Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:40228 Andreasen, Erling E. Births, abortions, and extrauterine pregnancies in the County of Funen (Denmark) during the period 1974-1986. [Fodsler, aborter og ekstrauterine graviditeter i Fyns Amt perioden 1974-1986.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 151, No. 6, Feb 6, 1989. 384-7 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes data for all births and abortions that occurred in Funen county, Denmark, between 1974 and 1986. The data concern 66,020 births, 23,179 induced abortions, 9,270 spontaneous abortions, and 1,344 ectopic pregnancies. The focus of the study is on changes in pregnancy outcome for women over age 35. The results show that "the number of births increased 20%, the number of spontaneous abortions increased 56%, the number of ectopic pregnancies increased 240% and the number of induced abortions fell 31%. These numerical values are probably representative for all Denmark."
Correspondence: E. E. Andreasen, Skovbrynet 24, DK-6000 Kolding, Denmark. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40229 Auvinen, Riitta. Finland's low fertility and the desired recovery. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 27, 1989. 53-9 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author examines Finland's low fertility rate and possible future implications of this trend. Attitudes toward children, provision of child care, and socioeconomic and political factors are identified as causes of low fertility. Changes in social and personal values and their impact on future fertility increases are also discussed.
Correspondence: R. Auvinen, Population Research Institute, Vaestoliitto, Kalevankatu 16, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40230 Baran, Alina. Fertility in Poland during the 1980s: analysis of a maternity questionnaire. [Dzietnosc w Polsce w latach osiemdziesiatych w swietle ankiety macierzynstwa.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 12, Dec 1988. 10-4 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Recent fertility trends in Poland are analyzed using data from a mail survey conducted in 1984. The demographic, social, and economic characteristics of women who gave birth in 1984, their husbands, and their parents are examined. The results show an increase in fertility in the early 1980s, particularly in urban areas.
Correspondence: A. Baran, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40231 Chayovan, Napaporn; Knodel, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit. Approaching replacement fertility in Thailand: results of the 1987 demographic and health survey. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 86-93, 102 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Current fertility levels in Thailand are examined. "Evidence from the 1987 Thailand Demographic and Health Survey indicates that the rapid and steep decline of Thai fertility, which began in the 1960s, has continued during recent years and that fertility is approaching replacement level. Contraceptive prevalence has continued to increase steadily and is now at 68 percent among currently married women aged 15-44, a level close to that prevailing in the economically developed countries....Family-size preferences have also fallen, and a clear consensus for a two-child family has emerged among recently married women, suggesting that low fertility is likely to prevail in Thailand for the foreseeable future."
Correspondence: N. Chayovan, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Bangkok, Thailand. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40232 Danziger, Leif; Neuman, Shoshana. Intergenerational effects on fertility: theory and evidence from Israel. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1989. 25-37 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The authors examine intergenerational influences on fertility in Israel. "On the assumption that genetic [inheritance] and experience during adolescence influence the taste for children, the characteristics of a couple's parents may be used to improve on the explanation of fertility which can be obtained from variables that only refer to the couple itself. We find that in Israel fertility depends positively on the mother's siblings and negatively on the grandfathers' wage, but apparently does not depend on the father's siblings. Since fertility also depends positively on the mother's predicted wage, the number of children is positively related to improvements in the economic achievements from one generation to the next."
Correspondence: L. Danziger, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics, Ramat-Gan 52100, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40233 de Beer, J.; van de Giessen, G. J. From birth expectations to birth forecasts. [Van geboorteverwachtingen naar geboorteprognoses.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 7, Jul 1989. 19-30 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Problems in using data from fertility surveys to improve the accuracy of population forecasts in the Netherlands are examined. Two ways of adjusting data on expected births to those on actual births are described: the method of limiting factors and the partial adjustment model. These methods are applied to data from the National Fertility Surveys of 1982, 1985, and 1988 to forecast future trends in fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40234 de Jong, A. H. The wave in marital fertility. [Golfbeweging in de huwelijksvruchtbaarheid.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 8, Aug 1989. 16-28 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Marriage patterns and marital fertility in the Netherlands are described for the period 1950-1987. Comparisons by age cohort for trends in nuptiality, fertility, divorce, and parity are made. A discussion is included on the impact of socioeconomic factors and social change on marriage and fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40235 De Simoni, Alessandro. An attempt to construct period fertility tables by birth order: an application to Italian data for the period 1980-1982. [Un tentativo di costruzione di tavole di fecondita del momento per ordine di nascita: applicazione all'esperienza italiana del 1980-82.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 02/89, [1989]. 79 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
A method of constructing period fertility tables is described and illustrated using official Italian data for the period 1980-1982. The tables are constructed using the variables of parity and age of woman and give yearly probabilities of giving birth to a child. The method is used to compare fertility differentials in North-Central and Southern Italy.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40236 Diggory, Peter; Potts, Malcolm; Teper, Sue. Natural human fertility: social and biological determinants. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual symposium of the Eugenics Society, London, 1986. Studies in Biology, Economy and Society, ISBN 0-333-45724-2. 1988. xix, 201 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England; Eugenics Society: London, England. In Eng.
This book presents the proceedings of the twenty-third annual symposium of the Eugenics Society, held in London in 1986, and includes 11 papers by different authors on aspects of human fertility. The focus is on both the natural factors that limit fertility and the political, social, and technological means by which humans are attempting to control population growth. Chapters are included on the determinants of fertility in primates, fertility in traditional societies, natural fertility in preindustrial Europe, the biology of puberty, lactation and the return of ovulation, historical changes in patterns of breast-feeding, the role of immunity in fertility control, malnutrition and fertility, disease and fertility, and the effect of fertility on health.
Correspondence: Macmillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40237 Ebigbola, J. A.; Omideyi, A. K. Fertility behaviour in an urban centre: a case study of married women in Ilesa, Oyo State, Nigeria. DSS Monograph, No. 3, ISBN 978-2297-00-3. 1988. vi, 46 pp. Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics: Ile-Ife, Nigeria. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is to examine the influence of women's participation in commercial activities on reproductive behaviour in Ilesa [Nigeria]. The specific objectives of the study are: 1. To examine critically the direct influence of female employment status on fertility behaviour of married women in Ilesa. 2. To examine differentials in fertility behaviour among trading and non-trading groups of women and 3. To assess the influence of other factors which may be indirectly responsible for the pattern of reproductive behaviour among women engaged in trading e.g. location of employment, value of children factors, etc." A total of 516 women aged 15-49 were interviewed.
Correspondence: Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40238 El-Shalakani, M. H. Estimation of fertility and mortality of the Kuwaiti population. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 433-41 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Indirect techniques are applied to estimate the current level of fertility and mortality among Kuwaiti nationals in Kuwait during 1980-85. The various methods discussed provide estimates in the vicinity of 45 per thousand for birth rate and 8 per thousand for death rate. While child spacing by birth order in Kuwait is about 2 years, the proportion of childlessness is very low (1%). As a consequence of lower mortality and stable high fertility, the Kuwaiti population remains young."
Correspondence: M. H. El-Shalakani, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300 A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40239 Ermisch, John. Economic influences on birth rates. National Institute Economic Review, No. 126, Nov 1988. 71-81 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The theory that economic developments can influence birth rates is tested in an analysis of fluctuations in the birth rate in Great Britain during the period since World War II. "Econometric analysis of post-war movements in order and age-specific conditional birth rates indicates that higher net real wages for women discourage child-bearing, while higher net real earnings for men have the opposite effect. These contrasting effects presumably reflect their impacts on the cost of children and income respectively, and they are consistent with econometric analysis of cross-sectional variation in family size among British women."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:40240 Fargues, Philippe. The decline of Arab fertility. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 147-75 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author analyzes recent trends in fertility decline in Arab countries, with a focus on regional patterns. Family formation and changing marriage patterns in Arab societies are also discussed. Consideration is given to the improvement in the status of women, particularly in educational levels and labor force participation, and its impact on female age at marriage, family formation, and fertility levels.
This is a translation of the French article published in 1988 and cited in 55:20263.
Correspondence: P. Fargues, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40241 Feeney, Griffith; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Mingkun; Xiao, Baoyu. Recent fertility dynamics in China: results from the 1987 One Percent Population Survey. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 297-322, 394-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"There has been considerable speculation about the effects of China's economic reforms on recent trends in fertility. This article uses data from a 1987 survey, the first detailed national-level data since the 1982 census and one-per-thousand survey, to analyze recent fertility change. The total fertility rate shows no overall trend since the late 1970s, fluctuating around 2.4 children per woman. Sharp fluctuations in age distribution and marriage patterns render the crude birth rate an unreliable indicator. Parity progression ratios suggest that the overall trend has been toward slightly increasing numbers of one-child families. Implications for policy and programs are discussed, as are possible reasons for the halt of fertility decline at current levels."
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Highway, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40242 Fuster, V. Seasonality of births and family characteristics in a Spanish population. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 465-74 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The seasonality of births in the period 1871-1977 is studied in a rural north-western Spanish population. Based on a total sample of 11,695 birth registrations, temporal variation is analysed. For siblings, according to family reconstitution, the total family size, the legitimacy of the child, and birth order are considered. A coefficient of birth month dispersion is defined and estimated for each family. Intra-family variation is related to inter-family coefficients in order to determine whether the local seasonal pattern of births may be partly explained by family characteristics."
Correspondence: V. Fuster, Complutense University, Faculty of Biology, Department of Animal Biology I (Anthropology), Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40243 Fux, Beat. The process of the more recent decline of the birth rate in Switzerland: a saturation model for explaining fertility development. [Der prozess des jungeren Geburtenruckgangs in der Schweiz: ein Sattigungsmodell zur Erklarung der Fertilitatsentwicklung.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1989. 59-88 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author reconstructs the process of fertility decline in Switzerland since 1960 using a phase model and multivariate analysis. The hypothesis predicts different determinants for the level of fertility and the decline of fertility. Social and cultural factors affecting reproductive behavior are explored.
Correspondence: B. Fux, Soziologisches Institut der Universitat Zurich, Birchstrasse 95, CH-8050 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40244 Gendell, Murray. Stalls in the fertility decline in Costa Rica and South Korea. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 15-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Stalls in fertility decline in Costa Rica and South Korea during the period 1960-1985 are analyzed and compared. The author notes that "as of 1985, the fertility plateau in Costa Rica had lasted about 10 years. Two lulls in Korea were of minimal length, about five years each....What accounts for the substantial difference in the duration of the stalls in these two countries? This article attempts to answer that question by exploring three possible reasons: Korea managed to lower its desired family size more than Costa Rica....The national family planning program in Costa Rica deteriorated during the course of the stall, thus prolonging it, while the program in Korea was improved, at least partly as a result of its stalls. Contraceptive prevalence and effectiveness of the methods used improved more in Korea than in Costa Rica."
Correspondence: M. Gendell, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40245 Gomez, Victor M. Fertility change in Costa Rica: 1964-1986. Pub. Order No. DA8906520. 1989. 300 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the fertility change that has occurred in Costa Rica during the last 25 years. "A rapid decline followed by a plateau at levels quite above replacement characterizes the trends of the Costa Rican birth rate during the past quarter of a century. Using several surveys, three major areas of interest are examined in an attempt to identify the factors responsible for the trends." Consideration is given to intermediate variables, including age at first union, marriage duration, and breast-feeding; the components of desired and unwanted fertility; and the effects of family planning programs and health services.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(2).

