Volume 55 - Number 3 - Fall 1989

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

55:30683 Ayassou, Kossivi V. Experiences in integrating demographic variables into African development plans: the case of Cameroon. [Experiences d'integration des variables demographiques dans les plans africains: cas du Cameroun.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.2.41-57 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The process by which demographic factors have been given increasing importance in the development plans of Cameroon over time is described. Consideration is given to some of the obstacles faced by African countries concerning the inclusion of demographic factors in such plans. The author also describes the population policy implicit in the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan of 1986-1991.
Correspondence: K. V. Ayassou, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30684 Bravo-Casas, German A. General comments on population policies. [Considerations d'ordre general sur les politiques demographiques.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 3, No. 3, Aug 1988. 83-125 pp. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Some personal reflections on the subject of population policies are presented based on the author's experiences both in the United Nations and in the Colombian government. The process from policy formulation through execution to evaluation is described. The need to train technicians in population policy matters is suggested.
Correspondence: G. A. Bravo-Casas, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30685 Cosio, Maria E. Population policies in Mexico. [Politiques de population au Mexique.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 4, No. 1, ISBN 2-87085-187-1. Jun 1989. 133 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Developments in population policy in Mexico are reviewed. The author discusses policy evolution from the pronatalism of the 1930s to current efforts to reduce population growth, with a focus on the development of a national family planning program during the period 1977-1982. She describes the decentralization of responsibility for population and migration policies that occurred during that period, and the subsequent growth of contraceptive practice and reduction in fertility. The author concludes that prospects for further reduction of fertility are good, but efforts to control the spatial distribution of the population are likely to remain ineffective.
Correspondence: ARTEL, 26 rue Potagere, B-1030 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30686 Crane, Barbara B.; Finkle, Jason L. The United States, China, and the United Nations Population Fund: dynamics of U.S. policymaking. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 23-59, 178-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors analyze factors behind U.S. policy changes leading to the suspension of its funding of the UNFPA. "U.S. actions, taken on the grounds that UNFPA is assisting a coercive population program in China, have provoked domestic controversy among groups who differ sharply over the ethical questions involved, as well as over questions of fact. Opponents of UNFPA funding, mainly drawn from the New Right, have prevailed thus far, aided by an effective appeal to human rights norms and relevant policy precedents and by a favorable institutional setting." Attention is also given to issues of concern to the leaders of both the UNFPA and the People's Republic of China.
Correspondence: B. Crane, Center for Population Planning, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30687 Ekanem, Ita I. African population policies: formulation and implementation in the 1970s and 1980s. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.3.1-19 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The objective of this paper is to review the changes in the formulation and implementation of...national population policies among African countries that have taken place during the 1970s and 1980s. The prerequisites of a population policy formulation and implementation are outlined...[and] the status of African population policies during this period [is reviewed]." Emphasis is placed on the interrelationship between population and development, with specific attention to population growth rate, fertility rate, spatial distribution, international and internal migration, and women's status. The author appraises the formulation and implementation of the policies and makes recommendations.
Correspondence: I. I. Ekanem, Planning and Policies Section, Population Division, U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30688 Gelbard, Alene; Brockerhoff, Martin; McGirr, Nancy J. The availability of data to assess population policies in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.3.39-53 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the extent to which available demographic data can be used to develop and evaluate population policies in 43 sub-Saharan African countries....[It] reviews the general status of population policies in the region and discusses the kinds of information needed to assess these policies, focusing on population data needed for developing policies and evaluating their effectiveness. The availability of data is reviewed, focusing on the appropriateness, timeliness and quality of the data. The strengths and limitations of available data for meeting policy development and evaluation needs are discussed."
Correspondence: A. Gelbard, Agency for International Development, INC/Westinghouse, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21244. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30689 Hernandez Castellon, Raul. A study of the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of population policy. The case of Cuba. [Estudio sobre la formulacion, implementacion y evaluacion de la politica de poblacion. El caso de Cuba.] CEDEM Serie Monografica, No. 17, 1988. 44, [12] pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This is a four-part examination of Cuban population policy. In Part 1, the socioeconomic and political antecedents for policy development are summarized. In Part 2, the current demographic situation and its relationship to aspects of economic development are described, with separate consideration given to fertility, mortality, and migration and urbanization. In Part 3, current Cuban population policy is outlined, including policies affecting mortality, fertility, spatial distribution and migration, employment, and education. Part 4 contains conclusions and recommendations.
