Volume 55 - Number 4 - Winter 1989

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

55:40100 Abaza, Ahmed K. The Kuwaiti cause of death and expectation of life. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jun 1986. 1-12 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines the changes in life expectancy during the period 1970-1979 in Kuwait. Causes of death and age and sex differentials in life expectancy at birth are presented. Data are from official Kuwaiti sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40101 Alachkar, Ahmad; Serow, William J. The socioeconomic determinants of mortality: an international comparison. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 131-51 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The authors examine the relationships among mortality, life expectancy, and socioeconomic development over the past 20 years for 125 countries. Findings indicate "that the critical relationships pertaining to mortality are found with variables measuring the share of the population enrolled in school and the level of fertility. Increases in the former reduce mortality at all ages and increase the expectation of life; reductions in the latter are especially important in terms of explaining reductions in infant mortality. Variables which measure the level of income and the structure of the economy have little or no direct effect on either the level or trends in mortality."
Correspondence: A. Alachkar, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40102 Alho, Juha M. Relating changes in life expectancy to changes in mortality. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 705-9 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"I address the problem of what can be said of changes in mortality rates, if one knows how life expectancies change. I note a general formula relating life expectancies in different ages to mortality and prove that if mortality changes over time following a proportional-hazard model, then there is a one-to-one correspondence between life expectancy at birth and mortality rates. Extensions and an application of these results to the analysis of mortality change [in the United States] are presented."
Correspondence: J. M. Alho, University of Illinois, Institute for Environmental Studies and Department of Statistics, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40103 Bronfman, Mario; Gomez de Leon, Jose. Mortality in Mexico: levels, trends, and determinants. [La mortalidad en Mexico: niveles, tendencias y determinantes.] ISBN 968-12-0395-X. 1988. 468 pp. Colegio de Mexico: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a selection of papers presented at a seminar on levels, trends, and determinants of mortality in Mexico, held in November 1984 at El Colegio de Mexico. The papers, which are concerned with basic problems related to the study of mortality, are grouped under four headings: problems of data and information collection from the perspective of both producers and users; the historical development of mortality in Mexico, particularly in this century; determinants and consequences of mortality; and aspects of the health-illness-death process in relation to the productive structure and the socio-political situation, with consideration of migration, medical technology, and the health system. A paper on infant mortality and socio-geographic differentiation in Latin America is also included.
Correspondence: Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Sta. Teresa, 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40104 Caselli, Graziella; Vallin, Jacques. Mortality and demographic aging. [Mortalite et vieillissement de la population.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 24, Sep 1989. 28 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in mortality and their effect on the demographic aging process are examined using the examples of Italy and France. The authors analyze the impact of shifts in mortality on the age distribution of the population during the period 1952-1986 and compare this with changes in fertility and migration. An assessment of mortality changes and the potential effect on official population projections to the year 2040 is offered.
Correspondence: INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40105 Condran, Gretchen A. Declining mortality in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 119-41 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A key debate in demographic history revolves around whether mortality declined during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the West because of purposive actions taken by medical practitioners, public health officials and individuals or simply as [a] concomitant of the process of industrialization and the general rise in per capita income. Comparisons of a number of cities and subpopulations of city populations, of rural and urban areas, and of changes over time in mortality rates by age and cause [in the United States] are used in this paper to support the argument that direct intervention played a major role in the decline in mortality from a number of specific causes. Several municipal services, notably supplying cities with adequate and clean water, and providing a pure milk supply were undertaken during the time period and are related to changes in age- and cause-specific mortality rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40106 Crimmins, Eileen M.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Ingegneri, Dominique. Changes in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1989. 235-67, 395-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article compares changes in total life expectancy with changes in disability-free life expectancy between 1970 and 1980 in the United States. Over the decade life expectancy at birth increased by about three years for both males and females. Whether this increase is concentrated in disabled or healthy years depends on the definition of disability. If disability includes all the days on which ill health causes people to change their activity, then most of this increase was in years with disability. If disability is limited only to days spent in bed or in an institution, most of the increase in life expectancy is disability free. Up to age 85, the increased years of life are in years with a long-term disability that limits individuals' participation in normal activities but does not confine them to bed. Above age 85, a major portion of the increase in life expectancy is accounted for by increased years of institutionalization."
Correspondence: E. M. Crimmins, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40107 Ekonomov, A. L.; Yarygin, V. N. Geography of mortality: problems of epidemiological approach. Geographia Medica, Vol. 18, 1988. 137-52 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Some methodological problems associated with the epidemiological approach to the study of overall mortality are explored. These problems are illustrated using 96 complete life tables for the U.S. white population taken from official U.S. sources.
Correspondence: A. L. Ekonomov, N. I. Pirogov Second Moscow State Medical Institute, Moscow, USSR. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40108 Gunzberg Moll, Jordi. Mortality crises in fourteenth-century Barcelona. [Las crisis de mortalidad en la Barcelona de siglo XIV.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 9-35 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Mortality crises in fourteenth-century Barcelona, Spain, are analyzed using data from 800 wills and testaments supplemented by local records. Such crises began in the year 1323, particularly following the Black Death of 1348, and continued sporadically throughout the century. The relationship between mortality from the plague and from famine is considered. Seasonal variations in mortality in the years of crisis are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40109 Hill, Allan G.; Roberts, D. F. Health interventions and mortality change in developing countries. Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement, No. 10, ISBN 0-907232-06-X. 1989. iv, 136 pp. Parkes Foundation: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The articles in this volume address public health interventions and their impact on morbidity and mortality trends in developing countries. The authors attempt to identify "low-cost, effective and simple measures both for the identification of groups most in need and for the continuous monitoring of changes in health status, particularly where major health interventions have begun." Papers are included on health investment, maternal mortality, community-based interventions, evaluation of health programs, and reduction of neonatal mortality.
Correspondence: Parkes Foundation, 22 Newmarket Road, Cambridge CB5 8DT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40110 Holland, W. W. European Community atlas of "avoidable death" CEC Health Services Research Series, No. 3, ISBN 0-19-261563-7. LC 87-14189. 1988. xxiii, 356 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
This atlas examines mortality data and its use in evaluating the adequacy of health services in the member countries of the European Community. Regional and international differences in avoidable causes of death are described; however, there is no attempt to interpret these patterns or to draw conclusions. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40111 Kalibova, Kveta. Mortality characteristics of the Gypsy population of Czechoslovakia. [Charakteristika umrtnostnich pomeru Romske populace v CSSR.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1989. 239-50 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality trends among the Gypsy population of Czechoslovakia are analyzed. Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses. The results suggest that the life expectancy among the Gypsy population is as low as 55.3 years for males and 59.9 years for females. Particularly high mortality between the ages of 6 and 35 is noted.
Correspondence: K. Kalibova, Prirodovedecka Fakulta UK, Prague, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40112 Kant, H. Life expectancy in Europe--facts, trends, goals. [Zur Lebenserwartung in Europa--Fakten, Tendenzen, Ziele.] Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete, Vol. 34, No. 8, Aug 1988. 442-5 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Differences in life expectancy among the countries of Europe are reviewed, with particular reference to the situation in East Germany. Although life expectancy at birth rose to 69.5 for men and 75.5 for women, East Germany only ranks at 17 for men and 18 for women among the 24 countries studied.
Correspondence: H. Kant, Institut fur Sozialhygiene und Organisation des Gesundheitswesens Maxim Zetkin, Noldnerstrasse 34/36, Berlin 1134, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40113 Kuropka, Ireneusz. The similarity of changes in mortality by age and their relevance to demographic projections. [Podobienstwo zmian umieralnosci wedlug wieku i mozliwosci jego wykorzystania w prognozowaniu demograficznym.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 12, Dec 1988. 14-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The similarity in mortality trends for both sexes in Poland for the period 1960-1980 is noted using correlation coefficients. The relevance of these trends for making future population projections is examined.
Correspondence: I. Kuropka, Akademia Ekonomiczna we Wroclawiu, Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wroclaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40114 Mackensen, Rainer. Demographic mortality research. [Bevolkerungswissenschaftliche Sterblichkeitsforschung.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1989. 3-11 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This lecture in honour of Dr. Wilfried Linke, given on the occasion of his retirement...as Director of the Federal Institute for Population Research, is dedicated to one of Dr. Linke's main fields of work, i.e., demographic mortality research." Recent trends in mortality decline are examined, with attention given to regional and social differentials.
Correspondence: R. Mackensen, Institute for Sociology, Technischen Universitat Berlin, Dovestrasse 1/714, 1000 Berlin 10, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40115 Mammo, Abate. Mortality in rural Ethiopia: levels, trends, differentials. Pub. Order No. DA8908359. 1988. 218 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the levels, trends, and differentials in child and adult mortality in Ethiopian rural areas. "Child and adult mortality rates by sex for each region [are estimated] using data from the 1969-71 and 1981 rural demographic surveys. Estimates of mortality trends are made and regional life tables by sex are constructed. Child mortality correlates are also identified....The large variation in regional mortality levels suggests sharp social, economic, and cultural differences which might be operating through literacy status, health status, religion, and ethnicity. Literacy status and health status of parents are identified as key figures influencing child mortality."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(1).

55:40116 McNown, Robert; Rogers, Andrei. Forecasting mortality: a parameterized time series approach. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 4, Nov 1989. 645-60 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article links parameterized model mortality schedules with time series methods to develop forecasts of U.S. mortality to the year 2000. The use of model mortality schedules permits a relatively concise representation of the history of mortality by age and sex from 1900 to 1985, and the use of modern time series methods to extend this history forward to the end of this century allows for a flexible modeling of trend and the accommodation of changes in long-run mortality patterns. This pilot study demonstrates that the proposed procedure produces medium-range forecasts of mortality that meet the standard tests of accuracy in forecast evaluation and that are sensible when evaluated against the comparable forecasts produced by the Social Security Administration."
