Volume 55 - Number 3 - Fall 1989

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

55:30395 Belanger, Alain. Multistate life table with duration-dependence: an application to Hungarian female marital history. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-88-11, Dec 1988. 33 pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"Building on recent developments in multistate demography, and using data from the 1984 Hungarian census, this paper analyzes the impact that the introduction of duration specific transitions has on the results of a multistate life table analysis of marital dissolution. The results show that the inclusion of duration has its greatest impact on the distribution of the stationary population between ages 25 and 35."
Correspondence: Population Program, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30396 Bongaarts, John. The demographic determinants of the duration and incidence of widowhood. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 55-65 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Demographic determinants of widowhood in the United States are analyzed using the marital-status life-table method for the years 1800, 1900, and 1980. "The effects of changes in mortality and of age at marriage, divorce, and remarriage on widowhood were examined separately. We concluded that widowhood variables are quite sensitive to the level of mortality, differences between mortality of the two sexes, the age difference between spouses, and the level of remarriage."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30397 Bumpass, Larry; Sweet, James; Castro-Martin, Teresa. Changing patterns of remarriage. CDE Working Paper, No. 89-02, [1989]. [21] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"After briefly reviewing recent trends in remarriage rates, the present analysis focuses on the variation in these rates as measured in the 1980 and 1985 [U.S.] June Current Population Surveys. For data quality reasons, we focus on rates observed in the five years before each of these surveys. We begin by discussing the demographic composition of separation cohorts as a factor affecting remarriage rates and ultimately the structure of remarriages. We next examine proportional hazard estimates of differentials in remarriage rates. Finally, using life-table procedures, we draw out some of the important implications of differing remarriage rates by estimating expected proportions who will ever remarry."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30398 Bumpass, Larry L.; Sweet, James A. National estimates of cohabitation: cohort levels and union stability. NSFH Working Paper, No. 2, Jun 1989. 22 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The purpose of this research note...[is to provide] the first [U.S.] national estimates of cohabitation trends and levels, of union formation including both marriage and cohabitation, and of the stability of unions preceded by cohabitation. The paper concludes with a multivariate examination of the correlates of cohabitation before first marriage." Findings indicate that the propensity to cohabit is affected by educational status, parents' marital stability, and income level. Data are from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 514).
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30399 Bumpass, Larry L.; Sweet, James A.; Cherlin, Andrew. The role of cohabitation in declining rates of marriage. NSFH Working Paper, No. 5, May 1989. 32 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors examine the role of cohabitation in the declining rates of marriage in the United States. "In particular, we examine trends among young adults in union formation, comparing trends in marriage to trends when cohabitation is included as well as marriage. We then document the characteristics of cohabiting couples in terms of duration of the union, presence of children, perceived stability, marriage plans, and opinions about cohabitation. Finally, we analyze several marriage-related attitude items among all unmarried persons under age 35." Data are from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 514).
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30400 Caldwell, John; Gajanayake, Indra; Caldwell, Bruce; Caldwell, Pat. Is marriage delay a multiphasic response to pressures for fertility decline? The case of Sri Lanka. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 2, May 1989. 337-51 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
The authors investigate the possible effect of rapid population growth on marriage postponement in Sri Lanka. "Both survey and anthropological methods were employed to study 10,964 persons living in 1,974 households in seven rural and urban locations of southwest Sri Lanka....It was discovered that the [observed] rising age of marriage for females had not been an attempt to limit fertility. The low traditional age at marriage had been enforced by parents through arranged marriage so as to forestall unsuitable marriages, especially those across caste. With the transition to a society dominated by nonagricultural employment and high levels of education, these aims became less important and parental pressure slackened....Further delays result from increased unemployment because of a consensus that the bridegroom must have satisfactory employment and increasing agreement that the bride also should have been employed."
