Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

55:40566 Day, Richard H.; Kim, Kyoo-Hong; Macunovich, Diane. Complex demoeconomic dynamics. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, Sep 1989. 139-59 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The authors study the interaction between population and income using the method of comparative dynamics to "show how various kinds of qualitative long run demoeconomic behavior depend on household preferences, productivity and the cost of childrearing. In particular, a dominant trend in growth can be interspersed with periods of fluctuation as slowly moving changes in productivity, preference and child care costs push nonlinearities past crucial bifurcation points. Moreover, nonperiodic, essentially unpredictable demoeconomic behavior is robust, thus suggesting a possible explanation for persistent and substantial errors in population forecasts."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 439).
Correspondence: R. H. Day, University of Southern California, Department of Economics, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40567 Felderer, Bernhard; Sauga, Michael. Population and economic development. [Bevolkerung und Wirtschaftsentwicklung.] ISBN 3-593-33995-1. 1988. 240 pp. Campus: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The economic causes and effects of population trends are reviewed. Chapters are included on the demographic history of Europe; Malthusian theory and new economic theories of fertility; the effects of demographic trends on capital formation, technical progress, natural resources, and economic growth; and the demographic transition as a long-term population trend.
Correspondence: Campus Verlag, Myliusstrasse 15, 6000 Frankfurt am Main, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40568 Kuznets, Simon. Economic development, the family, and income distribution: selected essays. Studies in Economic History and Policy: The United States in the Twentieth Century, ISBN 0-521-34384-4. LC 88-20244. 1989. viii, 463 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of 11 essays by the late Simon Kuznets on the relationships among economic development, the family, and income distribution in the United States and selected other countries. Topics covered include modern economic growth, the interrelations between demographic change and income inequalities in the United States and in the developing world, and trends and differentials in families, households, and income disparity.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40569 Simon, Julian L. On aggregate empirical studies relating population variables to economic development. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 323-32, 395-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Empirical studies of the cross-national relationship between the rates of economic development and population growth may reasonably be interpreted as providing consistently strong evidence of the absence of a negative causal effect of the latter upon the former. The most important positive effects of additional people--improvement of productivity through the contribution of new ideas and the learning-by-doing resulting from increased production volume--appear in the long run and are cumulative. Together with this positive long-term effect, the absence of an observed negative medium-term effect upon economic growth is adduced as sufficient evidence that, in the very long run, more people have a positive net effect."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, College of Business and Management, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40570 Yin, Wenyao. On the structure of urban population size and social and economic development. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 4, Jul 29, 1987. 9-13 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The relationships among urban population size and structure and level of socioeconomic development are examined using a variety of published international sources. The need to control urban population dynamics in order to promote development is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

55:40571 Dendrinos, Dimitrios S. Growth patterns of the eight regions in the People's Republic of China (1980-1985). Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, Oct 1989. 213-22 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author tests a model of the dynamic linkages between population size and per capita income at the regional level using data for China for the period 1980-1985.
Correspondence: D. S. Dendrinos, University of Kansas, Urban Planning, Lawrence, KS 60045. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40572 Ghosh, B. N. Studies in population and economic development. ISBN 81-7100-023-1. LC 87-903738. 1987. viii, 828 pp. Deep and Deep Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This two-volume work presents a selection of previously published articles by various authors on economic aspects of population in developing countries. The papers are grouped under such topics as population theory, population growth and economic development, population growth and resource use patterns, employment and labor utilization, migration, and human resources planning and policy.
Correspondence: Deep and Deep Publications, D-1/24 Rajouri Garden, New Delhi 110 027, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40573 Goryacheva, A. M. Population and economic growth in India. ISBN 81-85005-55-9. LC 88-902226. 1988. xiv, 157 pp. Agricole Publishing Academy: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study, translated from the original Russian, presents a Marxist analysis of the relations between economic and population growth in developing countries, using the example of India. Chapters are included on population dynamics and growth, the extent to which the economy has been able to absorb the natural increase of population, and the growth of the labor force.