Correspondence: R. McNown, University of Colorado, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40117 Mitra, S. On "mortality comparisons" by Krishnamoorthy. Janasamkhya, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1988. 183-6 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This short note deals with Krishnamoorthy's interpretation of the cumulative values of the force of mortality function and his measure of improvement in life expectancy if everyone's life is saved once or more than once."
For the article by S. Krishnamoorthy, published in 1987, see 54:40117.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40118 Moir, J. S.; Garner, P. A.; Heywood, P. F.; Alpers, M. P. Mortality in a rural area of Madang province, Papua New Guinea. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 83, No. 3, 1989. 305-19 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Results are presented of a study of mortality conducted from 1982 to 1984 among a population of about 16,500 in a rural area of Papua New Guinea. Respiratory diseases are identified as the major cause of death and the infant mortality rate is noted to be 46 per 1,000 live births. "Demographic features found in this population were a high birth rate, a relatively low crude death rate, and a rate of natural population increase of 2.8% per annum." Difficulties in estimating mortality from malaria are discussed.
Correspondence: J. S. Moir, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, P.O. Box 378, Madang, Papua New Guinea. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40119 Ozkaynak, Haluk; Thurston, George D. Associations between 1980 U.S. mortality rates and alternative measures of airborne particle concentration. Risk Analysis, Vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1987. 449-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We analyzed the 1980 U.S. vital statistics and available ambient air pollution data bases for sulfates and fine, inhalable, and total suspended particles. Using multiple regression analyses, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association between various particle measures and total mortality. Results from the various analyses indicated the importance of considering particle size, composition, and source information in modeling of particle pollution health effects."
Correspondence: H. Ozkaynak, Harvard University, Energy and Environmental Policy Center, 65 Winthrop Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40120 Pison, Gilles; Lefebvre, Monique; Enel, Catherine; Trape, Jean-Francois. The impact of public health changes on mortality trends: the case of Mlomp (Senegal) over the past 50 years. [L'influence des changements sanitaires sur l'evolution de la mortalite: le cas de Mlomp (Senegal) depuis 50 ans.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 26, Nov 1989. 35 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Mortality trends in the Senegalese village of Mlomp, with a population of about 7,000 in 1989, are analyzed. The process of gathering the data on which the study is based is first described. The main changes in public health that have affected the village over the past 50 years are then outlined. These include the setting up of an out-patient clinic, a maternity center, vaccination facilities, maternal and child health services, and a program of malaria prevention, as well as changes in the conditions under which babies were delivered. The authors then describe changes in infant mortality since 1930. The final section examines causes of death in the period 1984-1989.
Correspondence: INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40121 Poikolainen, Kari; Eskola, Juhani. Health services resources and their relation to mortality from causes amenable to health care intervention: a cross-national study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1988. 86-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The determinants of mortality among people 64 years or less in 25 developed countries are explored. "Age-adjusted mortality rates from causes of death amenable to interventions by health services were calculated for the period 1975-8, and, likewise, rates from partly amenable causes, non-amenable causes, and violent causes of death. In regression analysis, log mortality from amenable causes was significantly negatively associated with gross domestic product (GDP) but not with the numbers of medical doctors, nurses and midwives, hospital beds, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, or military expenditure. It is argued that cross-sectional comparisons disguise the effects of health services on mortality."
Correspondence: K. Poikolainen, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00280 Helsinki, Finland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40122 Rychtarikova, Jitka; Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Comparative study of mortality trends in France and the Czech Republic since 1950. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 291-321 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This is a comparative study of mortality trends in France and the Czech part of Czechoslovakia by age, sex, and cause of death from 1950 to 1985. The authors note that during this period, life expectancy in both countries grew but the disparity between the two nations also increased, with France having the higher life expectancy. This difference is examined, and implications for the broader disparity in mortality between Western and Eastern Europe are considered.
This is a translation of an article published in Czech and French in 1988 and cited in 54:40123 and 40183.
Correspondence: J. Rychtarikova, Charles University, Science Faculty, Prague, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40123 Strnad, Ladislav. Trends in mortality and the average life span of the population of Czechoslovakia, 1963-1983. [Vyvoj umrtnosti a stredni delky zivota obyvatel CSSR v letech 1963 az 1983.] Sbornik Vedeckych Praci, Supplement, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1987. 485-502 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality trends in Czechoslovakia are analyzed for the period 1963-1983. Consideration is given to regional changes over time in life expectancy. The results show no substantial decrease in mortality rates since 1968. In comparison with other European countries, male mortality in Czechoslovakia is high, as is mortality from diseases of the circulatory system and from malignant neoplasms. The author concludes that improvements in mortality rates can be achieved only by significant efforts to upgrade both preventive and curative medical care.
Correspondence: L. Strnad, Stredisko Vedeckych Informaci LFUK, Dlouha ul., 500 38 Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40124 Wilmoth, John; Vallin, Jacques; Caselli, Graziella. Differences between observed and expected generation mortality. [Quand certaines generations ont une mortalite differente de celle que l'on pourrait attendre.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 335-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Mortality rates in France during the period 1899-1981 are analyzed, with an emphasis on intergenerational differences in mortality. The analysis "is based on a simple descriptive model that makes it possible to isolate diagonals in the matrix, which show the characteristics of specific cohorts whose mortality history differs from that of neighbouring cohorts....The long term effects of the two World Wars...are clearly confirmed, as are those of the epidemic of Spanish influenza in 1918, as well as the reductions that followed the increases in the proportions of institutional confinements during the 1950's. After establishing eight major aetiological categories, the analysis shows that all the causes listed contributed to the high mortality rates found in specific generations, but that some factors played a [more] specific part (notably, malnutrition and alcoholism, infection and ageing)."
This is a revised and translated version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, pp. 481-2).
Correspondence: J. Wilmoth, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

55:40125 Dawodu, Adekunle H.; Al Umran, Khalid; Al Faraidy, Abdulatif. Neonatal vital statistics: a 5-year review in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1988. 187-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Neonatal mortality and causes of death at King Fahd Hospital of the University in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia from June 1981 to May 1986 were analysed. The overall neonatal mortality rate declined from 15.6 to 8.1/1,000 live births (LB), and after excluding lethal malformations mortality fell from 14.0 to 5.6/1,000 LB." The reduction in mortality was most marked in infants weighing less than 1,500 grams and was due primarily to the establishment of a neonatal intensive care unit.
Correspondence: A. H. Dawodu, King Faisal University, Colleges of Medicine and Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 2114, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40126 Kristensen, Finn B.; Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Perinatal mortality and infant mortality during the period 1979-1985. Causes of perinatal deaths during the period 1985-1986. [Perinatal dodelighed og spaedbarnsdodelighed 1979-1985. Dodsarsager ved perinatale dodsfald 1985-1986.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 151, No. 5, Jan 30, 1989. 313-4 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
Official Danish health statistics on perinatal and infant mortality are presented. Data for perinatal and neonatal mortality for 1979-1985 are compared on the basis of birth weight: Perinatal mortality statistics for 1985 and 1986 are examined by causes of death, including congenital defects, incidents occurring during delivery, complications of premature birth, unexplained deaths, and other causes.
Correspondence: F. B. Kristensen, Sundhedsstyrelsen, Medicinalstatistisk Afdeling, St. Kongensgade 1, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40127 Semisa, Domenico. The "Chernobyl effect" in Lombardy: the incidence of fetal and infant mortality. ["Effetto-Chernobyl" in Lombardia: il quadro della mortalita fetale ed infantile.] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 167-84 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines the impact of the 1986 nuclear accident in the Soviet city of Chernobyl on the rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal death, and infant mortality in the region of Lombardy, Italy. Findings indicate a 20 percent increase in first trimester spontaneous abortions for conceptions occurring during the fallout period of March and April. No changes were observed regarding fetal or infant mortality.
Correspondence: D. Semisa, Servizio Statistica della Regione Lombardia, Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

55:40128 Arroyo, Pedro; Langer, Ana; Avila, Hector; Llerena, Carlos. Model for the analysis of child survival. [Modelo para el analisis de la sobrevivencia en la infancia.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 463-9 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors develop a model of the dynamics of a population's health based on models previously formulated by Mosley and Chen. The emphasis is on the sociodemographic and biomedical factors that affect infant mortality. The authors suggest that specific interventions at different levels are needed to reduce infant mortality, including improvements in living conditions, public health measures, and personal health care. The geographical focus is on Mexico.
Correspondence: P. Arroyo, calle Arenal y Xochimaltzin s/n, col. Tlalpan, C.P. 146000, Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40129 Bagenholm, Gunnel C.; Nasher, Amin A. A. Mortality among children in rural areas of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1989. 75-81 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Results are presented from a prospective study of morbidity and mortality in children under age seven that was conducted in rural areas of Democratic Yemen during the period 1982-1984. The data concern 2,021 children and 976 mothers followed for one year and visited twice. "The infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate and under-5 mortality rate were 86, 11 and 129 per 1,000, respectively. Sixty per cent of all deaths occurred during infancy. Diarrhoea commonly preceded death during infancy, and symptoms of measles during the 2nd year of life. The mothers of the deceased children were younger than the average rural mother...and more often primiparae....The risk of dying within 1 year was three times greater for wasted children in general, but 24 times greater for 1-2-year-olds....The prevalence of bottle feeding up to 18 months of age was high, and exclusive breastfeeding below 6 months of age was rare in the villages with the highest IMR....Infections seemed to be the trigger factor for death, but wasting predisposed to death at least after infancy."