55:40246 Guzman, Jose M. Fertility transition in Latin America. IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 5, Oct 1989. 1-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The various stages of fertility decline patterns among Latin American countries are examined. The author divides the countries into the four transition categories of complete, advanced, intermediate, or delayed. He then discusses four proximate determinants of fertility including nuptiality, contraception, abortion, and breast-feeding and their impact on fertility decline.
Correspondence: J. M. Guzman, CELADE, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40247 Handwerker, W. Penn. Women's power and social revolution: fertility transition in the West Indies. Frontiers of Anthropology, Vol. 2, ISBN 0-8039-3115-8. LC 88-18567. 1989. 254 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
A theory concerning social change and its effect on the family and fertility, along the lines proposed by Jack Caldwell, is developed and applied to data from Barbados collected by the author in 1985 and 1986. Approaching the concept of the demographic transition from an anthropological perspective, the author examines such topics as the depersonalization of social relationships, the rise in women's status, shifts toward equality in sex roles, the competition between men and women for resources, the breakdown of the traditional family, and the dramatic decline in fertility.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 211 West Hillcrest Drive, Newbury Park, CA 91320. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40248 Herms, Eva-Maria. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility of the rural population in North Punjab. An example: Muradi Janjil (Pakistan). [Sozio-okonomische Determinanten der Fertilitat der Landbevolkerung im Nord-Punjab. Fallbeispiel: Muradi Janjil (Pakistan).] Beitrage zur Sudasienforschung, No. 119, ISBN 3-515-05058-2. LC 88-146321. 1987. xii, 256, vii pp. Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of; Universitat Heidelberg, Sudasien-Institut: Heidelberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The author attempts to identify the factors that determine fertility in a rural community in North Punjab, Pakistan. The data concern the village of Muradi Janjil and were collected by interviews and observation in 1976 and 1978-1979.
Correspondence: Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, Postfach 347, D-7000 Stuttgart 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40249 Horne, A. Dale; Suchindran, Chirayath M. Maternal age at last birth and reproductive span: the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, Dec 1985. 28-53 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
The reproductive span of subgroups of the Egyptian population is examined using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. Consideration is given to factors affecting the length of the reproductive period, including socioeconomic factors, educational status, urban or rural residential location, parity, marriage age, and age at first and last birth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40250 Horne, Amelia D. A parity-specific fertility table for Egypt: application of Nour's method. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jun 1986. 13-26 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"In the present paper, a method of constructing a fertility table based on the observed current parity distribution, developed by Nour (1984), is used to obtain a parity-specific fertility [rate] for Egypt....Nour's method is based on the assumption that women at a given parity and age will have the same fertility behavior regardless of their previous experience." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40251 Hull, Terence H. Fertility decline in Indonesia: an institutionalist interpretation. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1987. 90-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent fertility decline in Indonesia is analyzed. The author asserts that "any effective interpretation of Indonesia's fertility decline requires what I choose to call a 'holistic' understanding of the evolution over the years of a number of basic social and economic institutions that have created an environment conducive to fertility reduction. Among these I include nationalist ideology, political independence, governmental organizations and the expansion of the educational system, all agents that have succeeded in altering the social context within which people make their family-building decisions. The availability of modern contraceptive technology, industrialization, mass consumption and an invigorated rural economy have also affected fertility levels through their impact on marriage patterns and on the context in which parents relate to their children."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, Department of Political and Social Change, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40252 India. Office of the Registrar General. Demography Division (New Delhi, India). Census of India, 1981. Fertility and child mortality estimates of Andhra Pradesh. Occasional Paper, No. 11, 1988. 89 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This report presents estimates of female age at marriage, fertility, and child mortality tabulated from a 20 percent sample of enumeration blocks in Andhra Pradesh taken during the 1981 Indian census. "The latter two estimates have been derived by indirect estimation techniques. These estimates have been presented at [the] district level. Along with these district level estimates, the state level estimates of fertility and child mortality by religion, educational level and occupational level of main workers are also presented."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Demography Division, 4/19 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40253 India. Office of the Registrar General. Demography Division (New Delhi, India). Census of India, 1981. Fertility and child mortality estimates of Maharashtra. Census of India Occasional Paper, No. 1 of 1988, [1988]. v, 112 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is one in a series of reports providing information on fertility and child mortality by state based on data from a 20 percent sample of the 1981 census of India. The report concerns the state of Maharashtra and presents estimates of female age at marriage as well as rates that were derived by indirect estimation on fertility and child mortality at the district level. State-level estimates are also provided by religion, educational status, and occupation.
For a similar publication, also published in 1988, see 54:30215.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Printing Division, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40254 Juarez, Fatima; Quilodran, Julieta; Zavala de Cosio, Maria E. From natural to controlled fertility: Mexico, 1950-1980. [De una fecundidad natural a una controlada: Mexico 1950-1980.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1989. 5-51, 215 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors survey changes in fertility patterns in Mexico from 1950 to 1980 and attempt to identify the critical factors affecting these changes and to assess geographical variations in fertility. A profile of women who initiated a movement toward low fertility is also presented. Comparisons are made with other Latin American countries.
Correspondence: F. Juarez, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40255 Khalifa, Mona. An introduction to multivariate life table analysis of birth intervals. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jun 1987. 24-44 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the two approaches of multivariate life tables. Although our discussion is focussed on birth interval analysis, the approaches are also applicable to event history analysis in general e.g. infant mortality, marriage dissolution, and contraceptive efficacy. The interval starts by the birth of the child, marriage, or the use of a contraceptive method respectively and is terminated by the infant's death, the dissolution of marriage or pregnancy....Our aim is to present the techniques to the demographically oriented researcher and to review recent advances in the methodology of the analysis of birth intervals."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40256 Kiernan, Kathleen E. Who remains childless? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 387-98 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author examines the determinants of voluntary childlessness in the United Kingdom. "Life history data for a British cohort born in 1946 show that age at marriage and marital breakdown were clearly associated with childlessness. Women who were only children were more likely to be childless than those with siblings. Further, early menarcheal age, being highly qualified and having a high status occupation were indirectly related to childlessness. For men, particularly amongst those who had experienced a broken marriage, it was the most ambitious, the highly educated and those in professional occupations who were relatively more likely to be childless."
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, Family Policy Studies Centre, 231 Baker Street, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40257 Klein, Thomas. The expansion of the educational system and the birth decline in the Federal Republic of Germany: a cohort-based simulation on the impact of the changing educational structure on reproductive behavior. [Bildungsexpansion und Geburtenruckgang: eine kohortenbezogene Analyse zum Einfluss veranderter Bildungsbeteiligung auf die Geburt von Kindern im Lebensverlauf.] Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Vol. 41, No. 3, Sep 1989. 483-503, 617 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Demographic studies on cohort fertility have revealed that the birth decline in the [Federal Republic of Germany] was accompanied or even brought about by a considerable postponement in parenthood. By means of event history analysis and micro-simulation this article shows that the postponement of motherhood can be attributed to the expansion of the educational system that took place in the 60s and early 70s. Furthermore, changes in educational structure have contributed markedly to increased childlessness in the younger generation, whereas there is no relation between the reduction in family size and the structural changes in education. The impact of increased education on the family life-cycle can be explained by labour market theories, whereas traditional theories have neglected biographic aspects of fertility."
Correspondence: T. Klein, Universitat Karlsruhe, Institut fur Soziologie, Postfach 6380, Kollegium am Schloss/Bau II, 7500 Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40258 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Births and abortions, 1982-1986. [Fodsler og aborter 1982-1986.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 150, No. 24, Jun 13, 1988. 1,480-1 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
Trends in conception and abortion for the five-year period 1982-1986 are examined using official Danish health statistics. Tables provide data on births, legal abortions, and spontaneous abortions; births and legal abortions by woman's age; number of legal abortions per 100 pregnancies by woman's age; and number of legally induced abortions compared to the sum of induced abortions and births in each age group.
For a related article concerning the period 1980-1984, see 53:10297.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40259 Leasure, J. William. A hypothesis about the decline of fertility: evidence from the United States. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 2, Oct 1989. 105-17 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author examines the relationships among fertility decline, urbanization, and the increase in personal autonomy in the United States during the nineteenth century. "Urbanization was consistently negatively correlated with the level of fertility in 1810, 1860, 1920, and 1940. Urbanization was not significantly correlated with the decline of fertility in the period, i.e. from 1800 to 1860; from 1860 to 1920; and from 1920 to 1940. For the period from 1800 to 1860, however, the decline was closely associated with a proxy variable for what is called the spirit of autonomy, i.e., a feeling of control over one's life. It is hypothesized that this sense of control extended to control over fertility. After 1860 the ideas became so widespread that they were no longer associated with any particular group, region, religion, or class. It was just a matter of time until the ideas spread slowly to all groups."
Correspondence: J. W. Leasure, San Diego State University, Department of Economics, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40260 Lesetedi, Lesetedinyana T.; Mompati, Gaboratanelwe D.; Khulumani, Pilate; Lesetedi, Gwen N.; Rutenberg, Naomi. Botswana Family Health Survey II, 1988. Aug 1989. xxxiv, 165 pp. Central Statistics Office: Gaborone, Botswana; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Results are presented from the Botswana Family Health Survey II, one in a series of surveys conducted by the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development's DHS program. Following an introduction to the survey and a chapter on the country's background, chapters are included on exposure to pregnancy, breast-feeding, and postpartum insusceptibility; fertility; family planning knowledge and use; fertility preferences; mortality and health; and knowledge of AIDS. An appendix on survey methodology is also included.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Macro, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40261 Li, Guozhong; Kang, Jiusheng. A preliminary investigation of the double-track feedback model of fertility control. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 1, Jan 29, 1988. 44-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The need to consider the impact of nuptiality and fertility changes when developing models of fertility change in China is stressed. The authors conclude that the development of a system that regulates both fertility and marriage patterns is required if population growth is to be efficiently controlled through a population policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40262 Liu, Zheng; Liu, Lihua. An analysis of social consequences of rapid fertility decline in China. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1988. 17-30 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The impact of rapid fertility decline in China on the country's social and economic development is analyzed. Various indicators are used to demonstrate that improvement in these areas has occurred, including increases in the gross national product, income levels, educational development, and health services; decreases in neonatal, infant, and maternal mortality; and better nutrition. Birth rate, death rate, and natural increase data for each year from 1949 to 1984 are provided.
Correspondence: Z. Liu, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40263 Llovet, Juan J. The relationship between fertility and income: a review of some interpretations. [Relacion entre fecundidad e ingresos: revision de algunas interpretaciones.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1989. 139-59, 216-7 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper offers a review of some of the theoretical positions and historical-empirical research conducted on the relationship between fertility and income. In the first section, the author examines economic analyses that support a positive ratio between these two factors; he devotes the second section to theory of demographic transition which, for the most part, endorses the existence of a negative ratio; in the third section, he analyzes authors and empirical verifications that make the positive or negative nature of the ratio dependent upon the behavior of certain variables; in the last section, he presents and discusses two attempts to arrive at an overview of the entire topic." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J. J. Llovet, Universidad Complutense, Departamento de Cambio Social, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40264 MacDonald, John S.; MacDonald, Leatrice. Changes in fertility in the Lower Orinoco Basin. [La transicion de fertilidad en la cuenca del Bajo Orinoco.] Montalban, No. 19, 1987. 69-92 pp. Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Fertility trends in the Oriente region of Venezuela, including Ciudad Guayana, are examined in this study, which is translated from the original English. Data are from field studies and official sources. The authors analyze the relationships among fertility and family production, industrialization, social class, urbanization, and education.
Correspondence: J. S. MacDonald, University of London, Kings College, Department of Geography, Strand, WC2R 2LS London, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40265 Magdalinos, Michael; Symeonidou, Hariclia. Modelling the fertility-employment relationship: simultaneity and misspecification testing. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 2, Oct 1989. 119-43 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The relationship between fertility and the employment of women [in Greece] is examined in the framework of micro-economic fertility analysis....The main finding of the analysis is that of a significant causal influence of employment on fertility, both directly and through sex role attitudes. Fertility does not appear to have any significant effect on employment. The model is used to make some policy recommendations."
Correspondence: H. Symeonidou, Greek National Centre of Social Research, 1 Sophocleous Street, GR-100 59 Athens, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40266 Mashika, T. A. Female employment and maternity. [Zanyatost' zhenshchin i materinstvo.] ISBN 5-244-00045-4. 1989. 286 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The relationship between female employment and childbearing in the USSR is studied. Specific issues addressed include the relationship between economic activity and factors such as family formation, fertility levels, child-rearing, and maternal well-being. Using data from social surveys, the author considers practical solutions to social problems as well as means of enabling women to combine maternal and professional functions.
Correspondence: Mysl' Izdatel'stvo, Leninskii Prosp. 15, 117071 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:40267 Mexico. Secretaria de Salud. Subsecretaria de Servicios de Salud. Direccion General de Planificacion Familiar (Mexico City, Mexico); Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Mexico: National Survey on Fertility and Health, 1987. [Mexico: Encuesta Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Salud, 1987.] Jul 1989. xxv, 231 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
These are the results of Mexico's 1987 National Survey on Fertility and Health, the aims of which were to estimate fertility levels and trends, analyze use levels of various contraceptive methods, and examine some of the interrelations between contraceptive use and maternal-infant health. Chapters are included on the survey methodology; an outline of population dynamics and policies; general characteristics of the population; fertility and exposure to risk of conception; fertility levels, trends, and differentials; fertility regulation; fertility preferences; characteristics of women accepting surgical contraceptive methods; and infant mortality and health. Appendixes contain more detailed information on survey methodology as well as samples of the questionnaires used.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro, DHS Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40268 Miller, Paul W. Economic models of fertility behaviour in Australia. Australian Economic Papers, Vol. 27, No. 50, Jun 1988. 65-82 pp. Adelaide, Australia. In Eng.
The author analyses individual fertility patterns in Australia from the perspective of recent economic models of the family. The emphasis is on the relationship between fertility and economic variables such as human capital, market wages, and wealth. "Several dimensions of fertility are considered, including 'quality' of children, completed family size, and the decision whether to have children or not." Data are from the 1973 Social Mobility in Australia Survey.
Correspondence: P. W. Miller, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40269 Monnier, Alain. Fertility intentions and actual behaviour. A longitudinal study: 1974, 1976, 1979. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 237-59 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
Fertility intentions and actual fertility behavior are compared for a sample of young women with one child for the years 1974 through 1979 in France. The author "analyses interviews with some 2,000 women who were asked questions about their intended family size in 1974 and who were re-interviewed in 1976 and 1979. This has made it possible to compare their actual behaviour with their intentions and to discuss the reasons which may have led them to revise their intentions."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1987 and cited in 54:20309.
Correspondence: A. Monnier, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40270 Munoz-Perez, Francisco. The decline of fertility in Southern Europe. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 261-90 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author presents historical and contemporary overviews of fertility trends in Spain, Italy, Portugal, and Greece. Illegitimacy, age at marriage and at first birth, average parity per married couple, and childlessness are examined for the period 1921-1985. Findings reveal a substantial fertility decline in Southern Europe since 1975. It is suggested that the fertility transition has been completed and that reproductive behavior in Southern Europe will begin to correspond to trends in the rest of Europe. Data are from official sources.
This is a translation of the French article published in 1987 and cited in 54:20310.
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Perez, INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40271 Nigeria. Ondo State. Ministry of Health. Medical/Preventive Health Division (Akure, Nigeria). Ondo State, Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 1986. Apr 1989. xviii, 138 pp. Ministry of Health, Medical/Preventive Health Division: Akure, Nigeria; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Results are presented from the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Ondo State, Nigeria, as part of the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development's DHS program. Following a chapter on the background of the state, chapters are included on marriage and other determinants of fertility, fertility, contraceptive knowledge and use, fertility preferences, and mortality and health. An appendix on survey methodology is included.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Macro, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40272 Okpala, Amon O. Female employment and family size among urban Nigerian women. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 23, No. 3, Apr 1989. 439-56 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
The relationship between female employment and fertility in Nigeria is analyzed. Data are from a survey of urban women living in Lagos. The author first examines the role-incompatibility measures used in the present and previous studies. "An explanation of the empirical variables follows. A section titled household characteristics then presents information obtained from the survey, while the ensuing section discusses the results from the analysis. The last section contains conclusions and suggestions for future research."
Correspondence: A. O. Okpala, Fayetteville State University, Department of Economics, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40273 Pakistan. Population Census Organisation (Islamabad, Pakistan). Levels and trends of fertility for small geographical areas in Pakistan using census data. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-I, 1987. v, 45 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of 11 papers published by ESCAP in which levels and trends in fertility in 10 countries of Asia are analyzed using data from the 1970 and 1980 census rounds. This report concerns Pakistan. "Section I summarizes what is currently known about geographical variations in fertility. It also describes geographical variations in factors likely to be associated with fertility, such as urbanization, and age at marriage. Section II analyses the reliability of the census for estimating fertility. Fertility is estimated at the district level using two sources of data in the census, the child-woman ratios and the parity of women aged 20-29. These estimates are checked for internal consistency over time and with each other. They are also compared with age at marriage, education, urbanization and female labour force participation to see if fertility correlates with these variables in the expected ways. These comparisons show that estimates of fertility by district are consistent with other data. In section III maps of fertility are presented by district for 1962-1972 and 1971-1981."
Correspondence: ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40274 Pick, James B.; Tellis, Glenda L.; Butler, Edgar W. Fertility determinants in the oil region of Mexico. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1989. 45-66 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Fertility determinants in the oil-producing region of Mexico are examined using data from the 1980 Mexican census. Fertility rates were found to be higher for non-Catholics and persons with no religious affiliation than for Catholics. Socioeconomic factors, including literacy and urbanization, are associated with fertility decline.
Correspondence: J. B. Pick, University of California, Graduate School of Management, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40275 Poedjastoeti, Sri. Levels and trends of fertility in Indonesia based on the 1971 and 1980 population censuses: a study of regional differentials. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-E, 1987. v, 54 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of 11 papers published by ESCAP in which levels and trends in fertility in 10 countries of Asia are analyzed using data from the 1970 and 1980 census rounds. This report first evaluates the type of census data used to derive estimates of fertility and the techniques for such estimation developed by J. R. Rele. The rest of the report "discusses levels and trends of fertility in Indonesia at the regional, provincial and district levels. The five provinces of Jawa are treated separately because the demographic data for Jawa are particulary abundant. Next, Jawa is compared with other islands, and patterns of fertility by province for the late 1960s and late 1970s are analysed. Maps are presented showing levels of fertility for these periods. Finally, a detailed map of fertility at the district level for the whole country is presented for the period 1975-1985."
Correspondence: ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40276 Raymont, Antony. Development, "welfare," and fertility: a simple macroanalysis. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1989. 110-3 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Accepting the theoretical position that desired family size is likely to diminish as economic modernization occurs, the author analyzes the association between fertility and development using recent national data from less developed countries. Measures of income and equality are combined to provide an index of population 'welfare.' Multiple and cross-lagged correlations are used to demonstrate the magnitude and nature of the relationship between welfare and fertility rates. Despite inadequacies of the data, high negative correlations are obtained, and evidence is advanced to show that the direction of causation is from welfare to fertility."
Correspondence: A. Raymont, University of Auckland, Department of Community Health Medical School, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40277 Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Oberle, Mark W. Fertility change in Costa Rica 1960-84: analysis of retrospective lifetime reproductive histories. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 419-32 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Lifetime reproductive histories of a 1984-85 nationally representative sample of 870 women aged 25-59 years provided data to describe the evolution of fertility, contraception, breast-feeding, and natural fecundability in Costa Rica between 1960 and 1984. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 23% in 1965 to 58% in 1975 and 66% in 1984. Duration of breast-feeding was stable during the 1960s, decreased in the early 1970s, and increased after about 1976. Fecundability among women who did not practise contraception was lower than expected and declined between 1960 and 1975, probably because of selection effects....The analysis demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of asking for lifetime reproductive histories in fertility surveys in developing countries."
Correspondence: L. Rosero-Bixby, University of Costa Rica, Institute for Health Research, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40278 Rutenberg, Naomi; Ochoa, Luis H.; Arruda, Jose M. The proximate determinants of low fertility in Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1987. 75-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Proximate determinants of low fertility and regional variations in fertility decline in Brazil are examined. Findings indicate that contraceptive use has risen in all regions since 1975 and that female sterilization is the most popular method. The authors attribute the fertility decline over the past four to eight years to a rise in the use of more effective contraceptive methods. They also note a shift to a preference for smaller family size. Data are from the 1986 Brazil Demographic and Health Survey and national census data.
Correspondence: N. Rutenberg, Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40279 Sarkar, B. N. Population welfare planning. ISBN 81-85109-82-6. LC 88-904559. 1988. xxi, 336 pp. Naya Prokash: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Results are presented from a fertility survey of rural areas surrounding Calcutta, India. The survey was conducted in 1984 by the Demography Research Unit of the Indian Statistical Institute. "It has separate chapters on socio-demographic characteristics, educational development, marriage patterns, sterilization acceptance and fertility." Comparisons are made with results from a 1978 survey. The report suggests that a net reproduction rate of one could be achieved in West Bengal by delaying all pregnancies until age 20 and by avoiding pregnancies to women over 34 years of age.
Correspondence: Naya Prokash, 206 Bidhan Sarani, Calcutta 700 006, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40280 Shaw, Annapurna. Fertility and child spacing among the urban poor in a third world city: the case of Calcutta, India. Human Ecology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1988. 329-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the fertility behavior of the urban poor in India. "On the basis of data from 180 slum households in Calcutta, India, the paper indicates that in a situation where material and social conditions are comparable, cultural and demographic variables play a major role in influencing reproductive behavior. In this case study, caste and family type are shown to have a significant effect on the numbers of surviving children. As regards child spacing, the woman's age is of paramount importance."
Correspondence: A. Shaw, Arizona State University, Department of Geography, Tempe, AZ 85287. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40281 Shen, Yimin. Selected findings from recent fertility surveys in three regions of China. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1987. 80-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Selected findings from 1985 fertility surveys for Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and Shanghai municipality in China are analyzed. Factors examined include age at first marriage, total fertility rate, ideal family size, contraceptive use, and infant mortality. Rural-urban and educational differentials are noted.
Correspondence: Y. Shen, State Statistical Bureau, Department of Population Statistics, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40282 Srinivasan, K. Modernization, contraception and fertility change in India. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 94-102 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The impact of modernization on India's fertility levels is examined for the period 1951-1984, with special emphasis on the years from 1972 to 1984. "Data on selected social, economic and health service variables indicate that although improvements occurred in all measures [of fertility] over the 12-year period, they were not spectacular. Of the variables considered, the adult female literacy rate was found to be most closely associated with the total fertility rate. Interstate differences in fertility rates were found to be closely tied to differences in the proportion of couples protected by modern methods of contraception, which, in 1984, ranged from 12 percent to 40 percent. This association remained significant after controlling for the effects of all socioeconomic variables except the female literacy rate, which contributed significantly to differences in the total fertility rate in 1984."
Correspondence: K. Srinivasan, International Institute for Population Studies, Deonar, Bombay, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40283 Sweden. Statistiska Centralbyran (Stockholm, Sweden). Husband and father. Research and statistics on family formation and reproduction--with special emphasis on men. [Make och far. Forskning och statistik om familjebildning och reproduktion--med speciell inriktning mot man.] Demografiska Rapporter, No. 1987:2, ISBN 91-618-0253-0. LC 88-160798. Jan 1988. 104 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from a fertility survey conducted among 5,000 men in Sweden in 1984. The report consists of a historical review of trends in family demography in Sweden and changes in sex roles over time. Data are provided on Swedish men and are compared with data from other European countries. Theories concerning the fertility decline and various empirical studies are discussed.
Correspondence: Statistiska Centralbyran, S-115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40284 Thompson, Patrick A.; Bell, William R.; Long, John F.; Miller, Robert B. Multivariate time series projections of parameterized age-specific fertility rates. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 84, No. 407, Sep 1989. 689-99 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
A time-series modeling approach to forecasting age-specific fertility rates is presented and applied to data for U.S. white women for the period 1921-1984. "The resulting forecasts are examined, and the multivariate model is used to investigate possible relations between the curve parameters, expressed as the total fertility rate, the mean age of childbearing, and the standard deviation of age at childbearing. The only relationship found is the contemporaneous relationship between the mean and standard deviation of age at childbearing. A variation of this approach, in conjunction with traditional demographic judgement, was used in a recent set of U.S. Census Bureau population projections. We discuss this implementation and compare the Census Bureau projections with those produced directly from the model presented here."
Correspondence: P. A. Thompson, University of Florida, College of Business Administration, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