Correspondence: CEDEM, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30690 Hugon, Philippe. The integration of demographic variables into African development plans: concepts and methods. [L'integration des variables demographiques dans les plans africains--concepts et methodes.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.2.1-20 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Problems concerning the integration of demographic variables into the development planning process in Africa are explored. The author notes that demographic problems, which tend to be long-term in nature, are frequently ignored in favor of short-term issues involving financial and deficit problems. "In view of growth and development, it is necessary to integrate the financial, economic and demographic variables in...development planning. The main measures concern the linkages between the short and the long run, the relation between space and demography in regional planning and the reform of the process of planning by...permanent control and regulation of the African economy."
Correspondence: P. Hugon, CERED/LAREA, Universite de Paris X, 92001 Nanterre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30691 Jones, Gavin W. Sub-national population policy: the case of North Sulawesi. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, Apr 1989. 77-104 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper, the operation of [Indonesian] national population policy is examined in a provincial context, namely North Sulawesi. Policies and performance are discussed in the areas of fertility, mortality, migration, urbanisation and development of human capital. Emphasis is placed on the need for regional planning to anticipate the effects of fertility decline and migration on population structure and on infrastructure needs."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30692 Kaposztas, Ferenc; Monigl, Istvan. Population policy: scientific research and social action. [Nepesedespolitika; tudomanyos kutatas es tarsadalmi cselekves.] Nepessegtudomanyi Kutato Intezetenek Kutatasi Jelentesei, No. 31, 1987. 252 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Nepessegtudomanyi Kutato Intezet: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
These are the proceedings of a seminar on population policy in Hungary, held in Budapest, October 14-15, 1986. Papers are included on the historical background and future objectives of population policy; the effectiveness of population policy in the areas of fertility, mortality, and the family; the general experience of Socialist countries in the area of population policy; changes in public opinion about population policy, 1983-1985; and the relationships among population policy and health, economic, and national planning policies.
Correspondence: Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly U.5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30693 Keyfitz, Nathan. How to assess a proposed population policy. [Comment evaluer un projet de politique de population.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 3, No. 3, Aug 1988. 65-81 pp. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents a critique of the National Research Council Committee on Population's report on the relationship between population growth and economic development. In particular, he challenges the view that a large and rapidly growing population will be able to increase per capita income as quickly as a smaller population that exhibits slower growth.
For the National Research Council report, published in 1986, see 52:20636.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30694 Klaasen, N. G. Population and family policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. ["Bevolkerungs- und familienpolitik" in de Bondsrepubliek Duitsland.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1988. 53-93 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper presents an overview of the official government points of view on population and family policy, the existing mechanisms for advising on population, the implementation of policies that are seen to be of relevance in the context of demographic trends (family policy) and the results of recent research on the efficacy on population developments of this policy [in the Federal Republic of Germany]. It can be concluded that although population policy in the F.R. Germany is...not officially formulated, a broad package of population related policy measures exists (family policy) that (intentionally) influences the demographic developments in the FRG."
Correspondence: N. G. Klaasen, Ministerie van Onderwijs en Wetenschappen, Hoofddirectie Wetenschapsbeleid, Bureau Bevolkingszaken, Postbus 25000, 2700 LZ Zoetermeer, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30695 Li, Shaomin. China's population policy: a model of a constant stream of births. Pub. Order No. DA8904317. 1989. 173 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
China's population policy and the possible changes produced by socioeconomic reforms are discussed. The author considers the possibility of formulating a policy "in such a way that it can control the population growth within a tolerable limit...[and give] more rein to the couple regarding their fertility preference....Based on cohort-period fertility analysis, the author proposes a policy of a constant stream of births which ensures a constant cohort size preventing detrimental effects of age structure irregularity on education, employment, and other social institutions....The author also assesses the social and demographic consequences of the constant stream of births policy. One of the major advantages is that...[it] is the fastest route to establish a stationary population, which maintains a constant cohort size and therefore is conducive to easy socioeconomic adjustment."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(12).