Correspondence: G. C. Bagenholm, East Hospital, Department of Paediatrics I, S-416 85 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40130 Behm Rosas, Hugo; Robles Soto, Arodys. Infant mortality in Central America, Panama, and Belize, 1970-1985. [La mortalidad en la ninez en Centroamerica, Panama y Belice, 1970-1985.] CELADE Serie OI, No. 1003, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM./CR/G.20. Dec 1988. 262 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Trends in mortality among children under age five in the countries of Central America are analyzed. Factors considered include causes of death, age, urban or rural residence, geographical location, and socioeconomic status. In particular, weaknesses in the current maternal and child health programs are identified. The situation concerning infant and child mortality is examined separately for Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
Correspondence: CELADE, Av. 6a y Calle 19, Edificio Unibanco, Apartado 5249, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40131 Behm-Rosas, Hugo. Child survival: magnitude of the problem in Latin America. [La sobrevivencia en la infancia: las dimensiones del problema en America Latina.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 289-311 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in infant mortality and child survival in Latin America from 1950 to 1980 are reviewed using data from U.N. sources. The analysis indicates that despite reductions in levels of infant and child mortality, mortality remains high in groups relatively deprived of the benefits of socioeconomic development. Such groups are typically concentrated in rural areas and involved in subsistence agriculture. However, there is evidence that major improvements in child survival are possible even when development is limited.
Correspondence: H. Behm-Rosas, Centro Latino Americano de Demografia, San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40132 El-Atoum, Shafiq. Assessment of the effects of socioeconomic factors on child mortality in the Amman upgrading areas, 1985. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Dec 1986. 70-82 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"Data from the 1985 Amman Follow-Up Health and Population Survey are used to examine the association between child mortality and socioeconomic and environmental conditions which are directly influenced by...[government sponsored development activities]. Ordinary least squares regression is used in the analysis and the estimates show that the proportionate effects of mother's education, housing quality, water and electricity supply, availability of soap for handwashing and sewage connection are highly significant."
Correspondence: S. El-Atoum, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40133 Gonzalez Perez, G.; Galvez, A. M.; Herrera Leon, L. L. Seasonal variations in infant mortality in Cuba. [Variaciones estacionales de la mortalidad infantil en Cuba.] Anales Espanoles de Pediatria, Vol. 28, No. 6, Jun 1988. 521-5 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Mortality risk in the first year of life is different according to [seasonal] climatological characteristics of the...year. In this paper, two periods are taken (1965-1971 and 1979-1985) with the purpose to analyze seasonal variations [in Cuba] of infant mortality and to determine seasonal differences between both periods and in each of them." The presence of higher mortality during the summer months is noted.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40134 Hesse, Gertraud. Problems in the international comparison of infant mortality figures. 1. Comparison of raw infant mortality data and perinatal mortality rates in selected countries. [Probleme der internationalen Vergleichbarkeit von Sauglingssterbeziffern. 1. Der Vergleich von rohen Sauglingssterblichkeitsziffern und perinatalen Mortalitatsraten in ausgewahlten Landern.] Padiatrie und Grenzgebiete, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1988. 131-40 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Problems related to the international comparison of data on infant mortality are discussed. The author identifies some different definitions of live births and late fetal deaths in selected developed countries that make international comparisons difficult. Similar problems concerning perinatal mortality are also noted.
For a related study by the same author, also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: G. Hesse, Rat der Stadt Jena, Jugendarztliche Beratungsstelle, Werner-Seelenbinder-Strasse 41, Jena 6902, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40135 Hesse, Gertraud. Problems in the international comparison of infant mortality figures. 2. Birth weight-specific and standardized infant mortality figures in selected countries. [Probleme der internationalen Vergleichbarkeit von Sauglingssterbeziffern. 2. Geburtsgewichtsspezifische und standardisierte Sauglingssterbeziffern in ausgewahlten Landern.] Padiatrie und Grenzgebiete, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1988. 141-8 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Problems concerning the international comparability of data on infant mortality are examined. The author suggests that birth-weight-specific infant mortality rates would provide a better basis for making international comparisons but that the data necessary to calculate such rates are frequently unavailable. The focus is on the use of such data to evaluate the relative effectiveness of health services for infants.
Correspondence: G. Hesse, Rat der Stadt Jena, Jugendarztliche Beratungsstelle, Werner-Seelenbinder-Strasse 41, Jena 6902, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40136 Himsworth, Harold. Social class differences in infant mortality: a problem of competing hypotheses. A comment. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, Oct 1989. 497-500 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The debate concerning the cause of differentials in infant mortality by social class is reviewed. The author responds to a critical analysis by Charlotte Humphrey and Jonathan Elford (1988) of his article titled "Epidemiology, Genetics and Sociology" (1984). He concludes that "as I see it, both environmental factors and genetically determined human attributes are involved in the production of social class differences in early mortality rates." The geographical focus is on the United Kingdom.
For the article by Humphrey and Elford, published in 1988, see 55:10155.
Correspondence: H. Himsworth, 13 Hamilton Terrace, London NW8 9RE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40137 Jain, Anrudh K.; Visaria, Pravin. Determinants of infant mortality in India: an overview. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning Working Paper, No. 11, Mar 1987. 56 pp. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
The authors analyze trends, levels, and determinants of infant mortality in India. Correlations between infant nutrition and infant mortality are explored, and the effect of geographical variations and medical care factors on infant mortality is assessed. Data are from official 1979 Indian sources.
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Area Planning, Pritamrai Marg, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40138 Kabir, Mohammad; Uddin, Mohammad M.; Hossain, Mohammad Z. Factors influencing child mortality levels in rural Bangladesh: evidence from a micro study. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 265-71 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper examines the factors that affect child mortality [in rural Bangladesh] by using a multivariate technique. The results suggest that mother's access to education and health care facilities are important determinants of child mortality. The access to maternal and child health programs and visit by the health workers were also related to low childhood mortality...."
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Jahangirnagar University, Department of Statistics, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40139 Kock, Christian; Kytir, Josef; Munz, Rainer. Infant mortality in Austria. [Sauglingssterblichkeit in Osterreich.] Demographische Informationen 1988/89, [1989]. 48-56, 155 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Selected results are presented from a study of infant mortality among the 1984-1985 birth cohort in Austria. The main concern of the study was to investigate the reasons why the infant mortality rate in Austria is about twice as high as in the Scandinavian countries. Topics examined include the historical decline in infant mortality over the past 150 years, current risk factors and problem groups of infant mortality, and maternal and child health policies in Austria, Sweden, and the Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40140 Leinbach, Thomas R. Child survival in Indonesia. Third World Planning Review, Vol. 10, No. 3, Aug 1988. 255-69 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
"The 1980 infant mortality rate of 107 per 1,000 live births in Indonesia was two to three times the average rate in the surrounding ASEAN countries. Provincial rates vary from 187 in West Nusa Tenggara to 62 in Yogyakarta. This variation is explained in part by female education levels, access to health facilities and the impress of health aid and system programmes, especially family planning. In addition, mortality rates and the usage of modern health care continue to reflect historical and cultural imprints." The author examines the health strategy that has been adopted in order to improve levels of child survival in Indonesia.
Correspondence: T. R. Leinbach, University of Kentucky, Department of Geography, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40141 Mojarro, Octavio; Nunez, Leopoldo. Infant mortality in Mexico: trends and determinant factors. [Mortalidad infantil en Mexico: tendencias y factores determinantes.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 329-45 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on multiple sources of information (vital statistics, demographic surveys and population census), some of the main determinants of infant mortality are described. An analysis of the reliability of the different sources of information is presented. In 1980 the infant mortality rate, once corrected, was estimated at 60 per [1,000] live births. The importance of socioeconomic determinants, particularly occupation and place of residence (urban-rural), is emphasized with the analysis of differentials. Some 'biological' maternal variables and their relationship with infant mortality are described as well. New lines for research are proposed."
Correspondence: O. Mojarro, Mier y Pesado No. 120, col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100, Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40142 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). The mortality of young children in relation to use of the health system and characteristics of available facilities. [Mortalite des jeunes enfants selon l'usage du systeme de sante et les caracteristiques du milieu materiel.] May 1989. 29 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Determinants of mortality of young children in Morocco are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the relationship between such mortality and the use of available health services, as well as the availability of such facilities as drinking water supply, lighting, and sanitation. Separate consideration is given to the situation in rural and urban areas. Data are from a variety of sources, including the census of 1982 and the 1987 population and health survey.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40143 Mosley, W. Henry. Biological and socioeconomic determinants of child survival. [Determinantes biologicos y socioeconomicos de la sobrevivencia en la infancia.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 30, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 312-28 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A follow-up on the effort to develop a conceptual framework for research on child survival in developing countries is presented. Variables explaining biologically determined disease processes are linked to social determinants in the family and the community. Previous models of proximate determinants are extended to include the fertility-child survival interactions, as well as the interrelationships between child growth and child survival. The role of health policies, particularly the institutional, is clarified within this conceptual framework."
Correspondence: W. H. Mosley, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40144 Nam, Charles B.; Eberstein, Isaac W.; Deeb, Larry C.; Terrie, E. Walter. Infant mortality by cause: a comparison of underlying and multiple cause designations. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 1, Sep 1989. 45-70 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The extent of variability in the social, economic, and demographic characteristics of infant deaths when grouped by detailed cause is analyzed using health statistics data for Florida for the period 1980-1982. "The analysis first compares cause-of-death-specific infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality between each of the four cause-of-death models. Next, interest shifts to an examination of the variability among decedents, specific to cause of death, in a range of background, proximate, and immediate determinants of infant health and survival. Variability is evident in cause-specific mortality rates as well as in decedent characteristics across the cause-of-death models. These findings suggest that more attention be given to the mode of identifying cause of death in studies of infant mortality."
Correspondence: C. B. Nam, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40145 Notkola, Veijo; Valkonen, Tapani. Socioeconomic differences in stillbirths and infant mortality in Finland 1976-82. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 27, 1989. 5-14 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
Socioeconomic differentials in stillbirths and infant mortality in Finland are investigated for the period 1976-1982. Factors considered include educational level and occupational status. Findings indicate that increased educational levels have the greatest effect on decreases in fetal and infant death rates.