Correspondence: J. Caldwell, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30401 Catasus Cervera, Sonia. The nuptiality of young people in Cuba: general trends. [La nupcialidad de los jovenes en Cuba: su comportamiento general.] CEDEM Serie Monografica, No. 24, Mar 1989. 35, [5] pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Data from the 1970 and 1981 censuses and other marital statistics are analyzed to study nuptiality by age and sex, age at first marriage, socioeconomic status, occupation, and divorce among Cubans aged 14-29 years in five different geographic areas. Comparisons are made using U.N. nuptiality data for Japan, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, France, Chile, and Ecuador.
Correspondence: CEDEM, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30402 Coale, Ansley J. Marriage and childbearing in China since 1940. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 4, Jun 1989. 833-50 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Increased age at marriage in China has contributed significantly to the large decline in fertility that has occurred. If every married couple had attained its actual completed family size, and age at marriage had not changed, there would have been 104 million more births since 1950. Cohorts marrying in the 1950s and 1960s followed surprisingly closely the structure of a mathematical model of first marriage rates by age derived from the pattern of first marriage frequencies in Sweden in the nineteenth century. The fit to the model schedule was destroyed in the 1970s by administratively enforced postponement of marriage."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30403 Coleman, D. A. The contemporary pattern of remarriage in England and Wales. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 83-119 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter has two objectives: to review the present state of knowledge about remarriage in contemporary England and Wales, and to identify the major outstanding problems on which further research is needed. I begin by considering some problem areas in the study of remarriage, review its dynamics as shown by vital statistics, and consider what little is known about the causes of the patterns that are observed." Consideration is given to remarriage after divorce or death of spouse, factors influencing remarriage rates (including children and social class), and the impact of consensual unions on remarriage patterns.
Correspondence: D. A. Coleman, Department of Social and Administrative Studies, University of Oxford, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30404 Cornell, Laurel L. Gender differences in remarriage after divorce in Japan and the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 2, May 1989. 457-63 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author examines sex differences in remarriage patterns in the United States and Japan. "This note compares the sex ratio of the currently divorced with the sex ratio of the currently married to suggest that women are disproportionately disadvantaged by divorce in Japan, relative to U.S. white women of the same age."
Correspondence: L. L. Cornell, Department of Sociology, Ballantine Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30405 Glick, Paul C.; Lin, Sung-Ling. Remarriage after divorce: recent changes and demographic variations. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1987. 162-79 pp. Beverly Hills, California/London, England. In Eng.
Trends in remarriage following divorce in the United States are analyzed. "Among adults who had ended their first marriage in divorce, about three-fourths of the elderly men and two-thirds of the elderly women in both 1970 and 1980 were found to be remarried. However, the general decline in remarriage at the younger ages during the 1970s was accentuated among those under 35 years old." The impact on remarriage of educational status, income, presence of children, and residence characteristics is considered.
Correspondence: P. C. Glick, Department of Sociology, Arizona State University, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: New York Public Library.

55:30406 Hu, Yow-Hwey. Differences between registered and self-reported marital status in Taipei metropolitan area. Journal of Population Studies, No. 12, Jun 1989. 53-66 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
The author assesses the discrepancies between registered and self-reported data on marital status among 750 Taipei residents. Findings indicate that 87 of the interview subjects reported a marital status differing from their registered status and that most of the unmatched cases occurred among those reporting "married" when they were registered as "single" or "divorced".
Correspondence: Y.-H. Hu, National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30407 Kravdal, Oystein. The impact of first-birth timing on divorce: new evidence from a longitudinal analysis based on the Central Population Register of Norway. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1988. 247-69 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The association between divorce risks in first marriage and the timing of the first birth is inspected in a life-table analysis of registered birth and marriage histories from Norway. One of the main conclusions is that the high propensity to divorce among women who have had a premarital birth is not confined to those who marry someone other than the father of their child. Also, women who have had a premarital child with their husband, run a much higher risk of marital breakup than do those who had their first baby in wedlock....It is argued that couples who postpone childbearing beyond two years of marriage may have particularly low divorce rates."