55:40285 Tonini, Giovanni. Time series modeling and forecasting of monthly live births using ARIMA-type models. [Analisi e previsione delle nascite mensili con modelli della classe ARIMA.] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 37-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors analyze and attempt to forecast monthly variations in fertility over time in small populations using the Box-Jenkins approach and an ARIMA model. Data are for the period 1972-1986 and concern the provinces of Bolzano and Trento, Italy.
Correspondence: G. Tonini, Universita degli Studi, Istituto di Statistica e Ricerca Operativa, Via Belenzani 12, 38100 Trento, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40286 Toulemon, L. Historical overview of fertility and age. Maturitas, Supplement, No. 1, 1988. 5-14 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Using the example of France, the author argues that the apparent increase in births to women over age 35 that has been observed in various developed countries has been overestimated. It is suggested that most European countries have experienced a change in the evolution of the life cycle that has shifted the period of women's highest fertility from ages 20-25 to ages 25-30.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40287 Tzannatos, Zafiris; Symons, James. An economic approach to fertility in Britain since 1860. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, Sep 1989. 121-38 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper utilises a dynamic economic approach to examine movements in fertility in Britain since 1860. The analysis and results indicate that fertility has responded positively to changes in incomes. However, this positive effect has been more than offset by the increase in the opportunity cost of female time which has followed closely the education attainment of women."
Correspondence: Z. Tzannatos, University of Buckingham Department of Economics, Buckingham MK18 1EG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40288 van Poppel, Frans. Urban-rural versus regional differences in demographic behavior: the Netherlands, 1850-1960. Journal of Urban History, Vol. 15, No. 4, Aug 1989. 363-98 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
The demographic transition that occurred in the Netherlands between 1850 and 1960 is examined, with particular reference to the relationship between changes in demographic indicators in urban areas and their surrounding rural areas. Consideration is given not only to general fertility but to mortality, marital and extramarital fertility, and marriage and marital dissolution. The author also attempts to identify regionally specific factors that affect demographic behavior.
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR, The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40289 Vichnevski, A. G. The role of historical knowledge in the study of reproductive behavior in the USSR. [Le role des connaissances historiques dans l'etude du comportement procreateur en U.R.S.S.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 213-39 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The analysis of the children's role in the economy of a patriarchal peasant family, of the different elements of the non-economic value of children, of the attitude towards their birth or death and towards birth control in the traditional Russian society shows that if the fertility level in the past, right up to the [1920s], was very high, it was not a consequence of 'rational' fertility behaviour of couples, their conscious interest in having as many children as possible. A new historical type of fertility behaviour based on free personal choice and presupposing a deliberate search of purposes and adequate means to achieve them, [has taken place] on a large scale only as a result of the demographic revolution [in the USSR in the twentieth century]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40290 Wijewickrema, S. Fertility adaptation to local conditions: Maghrebians in Belgium. IPD Working Paper, No. 1989-3, 1989. 32 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The fertility of migrants from northern Africa to Belgium is examined using data from the 1981 Belgian census. The relationships among fertility level and length of residence in Belgium and age at time of migration are emphasized.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, IPD, Centrum voor Sociologie, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40291 Willems, Paul. Births and marriages in Belgium: analysis of monthly data. [Geboorten en huwelijken in Belgie: analyse op basis van voorlopige maandcijfers.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Jul 1989. 23-47 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The focus of this study is on fertility and marriage in Belgium and the impact of changes in timing patterns of these events. The author contends that the observed increases in total period fertility rate and number of marriages since 1986 are due "to recuperation of births that were postponed by the large generations born during the late fifties and early sixties."
Correspondence: P. Willems, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Nijverheidsstraat 37, B 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40292 Wright, Robert E. Fertility, partners and female labour supply in Jamaica. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 205-24 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper examines the relationship between fertility, female labour force participation and partnership formation using data collected in the 1975-76 Jamaican Fertility Survey. Numerous studies in nations of the British Caribbean have documented a positive association between sexual union instability and fertility. This finding is in disagreement with conventional demographic theory. Some support for the conclusion that this observed positive association may be spurious is found."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, University of London, Centre for Population Studies, Senate House, London WC1E 7HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