Correspondence: V. Notkola, Institute of Occupational Health, Kuopio, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40146 Pathak, K. B.; Ram, F.; Singh, B. S. A new method of estimating infant and child mortality from data on children ever born and children surviving. Janasamkhya, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1988. 159-68 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In the present paper, a method has been proposed to estimate infant and childhood mortality from the data on children ever born and children surviving by age of the mother without using any model life table....Actual age-specific fertility rates of the population have been used rather than the model fertility schedules. The method is illustrated with data for India and some [of its] selected states."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40147 Rogers, Richard G. Ethnic differences in infant mortality: fact or artifact? Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 3, Sep 1989. 642-9 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This study investigates how ethnic codes are assigned to newborns [in the United States] and how this coding affects the reporting of infant mortality. Four ethnic classification schemes for Anglos, Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Indians in New Mexico are examined. The comparisons reveal that the current method of assigning ethnic codes relies on biological and paternal rather than social and maternal characteristics and that different classifications of ethnicity can produce different infant mortality rates and ranks, underscoring the need to define ethnic populations carefully."
Correspondence: R. G. Rogers, University of Colorado, Department of Sociology and Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40148 Sandell, J.; Upadhya, A. K.; Mehrotra, S. K.; Pandey, O. N. A study of some important biological factors influencing infant mortality under Indian conditions. Journal of the Indian Medical Association, Vol. 86, No. 9, Sep 1988. 231-3 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
The authors analyze the biological factors affecting infant mortality in Gorakhpur, a district in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The data concern 162 families living in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas and were collected in 1984. The factors considered include age of mother, age and sex of infants, family type, birth spacing, birth order, and birth weight.
Correspondence: J. Sandell, BRD Medical College, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Gorakhpur 273 001, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40149 Shorter, Frederic C. The decline of infant and child mortality: estimates from the Turkish census. Population Council Regional Papers: West Asia and North Africa, No. 34, Oct 1989. 45 pp. Population Council: Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
This paper, which was originally issued in Turkish, is a comprehensive overview of infant and child mortality trends in Turkey from 1970 to 1985, with data from the four quinquennial censuses of that period. Comparisons with other sources of demographic data are included. The author analyzes differentials according to geographical location and maternal educational levels and concludes with an evaluation of the questionnaire design and suggestions to limit errors.
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40150 Syrovatka, Augustin; Koschin, Felix. Age of mother and health conditions of newborns and infants. [Stari matky a stav novorozence a kojence.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1989. 220-8 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Results are presented of a study on infant mortality in Czechoslovakia. The data concern infants born in 1984. Particular attention is given to the effect of maternal age on infant mortality. The authors also examine neonatal and postneonatal mortality.
Correspondence: A. Syrovatka, Ustav Pece o Matku a Dite, Prague, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40151 Taucher, Erica. Effects of decreasing fertility on infant mortality levels. Infant Mortality and Health Studies: Technical Study, No. 57e, ISBN 0-88936-532-6. 1989. viii, 52 pp. International Development Research Centre [IDRC]: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author reports on the outcomes and implications of several studies conducted in Latin America on the effects of fertility on infant mortality. "The results show that a high fertility rate, short intervals between successive births, and the age of the mother, at either extreme of the child-bearing span, are all factors that increase the risk of infant mortality. As fertility rate decreases, the number of such births declines and this favours a lower infant mortality. Despite some contradictory results, there are indications that the differentials are biological in nature."
Correspondence: IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40152 Vagero, Denny; Ostberg, Viveca. Mortality among children and young persons in Sweden in relation to childhood socioeconomic group. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 43, No. 3, Sep 1989. 280-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"More than 1.5 million children in Sweden were followed up for the period 1961-1979 with respect to mortality. Mortality differences by socioeconomic group were studied for the age groups 1-19 years. Children in families of non-manual workers, both boys and girls, had a significantly lower mortality than children of manual workers and children of self employed persons. The socioeconomic differences in risk of dying were greater among boys than among girls. For boys, the socioeconomic differences grew smaller as the boys grew older."
Correspondence: D. Vagero, Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, Box 60208, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40153 Vargas, Nelson; Quezada, Laura. Infant mortality: analysis of current trends and identification of regions and causes of major risk. [Mortalidad infantil: analisis de tendencias recientes e identificacion de regiones y causas de riesgo mayor.] Revista Chilena de Pediatria, Vol. 59, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 122-8 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in infant mortality in Chile are analyzed. The authors note that the infant mortality rate remained at the level of approximately 19.5 per 1,000 during the period 1984-1986. Special consideration is given to regional differences in infant mortality. Changes in causes of death are also noted. "Declining causes of death are diarrhea, undernutrition and complications of pregnancy and delivery while respiratory diseases, those preventable through immunization, and prematurity have risen."
Correspondence: N. Vargas, Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Medicina, Division Ciencias Medicas Occidente, Departamento de Salud Publica y de Pediatria y Cirurgia Infantil, Avenida Bernardo O'Higgins 1058, Casilla 10-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

55:40154 Henry, Louis. Men's and women's mortality in the past. Population. English Selection, Vol. 44, No. 1, Sep 1989. 177-201 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This is a historical survey of adult mortality in western Europe from 1625 to 1900, with a focus on the state of women's health during this period. The author attempts to determine whether "women's health in the past was more precarious than it is to-day...[and assesses] the influence of maternal mortality on the excess mortality of women during part of their adult lives." Mortality comparisons are made among female age groups, countries, and historical periods.
This is a translation of the French article published in 1987 and cited elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40155 Martelin, Tuija. Trends in elderly mortality in the Nordic countries. Comprehensive Gerontology, Section C: Interdisciplinary Topics, Vol. 1, Dec 1987. 39-48 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
Trends in elderly mortality during the twentieth century in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are described using data from official sources. "Marked improvements were observed in survival at advanced ages....However, the development has not been stable [because] in recent decades the elderly mortality rate has fluctuated, roughly comparable to the fluctuations in mortality among the younger age groups." There is some evidence that further improvements in mortality are possible through changes in living conditions or in life-style.
Correspondence: T. Martelin, University of Helsinki, Department of Sociology, Helsinginkatu 34C, SF-00530 Helsinki, Finland. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40156 Witten, Matthew. A quantitative model for lifespan curves. Age, Vol. 12, No. 2, Apr 1989. 61-8 pp. Omaha, Nebraska. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the issue of a model for the total lifespan survival curve, with particular interest in the later life or geriatric years. This new model is based upon the basic premise that the population under study is a mixture of individuals comprising three major subgroups: (1) neonatal deaths, (2) standard Gompertzian-like survival, (3) geriatric survival. It is demonstrated that a standard mixture model, mixing three survival distributions, more than adequately describes survival over the entire lifespan of the population. Further, this newer model has the desirable added virtue that the model parameters may be interpreted in a biological manner."
Correspondence: M. Witten, Computational Biology and Medicine, Control Data Corporation, 8100 34th Avenue South, Box 0, Minnepolis, MN 55440-4700. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

55:40157 Abaza, Ahmed K. The Kuwaiti mortality rates and some comparisons. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Dec 1984. 87-107 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
The author presents two life tables for Kuwait for the periods 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Socioeconomic factors affecting mortality rates and life expectancy by age and sex are discussed. Data are from official Kuwaiti sources.
Correspondence: A. K. Abaza, Kuwait University, POB 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40158 Gage, Timothy B. Mathematical hazard models of mortality: an alternative to model life tables. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 76, No. 4, Aug 1988. 429-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A five-parameter competing hazard model of the age pattern of mortality is described, and methods of fitting it to survivorship, death rate, and age structure data are developed and presented. The methods are then applied to published life table and census data to construct life tables for a Late Woodland population, a Christian period Nubian population, and the Yanomama. The advantage of this approach over the use of model life tables is that the hazard model facilitates life-table construction without imposing a particular age pattern of mortality on the data. This development makes it possible to use anthropological data to extend the study of human variation in mortality patterns to small populations."
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40159 Lu, Lei. Mortality distribution factors and life tables. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 1, Jan 29, 1988. 31-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
This is an introduction to life table methodology. Particular attention is given to problems concerning the calculation of the distribution of deaths by age and their impact on estimates of life expectancy. Problems are illustrated using data from the abbreviated life tables of China for 1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40160 Moya, Oscar. Estimating a life table starting from quinquennial survival relations. [Estimacion de una tabla de mortalidad a partir de relaciones de sobrevivencias quinquenales.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 15, No. 45, Dec 1987. 83-95 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents a method to develop a life table when only data on mortality for five-year age groups is available. "The proposed solution is based on the use of an iterative method that needs a microcomputer programmed to graphic statistical tables." The method is tested using data from Coale and Demeny's regional model life tables.
Correspondence: O. Moya, Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edifico Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40161 Pecka, Jiri. A contribution to the calculation of Czechoslovak life tables. [Prispevek k problematice vypoctu Ceskoslovenskych umrtnostnich tabulek.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1989. 229-38 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Alternative methods of developing life tables are reviewed, and their application to Czechoslovak data is considered. The King-Hardy methods is selected and applied to mortality data for the Czech part of the country for 1985. Other methods used to calculate mortality at advanced ages are also described.
Correspondence: J. Pecka, Federalni Statisticky Urad, Sokolovska 142, 18613 Prague 8, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40162 Rao, K. Vaninadha; Balakrishnan, T. R. A note on life table measures from survey data. Janasamkhya, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1988. 127-35 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This note clarifies the issues involved in interpreting summary measures arrived at through life-table analysis of cross sectional survey data and shows how wrong the comparison of such measures with observed rates could be." The geographical focus is on Canada.
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40163 United Kingdom. Scotland. Registrar General (Edingburgh, Scotland). Life tables, 1980-1982. First supplement to the hundred and thirtythird annual report of the Registrar General for Scotland. ISBN 0-11-493485-1. 1989. 21 pp. Edingburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
Life tables for Scotland for the period 1980-1982 are presented by single year of age and sex. The accompanying text describes the methodology used in preparing the tables and makes comparisons with earlier Scottish life tables and with mortality in England and Wales.
Correspondence: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 71 Lothian Road, Edinburgh EH3 9AZ, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library.

