between 1976 and 1981 in ten sub-Saharan African countries: Mauritania, Senegal, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya, Sudan (northern part only), and Lesotho."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10356 Palloni, Alberto; Kephart, George. The effects of breastfeeding and contraception on the natural rate of increase: are there compensating effects? Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 3, Nov 1989. 455-78 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we propose a technique to estimate the net effects of such changes [as modernization, family planning, and breast-feeding practices] on the natural rate of increase, and to assess the gross contribution of the various components of change. Applications of the technique to Latin American countries indicate that changes in fertility due to higher contraceptive prevalence are dominant, but that they are partially offset by the indirect effects on fertility of changes in breastfeeding. Likewise, changes in breastfeeding have the strongest direct impact on infant mortality, but are partially offset by the benefical effects of a more favourable pace of childbearing induced by higher contraceptive prevalence."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10357 Trussell, James; van de Walle, Etienne; van de Walle, Francine. Norms and behaviour in Burkinabe fertility. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 3, Nov 1989. 429-54 pp. London, England. In Eng.
In this paper a combination of methods is used to investigate the proximate determinants of birth interval length in a single city in Burkina Faso. The effects of such independent variables as lengths of sexual abstinence, amenorrhea, and breast-feeding on fertility are examined in seven models. Demographic, economic, cultural, and reproductive determinants of birth spacing are explored through the various methods. The authors conclude that no single data-collection strategy can provide answers to all the questions of interest, but a combination of multi-round surveys and in-depth interviews provide the best results.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

No citations in this issue.


Copyright © 1990-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.