Correspondence: O. Kravdal, Sociodemographic Section, Central Bureau of Statistics, P.B. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30408 Kunz, Phillip R.; England, J. Lynn. Age-specific divorce rates. Journal of Divorce, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1988. 113-26 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the various types of divorce rates and concludes that the age-specific rate is most precise. Using data from 1970 and 1980 [it is found that] the teen and early twenties marriages are most at risk to divorce. Contrary to general belief, divorce does not increase during the 'mid-life crisis' or 'after the children leave home.'" Data concern the United States and are from state vital statistics and the 1980 federal census.
Correspondence: P. R. Kunz, Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: New York Public Library.

55:30409 Lin, Hui-Sheng. The determinants of the timing of first marriage for women in Taiwan. Pub. Order No. DA8907084. 1988. 211 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of parental family, socialization and premarital work on women's marital timing in Taiwan....The study shows that marriage rates have declined over time and that women with urban residential experience, higher educational attainment, better parental family economic status, more older sisters, and longer nonfamilial employment tend to have lower rates of marriage." Data are from official Taiwanese sources for the period 1971-1978.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(12).

55:30410 Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw. Examining the relationship between age at first marriage, education and the timing of marital dissolution in Ghana. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1989. 59-76 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study utilizes the family-life course perspective with survival tables and proportional hazard rate analysis to examine the timing patterns of marital dissolution in Ghana at various durations of marriage. Using data from the Ghana Fertility Survey (GFS) 1979/1980, this study has found evidence to support research from western industrial countries that young age at marriage compared to the cultural norm increases the probability of divorce....It is found that for those with no education, divorce rates are not affected by age at marriage, while for those with some education, later marriage leads to lower dissolution rates."
Correspondence: Y. Oheneba-Sakyi, Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30411 Pasternak, Burton. Age at first marriage in a Taiwanese locality 1916-1945. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1989. 91-117 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines age at first marriage in Taiwan. "Household and land registers from the Taiwanese village of Lungtu...suggest that during the period 1916-1945 age at first marriage declined for men but rose slightly for women, and that women married earlier than other Taiwanese women but later than women elsewhere in south China. Variation in marriage age in Lungtu was related to mode of marriage, wealth, and productive capacity of the household, while structural characteristics of the household exerted only an ambiguous influence on marriage age."
Correspondence: B. Pasternak, Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30412 Pongracz, Marietta; Csernak, Magdolna. Divorce in Hungary. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 37-54 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Divorce in Hungary is examined in light of its social, cultural, and economic conditions. Changes in household formation from an extended family group to that of a nuclear family and increases in women's labor force participation and status are discussed. Data are presented on causes of divorce, age-specific divorce rate, marriage duration, frequency of divorce, and divorce rates in European countries for 1955-1980.
Correspondence: M. Pongracz, Demographic Research Institute, Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30413 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Stephen, Elizabeth H. Marital non-cohabitation: separation does not make the heart grow fonder. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-30, Dec 1988. 18, [11] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors explore marital noncohabitation and its impact on the divorce rate in the United States. Findings indicate that "the percentage of currently married persons living apart in the United States is highest for ages 18-24 and for blacks. The two most common identifiable reasons for husbands and wives not living together are military service and incarceration. We found that those living apart from their spouses in 1976 were nearly twice as likely to experience a marital dissolution within three years, as were persons cohabiting with their spouses."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30414 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Stark, Oded. Consumption smoothing, migration, and marriage: evidence from rural India. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 97, No. 4, Aug 1989. 905-26 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"A significant proportion of migration in low-income countries, particularly in rural areas, is composed of moves by women for the purpose of marriage. We seek to explain these mobility patterns by examining marital arrangements among Indian households. In particular, we hypothesize that the marriage of daughters to locationally distant, dispersed yet kinship-related households is a manifestation of implicit interhousehold contractual arrangements aimed at mitigating income risks and facilitating consumption smoothing in an environment characterized by information costs and spatially covariant risks. Analysis of longitudinal South Indian village data lends support to the hypothesis."
Correspondence: M. R. Rosenzweig, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30415 Roussel, Louis. Types of marriage and frequency of divorce. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 19-36 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author explores marriage and divorce rates by type in developed countries from 1950 to 1980. "The frequency of divorces depends on the relative frequency of marriages of different types, and is related basically to a growing indifference towards the institutional aspects of the foundation and breakdown of unions." Household structure, increase of consensual unions, and socioeconomic factors are discussed.