55:40164 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: life tables. [America Latina: tablas de mortalidad.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 22, No. 44, Jul 1989. 350 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
Abridged life tables are presented for the 20 countries of Latin America by sex and five-year age group for the period 1950-2025. Data are also included on total population by country, death rates, life expectancy, and infant mortality by sex and country.
Correspondence: CELADE, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40165 Zimmermann, Norbert; Fichtner, Norbert. Developmental trends and territorial differences in life expectancy in the German Democratic Republic. [Zu Entwicklungstendenzen und territorialen Unterschieden der Lebensewartung in der DDR.] Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung, Vol. 81, No. 23, 1987. 1,207-10 pp. Jena, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Trends in life expectancy in the German Democratic Republic between 1955 and 1985 are reviewed, and district-level differences are analyzed by sex for the period 1980-1985. Districts are then classified according to life expectancy at birth. The data are from district-level life tables prepared by the Institute for Medical Statistics and Data Analysis.
Correspondence: N. Zimmermann, Institut fur Medizinische Statistik und Datenverarbeitung, Abteilung Statistische Methodik, Noldnerstrasse 34-36, Berlin 1134, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

55:40166 Aase, Asbjorn. Regionalizing mortality data: ischaemic heart disease in Norway. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 8, 1989. 907-11 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The definition of regions and its effect on the analysis of geographical variations in mortality is examined. The author describes a geographical information system for the study of cause-specific mortality data developed in Norway that permits a flexible organization of regional units and other variables. As an example, geographical time trends in ischemic heart disease mortality are analyzed for the period 1970-1985. The results show a general tendency toward regional convergence in rural-urban differences but no convergence among regions as a whole. There is no evidence that counties that have developed heart disease intervention projects have fared better than those that have not.
Correspondence: A. Aase, University of Trondheim, Department of Geography, 7055 Dragvoll, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40167 Congdon, Peter. Deprivation in London wards: mortality and unemployment trends in the 1980's. Statistician, Vol. 37, No. 4-5, 1988. 451-72 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes the use of current estimates of population and economic activity for London's wards in developing small area social indicators. The particular focus is on changes in the spatial pattern of mortality and unemployment differences in the 1980s in relation to the wider incidence of deprivation in wards. A conditional model of change is developed for mortality and unemployment indices to assess whether spatial differences are widening over time and how far changes in these indices are linked to social class and deprivation. The evidence is of widening unemployment differences, and a slight widening in premature mortality."
Correspondence: P. Congdon, Population and Statistics Group, Parliament House, London Research Centre, 81 Black Prince Road, London SE1 7SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

55:40168 Feldman, Jacob J.; Makuc, Diane M.; Kleinman, Joel C.; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan. National trends in educational differentials in mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 129, No. 5, May 1989. 919-33 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors examined national changes in socioeconomic differentials in mortality for middle-aged and older white men and women in the United States with the use of 1960 data from the Matched Records Study and 1971-1984 data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS)." The focus is on changes over time in mortality by educational status, particularly with regard to heart disease mortality. The results show that death rates among men declined more rapidly among the better educated, whereas rates among women by educational status remained relatively constant.
Correspondence: D. M. Makuc, National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Analysis and Epidemiology, FCB No. 2, Room 2-27, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40169 Fiolka, L. Some problems with sex differences in mortality. [Zu einigen Problemen der Geschlechtsunterschiede in der Sterblichkeit.] Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete, Vol. 34, No. 8, Aug 1988. 447-9 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Differential mortality by sex in Europe is discussed. The author notes that the increase in male mortality at certain ages and the decrease in female mortality at all ages is leading to a widening in mortality differentials by sex. The importance of environmental and behavioral factors is noted.
Correspondence: L. Fiolka, Institut fur Sozialhygiene und Organisation des Gesundheitswesens Maxim Zetkin, Noldnerstrasse 34/36, Berlin 1134, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40170 Hao, Hongsheng; Arriaga, E.; Banister, J. Analysis of China's province-specific mortality. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1988. 1-16 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The authors analyze regional differences in China's mortality rates. Tables are presented showing life expectancy by sex, infant and child mortality rates, and death rates by selected cause for province, municipality, and autonomous region. Data are from the 1982 Chinese census.
Correspondence: H. Hao, People's University of China, Institute of Population Research, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40171 Hazzard, William R. Why do women live longer than men? Biologic differences that influence longevity. Postgraduate Medicine, Vol. 85, No. 5, Apr 1989. 271-8, 281-3 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
Factors affecting sex differentials in longevity in the United States are discussed. The author hypothesizes that, although the differential in mortality by sex has decreased during the 1980s, it is likely to increase in the future because of differences in hormone status between the sexes, which will be further increased by estrogen therapy for postmenopausal women. The need for men to take active steps to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease is stressed.
Correspondence: W. R. Hazzard, Wake Forest University, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, 300 S. Hawthorne, Winston-Salem, NC 27103. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40172 Henry, Louis. The mortality of men and women in the past. [Mortalite des hommes et des femmes dans le passe.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1987. 87-118 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews trends in mortality by sex in various European populations from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. He "examines statistics for girls and adolescents on one hand and women of childbearing age on the other. For the latter, maternal mortality was apparently the only cause of excess female mortality. For girls and adolescents, the oldest observations suggest that excess female mortality did not always exist for these age-groups, but the fact that the medical and other progress made was initially of less benefit to girls than boys still requires explanation."
For an English translation of this article, published in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: L. Henry, 80 Moute de Brie, 91800 Brunoy, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40173 Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W. N.; Kunst, A. E.; Habbema, J. D. F.; van der Maas, P. J. Regional differences in decline of mortality from selected conditions: the Netherlands, 1969-1984. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1988. 821-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The results of an analysis of regional variation in mortality decline within The Netherlands are reported, covering the period 1969-1984. The causes of death included in this analysis are Perinatal mortality, Cerebrovascular disease, a more global 'Amenable' selection (formed by aggregating a number of causes of death considered to be amenable to medical intervention), Cancer of the stomach, Ischaemic heart disease, and Traffic accidents." Consideration is given to mortality differentials by geographic location and by access to hospitals.
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40174 Malarska, Anna. Premature mortality in Poland by region. [Przedwczesna umieralnosc ludnosci Polski w ujeciu terytorialnym.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1989. 30-3 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Using an indicator of premature mortality developed by B. Ts. Urlanis, the author calculates mortality differentials for Poland by administrative region (voivodship).
Correspondence: A. Malarska, Uniwersytet Lodzki, Narutowicza 65, 90-131 Lodz, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40175 Marcuzzi, Giorgio; Martinelli, Patrizia. Further observations on the demo-ecology of German-speaking isolates in Italy. Mortality in the isolates of Giazza and Selva di Progno (Lessinia). [Ulteriori osservazioni sulla demo-ecologia delle isole linguistiche tedesche d'Italia. La mortalita nelle due isole di Giazza e Selva di Progno (Lessinia).] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 273-88 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Age differentials in mortality are studied in two German-speaking subpopulations of Italy and compared with mortality trends throughout Italy.
Correspondence: G. Marcuzzi, Universita degli Studi, Dipartimento di Biologia, Via 8 Febbraio 9, 35122 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40176 Mares, N. E. H. M.; Aben, D. J. M.; Schouten, E. G.; Kok, F. J.; van der Heide-Wessel, C.; van der Heide, R. M. Income and mortality: results of a 25 year follow-up study in male civil servants in Amsterdam. [Inkomen en sterfte: resultaten van 25 jaar vervolgonderzoek bij mannelijke Amsterdamse ambtenaren.] Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Vol. 132, No. 24, Jun 11, 1988. 1,109-13 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between income and mortality in the Netherlands is explored. The data, which concern 1,583 middle-aged civil servants in Amsterdam that were originally collected in 1953 and 1954 and was supplemented with data on mortality after 15 and 25 years. "After 15 years, the income groups did not differ clearly in total mortality. After 25 years, however, the age-adjusted mortality in the highest income group (47.3%) was 10.1% lower than in the lowest group....Our results suggest that in countries where life expectancy at birth is highest, such as The Netherlands, differences in income level may have a less pronounced association with the mortality risk than in countries where the life expectancy is lower."
Correspondence: E. G. Schouten, Landbouw Universiteit, Vakgroep Gezondheidsleer, Postbus 238, 6700 AE Wageningen, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40177 Rosenwaike, Ira; Hempstead, Katherine. Differential mortality by ethnicity: foreign-born Irish, Italians and Jews in New York City, 1979-81. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 7, 1989. 885-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper compares the mortality experience of foreign-born Irish, Italians and Jews in New York City in 1979-81. For the Irish and Italian Groups, 1980 census data were used to calculate age-specific and age-standardized death rates. For the Jewish group, denominator data were not available, so proportional mortality analysis was used....The results of this analysis support previous studies showing mortality is significantly greater among Irish-born immigrants than among the Italian born. The proportional mortality data suggest that the Jewish and Italian groups have cause of death distributions relatively similar to each other and dissimilar to the Irish group. Alcohol-related causes of death appear to be a major source of the uniqueness of the Irish mortality experience."
Correspondence: I. Rosenwaike, University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Social Work, 3701 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40178 Rosenwaike, Ira; Bradshaw, Benjamin S. Mortality of the Spanish surname population of the southwest: 1980. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 3, Sep 1989. 631-41 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper presents cause-specific age-adjusted death rates by sex for the white Spanish surname populations of Texas and California in 1980. Comparative mortality data by sex are also presented for the white native-born and Mexican-born Spanish surname populations in both states. The results verify a mortality pattern that, for native and Mexican-born males, includes advantages in heart disease, malignant neoplasms, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but greatly elevated mortality for both native and Mexican-born males in homicide, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver disease. Native and Mexican-born Spanish surname females show some mortality advantage only in malignant neoplasms and suicide, but disadvantages in diabetes, chronic liver disease, and homicide."