55:40293 Adewuyi, Alfred A.; Feyisetan, Bamikale J. Fertility differential among the three major Nigerian ethnic groups resident in Lagos. DSS Monograph Series, No. 4, ISBN 978-2297-00-3. 1988. viii, 42 pp. Obafemi Awolowo University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Demography and Social Statistics [DSS]: Ile-Ife, Nigeria. In Eng.
Fertility differentials among the major ethnic groups of Lagos, Nigeria, are analyzed. The data were collected in a household survey in 1983 and concern 277 women aged 15-49. The focus of the study is on whether living in the same urban area has caused a convergence in fertility levels among the three main ethnic groups. The authors conclude that although fertility differentials continue to be evident, "exposure to the same life style and socio-economic pressures within the same geographic locale tends to neutralise differences in reproductive behaviour."
Correspondence: Obafemi Awolowo University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

55:40294 Aneshensel, Carol S.; Fielder, Eve P.; Becerra, Rosina M. Fertility and fertility-related behavior among Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white female adolescents. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1989. 56-76 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Ethnic differences in fertility-related behavior are examined in a community-based probability sample of 706 Mexican-American and 317 non-Hispanic white females aged 13 through 19 years [collected in Los Angeles County, California, in 1985]. Mexican-Americans are more likely than whites to have had a live birth, but are no more likely to have been pregnant and are less likely to have had sexual intercourse....Ethnic differences remain strong when socioeconomic status and indicators of social instability are controlled statistically, lending more support to the 'minority status' hypothesis than to the 'characteristics' hypothesis concerning the fertility-related behavior of minority group members."
Correspondence: C. S. Aneshensel, University of California, School of Public Health, Center for Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1772. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

55:40295 Hanson, Sandra L.; Morrison, Donna R.; Ginsburg, Alan L. The antecedents of teenage fatherhood. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 579-96 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The [U.S.] High School and Beyond Survey was used to describe young men who are at risk of becoming teenage fathers and examine the causal process leading to early fathering for young men. Bivariate results show that men who are at risk of fathering children at a young age have unique attitudes and family, school, and dating experiences. Multivariate analyses suggest that the most cogent factors affecting teenage fathering include being black, going steady, and having unorthodox views about parenting outside of marriage."
Correspondence: S. L. Hanson, Catholic University of America, Department of Sociology, Washington, D.C. 20064. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40296 Jain, S. K. Estimation of aboriginal fertility, 1971-86 (an application of the own-children method of fertility estimation). Australian Bureau of Statistics Occasional Paper, Pub. Order No. 4127.0. Aug 1989. Bureau of Statistics: Belconnen, Australia. In Eng.
Using the own-children method and data from the 1986 census, aboriginal fertility in Australia for the period 1971-1986 is estimated and compared to the total fertility of Australian women. The results indicate that although aboriginal fertility has declined over time, it remains about 46 percent higher (at 2.8 children per woman) than total fertility for all women in Australia.
Correspondence: Australian Bureau of Statistics, PO Box 10, Belconnen ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Belconnen, Australia. Source: Publisher's announcement.

55:40297 Kollehlon, Konia T. Ethnicity and fertility in Liberia: a test of the minority group status hypothesis. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1989. 67-81 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between ethnicity and fertility in Liberia, within the context of the minority group status hypothesis. The hypothesis argues that minority group status exerts an independent effect on fertility, net of controls for socioeconomic and demographic variables. Using a subsample of women from the 1974 Liberian census, the study examines interethnic variations in fertility by comparing five ethnic minorities--Bassa, Vai, Grebo, Kru, Kpelle--with the majority group, Americo-Liberian. With the possible exception of Bassa women, the findings do not support the minority group status hypothesis. Instead, the findings are more congruent with the alternative assimilationist hypothesis which argues that when sociodemographic differences between majority and minority groups are controlled, their fertility levels should converge."
Correspondence: K. T. Kollehlon, University of Maryland, Eastern Shore, Department of Social Sciences, Princess Anne, MD 21853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40298 Lopez, Elsa. Women with high fertility in Mexico: orientations for a population policy. [Las mujeres de alta fecundidad en Mexico: orientaciones para una politica de poblacion.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1989. 75-115, 216 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes patterns of high fertility by age and residential location in Mexico. Other factors considered are educational level and social class. The goal of this analysis is to identify target populations for policy purposes.
Correspondence: E. Lopez, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Sociologia, Facultdad de Ciencias Sociales, Calle Viamonte 430/444, 1053 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40299 Madrigal, Lorena. Hemoglobin genotype, fertility, and the malaria hypothesis. Human Biology, Vol. 61, No. 3, Jun 1989. 311-25 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The relationship between hemoglobin genotype and differential fertility is examined using data for 137 women aged 40 years or older from Limon, Costa Rica. The results do not demonstrate any reproductive advantage for hemoglobin (HG) AS individuals in an environment affected by malaria.
Correspondence: L. Madrigal, University of South Florida, Department of Anthropology, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40300 Pinther, A. Conditions and motivations for the desire to have children in young females. [Bedingungen und Motivationen des Kinderwunsches junger Frauen.] Artzliche Jugendkunde, Vol. 79, No. 4, 1988. 215-20 pp. Leipzig, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons for the different levels of fertility recorded in the five districts of the East German county of Leipzig are examined. Data are from a survey of 1,500 women concerning factors affecting the desire to have children. While nearly all the women surveyed wanted to have children, several conditions pertaining to the locality in which they lived were seen to affect their desired number of children.
Correspondence: A. Pinther, Zentralinstitut fur Jugendforschung, Stallbaumstrasse 9, Leipzig 7022, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40301 Rastogi, S. R. Effects of marital duration on the fertility of migrants and non-migrants in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 2, Dec 1988. 26-32 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The focus of this study is on determining "fertility differentials between migrant and non-migrant couples living in city areas [in Uttar Pradesh, India] and to understand the extent to which the length of married life and migratory features of the male partner are associated with their reproductive performance." Findings indicate that those migrating to urban areas tend to restrict fertility with the onset of the second decade of marriage. The implications for family planning program goals are discussed.
Correspondence: S. R. Rastogi, Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre, Lucknow, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40302 Retherford, Robert D.; Levin, Michael J. Is the fertility of Asian and Pacific Islander Americans converging to the U.S. norm? Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jun 1989. 21-6, 35 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"In this article we examine the process of assimilation in fertility behavior for Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, using census-based estimates of recent fertility trends for the period 1965-80. We examine fertility trends for all Asians and all Pacific Islanders, and separately for Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Guamanians, Hawaiians, and Samoans. We also examine, for each of the groups, differential fertility by urban-rural residence, educational attainment, nativity, and year of immigration if foreign-born."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40303 Rowland, D. T. Who's producing the next generation? The parentage of Australian children. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 6, No. 1, May 1989. 1-17 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
Below-replacement fertility in Australia is examined, with a focus on the social characteristics of the parents of the next deficit generation. Consideration is given to mother's life cycle experience, education, employment status, and religious denomination. Attitudes toward the nuclear family, marriage, and childbearing are also discussed. Data are from the 1981 census.
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Faculty of Arts, Population Studies Program, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40304 Szukicsne Serfozo, Klara. Some connections between fertility and school education. [A termekenyseg es az iskolai vegzettseg nehany osszefuggese.] Tarsadalomkutatas, No. 1, 1988. 80-100 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of education on fertility in Hungary over the past 25 years is explored using data from official sources. Fertility differentials by educational status, age, and residential status are analyzed. The results show significant differences in fertility between women with less education and those of medium and higher educational status, who tend to have fewer children. The author concludes that the impact of future changes in education on fertility are likely to be diminished.
Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA.