Correspondence: L. Roussel, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30416 Schoen, Robert; Wooldredge, John. Marriage choices in North Carolina and Virginia, 1969-71 and 1979-81. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 2, May 1989. 465-81 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study investigates age, race, and educational patterns of marriage choice in North Carolina and Virginia during 1969-71 and 1979-81, and provides substantial support for exchange theories of marriage behavior. While 'like marrying like' is most common, a female emphasis on male economic characteristics and a male emphasis on female noneconomic characteristics lead to significant patterns of exchange....The major change between 1969-71 and 1979-81 is a decline in the level of marriage, but the increasing economic role of women is associated with a reduction in the extent to which women marry men with more education. The marriage exchange thus reflects less inequality between the sexes as it becomes less common."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Department of Sociology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30417 Sokona, Ousmane; Casterline, John B. Socio-economic differentials in age at marriage. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 101-31 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The principal objective of this chapter is analysis of the social and economic determinants of age at marriage of Egyptian women and men. As the EFS [Egyptian Fertility Survey] data permit consideration of couples, we will also analyse social and economic correlates of the age difference between the spouses. The age differences is of interest because it is a determinant of the relative status of the wife....There are four further sections to this chapter. In the next section the analytical approach we adopt is described, including the choice of nuptiality measures, social and economic predictors, and statistical method. In the third and fourth sections, the results of the analysis of the age at marriage and the age difference are presented. The chapter concludes with a summary and some final thoughts about the significance of the findings."
Correspondence: O. Sokona, Direction Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Informatique, Ministere du Plan, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30418 Storm, H.; Levering, J. Life tables by marital status. [Overlevingstafels naar burgerlijke staat.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1989. 23-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"A life table by marital status presents a distribution among the four marital statuses, i.e. never married, married, widowed and divorced, for a range of ages, starting at a specific age with an initial (fictitious) cohort of males or females. The numbers of survivors in each marital status are computed using sex, age and marital status-specific quotients concerning death or changes in marital status." The geographical focus is on the Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30419 Szykman, Maurice. Population policy concerning marriage in third world countries. [Politique demographique en matiere de mariage dans les pays du tiers monde.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 3, No. 3, Aug 1988. 5-64 pp. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The efforts of developing countries to increase the minimum legal age at marriage are reviewed. The author describes the problems in measuring the effect of such legal changes on fertility and concludes that "the role of a marriage policy instituted within the frame of an anti-natalist population policy can be assessed only within the frame of the overall conditions of a given country and with due consideration to human rights and the rights of the family."
Correspondence: M. Szykman, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30420 Takahashi, Shigesato. Effects of the Japanese mortality declines on life cycle variables. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 1, Apr 1989. 19-33 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of mortality declines on Japanese marriage patterns is analyzed for the period from 1965 to 1985 using the life table method. The primary focus is on marriage duration and widowhood duration as they are affected by the increase in life expectancy. Sex differentials are also described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30421 Tan, Poo Chang; Tan, Boon Ann; Tey, Nai Peng; Kwok, Kwan Kit; Subbiah, M. A cohort analysis of recent changes in nuptiality patterns in Peninsular Malaysia. Jun 1988. 52 pp. National Population and Family Development Board: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"With the availability of recent data from the 1984/85 [Malaysian Population and Family Survey], this study aims to examine the changes in nuptiality patterns using the cohort approach. More specifically, the objectives of this study are (i) to present recent changes in nuptiality patterns in Peninsular Malaysia of the different ethnic groups using birth cohort data, and (ii) to provide an explanation of the changes in nuptiality patterns and the implications thereof. In the next section, the data sources and the methodology utilized in this paper are described. This is followed by detailed analyses of the overall nuptiality patterns. In the final section, an attempt will be made to present some explanation for the sizeable proportion who marry at young ages even in recent cohorts."