Correspondence: I. Rosenwaike, University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40179 Sharma, R. D. Sex and regional differentials in longevity in Ontario. Biology and Society, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1989. 113-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines data on expectation of life for the counties and regional municipalities of Ontario [Canada] from 1921 to 1981 and analyses the relationship with social and economic variables in 1981." Data are from the 1981 census.
Correspondence: R. D. Sharma, Ontario Ministry of Treasury and Economics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40180 Tabeau, Ewa. Excess mortality among men in Poland. [Nadumieralnosc mezczyzn w Polsce.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 1989. 10-3 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Trends in mortality among males in Poland for the period 1950-1986 are examined. Factors contributing to the excess mortality of males are discussed.
Correspondence: E. Tabeau, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40181 Trovato, Frank; Lauris, Gloria. Marital status and mortality in Canada: 1951-1981. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 4, Nov 1989. 907-22 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
The authors analyze Gove's protection of marriage theory and discuss whether marriage benefits men more than it benefits women. "We use Canadian data from 1951 to 1981 to examine the relationship between marital status transitions of men and women and mortality from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases....We find that married persons have a lower death rate than the unmarried; and concerning gender differentials, the transition from unmarried to married generally favors men more than it favors women: overall, men share a greater reduction in mortality risk from a change in marital status (from unmarried to married). However, we note a few exceptions to this general relationship, and we discuss our findings in relation to the American-based research in this area of inquiry."
For the study by Walter R. Gove, published in 1973, see 40:1301.
Correspondence: F. Trovato, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40182 Vagero, Denny; Norell, Staffan E. Mortality and social class in Sweden--exploring a new epidemiological tool. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1989. 49-58 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Total mortality, mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, and other causes of death, were examined for three social groups and ten socio-economic groups in Sweden. The study included all subjects born in the country between 1896 and 1940 who were economically active in 1960--1.9 million men and 0.7 million women." Data are from the 1960 census and other official sources and include data on smoking habits. The authors note that "there remain differences in mortality between social and socio-economic groups which cannot be explained by smoking habits, age, gender, urbanization, region of residence and marital status."
Correspondence: D. Vagero, Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, Box 60208, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40183 van Poppel, F. Regional differences in life expectancy in the Netherlands, 1972-1984. [Regionale verschillen in levensverwachting in Nederland in de jaren 1972-1984.] Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Vol. 132, No. 13, Mar 26, 1988. 571-5 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Data concerning the average expectation of life at birth for the periods 1972-76, 1976-80 and 1980-84 for 44 regions show that regional differences in mortality in the Netherlands still exist. Moreover, regional differences are more or less stable in time. Especially, the expectation of life in the southern part of the country is relatively low."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Nederlands Interuniversitair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR, The Hague, Netherlands. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40184 Visaria, Leela. Sex differentials in nutritional status in a rural area of Gujarat state: an interim report. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning Working Paper, No. 7, Mar 1987. 36 pp. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
The author explores the reasons for the longer life expectancy and lower mortality of males in India. Consideration is given to differentials in health care and food allocation, birth weight, nutritional status by age, female infanticide, and medical intervention in the extent of a fatal illness. Data are from official sources and from a research project conducted in Kachchh district in Gujarat state.
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Area Planning, Pritamrai Marg, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40185 Wilkinson, Richard G. Class mortality differentials, income distribution and trends in poverty 1921-1981. Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1989. 307-35 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The relationship between trends in the standard of living and mortality differentials in England and Wales is analyzed. The author "concludes that trends in mortality differences have not been related to trends in class differences in average earnings, but have been fairly clearly related to trends in relative poverty. Relative poverty and class differences in mortality declined before the war but have both increased, decade by decade, since the war. Younger women have perhaps been protected from the increase in relative poverty during much of the post-war period by their increased economic activity rates and the relative improvement in earnings of women in poorly paid manual occupations."
Correspondence: R. G. Wilkinson, University of Sussex, Center for Medical Research, Brighton BN1 9RH, East Sussex, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

55:40186 Yang, Guangrui. A biological analysis of sex differences in mortality and in life expectancy. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1987. 8-10 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Biological determinants of differential mortality by sex are examined. The author suggests that a difference in male sex chromosomes is the main reason for the higher mortality rate and lower life expectancy observed in males and for their susceptibility to some genetic diseases. The production of more male fertilized ova is considered as a natural control to balance the sex ratio.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

55:40187 Balfe, D. L.; Steinberg, W. J.; Kustner, H. G. V. Comparison of the decline in the ischaemic heart disease mortality rate in the RSA with that in other Western countries. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 74, No. 11, Dec 3, 1988. 551-3 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"South African age-adjusted ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates (MRs) in the age group 35-74 years were compared with equivalent IHD MRs of five Western countries for the period 1968-1983. South African Asians had higher IHD MRs than all the other countries studied, and South African whites had among the highest despite the declines in rates over the period studied."
Correspondence: D. L. Balfe, Department of National Health and Population Development, Directorate of Epidemiology, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40188 Becker, Nikolaus; Smith, Elaine M.; Wahrendorf, Jurgen. Time trends in cancer mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany: progress against cancer? International Journal of Cancer/Journal International du Cancer, Vol. 43, No. 2, Feb 15, 1989. 245-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in cancer mortality in West Germany from 1952 to 1985 are reviewed. As with previous studies concerning the United States, the results indicate that improvements in cancer treatment have not resulted in an overall decline in age-specific cancer mortality rates. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: N. Becker, German Cancer Research Center, Institute of Epidemiology and Biometry, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-6900 Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40189 Bjerregaard, Peter; Dyerberg, Jorn. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Greenland. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1988. 514-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Mortality from ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among native Greenlanders is studied and compared with sex-specific rates in Denmark. Living conditions, nutrition, and genetic predisposition are considered as factors influencing these causes of death.
Correspondence: P. Bjerregaard, Kenya Expanded Programme on Immunization, PO Box 20781, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40190 Boerma, J. Ties; Mati, J. K. G. Identifying maternal mortality through networking: results from coastal Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 245-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents the results of experience in identifying maternal deaths through 'networking.' In a survey of child health in coastal Kenya, women of reproductive ages were asked about their knowledge of maternal deaths in the villages. Thirty-five maternal deaths were ultimately identified in the study area, which led to an estimate of maternal mortality of 6 to 7 per 1,000 live births....Special attention is given to the ethnomedical aspects of maternal mortality, which have important implications for strategies to reduce maternal mortality."
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys Project, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40191 Chukudebelu, W. O.; Ozumba, B. C. Maternal mortality in Anambra State of Nigeria. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 27, No. 3, Dec 1988. 365-70 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Trends in maternal mortality in Nigeria are investigated using data for a five-year period from 10 hospitals in Anambra State. The maternal mortality rate varied from 1.8 to 13 per 1,000, with a mean of 4.97. "The causes of and various factors influencing this high mortality rate are examined as well as the avoidable factors. Suggestions are made for its reduction based on accurate data collection, improved health facilities, improved socio-economic status and basic education."
Correspondence: W. O. Chukudebelu, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Enugu, Nigeria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40192 Crombie, I. K.; Kenicer, M. B.; Smith, W. C. S.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H. D. Unemployment, socioenvironmental factors, and coronary heart disease in Scotland. British Heart Journal, Vol. 61, No. 2, Feb 1989. 172-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The relation between standardised mortality ratios for coronary deaths (1979-83) for 56 local government districts [in Scotland] and a range of socioeconomic factors from the 1981 Census as well as climatic factors and water hardness were investigated. Strong associations were seen with several measures of social disadvantage, the strongest being with percentage of male unemployment. A fitted multiple regression model with mortality from coronary heart disease in men found independent effects of two social variables (percentage male unemployment and percentage social class III-V) and one climatic factor (rainfall). The model explained much (73%) of the geographical variation in mortality from coronary heart disease...."
Correspondence: I. K. Crombie, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40193 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. Cancer mortality in Italy, 1982. Tumori, Vol. 74, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 623-32 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"In this report, data and statistics are presented on cancer death certification in Italy in 1982, thus updating previous publications starting from 1955." Tabular data are presented by age, sex, and cancer site. The results show that cancer mortality remained stable for females and rose by two percent for males, due primarily to an increase in mortality from lung cancer.
Correspondence: A. Decarli, Universita di Milano, Istituto di Biochimica e Statistica Medica, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40194 Duchene, Josianne; Wunsch, Guillaume. From the demographer's cauldron: single decrement life tables and the span of life. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 1-17 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"On the basis of biological evidence on the maximum span of life and on mortality due to senescence, this paper presents a new methodology for the study of the impact of a particular cause of death. The method we have developed is based on the assumption that death is due either to the cause under study or to senescence and endogenous infant mortality. The technique is applied to recent Swedish data on mortality from infectious diseases and from cancer. Results are compared to those obtained from the single-decrement life table."
Correspondence: J. Duchene, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie, Place de l'Universite, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40195 Duthie, S. J.; Ghosh, A.; Ma, H. K. Maternal mortality in Hong Kong 1961-1985. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 96, No. 1, Jan 1989. 4-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Maternal mortality in Hong Kong is analyzed, with consideration given to changes in its determinants. It is noted that over the period 1961-1985, maternal mortality fell from 45 per 1,000 to 5 per 1,000.
Correspondence: S. J. Duthie, University of Hong Kong, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tsan Yuk Hospital, Hong Kong. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40196 Fauveau, V.; Blanchet, T. Deaths from injuries and induced abortion among rural Bangladeshi women. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1989. 1,121-7 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Trends in mortality caused by violence and by unintentional injuries for women aged 15-44 in rural Bangladesh are analyzed. The data concern 207 women who died from such causes between 1976 and 1986. Particular attention is given to violent deaths during pregnancy and to complications of induced abortion. The authors note that suicide and homicide are frequent consequences of illegitimate pregnancy.