Correspondence: Agricole Publishing Academy, 208 Defence Colony Flyover, New Delhi 110 024, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40574 Gutierrez Robledo, Luis M. The ageing situation in Latin America. Impact of Science on Society, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1989. 65-80 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Those achieving great age have traditionally been cared for within the extended family unit, where they were able to retain their role and status. Factors such as urbanization and increased social mobility, however, have made this no longer possible for many people. In Latin America the current economic crisis has meant that basic social spending and investment have been severely curtailed, and a major effort is needed to plan health care strategies that would use the limited resources in the best way in improving the quality of life of society's elderly."
Correspondence: L. M. Gutierrez Robledo, Casa Hogar para Ancianos "Arturo Mundet", Av. Revolucion 1445, Tlacopac 01040, Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

55:40575 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Population and consumption in Morocco. Part 2: some demographic factors that affect consumption and the distribution of expenditure. [Population et consommation au Maroc. Deuxieme partie: quelques incidences de la population sur la consommation et la repartition de la depense.] Nov 1988. 64 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is the second in a two-part study concerning the relationship between consumption and population factors in Morocco. The emphasis in Part 2 is on how demographic factors affect consumption. It is noted that population growth between 1970 and 1985 was responsible for 74 percent of the growth of consumption for individuals, with the remaining 26 percent being due to an increase in the standard of living. The analysis also reveals a growing gap between the standard of living of smaller families, who show higher levels of consumption, and that of larger families, who have lower levels of consumption.
For Part 1, also published in 1988, see 55:20630.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40576 Rodgers, Gerry. Population growth and poverty in rural South Asia. ISBN 81-7036-138-9. LC 88-35627. 1989. 249 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This volume is a product of a UNFPA-funded project on the relations among population, labor, and poverty that was undertaken by the International Labour Organization's Employment and Development Department between 1980 and 1986. The book consists of five empirical studies of four countries in South Asia. "Chapter 2 is a household level analysis based on a survey in the Indian state of Bihar, essentially in the Gangetic Plain. The next chapter is also a household level analysis, mainly based on a national survey of Pakistan. Chapter 4 is set at the all-India level, examining several demographic indicators using a range of census and national survey data sources. Chapter 5 concerns Bangladesh, with particular emphasis on longitudinal data from two villages. The last Chapter is a broader analysis at the national level, for Nepal. All these studies focus on rural areas...."
Correspondence: Sage Publications India Pvt, 32 M-Block Market, Greater Kailash I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40577 Sen, Rathindra P. Demographic change and levels of living: studies in national development in an international context. ISBN 81-7035-051-4. LC 89-900908. 1989. vi, 157 pp. Daya Publishing House: Delhi, India. In Eng.
India's population problems are examined from an economic perspective. "Six themes are simultaneously developed. First, the causes and economic consequences of unproductive population growth over the decades [are] traced in an empirical manner. The second theme is how the high rate of population growth has been retarding the national effort to improve the standards of living of the common man. Third is the investment pattern in human infrastructural development in national economic planning. Fourth is population growth, food prospects and industrialization during the last forty years. Fifth is the pattern, impact and destiny of urbanization. Finally, the art of 'natural family planning' has been emphasised."
Correspondence: Daya Publishing House, 1302 Vaid Wara, Nai Sarak, Delhi 110 006, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40578 Visaria, Pravin. Population growth and economic development: two reviews. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning Working Paper, No. 24, Jun 1989. 30 pp. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
"This working paper includes two review papers on the interrelationships of population growth and economic development." The first paper focuses on population policy and the second reviews "the available empirical evidence on broad demographic and economic trends in various developing countries of the world."
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Area Planning, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40579 Wu, Cangping. Past and future trends in population and development in Asia. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Nov 29, 1987. 1-4 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Population dynamics in Asia are reviewed using data from published U.N. sources. The author notes that despite achievements in reducing fertility, Asia faces formidable problems because of its high population density, shortages of arable land, and young age distribution that will further increase population size. The difficulties in achieving satisfactory rates of socioeconomic development in such circumstances are stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40580 Zhang, Wenxian; Jiang, Xiaorong. The transformation of the agricultural population and the urbanisation process in China. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1989. 40-51 pp. Bradford, England. In Eng.