Correspondence: National Population and Family Development Board, No. 22 Jalan Murai Dua, 51100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30422 Thapa, Shyam. The ethnic factor in the timing of family formation in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1989. 3-34 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Drawing upon theoretical and empirical studies, the main research hypothesis examined in this article is that ethnic group identification has a strong independent effect on the timing of family formation, or the female age at first marriage in Nepal. Multivariate results support the hypothesis. The effects of ethnicity on the timing of family formation are found to be independent of relevant socio-economic factors. The results show that ethnic groups...have four distinct levels of age at first marriage, ranging from 14 to 18 years. Other variables included in the multivariate analysis also affect the timing of family formation. It is likely that greater differentials in the timing of family formation by individual socio-economic characteristics will emerge as the pace of modernization quickens in Nepal."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30423 Tol'ts, M. S. Demographic analysis of nuptiality: problems, methods, interpretation of results. [Demograficheskii analiz brachnosti: problemy, metody, interpretatsiya rezul'tatov.] In: Metody issledovaniya, edited by A. G. Vishnevskii. 1986. 79-95, 182 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author develops a system of indexes to describe characteristics of nuptiality in the USSR. Limitations of the method due to the varying quality of data sources are illustrated.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30424 Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J. Structural determinants of the divorce rate: a cross-societal analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 2, May 1989. 391-404 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Data for a sample of 66 countries are analyzed to investigate the societal-level correlates of the divorce rate. On the basis of theoretical precedence, four major factors are considered as predictors of divorce rates at the societal level: socioeconomic development, the female labor participation rate, the sex ratio, and dominant religion. Regression analyses reveal that all factors except religion have a significant effect on the crude divorce rate....Theoretical interpretations [of the findings] are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30425 Trussell, James; Rao, K. Vaninadha. Premarital cohabitation and marital stability: a reassessment of the Canadian evidence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 2, May 1989. 535-44 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In a recent article in this journal, James White (1987) concluded that premarital cohabitation has a positive effect on subsequent marital stability among Canadian women. He based this conclusion on results of an analysis of data from the Family History Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 1984. This finding aroused our interest because other analysts...using data from the Canadian Fertility Survey, also conducted in 1984, reached the opposite conclusion; they found that premarital cohabitation raised the subsequent risk of marital dissolution by about 50%....Therefore, we set out to discover whether the divergent findings for Canadians were due to differences in the data or differences in methodology. We discovered that White had inadvertently made a methodological error, an error so severe that his conclusions are without any substantive meaning. The purpose of our comment is twofold: (a) to correct the erroneous substantive finding by White that premarital cohabitation enhances subsequent marital stability and (b) to provide methodological guidance to those who wish to use logistic regression to analyze event histories." A reply by James White is also included (pp. 540-4).
For the article by White, published in 1987, see 53:30433.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30426 Uhlenberg, Peter. Remarriage: a life-cycle perspective. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 66-82 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The event of remarriage as seen from a life-cycle perspective is discussed, with a focus on "three aspects of the process: exposure to the risk of remarriage, the propensity to remarry among those at risk, and the aftermath of remarriage compared with no remarriage." The economic, familial, and demographic consequences are also considered. "The effects of one's location (position in the life course, social structure, and historical setting) on each step of the remarriage process are explored." The geographical focus is on the United States; data are from official U.S. sources.
Correspondence: P. Uhlenberg, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30427 Veevers, Jean E. The "real" marriage squeeze: mate selection, mortality, and the mating gradient. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1988. 169-89 pp. Beverly Hills, California/London, England. In Eng.
The nature and magnitude of the marriage squeeze in Canada is examined using vital statistics and census data. "Age differentials of brides and grooms in all marriages registered in 1981 are used to create 'availability indices' that estimate the number of unmarried persons of the opposite sex that are potentially available for every 100 unmarried persons. For men, availability indices are low in the 20s, and they increase with advancing age to about one-to-one in the 50s. For women, access to potential grooms is highest in the 20s and decreases with advancing age until, in the 50s, there are only 50 potential grooms per 100 unmarried women." The implications of unbalanced sex ratios are discussed with reference to changes in marriage and the family.