Correspondence: V. Fauveau, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40197 Fingerhut, Lois A.; Kleinman, Joel C. Firearm mortality among children and youth. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 178, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 90-1250. Nov 3, 1989. 6 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this report we examine the contribution of firearms to childhood mortality [in the United States] from homicide, suicide, and unintentional injury." The results indicate that firearms have played a major role in U.S. childhood mortality. "In 1987 there were 3,392 firearm-related deaths among children 1-19 years of age, 11 percent of all childhood deaths. Comparisons with eight other countries demonstrate that the United States is unique with respect to this problem. In 1986 there were 1,043 firearm-related homicides (out of a total of 1,432) among U.S. males aged 15-19 years....In contrast, in Canada there were 6 firearm-related homicides out of a total of 21 and in Japan 2 of 21 homicides among males 15-19 years of age were firearm-related."
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40198 Flandre, P.; Valleron, A. J. Demographic impact of AIDS mortality in France in 1990: AIDS before suicide and next to traffic accidents. [Impact demographique de la mortalite par SIDA en France en 1990: le SIDA devant le suicide et proche des accidents de la circulation.] Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1988. 196-201 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The demographic impact of AIDS on mortality in France over the next few years is estimated using a regression technique based on an exponential model. The authors calculate three separate indicators: years of potential life lost, life expectancy, and expectancy of active life. The results show that as early as 1990, AIDS will take more lives than suicide and almost as many as traffic accidents.
Correspondence: P. Flandre, URBB, INSERM U 263, Universite de Paris 7, Tour 53, 2 place Jussieu, F75251 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40199 Floderus, Birgitta; Cederlof, Rune; Friberg, Lars. Smoking and mortality: a 21-year follow-up based on the Swedish Twin Registry. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 332-40 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between smoking and mortality is analyzed using data from the Swedish Twin Registry. "The comparison of deaths in cigarette-smoking twins and their non-smoking co-twins gave the following risk estimates for monozygotic (MZ) men: death all causes 1.6 (35 versus 22 first deaths), CHD death 2.8 (11 versus 4). The results for dizygotic (DZ) males and for females were in agreement. Four lung-cancer deaths occurred in MZ and 17 in DZ smoker twins while the non-smoker co-twins showed two such cases (DZ women). Other cancer deaths did not occur more often in the smoker than in the non-smoker twin."
Correspondence: B. Floderus, Karolinska Institute, Department of Environmental Hygiene, Box 60 400, S-104 01 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40200 Fritsche, U.; Joppe, H.; Knopf, H. Peripartal mortality in the German Democratic Republic with respect to prevention and cause of death. [Peripartale Mortalitat in der DDR unter dem Aspekt der Vermeidbarkeit und der Todesursachen.] Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene and Ihre Grenzgebiete, Vol. 34, No. 8, Aug 1988. 458-61 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in maternal mortality in the German Democratic Republic during the period 1952-1966 are examined using data collected by a special commission formed to reduce maternal mortality. The focus is on the identification of avoidable deaths.
Correspondence: U. Fritsche, Institut fur Sozialhygiene und Organisation des Gesundheitswesens Maxim Zetkin, Noldnerstrasse 34/36, Berlin DDR-1134, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40201 Giersiepen, K.; Greiser, E. Coding of cause of death for mortality statistics--a comparison of results of coding by various statistical offices in the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin. [Verschlusselung von Todesursachen fur Mortalitatsstatistiken--Vergleich von Signierergebnissen in verschiedenen statistischen Amtern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und West-Berlins.] Offentliche Gesundheitswesen, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan 1989. 40-7 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The coding of causes of death in 1985 among local state authorities in the Federal Republic of Germany is analyzed. The results are compared with those from similar studies in the United States and show that the West German data were not as consistently or accurately coded as the U.S. data.
Correspondence: K. Giersiepen, Bremer Institut fur Praventionsforschung und Sozialmedizin, St. Jurgenstrasse 1, D-2800 Bremen 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40202 Horm, John W.; Sondik, Edward J. Person-years of life lost due to cancer in the United States, 1970 and 1984. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 79, No. 11, Nov 1989. 1,490-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in the number of years of life lost to cancer in the United States over the period 1970-1984 are analyzed. The authors find that "between 1970 and 1984, the total Person-Years of Life Lost..., the sum of the difference between the actual age at death and the expected remaining lifetime for each person who died of cancer, increased for most cancer sites as well as for all sites combined....[and that] the Average Years of Life Lost...per person dying from cancer in 1984 was generally less than in 1970."
Correspondence: J. W. Horm, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Special Populations Studies Branch, EPN-240, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40203 Izsak, Janos. Secular changes of the concentration of neoplasm death causes in the male population of some countries. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 119-30 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
Using diversity indexes, concentrations of deaths caused by neoplasms are examined for the male populations of the United Kingdom, Norway, Finland, Hungary, and Japan and are compared with those of the United States for the period 1968-1975. The author finds an increase in such mortality in the United States and a decrease in the other countries.
Correspondence: J. Izsak, Berzsenyi College, Biology Department, Szombathely, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40204 Jockel, Karl-Heinz. Cardiovascular mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1970-79, and the evaluation of the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study: results from a geographic mortality study. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1989. 4-9 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Trends in cardiovascular mortality in West Germany from 1970 to 1979 are reviewed using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study. Regional variations in ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are analyzed by sex. Questions concerning regional variations in data reliability are discussed. The results indicate a decline over time in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, whereas mortality from ischemic heart disease remained relatively stable.
Correspondence: K.-H. Jockel, Bremen Institute for Preventive and Social Medicine, St.-Jurgen-strasse 1, D-2800 Bremen 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40205 Kapantais, Gloria; Powell-Griner, Eve. Characteristics of persons dying from AIDS: preliminary data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 173, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1250. Aug 24, 1989. 8 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS) on selected characteristics of persons with mention of AIDS (ICD-9 code 279.1) on the death certificate....The analysis focuses on three broad subject areas: social and demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization during the last year of life, and measures of disability prior to death."
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40206 Kapantais, Gloria; Powell-Griner, Eve. Characteristics of persons dying of diseases of heart: preliminary data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 172, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1250. Aug 24, 1989. 32 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Preliminary data from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey for mortality from heart diseases in the United States are analyzed. "Data on the sociodemographic and economic characteristics, health care and costs, and health status of persons who died from diseases of heart in 1986 are presented in this report."
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40207 Klag, Michael J.; Whelton, Paul K.; Seidler, Alexander J. Decline in U.S. stroke mortality: demographic trends and antihypertensive treatment. Stroke, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1989. 14-21 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
The decline in mortality from strokes in the United States since the early 1970s is examined. Specifically, the authors use vital statistics data for the periods 1950-1972 and 1973-1981 to analyze changes in stroke mortality by age, race, and sex. They find that stroke mortality for all groups declined at a greater rate during the latter period. The results fail to confirm the hypothesis that treatment of hypertension is a principal cause of the decline in stroke mortality.
Correspondence: M. J. Klag, Room 8034, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40208 Kwast, Barbara E.; Liff, Jonathan M. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 1, Mar 1988. 115-21 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A housing probability survey in which 9,315 women were interviewed was conducted in 1983 to detect the incidence and aetiology of maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Maternal mortality for the two-year period from 11 September 1981 was 350/100,000 livebirths (excluding abortions). A logistic regression analysis selected antenatal care, occupation and income as risk factors for maternal mortality, after adjusting for age, parity, education and marital status."
Correspondence: B. E. Kwast, World Health Organization, Division of Family Health, Maternal and Child Health Unit, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40209 La Vecchia, Carlo; Levi, Fabio. Sex differentials in Swiss cancer mortality. Sozial- und Praventivmedizin/Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1988. 140-3 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Sex differentials in cancer mortality in Switzerland are analyzed using data from the Vaud Cancer Registry data base for the period 1974-1980. The results indicate a moderate decline in cancer mortality for males, but a substantial one for females. "Population-based cancer survival statistics indicated that for most common sites rates were appreciably higher in females than in males. Thus, better survival explains part of the advantage in cancer mortality for women. This can be related to earlier diagnosis, [and] better compliance or responsiveness to treatment, although there is no obvious single interpretation for this generalized more favourable pattern in females."
Correspondence: C. La Vecchia, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, rue du Bugnon 17, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40210 Lazaro Ruiz, Mercedes; Gurria Garcia, Pedro A. Mortality crises in La Rioja under the ancien regime. [Las crisis de mortalidad en La Rioja en el antiguo regimen.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1989. 31-45 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Data from the records and death registers of 38 parishes between 1564 and 1812 are analyzed to identify periods of excess mortality in La Rioja, Spain. Results of investigations of mortality crises in other localities are also reviewed. The primary focus is on plague mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40211 Levi, F.; Decarli, A.; La Vecchia, C.; Randriamiharisoa, A. Cancer mortality in Switzerland, 1951-1984: effects of age, birth cohort and period of death. [La mortalite par cancer en Suisse entre 1951 et 1984: effets de l'age, de la generation et de la periode de deces/Die schweizerische Krebsmortalitat von 1951 bis 1984, analysiert nach den Effekten von Alter,.] Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift/Journal Suisse de Medecine, Supplement, Vol. 26, 1988. 85 pp. Schwabe: Basel, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre; Ger.
"In this volume, we present and discuss the findings derived from the application of a standard age-period-cohort model to Swiss cancer death certifications over the period 1951-1984, with the aim of assisting the interpretation of trends and the search for aetiological correlates or hypotheses." Data are from official sources. An attempt is also made to forecast future trends in Swiss mortality.
Correspondence: Schwabe and Co. AG, Verlag, Steinentorstrasse 13, CH-4010, Basel, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40212 Llongueras, Silvia de S.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Roman, Eve. Regional differences in maternal mortality in Greece, 1973-1982. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1988. 574-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Maternal mortality in 10 regions of Greece is examined for the period 1973-1982. The authors note that while maternal mortality ratios decreased in the country as a whole, it increased in two regions. Findings indicate that maternal health care and cultural factors have a significant effect on maternal mortality differentials.