"Nine causes for the occurrence of surplus agricultural labour with the modernisation of agriculture have been identified. Several solutions to this problem are presented. Urbanisation of the agricultural population in a way suited to China's characteristics is necessary, important and possible." An example of labor saving through mechanization in Heilongjiang province is presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

55:40581 Auerbach, Alan J.; Kotlikoff, Laurence J.; Hagemann, Robert P.; Nicoletti, Giuseppe. The economic dynamics of an ageing population: the case of four OECD countries. OECD Economic Studies, No. 12, Spring 1989. 97-130 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Demographic changes such as population ageing have many effects that influence a country's fiscal viability. This paper uses a dynamic general-equilibrium model with overlapping generations to evaluate the macroeconomic and fiscal consequences of population ageing in four OECD countries: Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, and the United States. One of the fundamental lessons is that allowing for general equilibrium adjustments reduces the adverse welfare effects of increasing dependency ratios. Nevertheless, the welfare costs and their distributions across cohorts pose serious challenges to policy-makers in some cases."
Correspondence: A. J. Auerbach, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40582 Cliquet, R. L.; Vanden Boer, L. Economic and social implications of aging in the ECE region: proceedings of the CBGS/ECE seminar, Brussels, April 25-27, 1988. Publications of the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI] and the Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS], Vol. 19, ISBN 90-70990-14-8. 1989. iv, 225 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Brussels, Belgium, in April 1988 that was organized jointly by CBGS and the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) on the economic and social implications of demographic aging in Europe. Following an introduction describing ECE programs in demographic aging, 10 papers are presented concerning specific countries, including Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Yugoslavia, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and Czechoslovakia. Three papers focus on economic implications, with emphasis on the labor force and public spending. Two papers examine social implications, including the impact on living conditions and the life-styles of the elderly.
Correspondence: CBGS, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Nijverheidsstraat 35-37, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40583 de Jouvenel, Hugues. Demographic aging in Europe: trends and prospects up to 2025. [Le vieillissement demographique en Europe: tendances et enjeux a l'horizon 2025.] Futuribles, No. 129-130, Feb-Mar 1989. 53-113 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Challenges posed by trends in demographic aging in Europe up to the year 2025 are examined, using information from a symposium held in Paris, October 4-5, 1988. The main concern expressed was that an increase in the proportion of the population claiming social security, coupled with a lowering of the age at retirement, will place a burden on the working population that will make countries uncompetitive in the world market.
Correspondence: H. de Jouvenel, Futuribles, 55 rue de Varenne, 75341 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40584 Gibson, Donald E. Advancing the dependency ratio concept and avoiding the Malthusian trap. Research on Aging, Vol. 11, No. 2, Jun 1989. 147-57 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"It is argued that further advances in the usefulness of the age dependency ratio will be made only if we begin to take into account changes in economic productivity and real income. Such a change from current practice will improve understanding of the social and economic dynamics of aging populations and prevent the introduction of Malthusian ideology into discussions of aging trends." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: D. E. Gibson, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Sociology, Greensburg, PA 15601. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40585 Grobbelaar, J. A. The aging of the South African population: implications for business. Business Series, Economic Environment Occasional Paper, No. 6, ISBN 0-7972-0060-6. Jan 1986. iv, 58 pp. University of Stellenbosch, Institute for Futures Research: Stellenbosch, South Africa. In Eng.
The implications of demographic aging in South Africa are explored. The first part of the paper reviews demographic aging in developed and developing countries. The second part outlines demographic aging in South Africa, including its impact on the sex ratio, urban-rural distribution, and the marital status of the aged. The third part considers the implications of demographic aging for South African business. The differences in the demographic aging process among the major ethnic groups are noted and their possible effects are discussed.
Correspondence: University of Stellenbosch, Institute for Futures Research, Private Bag 5050, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40586 Hagemann, Robert P.; Nicoletti, Giuseppe. Population ageing: economic effects and some policy implications for financing public pensions. OECD Economic Studies, No. 12, Spring 1989. 51-96 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Population ageing in the OECD area is expected to affect labour and product markets, and national rates of saving and capital accumulation. Ageing will also place significant pressures on public finances as the share of future output transferred to a large dependent population rises. This paper discusses some of the potential effects of ageing, with particular emphasis on its implications for financing public pensions in Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Future increases in retirement age and reduction of the ratio of benefits to wage levels could help reduce pressures on public finances, while a trust fund can help smooth the transition."
Correspondence: R. P. Hagemann, OECD, Monetary and Fiscal Policy Division, 2 rue Andre Pascal, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

55:40587 Hogan, Daniel J. Population and environment. [Populacao e meio-ambiente.] Textos NEPO, No. 16, 1989. 86 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por.