Correspondence: J. E. Veevers, Department of Sociology, University of Victoria, POB 1700, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

55:30428 Wright, Robert E. The impact of fertility on sexual union transitions in Jamaica: an event history analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 2, May 1989. 353-61 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines empirically the relationship between fertility and sexual union transitions in Jamaica. The specific transitions considered are: (a) from visiting to common-law; (b) from visiting to marriage; and (c) from visiting to partnership terminating. A proportional-hazards model is estimated with data collected in the 1975-76 Jamaican Fertility Survey. The results indicate that the birth of a child reduces the probability of all three transitions. In addition, there are significant differences by age at first union, education, religion, labor force participation, and age cohort. These findings are discussed in light of the observed positive association between fertility and union instability in this society."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, Department of Economics, Birkbeck College, University of London, 7-15 Gresse Street, London W1P 1PA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30429 Yang, Wen Shan; Frisbie, W. Parker. Racial/ethnic trends in divorce, separation, and remarriage. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 11: 1989, No. 11.02, 1989. 16, [8] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The authors "examine separately the changes in the prevalence of the three components of marital instability (the currently divorced, the currently separated and the currently remarried/divorced) among the three largest Latino populations in the United States....We will be interested in whether...levels and trends in each of the three components of marital instability are similar or different in the three Latino populations and in the extent to which Latino patterns parallel those observed in the general population. While our focus is largely on Latinos, we also draw comparisons with the non-Hispanic white (Anglo) and non-Hispanic black populations. Finally,...separate analyses of males and females are necessary, and the present analysis presents results for females only."
Correspondence: Texas Population Research Center, University of Texas, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30430 Yeung, Wei-Jun J. A causal modelling approach of analyzing statistical interaction: ethnic differentials in the timing of early family formation in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 57, Apr 1989. 63 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper demonstrates the utility of LISREL (Linear Structural Relationship) analysis to estimate nonadditive relationships among variables. Statistical methods commonly used to examine research problems involving interaction effects in Sociological literature are briefly reviewed, and methodological problems noted. Through a substantive study of the cultural and structural determinants of the timing of early family formation in the major ethnic groups in Malaysia and Sri Lanka, we demonstrate how the LISREL multiple-sample analysis can be useful in specifying and estimating the joint effects of various independent variables. The strength and limitations of the LISREL multiple-sample analysis in comparison to the other commonly used methods for analyzing interaction effects are also discussed."
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30431 Zeng, Yi. Method of forming a multiple attrition life table and its application to the study of nuptiality among women in China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, 1987. 30-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Trends in marital status among women in China for the period 1950-1970 and for 1981 are analyzed using the multiple decrement life table method. The results confirm those obtained with traditional methods of data analysis. It is found that over the past 30 years, Chinese women have experienced a high rate of marriage and a low divorce rate. The significant increase in age at marriage and the lowering of the death rate have affected marital status at all ages. The development of a marital status life table permits the author to estimate current numbers of women in the four marital statuses of unmarried, currently married, widowed, and divorced by age and their future likelihood of changing marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

55:30432 Avramov, Dragana. Impact of social changes and migration on household patterns in Yugoslavia. Demografska Sveska CDI, No. 10, [1987?]. 21 pp. University of Belgrade, Institute of Social Sciences, Demographic Research Centre: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
The impact of social changes and migration on family and household structure in Yugoslavia is examined for the period 1921-1983. Factors affecting the nuclear family include changing marriage patterns, consensual unions, fertility rate, economic conditions, industrialization, urbanization, internal migration, women's status, and cultural values. Trends in family characteristics and in household structure and size are reviewed. Data are from the 1921, 1931, 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, and 1981 Yugoslav censuses and the 1973 and 1983 surveys on household consumption.