55:40305 Tolnay, Stewart E. A new look at the effect of venereal disease on black fertility: the Deep South in 1940. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 679-90 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The effect of venereal disease on black [U.S.] fertility is estimated for six Deep South states around 1940. Several relevant control variables are introduced, including characteristics of the socioeconomic environment and measures of possible diffusion processes that might have affected the relationship between venereal disease and fertility....The analyses are based on 395 counties in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. The results indicate that venereal disease was significantly related to black fertility, but that the relationship was considerably weaker than some have suggested....Furthermore, the revised estimates suggest that venereal infections probably accounted for around 28 percent of the historical decline in black fertility between 1875-1880 and 1935-1940. I conclude that the black fertility transition was not unicausal and that explanations for the black experience should be sought among the same causative forces considered for other populations."
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40306 Warren, Charles W.; Monteith, Richard S.; Johnson, J. Timothy. Fertility on the U.S.-Mexico border. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 409-17 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using Bongaarts' model, the relative importance of the proximate determinants of fertility is explored in five populations on the U.S.-Mexico border....For these five populations the principal differences in fertility rates result from substantial differences in the use of effective contraception."
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40307 Weinberger, Mary B. The relationship between women's education and fertility: selected findings from the World Fertility Surveys. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 35-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article takes advantage of the relative strengths of the WFS [World Fertility Survey] by examining educational differentials in several of the major proximate determinants of fertility [i.e., age at marriage, breast-feeding, and contraceptive practice], as well as in fertility itself. The main focus is upon differentials according to women's education, classified according to the number of years of schooling completed." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: M. B. Weinberger, United Nations, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40308 Weinberger, Mary B.; Lloyd, Cynthia; Blanc, Ann K. Women's education and fertility: a decade of change in four Latin American countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 4-14, 28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine the association between women's education and fertility levels in Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Peru. Data are from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey and are compared with data from earlier World Fertility Surveys. It is noted that all four countries have experienced a fertility decline and an overall rise in women's educational attainment but that substantial educational differentials persist among women. Findings indicate that women with higher educational status tend to desire a smaller family size and that they marry later, are more likely to practice family planning, and have lower fertility.
Correspondence: M. B. Weinberger, United Nations, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