This is an analysis of the relation between population trends and environmental change. Subjects discussed include some environmental disasters of the recent past; insecurity as a way of life; the environmental lobby and its opponents; and the environment and fertility, mortality, and migration. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: NEPO, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6166, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40588 Porter, Gareth; Ganapin, Delfin J. Resources, population, and the Philippines' future: a case study. WRI Paper, No. 4, ISBN 0-915825-34-1. LC 88-51617. Oct 1988. 68 pp. World Resources Institute [WRI]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a study on the relationship between population growth and natural resources in the Philippines. The authors suggest that the Philippines' economic and political crises are related to a larger ecological crisis: "the erosion of the resource base by environmental mismanagement, the greed of some politicians, and population pressure."
Correspondence: WRI, 1735 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20006. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40589 Rudel, Thomas K. Population, development, and tropical deforestation: a cross-national study. Rural Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1989. 327-38 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
The author examines the causes of tropical deforestation using U.N. data for 36 developing countries. "A cross-sectional analysis which links variations in deforestation with variations in population growth and the availability of capital indicates the socioeconomic processes which sustain tropical deforestation. Two measures of population growth predict deforestation, and among countries with large rain forests, the availability of capital also predicts deforestation. Measures of peripheral country dependency on core nations fail to explain variations in deforestation. The implications of these findings for policies designed to slow rates of deforestation are briefly explored."
Correspondence: T. K. Rudel, Rutgers University, Cook College, Department of Human Ecology, P.O. Box 231, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40590 Sen, Jyotirmoy. Land utilisation and population distribution: a case study of West Bengal (1850-1985). ISBN 81-7035-043-3. LC 88-904953. 1988. xvi, 227 pp. Daya Publishing House: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The object of the present work is to study the changes in the land use and population in the Bhagirathi-Jalangi interfluve, West Bengal [India] during the last one hundred and thirty five years, focusing attention on nature and degree of change in land use and population growth and decline...." The author notes that environmental degeneration was coupled with a decline in population during the period after 1850 but that a rapid population increase was accompanied by an increase in intensity of land use following partition and independence.
Correspondence: Daya Publishing House, 1302 Vaid Wada, Nai Sarak, Delhi 110 006, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40591 Stonich, Susan C. The dynamics of social processes and environmental destruction: a Central American case study. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 269-96, 395, 397 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article demonstrates how the widespread environmental destruction occurring in Central America is linked to the pattern of agricultural development that has taken place in the region. After presenting a critique of the major paradigms used to analyze environmental problems in the Third World, the study combines a political-economy approach with the concerns of regional ecology to examine the interactions among social processes, demographic trends, production decisions, and environmental decline in southern Honduras. The major conclusions are that the motivation for natural resource exploitation arises from the fundamental structure of society and that the social, demographic, and ecological patterns identified for southern Honduras are widespread throughout Central America."
Correspondence: S. C. Stonich, University of California, Department of Anthropology, Environmental Studies Program, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40592 Thapa, Gopal B.; Weber, Karl E. Population and environment in the hills of Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1989. 49-70 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Population trends and environmental problems in the hill regions of Nepal are discussed. This area contains nearly half of the country's population and more than half of its land area and is suffering from deforestation, soil erosion, landslides, and desertification caused by human interference. "This article attempts to identify the reasons for these problems despite continuous out-migration from the hills. It provides evidence that the deteriorating man:resource ratio in the hills, combined with their isolation from the national economic mainstream, have set the ecological degradation process in motion. A comprehensive hills development strategy is suggested with particular emphasis on alleviating excessive pressure on limited land resources."
Correspondence: G. B. Thapa, Asian Institute of Technology, Division of Human Settlements Development, G.P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40593 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population change and the environment. Population Research Leads, No. 32, 1989. 10 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The relationship between population dynamics and the environment is summarized, with primary reference to Asia. A concluding section examines policy implications.
Correspondence: Population Information Section, Population Division, ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

55:40594 Camarano, Ana A.; Moura, Helio A. de; Lyra, Maria R. de B.; de Albuquerque, Ana M. P.; Cesar, Isaura de A.; Alcoforado, Maria E. G. The Northeast: evolution of the population and of the work force up to the year 2000. [Nordeste: evolucao da populacao e da forca de trabalho ate o ano 2000.] Serie Populacao e Emprego, No. 19, ISBN 85-7019-103-0. 1986. 80 pp. Fundacao Joaquim Nabuco [FUNDAJ]: Recife, Brazil; Superintendencia do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste [SUDENE]: Recife, Brazil. In Por.