55:30696 Moreno de Padilla, Cecilia; Bilsborrow, Richard E. The development of a population policy for Ecuador. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-15, Apr 1988. 15 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper describes the process of developing a population policy in Ecuador...which was...released to the public in January 1988. Some of the key institutional, legal and technical activities during the 1970s and 1980s that led to the policy are described, along with the demographic pressures. The policy comprises population, education and information, health and nutrition, family planning, population redistribution, employment promotion (including enhanced roles for women), and research and publications to improve national planning."
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 512).
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30697 Paraiso, Moucharaf J. The integration of demographic variables into development planning: an examination of the African experience. [L'integration des variables demographiques dans la planification du developpement: un examen de l'experience africaine.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.2.21-39 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The author analyzes 45 economic development plans adopted in 33 African countries between 1975 and 1986. The emphasis is on the extent to which demographic factors are included in these plans. The analysis indicates the beginning of a change, although 60 percent of the plans considered have only reached the stage where demographic data are simply a function of the methodological requirements of economic or social planning. In general, countries with high population densities or more rapid rates of population growth seem to have made greater progress in integrating demographic factors into the planning process.
Correspondence: M. J. Paraiso, Organisation Internationale du Travail, B.P. 683, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30698 Prost, Antoine. Catholic conservatives, population, and the family in twentieth century France. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 147-64 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The role of Catholics in the adoption of pronatalist and family policies in France during the twentieth century is explored. The author first notes that at the turn of the century, Catholics were a political minority and were divided on a number of political and religious issues. He concludes that the Catholic family movement was a response to this situation and a result of the opening of Catholicism to social questions. The decline of the importance of family policy in recent years is in turn indicative of the weakening of Catholicism and the integration of Catholics into French political life.
Correspondence: A. Prost, Universite de Paris I, 12 place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30699 Sai, Fred T. Key issues and problems in African population policy in the 1990's. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.3.21-36 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author examines trends in Sub-Saharan African population policies, with a focus on the issues and problems facing the various countries in the 1990s. He analyzes implementation of population and family planning policy in light of political, economic, and social conditions and with consideration of migration, population growth rate, fertility, and mortality. He concludes with an outline of objectives and identifies constraints and challenges to be addressed.
Correspondence: F. T. Sai, Population and Human Resources Department, World Bank, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30700 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Case studies in population policy: China. Population Policy Paper, No. 20; ST/ESA/SER.R/88, 1989. viii, 64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This publication is one in a series of country case studies being prepared by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat that focus on selected issues in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies in various developing and developed countries." The report includes an overview of the country's population policy; a review of the relationship between population and socioeconomic development; an analysis of current demographic trends, including mortality, fertility and family planning, natural increase, age composition, minority groups, rural-urban differentials, and regional differences; and separate consideration of policies on population growth and fertility, mortality, and internal migration.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30701 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Case studies in population policy: Mexico. Population Policy Paper, No. 21; ST/ESA/SER.R/89, 1989. vii, 52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of country case studies focusing on the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of population policies. The present report concerns Mexico. It contains an overview of current population policies, an introduction to the relationship between socioeconomic development and population, a description of historical and current demographic trends, and a discussion of the population policy situation. An assessment of efforts to control population growth is included, as well as a summary of international cooperative efforts in population involving Mexico.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30702 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Case studies in population policy: United Republic of Tanzania. Population Policy Paper, No. 22; ST/ESA/SER.R/91, 1989. vii, 42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This publication is one in a series of country case studies being prepared by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat that focus on selected issues in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policies in various developing and developed countries." The present report is concerned with Tanzania. Policies affecting population either indirectly or directly are considered.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30703 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division (Bangkok, Thailand). Population policies and programmes in the 1990s: trends and prospects. Population Research Leads, No. 31, 1989. 15 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Population policies and programs in the Asian and Pacific region are reviewed, with emphasis on past problems and future trends. "The present note suggests some changes in the orientation of programmes, particularly that of family planning programmes. While reduction of population growth will still retain its central importance, the emphasis of programmes should now be shifted to concern for the quality of life. The note raises a number of issues in this regard concerning women, youth, adolescents and the underprivileged. Programme implications and priorities have also been suggested. The note also deals with issues concerning population and the environment, aging, urbanization and population distribution, and population and development, and suggests policy options in these areas."