55:40309 Basnayake, Sriani. An analysis of reasons for rejection at a vasectomy clinic. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 1, Sep 1988. 17-21 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author describes the criteria that were developed by the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka to determine the eligibility of clients seeking vasectomies. Using data from clinic screenings held during 1986-1987, reasons for rejection of potential vasectomy clients are detailed. The reason most frequently cited was a client family size of only two children, with the youngest child being under one year of age. The importance of screening and counseling clients is emphasized.
Correspondence: S. Basnayake, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, P.O. Box 365, 37/27 Bullers Lane, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40310 David, Paul A.; Mroz, Thomas A. Evidence of fertility regulation among rural French villagers, 1749-1789: a sequential econometric model of birth-spacing behavior (Part 1). European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 1, Sep 1989. 1-26 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors examine evidence of fertility regulation among rural French villagers in the eighteenth century. "In this first part an econometric model describing the sequences of live births to individual couples is developed and estimated, using data for a sample of married women in rural French communes during the period 1749-1789. The main methodological objective is to devise a means of controlling for unobserved heterogeneities that result in the endogeneity of variables describing a couple's accumulated demographic experience. Without such controls it is not possible to secure unbiased estimates of responses to familial demographic events, such as the births and deaths of children. Such estimates are sought here as indirect indicators of the existence and nature of deliberate fertility control."
Correspondence: P. A. David, Stanford University, Department of Economics, Stanford, CA 94305-6072. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40311 David, Paul A.; Mroz, Thomas A. Evidence of fertility regulation among rural French villagers, 1749-1789: a sequential econometric model of birth-spacing behavior (Part 2). European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 2, Oct 1989. 173-206 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This is the second part of a two-part paper in which the authors examine statistical models of marital fertility regulation in rural France from 1749 to 1789. They create a case against the "natural fertility" characterization of the period by presenting "clear indications that marital fertility was being regulated in congruence with the differential valuations placed upon children, according to their gender and age. A complex pattern is found in the non-biological responses of couples' fertility to both non-familial and familial experience of infant deaths, which take the form of 'hoarding' and 'replacement effects', respectively. Evidence is present bearing upon the suspected endogeneity of infant deaths, and its relationship to the adoption of preventive methods of limiting family size."
For Part 1, also published in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: P. A. David, Stanford University, Department of Economics, Stanford, CA 94305-6072. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40312 Djerassi, Carl. The politics of contraception: the view from Tokyo. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1987. 157-61 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
The author first notes that Japan is one of the very few countries in the world where oral contraceptives have not been officially approved. The reasons for this are explored and are identified as being partly cultural and political, but also due to pressure from the private medical sector responsible for performing induced abortions. The probability that oral contraceptives will become legal and will be on the market by 1990 is indicated, and the details of the government guidelines proposed are outlined. The potential market for oral contraceptives is assessed.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40313 Faour, Muhammad. Fertility policy and family planning in the Arab countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 254-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines Arab governments' perceptions of their countries' fertility situation, their desire to intervene in order to reduce or increase the rate of population growth, and the measures they have taken to influence the level of fertility. Special attention is given to family planning programs and access to methods of fertility regulation. A combination of stronger program effort and improved socioeconomic conditions account for much of the variation in contraceptive prevalence rates in 11 countries. Socioeconomic setting and political factors are found to be of primary importance in determining Arab fertility policies."
Correspondence: M. Faour, American University of Beirut, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40314 Fisher, Andrew A.; Way, Ann A. The Demographic and Health Surveys program: an overview. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 15-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article presents a brief description of the DHS [Demographic and Health Surveys] program and reports some preliminary findings on contraceptive use, reproductive intentions and fertility rates among women of reproductive age in selected survey countries." Data are from the period 1984-1989 and concern developing countries.
Correspondence: A. A. Fisher, Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys Program, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40315 Freundl, G.; Frank, P.; Bauer, S.; Doring, G. Demographic study on the family planning behaviour of the German population: the importance of natural methods. International Journal of Fertility, Supplement, May 1988. 54-8 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"A total of 1,267 women in the [Federal Republic of Germany], aged from 15 to 45 years, were interviewed about their family planning behavior and the importance of natural methods of family planning (NFP) in a representative demographic study. It was found that 19.6% of the respondents were not sexually active. The others used various methods, as follows: pill, 38.4%; IUD, 10.3%; condom, 5.9%; diaphragm, 2.1%; spermicides, 0.8%; withdrawal, 3.4%; NFP methods, 3.9%. The main reason for rejecting a method was a possible medical risk. Of the responding women, 73% had some previous knowledge about NFP; 47% of them found such methods to be interesting, and approximately 20% indicated a high probability of the use of NFP methods in the future."
Correspondence: G. Freundl, Urdenbacher Allee 83, Stadtisches Krankenhauses, D-4000 Dusseldorf 13, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40316 Garcia y Garma, Irma O. Fertility in rural and urban areas of Mexico. [La fecundidad en las areas rurales y urbanas de Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1989. 53-74, 215-6 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author compares contraceptive use in rural and urban areas of Mexico in order to ascertain whether effective family planning can be practiced and sustained in rural areas that are in the initial stages of economic development. Data are from six surveys conducted between 1969 and 1987. The results indicate that contraceptive use has increased significantly in rural and in urban areas over time and that the rate of increase in recent years has been higher in rural than in urban areas.
Correspondence: I. O. Garcia y Garma, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40317 Greene, Sheila M.; Joy, Marie-Therese; Nugent, J. K.; O'Mahony, P. Contraceptive practice of Irish married and single first-time mothers. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 379-85 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study surveys 100 married and 100 unmarried primiparous mothers, attending the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin [Ireland], with regard to their contraceptive practice, their planning of their pregnancy and the timing of their first antenatal visit." Results indicate that married women were more likely than unmarried women to use a contraceptive method and have their first antenatal visit prior to their twentieth week of pregnancy.
Correspondence: S. M. Greene, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Department of Psychology, Dublin 2, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40318 Gross, Barbara A. Breast-feeding and natural family planning. International Journal of Fertility, Supplement, May 1988. 24-31 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Natural family planning among 50 Australian women intending to breast-feed longer than 6 months is analyzed. The reliability of natural family planning during lactational amenorrhea and the first postpartum cycles is assessed.
Correspondence: B. A. Gross, Westmead Hospital, Endocrine Unit, Westmead (Sydney) NSW 2145, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40319 Hammouda, Ahmad A. The socio-economic determinants of contraceptive use in Jordan. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jun 1986. 46-69 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper...is to identify the socio-economic determinants of contraceptive use in a multivariate context, in order to determine their combined predictive power, as well as their importance when controlling for other variables (i.e. demographic variables)....The study investigates the fertility differentials of the various contraceptive categories." Data are from the 1976 Jordanian Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40320 Hossain, Shaikh I. Effect of public programs on family size, child education and health. Journal of Development Economics, No. 30, Jan 1989. 145-58 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A bulk of public resources in developing countries is devoted to the subvention of population control and health investments. The effects of these programs have been evaluated in this study with household and community data from Bangladesh. The results suggest that subsidy on family planning and secondary school would be most effective in the achievement of harmonious goals of reducing fertility and mortality and fostering investments in child education."
Correspondence: S. I. Hossain, World Bank, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:40321 Jay, M. Susan; Bridges, Christi E.; Gottlieb, Anita A.; Du Rant, Robert H. Adolescent contraception: an overview. Adolescent and Pediatric Gynecology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1988. 83-95 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This is an overview of adolescent sex behavior and contraception in the United States. The authors note that over 50 percent of all adolescents have engaged in sexual intercourse by age 18. The focus of the study is on the role of health services and programs in providing contraceptive methods that are effective and that facilitate compliance in adolescent patients.
Correspondence: M. S. Jay, 4301 West Markham, Slot 512, Little Rock, AR 72205. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40322 Kanitkar, S.; Karandikar, I.; Salvi, M.; Soman, A. A prospective study of IUD acceptors in Pune: does regular follow up help? Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 2, Dec 1988. 3-12 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors address the effectiveness of follow-up services for a sample of IUD acceptors in Pune, India. Patterns of IUD use, continuation, and side effects are described. Findings indicate that acceptors are more likely to continue IUD use and to report fewer side effects when they receive quarterly follow-up visits by trained personnel.
Correspondence: S. Kanitkar, Family Planning Association of India, Pune Branch, 1082/1 Ganeshkind Road, Behind Indian Oil Petrol Pump, Shivajinagar, Pune 411 016, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40323 Kjer, Jens J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Sterilization of women in Denmark during a seven-year period, 1978-1984. [Sterilisation af kvinder i Danmark i 7 ars perioden 1978-1984.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 150, No. 39, Sep 26, 1988. 2,331-4 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
Regional variations in female sterilization in Denmark are analyzed for the period 1978-1984. The authors note an increase in the average age at sterilization from 33.1 to 34.8 years over the course of this seven-year period.
Correspondence: J. J. Kjer, Barsehoj 7, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40324 Lakshmanna, Mamata. Population control and family planning in India. ISBN 81-7141-026-X. LC 88-904983. 1988. vii, 201 pp. Discovery Publishing House: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a general study on the development of family planning in India. It includes chapters on population problems and family planning, the population situation, sources of information on family planning, social correlates of family planning acceptors, and the future of family planning in India.
Correspondence: Discovery Publishing House, 8/81 Geeta Colony, Delhi 110 031, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40325 Lodewijckx, E. Family planning by aliens. [Gezinsplanning bij allochtonen.] CBGS Werkdocument, No. 58, 1989. 29, [81] pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Dut.
This report describes the preparatory research for a survey of family planning among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants living in the Flemish region of Belgium. The author notes that the final data analysis has not been completed due to cancellation of the project by the responsible governmental authorities. Survey questionnaires are provided in Dutch and Turkish.
Correspondence: CBGS, Nijverheidsstraat 37, 7 de Verdieping, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40326 Lucas Sanchez, Roque; Beltran Brotons, Jose L.; Martinez Garcia, Fuensanta. Family planning: results of a survey in a rural environment. [Planificacion familiar: resultados de una encuesta en el medio rural.] Gaceta Sanitaria, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul-Aug 1987. 23-7 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from a family planning (FP) survey conducted in 1986 in Motilla del Palancar, Cuenca, a predominantly rural area of Spain. "The concept of FP was understood by 60%. 53% know what a FP Centre is. The majority have seen the television campaign on family planning. Coitus interruptus is the method of contraception most widely known and used. 76% of the women want information about all methods, above all through talks and meeting. However, only 2.7% have ever been to a FP centre."
Correspondence: R. Lucas Sanchez, Zona Basica de Salud, Motilla del Palancar, Cuenca, Spain. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40327 McLaren, Angus; McLaren, Arlene T. The bedroom and the state: the changing practices and politics of contraception and abortion in Canada, 1880-1980. Canadian Social History Series, ISBN 0-7710-5532-3. LC 86-210521. 1986. 186 pp. McClelland and Stewart: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
The authors analyze the twentieth-century decline in fertility in Canada. The focus is on "how Canadian men and women have sought to limit births and how public figures have attempted to turn such private concerns to political purposes." Part 1 examines the changing role of contraception and induced abortion over time. Part 2 examines issues of sexual and social emancipation. Part 3 deals with the debate concerning population control and reproductive rights.
Correspondence: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 481 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2E9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:40328 Monteith, Richard S.; Morris, Leo; Warren, Charles W. 1987 Paraguay Family Planning Survey. Feb 1988. 48, [84] pp. U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Division of Reproductive Health, Program Evaluation Branch: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is the English-language version of the final report from the 1987 Paraguay Family Planning Survey. It includes information on knowledge of contraceptive methods, current contraceptive use, sources of contraception, reasons for nonuse and intentions for future use, planning status of last pregnancy and current pregnancy intentions, spontaneous and induced abortion history, characteristics of women at risk, sexual sterilization, and preferences for family planning services.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control, Division of Reproductive Health, Program Evaluation Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40329 Oberle, Mark W.; Sosa, Doris; Madrigal-Pana, Johnny; Becker, Stan; Morris, Leo; Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Contraceptive use and fertility in Costa Rica, 1986. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 103-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine contraceptive use in Costa Rica and find that 70 percent of currently married women use a contraceptive method. "While levels of contraceptive use among married women 20-44 years of age remained relatively stable between 1976 and 1986, total fertility rates increased slightly over that period, perhaps because of changing fertility intentions or changing patterns of contraceptive use. For example, Costa Rican women have increased their reliance on barrier methods and decreased use of the pill."
Correspondence: M. W. Oberle, Centers for Disease Control, Division of Reproductive Health, Program Evaluation Branch, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40330 Omari, C. K. Socio-cultural factors in modern family planning methods in Tanzania. Studies in African Health and Medicine, Vol. 3, ISBN 0-88946-189-9. LC 88-9352. 1989. x, 201 pp. Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston, New York/Lampeter, Wales. In Eng.
The cultural factors that influence the use or nonuse of modern family planning methods in Africa are examined. Data concern 244 women interviewed in two urban centers in Tanzania in 1987. The study includes chapters on the characteristics of the women surveyed and information on their family planning practices, family structures and desired and actual family size, and factors affecting fertility and the need to have children. A final chapter considers prospects for the adoption of modern family planning methods in Tanzania.
Correspondence: Edwin Mellen Press, Box 450, Lewiston, NY 14092. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40331 Ostby, Lars. The diffusion of modern contraception in Norway and its consequences for the fertility pattern. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 1, Sep 1989. 27-43 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper, fertility histories from the [1977] Norwegian Fertility Survey are used to show the innovation pattern of modern contraception in relation to regional and social variables. We also illustrate the change between methods. The contraceptive revolution described here has certainly had consequences for the fertility pattern. We comment upon the change in age at first birth, and try to estimate the effects of use of contraception on the age-specific fertility pattern."
Correspondence: L. Ostby, Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 8131 - Dep, N-0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40332 Prabhavathi, K.; Sheshadri, A. Pattern of IUD use: a follow up of acceptors in Mysore. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 1, Sep 1988. 3-16 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Patterns of IUD use in Mysore, India, are examined using data from a 1986-1987 follow-up survey of 400 women who accepted IUDs between 1983 and 1986. The authors trace patterns of communication, motivation, decision-making, and family size preference in IUD acceptors. Reasons for IUD continuation, failure, retention, and discontinuation are explored. The effectiveness of follow-up services is also analyzed.
Correspondence: K. Prabhavathi, Family Planning Association of India FPAI Mysore Branch, 2931 Ashoka Road, East Cross 32, Mysore 570 001, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40333 Raboch, J.; Pondelickova, J.; Boudnik, V.; Raboch, J. Contraceptive behavior of 16-to-18-year-old girls born 1967-1970. [Antikoncepcni chovani 16 az 18letych divek narozenych 1967 az 1970.] Ceskoslovenska Gynekologie, Vol. 53, No. 6, Jul 1988. 429-32 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Contraceptive use among 170 women in Czechoslovakia who were sexually active before the age of 18 is examined. The most commonly used methods were coitus interruptus, condoms, and the rhythm method. Knowledge of contraception came primarily from popular scientific books and journals or from schools.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40334 Ross, John A.; Wardlaw, Tessa M.; Huber, Douglas H.; Hong, Sawon. Cohort trends in sterilization: some international comparisons. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 52-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine the use of sterilization as a means of family planning among successive cohorts of women in developing countries. Trends indicate that more couples adopt the method at younger ages and earlier in marriage. "The importance of sterilization among all methods of fertility control varies greatly from one location to another, and reversible methods are prominent at the early stages of the family cycle." Data are from World Fertility Surveys.
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40335 Schwartz, Dana B.; Wingo, Phyllis A.; Antarsh, Libby; Smith, Jack C. Female sterilizations in the United States, 1987. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 209-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors present information on female sterilization in the United States during 1987. Included are "the number of female sterilizations performed, the types of procedures surgeons use, the settings in which they are performed and the geographic locations...." Data are from the Centers for Disease Control.
Correspondence: D. B. Schwartz, Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, National Program Division, 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40336 Selman, P. F. Family planning. Reviews of United Kingdom Statistical Sources, Vol. 25, ISBN 0-412-31690-0. LC 88-1019. 1988. xiii, 220 pp. Chapman and Hall: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is one in a series of guides to sources of statistics in the United Kingdom. This volume is concerned with family planning statistics and is designed as a reference work to sources of official and unofficial statistical materials, including statistics available in machine-readable form. It contains separate sections on types and sources of information on family planning, contraception, contraceptive services, sterilization, abortion, family building patterns, and evaluation and future needs. Several quick reference indexes are provided.
Correspondence: Chapman and Hall, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:40337 Sheon, Amy R.; Stanton, Cynthia. Use of periodic abstinence and knowledge of the fertile period in 12 developing countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 29-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The use of periodic abstinence as a method of fertility control is examined in 12 developing countries. Data on percentages of women who have ever used the method are presented, and women's knowledge of the method and their understanding of the fertile period are evaluated. "The problem that women who have heard of periodic abstinence most often associate with that method is its ineffectiveness, and the most common reason users give for discontinuation is method failure." Data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program.
Correspondence: A. R. Sheon, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program, Bethesda, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40338 Sonenstein, Freya L.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Ku, Leighton C. Sexual activity, condom use and AIDS awareness among adolescent males. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 152-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze results of the 1988 U.S. National Survey of Adolescent Males. Data are presented separately by race on sexual activity, contraceptive use, and AIDS awareness. The survey included interviews with 1,880 never-married males aged 15-19. "The levels of condom use reported in 1988 were surprisingly high compared with 1979 levels. Among 17-19-year-olds living in metropolitan areas, condom use at last intercourse more than doubled--from 21 percent to 58 percent."
Correspondence: F. L. Sonenstein, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40339 van Keep, P. A.; Dewilde, D. M. Contraceptive choice in the completed family. Maturitas, Supplement, No. 1, 1988. 39-49 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Contraceptive choices among women who have completed their desired family size are analyzed. Data were collected by general practitioners in 1983 in Flanders (Belgium) and concern 365 women aged 28-38 who were married and had at least one child. The results indicate that 70 percent of the sample was using an effective form of modern contraception (oral contraceptives, IUDs, or sterilization). Consideration is given to changes over time in contraceptive methods chosen and to shifts in attitudes toward desired family size and an additional pregnancy.
Correspondence: P. A. van Keep, Organon International BV, P.O. Box 20, 5340 BH Oss, Netherlands. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40340 von Fragstein, Martin; Flynn, Anna; Royston, Patrick. Analysis of a representative sample of natural family planning users in England and Wales, 1984-1985. International Journal of Fertility, Supplement, May 1988. 70-7 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Results are presented from a survey of 464 natural family planning (NFP) users attending NFP clinics in England and Wales. "Information was obtained on many aspects of fertility: age group, marital status, parity, cycle lengths, frequency of intercourse, previous contraception, and present natural method employed. We also tried to obtain data on the psychological aspect of natural methods."
Correspondence: A. Flynn, National Association of NFP Teachers, Birmingham Maternity Hospital, Edgebaston, Birmingham, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40341 Wielandt, Hanne; Wermuth, Lene; Pedersen, Marianne R. Contraceptive use in a sample of young Danish females. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 67, No. 4, 1988. 319-21 pp. Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
Contraceptive practice among Danish women aged 16-20 is examined using data from a national sample of 286 women collected in 1984-1985. Of the 208 women who were sexually active, over 80 percent used contraception at first intercourse, predominantly condoms or oral contraceptives. At time of interview, 64 percent were using contraception. It is noted that adolescents changed methods from condoms to oral contraceptives following sexual debut. Some 8 percent of sexually active young women did not use contraception.
Correspondence: H. Wielandt, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense Sygehus, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40342 Yoddumnern-Attig, Bencha; Podhisita, Chai. Community-based factors affecting contraceptive use patterns and discontinuation over the female reproductive life span: a preliminary anthropological assessment. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jan 1989. 151-66 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the identification of community variables that influence acceptance, continuation, and discontinuation of contraceptive use in Thailand. Factors affecting contraceptive discontinuation include community norms and beliefs, attitudes toward family size, kinship group membership, family characteristics, and contraceptive appropriateness. Findings indicate that the impact of these factors changes as a woman passes through her reproductive period. Data are from a study conducted during 1987-1988.
Correspondence: B. Yoddumnern-Attig, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya Nakhonchaisri, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40343 Zeng, Yi. Is the Chinese family planning program "tightening up"? Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 333-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author critically analyzes a recent article by Karen Hardee-Cleaveland and Judith Banister and its conclusion that the family planning program in China is becoming more restrictive. The evidence on which the conclusion was based is reviewed and additional evidence is offered to disprove this assertion.
For the article by Hardee-Cleaveland and Banister, published in 1988, see 55:10719.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Population Research Institute, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