Demographic trends in the Northeast of Brazil are analyzed for the period 1960-1980. The authors develop an outline of the labor force and project future labor force trends to the year 2000. Four alternative labor force projections are presented.
Correspondence: FUNDAJ, Editora Massangana, Rua Dois Irmaos 15, Apipucos, 52.071, Recife, PE, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40595 den Hertog, J. A. Female labor force participation and the lack of child care facilities. [Arbeidsdeelname van vrouwen en het tekort aan kinderopvang.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Jul 1989. 1-22 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author assesses the link between the lack of child care facilities in the Netherlands and low levels of female labor force participation. "The expected increase in female labour force participation in the event of sufficient child care facilities is estimated on the basis of data on the labour force participation by women by age of children, and on the basis of two studies into the demand for child care, also specified by age of the children." Government policies that would create opportunities for women to combine a paying job with household activities and child care are also discussed.
Correspondence: J. A. den Hertog, Economisch Instituut RU Utrecht, Domplein 24, 3512 JE Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40596 Du, Yajun. The change of the population age structure and employment. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, May 29, 1988. 14-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The age structure of the population and its impact on employment in China is studied. The author notes that the demographic transition has occurred rapidly and that changes in the age structure have created employment problems in various regions of the country. Data are from official Chinese sources. The impact of changes in the age structure on employment over the next 30 years is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40597 Ellingsaeter, Anne L. Normalization of part-time work: a study of women's employment and working time patterns in the 1980s. [Normalisering av deltidsarbeidet: en analyse av endring i kvinners yrkesaktivitet og arbeidstid i 80-arene.] Sosiale og Okonomiske Studier, No. 71, ISBN 82-537-2779-8. 1989. 127 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in female labor force participation in Norway during the 1980s are analyzed. "A special emphasis is placed on analysing both structural changes in the supply and the demand for part-time work, and potential changes in the marginal character of part-time work. The data sources are the Labour Force Sample Surveys, the Survey on Part-time Work 1978 and the Survey on Working Time 1985."
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P. B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40598 Feng, Lanrui; Jiang, Weiyu. A comparative study of the modes of transference of surplus labor in China's countryside. Social Sciences in China, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1988. 64-77 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The problems posed by the recent development of a surplus labor force in rural areas of China are examined. Separate consideration is given to ways to absorb this surplus both within and outside the agricultural sector, agricultural labor migration to other rural areas, and rural-urban migration. The implications for urbanization and migration policy are reviewed.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Zhongguo Shehui Kexue, No. 5, 1987.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

55:40599 Goldin, Claudia. Life-cycle labor-force participation of married women: historical evidence and implications. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan 1989. 20-47 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The seven-fold increase, since 1920, in the labor force participation rate of married women [in the United States] was not accompanied by a substantial increase in average work experience among employed married women. Two data sets giving life-cycle labor-force histories for cohorts of women born from the 1880s to 1910s indicate considerable (unconditional) heterogeneity in labor-force participation. Employed married women had substantial attachment to their jobs; increased participation brought in women with little prior work experience. Average work experience among cross sections of employed married women increased from 9.1 to 10.5 years over the 1930-50 period. Implications for 'wage discrimination' are discussed."
Correspondence: C. Goldin, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40600 Greenstein, Theodore. Human capital, marital and birth timing, and the postnatal labor force participation of married women. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep 1989. 359-82 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"Using materials from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Young Women, this article analyzes postnatal labor force participation data for married husband-present women over a 15-year period in order to study factors associated with the length of time out of the labor force following the first birth. Survival analyses and proportional hazards models indicate that human capital variables (education, prebirth work experience, and income) and marital and birth-timing variables (age at first marriage and age at first birth) have significant estimated effects on the rate and timing of reentry into the paid labor force."