Correspondence: S. de S. Llongueras, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Epidemiological Monitoring Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40213 Mackenbach, Johan P.; Looman, Caspar W. N. Secular trends of infectious disease mortality in the Netherlands, 1911-1978: quantitative estimates of changes coinciding with the introduction of antibiotics. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1988. 618-24 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The study reported here is an analysis of secular trends of infectious disease mortality in the Netherlands [during the period 1911-1978], meant to provide quantitative estimates for changes coinciding with the introduction of antibiotics." Two types of change in mortality trends are measured: a sharp reduction in mortality at the introduction of antibiotics and an acceleration over time of mortality decline following the introduction.
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40214 Manton, Kenneth G.; Woodbury, Max A.; Stallard, Eric; Riggan, Wilson B.; Creason, John P.; Pellom, Alvin C. Empirical Bayes procedures for stabilizing maps of U.S. cancer mortality rates. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 84, No. 407, Sep 1989. 637-50 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The geographic mapping of age-standardized, cause-specific death rates is a powerful tool for identifying possible etiologic factors, because the spatial distribution of mortality risks can be examined for correlations with the spatial distribution of disease-specific risk factors. This article presents a two-stage empirical Bayes procedure for calculating age-standardized cancer death rates, for use in mapping, which are adjusted for the stochasticity of rates in small area populations. Using the adjusted rates helps isolate and identify spatial patterns in the rates. The model is applied to sex-specific data on U.S. county cancer mortality in the white population for 15 cancer sites for three decades: 1950-1959, 1960-1969, and 1970-1979. Selected results are presented as maps of county death rates for white males."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

55:40215 Marshall, Roger J. An area analysis of major causes of death among under 65 year olds in Auckland--1977-85. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 102, No. 862, Feb 22, 1989. 67-70 pp. Dunedin, New Zealand. In Eng.
Geographical variations in causes of death in Auckland, New Zealand, are examined using data from all deaths registered between 1977 and 1985. The author identifies three areas where mortality is generally higher.
Correspondence: R. J. Marshall, University of Auckland, School of Medicine, Department of Community Health, Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40216 Mirkov, K.; Vasilev, D.; Rachev, E.; Dikov, I.; Georgieva, V. Problems in reducing maternal mortality in Bulgaria. [Problemi na snizhavaneto na maichinata smartnost v Balgariya.] Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1988. 1-9 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in maternal mortality in Bulgaria for the period 1980-1985 are examined using official data. The analysis shows that most maternal deaths occur during the period of delivery and puerperium and are associated with the failure to control bleeding.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40217 Mola, G. Maternal death in Papua New Guinea, 1984-1986. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1989. 27-32 pp. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. In Eng.
Trends in maternal mortality in Papua New Guinea for the period 1984-1986 are discussed. "The causes of 304 maternal deaths occurring in the period 1984-1986 are reported; this most likely represents only 10% of the total occurring in Papua New Guinea. The maternal mortality rate is estimated at 7/1,000 for the period. Figures for Simbu Province are given in more detail than are available for other parts of Papua New Guinea."
Correspondence: G. Mola, University of Papua New Guinea, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box 5623, Boroko, NCD, Papua New Guinea. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40218 Nicolosi, Alfredo; Casati, Sergio; Tailoi, Emanuela; Polli, Elio. Death from cardiovascular disease in Italy, 1972-1981: decline in mortality rates and possible causes. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1988. 766-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We studied mortality from cardiovascular disease in Italy from 1972 to 1981 and compared mortality to trends in risk factors during the same period....The roles of hypertension treatment and of access to specialized medical care are discussed as possible contributors to the new declining trend of [ischemic heart disease], and the need is stressed for preventive strategies in health promotion." Consideration is also given to age and sex factors.
Correspondence: A. Nicolosi, Area CNR, Via Ampere S6, 20131 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40219 Parazzini, F.; Mezzanotte, G.; La Vecchia, C. Maternal mortality in the various Italian regions: 1955-1984. [La mortalita materna nelle varie regioni italiane: 1955-1984.] Annali di Ostetricia, Ginecologia, Medicina Perinatale, Vol. 109, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 28-40 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"On the basis of numbers of maternal deaths and births according to age and regions published annually by the [Italian] Central Institute of Statistics, the maternal mortality rates and ratios were computed for each region, calendar year or quinquennia and outcome of pregnancy. Specific and standardized rates by maternal age are also presented." The authors note that although the maternal mortality rate declined from 133.3 per 100,000 live births in 1955 to 11.4 in 1984, geographical differences in maternal mortality persist.
Correspondence: F. Parazzini, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40220 Park, Kyung Ae; Clifford, William B. Sex differentials in cardiovascular mortality: an ecological analysis. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 7, 1989. 869-76 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Regional differences in cardiovascular mortality by sex in the United States are analyzed using official data from the National Center for Health Statistics for the period 1970-1980. Consideration is given to environmental and demographic factors, sustenance organization, and health technology. "The most distinctive feature of the results is that environment has the greatest impact on sex differentials in cardiovascular mortality followed by sustenance organization. In this regard, socioeconomic status is shown to be the single most important variable in explaining cardiovascular mortality rates for both sexes in most community types. The effect of health technology is not significant, and increased availability of health manpower and facilities are often found in conjunction with higher rates of cardiovascular mortality for both sexes."
Correspondence: W. B. Clifford, North Carolina State University, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Box 8107, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:40221 Semenciw, R. M.; Morrison, H. I.; Mao, Y.; Johansen, H.; Davies, J. W.; Wigle, D. T. Major risk factors for cardiovascular disease mortality in adults: results from the Nutrition Canada Survey cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1988. 317-24 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The cardiovascular mortality experience of over 7,000 Canadians ages 35-79 years free of self-reported heart disease or stroke who participated in the Nutrition Canada survey is presented. The effects of various risk factors on cardiovascular disease mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression analyses. Factors associated with a significantly increased risk of dying included cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes and, for women, serum cholesterol."
Correspondence: R. Semenciw, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40222 Steinberg, W. J.; Balfe, D. L.; Kustner, H. G. V. Decline in the ischaemic heart disease mortality rates of South Africans, 1968-1985. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 74, No. 11, Dec 3, 1988. 547-50 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"The age-adjusted ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates (MRs) of white, Asian and coloured [and black] South Africans aged 35-74 years were studied for the period 1968-1985." Data are from official sources. The differences among these ethnic groups are analyzed by sex. A decline in IHD mortality for the population as a whole from 162 per 100,000 in 1978 to 121 in 1985 is noted.
Correspondence: W. J. Steinberg, Department of National Health and Population Development, Directorate of Epidemiology, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: U. S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40223 Tominaga, Suketami; Hirose, Kaoru; Kuroishi, Tetsuo. Future prediction of cancer deaths in Japan. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho/Japanese Journal of Cancer and Chemotherapy, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan 1989. 101-11 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of cancer deaths and age-adjusted cancer death rates up to 2000 in Japan [are] predicted....A simple linear regression model...[is] fitted to the sex-age specific cancer mortality rates from 1972 to 1986 and cancer death rates in 1990, 1995 and 2000 [are] predicted by extrapolation method."
Correspondence: S. Tominaga, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Division of Epidemiology, Aichi, Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40224 Tuomilehto, J.; Cacciottolo, J.; Vassallo, A.; Schranz, A.; Nissinen, A.; Grech, A. Trends in mortality from major non-communicable diseases in the middle-aged population of Malta. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1988. 216-25 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Trends in life expectancy and mortality from noncommunicable diseases among the middle-aged in Malta are analyzed using official vital statistics data. The results show that the greatest improvement in mortality occurred between 1930 and 1960 and that mortality was approximately 40 percent higher for men. The proportion of deaths from major noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes) increased over the period 1968-1982, and mortality from these causes was higher than in other European Mediterranean countries.
Correspondence: J. Tuomilehto, National Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Mannerheimintie 166, SF-00280 Helsinki, Finland. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:40225 White, Mary C.; Selvin, Steve; Merrill, Deane W. A study of multiple causes of death in California: 1955 and 1980. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1989. 355-65 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Multiple cause of death patterns in California for 1980 were compared to a similar study of deaths conducted in 1955. Primary underlying causes of death changed, mainly reflecting the emergence of respiratory cancer as a major cause of death in 1980....Diseases of the arteries and pneumonia...appeared more often on death certificates in both 1955 and 1980 as contributing causes than as underlying the death. Diabetes was studied in detail in the 1955 report, and comparisons were made in 1980 to show increases in the proportions of deaths with this disease...Multiple cause of death data can provide further information on the prevalence of a fatal disease in a population and its relative role in contributing to mortality, and can also provide new information on diseases that contribute to deaths, which was not previously available in population-based studies of single cause of death."
Correspondence: M. C. White, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Computer Science Research Department, Mailstop 50B/3238, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:40226 World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health (Geneva, Switzerland). Maternal mortality rates: a tabulation of available information. 2nd ed. Pub. Order No. FHE/86.3. 1986. 46 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report focuses on maternal mortality in developing countries and contains tabulations of "readily available information on maternal mortality rates [for 1986], especially rates from countries for which such information is not published in international publications." A brief summary of data concludes that "at least half a million women die from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth each year. All but about 6,000 of these deaths take place in developing countries which account for 86% of the world's births but 99% of the maternal deaths." Data are from a variety of sources for all the countries of the world.
Correspondence: WHO, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:40227 World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health (Geneva, Switzerland). Studying maternal mortality in developing countries. Rates and causes: a guidebook. Pub. Order No. WHO/FHE/87.7. 1987. 65 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a guidebook created by the World Health Organization to assist individuals from various disciplines in developing countries in "determining rates of maternal death and identifying the reasons why women die." Topics covered include deciding whether research is needed; designing the study and the questionnaires; and planning, setting up, and managing the study. "This information is drawn from the experiences of researchers who did studies of maternal mortality in Bali [Indonesia], Bangladesh, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Jamaica and Tanzania....Throughout this book, these studies are used as examples." The book concludes with a discussion of ways to prevent avoidable maternal deaths.
Correspondence: WHO, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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