55:40344 Entwisle, Barbara; Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Estimation of use failure rates for the pill and IUD in Egypt: an assessment of life table and current status approaches. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 89-3, Feb 1989. 24, [11] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper assesses life table and current status approaches to the estimation of contraceptive failure rates, using Egypt as an illustrative example. We focus specifically on failure associated with the use of the pill and IUD, methods which together account for more than 80 percent of all contraceptive use in this setting....Our estimates are based on data collected in the second Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey...."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40345 Potter, Linda; Wright, Susan; Berrio, Diego; Suarez, Paulina; Pinedo, Ruth; Castaneda, Zandra. Oral contraceptive compliance in rural Colombia: knowledge of users and providers. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 27-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine users' daily compliance with an oral contraceptive regimen and their level of knowledge about the pill in rural Colombia. Findings indicate a high rate of non-compliance to directions which are attributed to poor package labeling, a misunderstanding of the need to take the pill daily, and a lack of knowledge concerning pill use on the part of the rural family planning providers.
Correspondence: L. Potter, Family Health International, Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40346 Stephen, Elizabeth H.; Chamratrithirong, Apichat. Contraceptive side effects among current users in Thailand. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 9-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the correlation between social and demographic factors--such as duration of contraceptive use, religion and education--and the incidence of contraceptive side effects among currently married Thai women....The data for this analysis are from the third national Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and most of the data are limited to current contraceptive users."
Correspondence: E. H. Stephen, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40347 Trussell, James; Vaughan, Barbara. Aggregate and lifetime contraceptive failure in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 224-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors present "direct estimates of the aggregate annual number of contraceptive failures in the United States and of the cumulative lifetime number of contraceptive failures experienced by a typical woman. We base our calculations on data collected in the third cycle of the NSFG (1982)...drawn from all women aged 15-44 living in the coterminous United States, regardless of marital or fertility status....Our analysis is confined to the three-year period beginning with [1979]...and ending with December 1981."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

55:40348 Bertrand, Jane T.; Stover, John; Porter, Robert. Methodologies for evaluating the impact of contraceptive social marketing programs. Evaluation Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Aug 1989. 323-54 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
This is an overview of problems and issues in the evaluation of contraceptive social marketing programs in developing countries. The analysis is based primarily on the experience of the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The indicators and the methodologies used in such project evaluation are outlined.
Correspondence: J. T. Bertrand, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70188. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

55:40349 Klitsch, Michael; Walsh, Julia A. Finding the keys to success: what makes family planning and primary health care programs work? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 20-4, 41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report on a meeting of 24 family planning and primary health care experts held in October 1987 to discuss family planning programs that have been successful and to determine the reasons for their success. The article summarizes presentations that covered programs in Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Mexico, and Thailand. Participants agreed on several factors that contribute to the success of a program: "good planning; careful, flexible implementation of programs; personnel policies that emphasize training, supervision and good management; sound financial policies; and continuous monitoring and evaluation."
Correspondence: M. Klitsch, International Family Planning Perspectives, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40350 Kumar, Sushil; Jain, Anrudh; Bruce, Judith. Assessing the quality of family planning services in developing countries. Programs Division Working Paper, No. 2, Oct 1989. 41 pp. Population Council, Programs Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents an approach for assessing the quality of services provided through organized family planning programs. Three levels at which the quality of services can be assessed are: the policy level, the service delivery point level, and the client level. For each of the elements of care, the paper specifies the quality issues to be assessed, indicators of quality, [and] items that pertain to each indicator, and lists the specific data that need to be collected. A few applications of the assessment process are also identified and discussed."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40351 Ross, John A.; Rich, Marjorie; Molzan, Janet P. Management strategies for family planning programs. ISBN 0-9620952-1-4. LC 89-62029. 1989. 64 pp. Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health [CPFH]: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this booklet we present a variety of management strategies [for large-scale family planning programs] derived from the collected data of the population field. Our purpose is to examine past experience from a practical, managerial perspective, and to present guidelines in a concise format....This booklet was designed to identify approaches that would be effective for both old and new programs. Data for this publication come partly from a large set of international statistics recently published in the compendium Family Planning and Child Survival: 100 Developing Countries. Numerous other sources were also used, ranging from the World Fertility Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys to much smaller, single-country studies." Consideration is given to improving program accessibility and contraceptive availability; target groups, including rural and urban populations, women with low educational status, and women who have recently been pregnant; contraceptive methods; and special program components, including social marketing, information campaigns, and program evaluation. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Librarian, Columbia University, CPFH, 60 Haven Avenue, B-3, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

55:40352 Bertrand, Jane T.; Mathu, Nellie; Dwyer, Joseph; Thuo, Margaret; Wambwa, Grace. Attitudes toward voluntary surgical contraception in four districts of Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 281-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Attitudes toward male and female voluntary sterilization in Kenya are examined. Findings indicate that acceptance of tubal ligation is primarily based on economic motives. In contrast, attitudes toward vasectomy were uniformly negative. Data are from focus groups held in four districts in Kenya.
Correspondence: J. T. Bertrand, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of Applied Health Sciences, New Orleans, LA 70112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40353 Burch, Thomas K. Are we confused about matters of taste? [De gustibus confusi sumus?] Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 89-2, Mar 1989. 6, [6] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The central thesis of this note is that the concepts of tastes or preferences continue to be used indiscriminately [in the study of fertility] to refer to a number of conceptually distinct subjective states of respondents....Some empirical illustrations are provided by data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey, which asked a number of questions relating to subjective states of women of childbearing age...with respect to relationships, children, work and personal freedom. A methodological conclusion is that future surveys, whether cross-sectional or longitudinal, might devote more effort to measurement, including somewhat more intensive interviewing."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40354 Cepicky, P.; Kravka, A.; Mandys, F. The attitude of women toward planned parenthood and contraception. [Postoje zen k planovanemu rodicovstvi a antikoncepci.] Ceskoslovenska Gynekologie, Vol. 53, No. 10, Dec 1988. 749-55 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
Attitudes toward family planning and contraception in the Czech region of Czechoslovakia are analyzed using a survey designed by the World Health Organization conducted in 1987 among 407 participants.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40355 Chaudhuri, Salma. Relevance of the socio-economic fertility synthesis in Bangladesh. BIDS Research Report, No. 69, Oct 1987. iii, 42 pp. Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author presents background information on fertility trends and family planning adoption in Bangladesh as an introduction to analyzing fertility determinants, including desired family size and socioeconomic factors. Socioeconomic variables considered include place of residence, educational status, occupation, religion, and marriage duration. These factors were found to have an impact on knowledge and practice of family planning. However, the use of family planning methods is associated with the desire to space births rather than to reduce family size. Data are from the 1978 Bangladesh Fertility Survey and concern 844 women aged 35-44 years who have been married only once.
Correspondence: Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, GPO Box 3854, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40356 Chibalonza, Kashwantale; Chirhamolekwa, Chirwisa; Bertrand, Jane T. Attitudes toward tubal ligation among acceptors, potential candidates, and husbands in Zaire. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 273-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Twenty-nine focus groups were conducted among men and women in five regions of Zaire to identify motivations for and obstacles to voluntary surgical contraception (VSC) for women. Both male and female participants believe that VSC is justified only for medical reasons related to difficulties with pregnancy or childbirth, and not for economic hardship. Women feel great pressure, especially from the husband's family to produce many children, and fear they might be abandoned after being sterilized, even if their husband had previously consented to VSC. Men also perceive the major consequence of VSC to be marital conflict and dissolution."
Correspondence: K. Chibalonza, Projet des Services des Naissances Desirables, Operations Research Unit, Kinshasa, Zaire. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40357 Das, N. K.; Ghosh, A. K. Fertility and adoption of family planning among Muslims of 24 Parganas, West Bengal (Part-1). Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 35, No. 2, Dec 1988. 48-54 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors examine fertility and family planning adoption among two Muslim sects living in Parganas district, West Bengal State, India. The authors find no significant difference between the sects in reproductive behavior, parity, and infant mortality rates. They also find that family planning acceptance in both groups was low and that it did not seem to be influenced by religion or infant mortality rates.
Correspondence: N. K. Das, Anthropological Survey of India, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Calcutta 700 016, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40358 Dias, Lalith R.; Dias, Malsiri, K. The motivating factors for vasectomy in Sri Lanka. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 4, Jun 1988. 12-22 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between numbers of vasectomies performed and amount of money paid as an incentive for male sterilization in Sri Lanka. The primary focus is on determining whether limiting family size or acquiring the highest monetary incentive is the motivating factor for vasectomy acceptance. Findings indicate that the greatest number of vasectomies are performed when the financial incentives are the highest.
Correspondence: L. R. Dias, University of Colombo, Faculty of Medicine, Kynsey Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40359 Entwisle, Barbara; Leone, Catherine L. World views surrounding sex, marriage, and motherhood: contrasting approaches to data collection and analysis. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 89-1, Jan 1989. 46, [7] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors describe the impact of cultural elements relevant to reproduction on fertility behavior in the United States. They conduct "a small field study that combines quantitative and qualitative techniques in an analysis of ideas, attitudes, and values concerning sex, marriage, and motherhood. [The] focus is on members of two organizations with quite different ideologies on these topics: the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the Catholic Church. The study builds on and tests hypotheses advanced by Kristin Luker, who proposes the existence of at least two world views surrounding sex, marriage, and motherhood in the United States today."
For the paper by Luker, published in 1984, see 52:40430.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40360 Hapugalle, Dennis; Janowitz, Barbara; Weir, Sharon; Covington, Deborah L.; Wilkens, Lynne; Aluvihare, Celene. Sterilization regret in Sri Lanka: a retrospective study. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 22-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A study of 817 Sri Lankan women who underwent sterilization between 1980 and 1983 indicates that 14 percent subsequently regretted their sterilization....The most important determinants of regret were not having a child of each sex at the time of the operation, being married fewer than five years, being under age 25, having two children or fewer, not having control over the sterilization decision, having a husband who opposed the sterilization and having a child die subsequent to the procedure."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40361 Kane, Thomas T.; Sivasubramaniam, Siva. Family planning communication between spouses in Sri Lanka. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jun 1989. 1-10, 33-4 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Drawing upon data from a national follow-up survey conducted in Sri Lanka in 1985, this study examines patterns of family planning communication between spouses, social and economic factors related to those patterns, and the consistency between spouses in their responses to questions about family planning attitudes and practice. Family planning communication between spouses is found to be very common in Sri Lanka, although significant differences are observed according to wives' level of education, number of living children, place of residence, and religion."
Correspondence: T. T. Kane, Institut du Sahel, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40362 Obikeze, D. S. Son preference among Nigerian mothers: its demographic and psycho-social implications. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 25, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1988. 55-63 pp. Auburn, Alabama. In Eng.
"This study explores son preference among Nigerian mothers and its implications not only on desired fertility, but on other aspects of social life (e.g. socialization, positions based on gender, etc). The data for the study comes from 1981-82 Nigerian Fertility Survey."
Correspondence: D. S. Obikeze, University of Nigeria, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Nasukka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Location: Florida State University, Strozier Library.