Correspondence: T. Greenstein, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Box 19599, Arlington, TX 76019. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40601 Heidenreich, Hans-Joachim. Employment in April 1988: results of the microcensus. [Erwerbstatigkeit im April 1988: Ergebnis des Mikrozensus.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 6, Jun 1989. 327-39 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Employment data from the April 1988 microcensus of West Germany are presented. Comparisons are made with results from earlier years. Information is included on female labor force participation, the size of the working-age population, unemployment, age-specific employment rates, type of employment, working hours, and income.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40602 Kalleberg, Arne L.; Rosenfeld, Rachel A. Work in the family and in the labor market: a cross-national, reciprocal analysis. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 89-4, Mar 1989. 33, [11] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"We examine the reciprocal relations between men's and women's family involvement and labor market work in the U.S., Canada, Norway, and Sweden....Hours of labor market employment relate negatively to U.S. women's percentage of household tasks and child care. Moreover, involvement in domestic labor relates negatively to hours employed for men and women in Norway and Sweden (but not in the U.S.), suggesting their greater opportunities for part-time employment as a way of reconciling family and labor market responsibilities."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40603 Peterson, Linda S. Labor force and informal employment in Mexico: recent characteristics and trends. CIR Staff Paper, No. 50, Oct 1989. x, 86 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report reviews available information on the Mexican labor force and examines issues related to underemployment and unemployment in the Mexican economy. Trends in the composition of the labor force during the 1970's and 1980's are reviewed based on national data for 1969 through 1979 and available data for selected Mexican metropolitan areas through 1986."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40604 Pozzebon, Silvana; Mitchell, Olivia S. Married women's retirement behavior. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1989. 39-53 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the economic and family determinants of married women's retirement behavior. A life cycle model of wives' retirement decisions is tested empirically using data on working married women from the [U.S.] Longitudinal Retirement History Survey. This exploratory analysis indicates that family considerations are more important in wives' retirement decisions than own economic opportunities. These findings contrast with those obtained previously for male workers and if substantiated by other research could have important implications for policy questions regarding pension and Social Security reform."
Correspondence: S. Pozzebon, Cornell University, Department of Labor Economics, NYSSILR, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40605 Presser, Harriet B. Can we make time for children? The economy, work schedules, and child care. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 523-43 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The overall objective of this address is to elaborate on the changing temporal organization of the workplace [in the United States]--its growing diversity and flexibility--and how these temporal dimensions affect the management of child care, including parental care, when mothers with young children are employed. Such an elaboration will present a more complex--and realistic--view than currently exists of the context in which employed parents are making both workplace and child care decisions." Aspects considered include the changing demographic context of motherhood and child-care needs, the reliance on relatives for child care and their declining availability, alternative child-care arrangements, workplace flexibility, and research and policy implications.
Correspondence: H. B. Presser, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology and Center on Population, Gender, and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40606 Robinson, James G. A cohort analysis of trends in the labor force participation of men and women in the United States: 1890 to 1985. Pub. Order No. DA8908381. 1988. 356 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author studies trends in labor force participation in the United States using a cohort analysis classified by sex in five-year age groups and covering all quinquennial periods between 1890 and 1985. He examines variations in cohort patterns of participation by race, marital status, and educational attainment and identifies age, period, and cohort components affecting labor force trends.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(1).

55:40607 Suri, K. C.; Bauer, J. G.; Rele, J. R. Analysis of work force in India. Occasional Paper, No. 8 of 1988, [1988]. v, 159 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India; Census Commissioner: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Labor force trends in India are analyzed using 1971 and 1981 census data. "Work participation rates by age, sex and rural/urban areas are presented. Trends in the composition of workers by literacy and industrial classification are discussed. Projections of the work force [are] made for India and the major states up to the year 2001."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40608 Szeman, Zsuzsa. Social policy and the income structure of the elderly in Hungary. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 27, 1989. 60-6 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author explores reasons why a significant proportion of the postretirement elderly in Hungary are seeking employment. Gaps in the social security policy are cited as the main factor contributing to inadequate income. Consequences of the current pension policy are discussed.
Correspondence: Z. Szeman, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Sociology, 1051 Budapest, Roosevelt-ter 9, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40609 Zhang, Zuoxing. A brief discussion on tendency and characteristics of transfer of rural labor in the new stage. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 4, Jul 29, 1987. 2-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Recent trends in the rural labor force in China are analyzed using official data for Hangzhou city. The major change identified and explored is the switch from agriculture to industry.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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