Correspondence: Population Information Section, Population Division, ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30704 Weindling, Paul. Fascism and population in comparative European perspective. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 102-21 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The development of state-supported population policies in the fascist European states during the period between the two world wars is reviewed, and its relevance for modern societies is discussed.
Correspondence: P. Weindling, University of Oxford, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30705 Winter, Jay M. Socialism, social democracy, and population questions in Western Europe: 1870-1950. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 122-46 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author describes the consensus on population issues that evolved among conservatives and socialists in Europe during the twentieth century, with a focus on the trend toward pronatalist and profamily policies. Special consideration is given to the development of socialist population theory and to the latent conflict between the commitment to women's rights and the need to protect the family.
Correspondence: J. M. Winter, University of Cambridge, Pembroke College, Cambridge CB2 1RF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

55:30706 Bosman, E.; Van Dongen, W. The incompatibility of parenthood and female labor force participation: an investigation of the problem from a population policy perspective. [De incompatibiliteit van ouderschap en betaalde buitenshuisarbeid verricht door de vrouw: een verkenning van het probleem vanuit het perspectief van een bevolkingsbeleid.] CBGS Werkdocument, No. 59, 1989. 80 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Social factors that make parenthood incompatible with female labor force participation in modern industrialized societies are identified. The authors outline the policy measures that are designed both to reduce these conflicting pressures and to have a pronatalist effect, such as the introduction of flexible working hours and improved child care facilities. They conclude that such policy measures will improve women's status but that their effectiveness in raising fertility is uncertain.
Correspondence: CBGS, Nijverheidsstraat 37, 7de Verdieping, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30707 Chalbi-Drissi, Hassania. The status of women and population policy in the Maghreb. [Statut de la femme et politique de population au Maghreb.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.1.25-37 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of women's status on the antinatalist policies of the North African countries of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia is explored. Women's lack of freedom in the political, occupational, and cultural spheres contributes to the relatively unsuccessful attempts to decrease fertility through family planning programs in the region.
Correspondence: H. Chalbi-Drissi, 6 rue Ali Ibn Abi Taleb, Menzeh 6, Tunis, Tunisia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30708 Cheung, Paul P. L. Beyond demographic transition: industrialization and population change in Singapore. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1989. 35-48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
In response to the prospect of population decline, Singapore's government announced a new pronatalist policy in 1987 with incentives to promote higher fertility. "This article discusses the demographic basis on which the new population policy is founded. It examines the factors accounting for the rapid fertility decline and discusses the incentives to promote higher fertility and their prospects for success." The author argues that the demands of modernization, urbanization, and the resultant economy will limit the motivation to have three or more children as encouraged by the new policy.
Correspondence: P. P. L. Cheung, Ministry of Health, Population Planning Unit, Singapore. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30709 Faour, Muhammad A. Fertility policies in the Arab world. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 32, Jun 1988. 55-74 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"The present study reviews the perceptions of 21 [Arab] Governments with regard to fertility behaviour in the context of socio-economic development. The factors that determine their willingness to intervene in order to discourage or promote fertility among their people and the measures taken to do so are discussed."
Correspondence: M. Faour, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30710 Giorgis, Belkis W. The status of women and population policy in Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.1.1-10 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The relationship between population policy and the status of women in Sub-Saharan Africa is discussed, with emphasis on the subordination of women. The author argues that until educational, social, cultural, and economic changes are made that allow for the reproductive freedom of women, family planning programs will have little impact on lowering the fertility rate.
Correspondence: B. W. Giorgis, 1925 Briggs Road, Silver Spring, MD 20966. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30711 Hough, J. R. Social policy and the birthrate. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 8, No. 5, 1988. 37-50 pp. Hull, England. In Eng.
The arguments for and against policy measures designed to increase birth rates in European countries are reviewed. The author concludes that the deterioration of the environment associated with the growth of population in developed countries outweighs any arguments in favor of policy measures to increase fertility.
Correspondence: J. R. Hough, Loughborough University of Technology, Loughborough LE11 3TU, England. Location: New York Public Library.