55:40363 Wang, Junqun. A socio-psychological analysis of attitudes toward fertility. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 1, Jan 29, 1988. 40-3 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
This is an introduction to the study of attitudes toward fertility and the psychosocial factors that influence them. Both individual and group attitudes are included. The author also examines how such attitudes change over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40364 Weinstein, Maxine; Thornton, Arland. Mother-child relations and adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 563-77 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We hypothesize that children who are close to their parents are more likely to have attitudes and behavior that are consistent with their parents' values than children who are not close to their parents. Using data from a probability sample of 888 mother-child pairs of white women in the Detroit metropolitan area, we tested this hypothesis, using both mother's and child's attitudes toward premarital sexual intercourse and the child's report of whether he or she had engaged in premarital sexual intercourse. Unlike most previous work in this area, which has posited a direct association between the closeness of the mother-child relation and the child's attitudes and behavior, we found that the quality of the relation interacted with the mother's attitudes in its effects on the child's attitudes and behavior. Children with close relations with their mothers were more likely to hold attitudes and behave in a manner consistent with their mothers' own attitudes than children with more distant relations."
Correspondence: M. Weinstein, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40365 Wickramasuriya, K. Sri Lanka: knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family health workers about contraceptive methods. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-C, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/658. 1988. i, 27, 45 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of seven volumes presenting results from an ESCAP study on the knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers toward contraceptive methods. This report concerns Sri Lanka. The aim of the study was to help family planning organizations provide a more balanced mix of contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40366 Zhao, Xuan; Qiao, Xinjian. China: knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers about contraceptive methods. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-A, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/648. 1988. i, 16, 31 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series of seven volumes presenting results from an ESCAP study on the knowledge and attitudes of grassroots family planning workers toward contraceptive methods. This report concerns Heilongjiang province, China. The aim of the study was to help family planning organizations provide a more balanced mix of contraceptive methods.
Correspondence: ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

55:40367 Association Nationale des Centres d'I.V.G. et de Contraception [ANCIC] (Creil, France). The seventh national workshop on the interruption of pregnancy and contraception. [Septiemes journees nationales d'etudes sur l'interruption de grossesse et la contraception.] [1988]. 182 pp. Creil, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of the seventh in a series of workshops on aspects of abortion and contraception in France, held at the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy in Nantes, January 30-31, 1988. The workshop included sessions on new abortion techniques; therapeutic abortion at later stages of pregnancy; the serology of HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy; and fertility and abortion. A session of unsolicited papers is also included, which includes a paper on vasectomy.
Correspondence: ANCIC, 157 avenue Arthur-Honegger, 60100 Creil, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40368 Bielli, Carla; Racioppi, Filomena. Induced abortion and women's life cycle. [Abortivita volontaria e progetti di vita femminile.] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 185-204 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The relationship between induced abortion and fertility in Italy during the period 1980-1985 is examined. Patterns of abortion among married women by age and prior fertility status and by region are studied.
Correspondence: C. Bielli, Universita degli Studi La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40369 Dondenaz, Martine. Abortion, the interruption of pregnancy: the case of Switzerland. [Avortement, interruption de grossesse: le cas de la Suisse.] Collection Politique Sociale, ISBN 2-88146-026-7. 1987. 133 pp. Realites Sociales: Lausanne, Switzerland. In Fre.
The Swiss experience concerning induced abortion is reviewed. Following a chronology of Swiss legislation, the author describes historical trends in Switzerland, the experience of other countries, and changing social and cultural values and their impact on fertility. She also examines abortion law, differences in its application among the cantons, and the current situation regarding abortion in the country.
Correspondence: Realites Sociales, Case Postale 1273, CH-1001 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40370 Grandolfo, Michele E.; Spinelli, Angela. Epidemiological surveillance of abortion on demand in Italy: possibilities of prevention. [La sorveglianza epidemiologica dell'aborto volontario in Italia: possibilita di prevenzione.] Medicina, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988. 87-90 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in Italy are analyzed. The authors note a substantial decline in the number of abortions, from 233,976 in 1983 to an estimated total of under 200,000 in 1986. Wide regional differences in abortion rates continue. The analysis considers age factors, marital status, and duration of gestation, as well as method of abortion employed. A review of contraceptive methods chosen indicates that the use of more effective contraceptive methods could lead to a further decrease in the number of abortions in Italy.
Correspondence: M. E. Grandolfo, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40371 Lawson, Herschel W.; Atrash, Hani K.; Saftlas, Audrey F.; Koonin, Lisa M.; Ramick, Merrell; Smith, Jack C. Abortion surveillance, United States, 1984-1985. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 38, No. SS-2, Sep 1989. 11-5 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This report presents data on induced abortion in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control for 1984 and 1985. "Since 1983, the number of legal abortions reported to CDC increased by 5% to 1,333,521 in 1984; in 1985, that number decreased by less than 1% to 1,328,570. The national abortion rate was the same for both years--24 per 1,000 females ages 15-44 years....Abortion ratios were higher among women of black and other minority races and among women younger than 15 years of age."
Correspondence: H. W. Lawson, Centers for Disease Control, Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40372 Lund, Eiliv. Legal abortions among teenagers in Norway. [Svangerskapsavbrudd hos tenaringer.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 108, No. 27, 1988. 2,289-90, 2,296 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"There are marked geographical differences in legal abortion rates among teenagers in Norway. The lowest rate is 13 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 (1986) in the county of Aust-Agder. The highest rate was found for Oslo with a rate of 40. The cumulative incidence of legal abortion in Oslo is about 20%. Abortion rates have not decreased in recent years."
Correspondence: E. Lund, Universitetet i Tromso, Institutt for Samfunnsmedisin, 9000 Tromso, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40373 Mahrad, Christa. Abortion in the German Democratic Republic: social, ethical, and demographic aspects. [Schwangerschaftsabbruch in der DDR: gesellschaftliche, ethische und demographische Aspekte.] Europaische Hochschulschriften, Reihe XXXI: Politikwissenschaft, Vol. 111, ISBN 3-8204-0251-9. 1987. 249 pp. Peter Lang: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The history of abortion legislation in the German Democratic Republic is reviewed, and the social, ethical, and demographic aspects of abortion are discussed. Attention is given to the restrictive law of 1950 and to the more liberal law of 1972, which affected abortion during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. The attitudes revealed by these laws are examined, and the effect of the laws on population trends, on reproductive behavior, and on the situation of women is analyzed. Data are from both published and unpublished sources. An appendix includes information on abortion in other European socialist countries.
Correspondence: Peter Lang Verlag, Hinter den Ulmen 19, D-6000 Frankfurt-am-Main 50, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40374 Terkel, Susan N. Abortion: facing the issues. An Impact Book, ISBN 0-531-10565-2. LC 88-14228. 1988. 159 pp. Franklin Watts: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study examines the history, legal status, ethics, politics, and medical aspects of induced abortion in the United States. "Beginning with a succinct explanation of the legality of abortion--including an in-depth look at Roe v. Wade, the 1971 Supreme Court case that declared abortion legal--the author depicts the state of abortion before and after 1971. [She] profiles the women who obtain abortions, reviews the politics of abortion, describes the abortion 'industry,' and explores the moral, religious, and ethical implications of abortion."
Correspondence: Franklin Watts, 387 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

55:40375 Ahamed, M. Mohiuddin. Breast-feeding patterns in Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 4, Jun 1988. 36-44 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The duration of breast-feeding in Bangladesh is examined according to differentials in demographic and socioeconomic factors. Variables considered include maternal age, parity, geographic location, educational status, and family planning method. Data are from the 1976 Bangladesh Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: M. M. Ahamed, University of Cincinnati, Department of Sociology, Cincinnati, OH 45221. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:40376 Thapa, Shyam; Short, Roger V.; Potts, Malcolm. Breast feeding, birth spacing and their effects on child survival. Nature, Vol. 335, No. 6192, Oct 20, 1988. 679-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The role of breast-feeding in regulating fertility is examined. In particular, the authors analyze changing patterns in breast-feeding and their relationship to the achievement of optimal birth intervals that raise infant health and reduce infant mortality.
Correspondence: M. Potts, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:40377 van de Walle, Etienne; van de Walle, Francine. Birthspacing and abstinence in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 25-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors review birth spacing and sexual abstinence in Sub-Saharan Africa. The various cultures that observe abstinence, the duration of the abstinence period, and the reasons for it are discussed. Also considered is whether abstinence is an important factor in birth spacing and to what extent couples are likely to replace abstinence with contraception in order to increase the space between births. Data are from World Fertility Surveys.
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40378 Winikoff, Beverly; Laukaran, Virginia H. Breast feeding and bottle feeding controversies in the developing world: evidence from a study in four countries. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 7, 1989. 859-68 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes some of the findings from a comparative study to investigate infant feeding practices and their determinants in four Third World urban areas: Bangkok, Thailand; Bogota, Colombia; Nairobi, Kenya; and Semarang, Indonesia." Questions concerning the relationship between breast and bottle feeding are discussed. Changes in infant feeding that have detrimental effects for child health and child spacing are documented.
Correspondence: B. Winikoff, Population Council, International Programs, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:40379 Cooksey, Elizabeth C. The influence of family background on resolution of adolescent first premarital pregnancies in the United States. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 89-2, Jan 1989. 32, [2] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This research looks at the impact of a variety of family background factors (family structure, parental education, religion, race/ethnicity, number of siblings) on the resolution of a first premarital pregnancy for adolescents within the United States....[It] models all three potential outcomes (abortion, out-of-wedlock childbearing, and legitimation of the birth through marriage) simultaneously using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth....Given that the majority of teens who carry to term choose to bear the child out-of-wedlock, young adolescents appear to be moving away from traditional family building."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40380 Kok, Jan. Prenuptial pregnancies in North Holland in the nineteenth century. [Voorechtelijke verwekkingen in Noord-Holland in de negentiende eeuw.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Jul 1989. 49-81 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article investigates the role of traditional customs and local values in determining the striking differences in levels of prenuptial pregnancies between [Dutch] communities in the nineteenth century. Analyses of the data in the vital registers of 9 communities (1815-1834 and 1890-1990) and of literary evidence on local attitudes show that...[they] are related to the specific social structure of the local communities and [that] demographic and economic developments influence changes in the local level of prenuptial conceptions. Even though the general level of prenuptial conceptions hardly changed in the nineteenth century, a greater differentiation in levels between professional groups is visible in the second period, suggesting the influence of moral reforms and growing wealth."
Correspondence: J. Kok, Beets 56, 1475 JD Beets, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40381 Nadalin, Sergio O. Sexuality, marriage, and reproduction. [Sexualidade, casamento e reproducao.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1988. 63-91 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Reproductive patterns among Brazilians of German Lutheran descent are investigated using family reconstitution. Three separate cohorts are analyzed: those born during the periods 1866-1894, 1895-1919, and 1920-1939. A decline in the level of premarital conceptions and births is noted and its causes are analyzed.
Correspondence: S. O. Nadalin, Universidade Federal do Parana, Rua 15 de Novembro 1299, 80060 Curitaba, Parana, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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