55:30712 Kane, Penny. The second billion: population and family planning in China. ISBN 0-14-008657-9. 1987. viii, 264 pp. Penguin Books Australia: Ringwood, Australia. In Eng.
Chinese population policies and family planning programs are described, and their relationship to the country's traditions and to other development and social policies are discussed. The focus is on policies affecting fertility and how the observed change from high to low fertility has been achieved in a relatively short period of time. The author "explains China's unique approach to the control of fertility in which 'family planning' covers women's development, family health, late marriage and even the needs and care of the elderly; in which mass campaigns are combined with intensive intimate person-to-person discussions and where successes in reducing the birth-rate are closely intertwined with the quality of life."
Correspondence: Penguin Books Australia, 487 Maroondah Highway, P.O. Box 257, Ringwood, Victoria 3134, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30713 Locoh, Therese. Population policies concerning fertility in French-speaking countries: the example of Togo. [Les politiques de population en matiere de fecondite dans les pays francophones: l'exemple du Togo.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 6, ISBN 2-87762-005-0. Mar 1989. 22 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews fertility policies in the French-speaking countries of West Africa, noting their common historical background based on French attitudes and laws established before World War II. As yet, none have implemented specific population policies, but these countries are experiencing a rapid growth in knowledge about population issues. Using the example of Togo, the author describes the growth of data collection and population studies and traces the development of family planning services in both government and private sectors, primarily in urban areas. The role of bilateral and international assistance in these developments is considered.
Correspondence: CEPED, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30714 Loza, Sarah F. Women, fertility, and family planning in Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 8.1.11-24 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author emphasizes the importance of understanding women's status and reproductive behavior as a precondition for creating realistic family planning policies in Sub-Saharan Africa. She presents an overview of current fertility, women's status, child worth, and reproductive decision-making in Africa and applies these factors to family planning program development.
Correspondence: S. F. Loza, Social Planning, Analysis, and Administration, Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30715 Peterson, Jeannie. A new population programme in the Philippines. Populi, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1989. 4-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes the new five-year national population program that was begun in 1989 in the Philippines with the hope of reducing the total fertility rate. "An important change in the policy was the broadening of the concept of population concerns, beyond fertility reduction to concerns about family formation, the status of women, maternal and child health, child survival, morbidity and mortality, population distribution and urbanization, internal migration and population structure." Assistance from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in achieving the program's goals is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

55:30716 McCleery, Robert K. U.S.-Mexican economic linkages: a general equilibrium model of migration, trade, and capital flows. Pub. Order No. DA8826195. 1988. 254 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The focus of this thesis is the impact of migration, trade and capital flows on production, earnings, and welfare in Mexico and the United States. The analysis is motivated by the failure to consider the economic implications of immigration policy in general, and the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) in particular....A multi-period approach is used to capture the evolution of demographics and development in both countries through labor force growth, capital accumulation, and technological advances."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Stanford University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30717 Simon, Julian L. The price of citizenship. Auctioning immigration visas helps foreigners and Americans alike. Policy Review, No. 39, Winter 1987. 71-2 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author argues for a new U.S. immigration policy that would auction visas to the highest bidder. He contends that this system would benefit the United States by allowing entry to high economic producers, thereby providing monetary profit to the U.S. treasury. In comparing the current U.S. immigration admission policy with the proposed auction system, the author concludes that "in addition to providing economic benefits to Americans, an auction is less arbitrary, and thus fairer, than the existing policy, as well as most alternative policies short of open immigration."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30718 Tomlinson, Richard. South Africa's urban policy: a new form of influx control. Urban Affairs Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jun 1988. 487-510 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"The South African government has repealed influx control for blacks living in the 'non-independent homelands.' Although the urban shift of the black population is increasingly accepted, controls on the supply of housing and land for housing blacks have been retained. The emphasis is now on alternative restrictions on black urbanization. The restrictions, however, contrast with the wishes of South Africa's business leadership. The 1986 'reforms' are explained by exploring the relationship between government policy and business interests. Finally, the urban policies are contrasted with the new metropolitan government, the Regional Services Councils, through which blacks are being brought into multiracial governmental structures but on unequal terms."
Correspondence: R. Tomlinson, University of the Witwatersrand, Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).


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