Correspondence: Demographic Research Centre, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Belgrade, Narodnog fronta 45, Postanski fah 927, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30433 Bartlema, Jan. Modelling step-families: exploratory findings. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1988. 197-221 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A combined macro-micro model is applied to a population similar to that forecast for 2035 in the Netherlands in order to simulate the effect on kinship networks of a mating system of serial monogamy. The importance of incorporating a parameter for the degree of concentration of childbearing over the female population is emphasized. The inputs to the model are vectors of fertility rates by age of mother, and by age of father, a matrix of first-marriage rates by age of both partners (used in the macro-analytical expressions), and two parameters H and S (used in the micro-simulation phase). The output is a data base of hypothetical individuals, whose records contain identification number, age, sex, and the identification numbers of their relatives."
Correspondence: J. Bartlema, SNV Bolivia, Casilla 899, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30434 Beck, Rubye W.; Beck, Scott H. The incidence of extended households among middle-aged black and white women: estimates from a 15-year panel study. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1989. 147-68 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"In this descriptive analysis, data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women are used to compare cross-section and 15-year estimates of the incidence of various types of extended households. Black and white women are analyzed separately and the estimates for the proportion of middle-aged women living in extended households are presented by marital status. Results show large differences between single-year and 15-year estimates of the incidence of extension. Overall, between one-fourth and one-third of white middle-aged women lived in extended households for some time over the 15-year period, and approximately two-thirds of black women experienced this household form for at least part of the middle years. We conclude that, contrary to popular and academic perceptions, extended families are a relatively common form of living arrangement for adults in this country, if only for short periods of time."
Correspondence: R. W. Beck, Department of Sociology/Anthropology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30435 Blake, Judith. Family size and achievement. Studies in Demography, No. 3, ISBN 0-520-06296-5. LC 88-5741. 1989. x, 415 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines family size and birth order and their effects on individuals' opportunities. The relationships among family size, educational attainment, and cognitive ability and the question of whether personal characteristics that are relevant to achievement differ by the number of siblings individuals have are discussed. Data are from a number of sources, primarily surveys, and mainly concern the United States. The author notes that the decline in family size that has occurred seems to have positive consequences for individuals and that society stands to benefit as well.
Correspondence: University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30436 Boraie, M. Samir; McCarthy, James; Oruch, Morna R. Achieved fertility, family size desires and contraceptive use. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 317-52 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This is an analysis of desired fertility and its impact on contraceptive use among couples in Egypt. The authors review previous theoretical and empirical studies of desired fertility and contraceptive use and examine response consistency in the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. They find that the principal indicators of family size preferences are income, parental educational status, parity, sex of previous children, and level of education desired for daughters.
Correspondence: M. S. Boraie, Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Salah Salem Road, POB 2086, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30437 Chang, Hyun-Seob. An experimental trial for the recategorization of family pattern in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Dec 1988. 181-200 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
Issues concerning the recategorization of family types in the Republic of Korea are considered. Data are from a study of family life conducted by the Korea Institute for Population and Health in 1986 involving 3,400 households and 13,338 individuals. A discussion of the problems in developing a categorization system for Korean families is included.
Correspondence: H.-S. Chang, Korea Institute of Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30438 Cliquet, R. L.; Impens, Koert K. Opinions on family size variation and the population problem. [Meningen over het bevolkingsvraagstuk en de gezinsgroottevariatie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1988. 25-51 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Attitudes toward current and projected fertility levels and family size uniformity in Belgium are examined. "Analyzing a subsample of [the 1982-1983 survey] NEGO IV (2,547 married and unmarried women cohabiting with their partner, aged 20 to 44 years, living in the Flemish community, and of Belgian nationality), a widespread unawareness of the population problem emerges. With the exception of higher educated women, mothers of at least three children and regularly practicing catholics, respondents are even more favourable to a population decline and increasing family size uniformity than to countermeasures. Individual- and [ego]-centered values seem to have higher priority than 'demographic integrity'."
Correspondence: R. L. Cliquet, CBGS, Nijverheidsstraat 35-37, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30439 Cochrane, Susan H.; Khan, M. Ali; Osheba, Ibrahim T. The determinants of the demand for children among husbands and wives. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 353-88 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Determinants of family size preferences among Egyptian couples are identified through analysis of two theoretical models. One is a lifetime model based on long-term evaluation of economic circumstances; the second is based on studying desired additional fertility rather than completed family size. The models are tested using a sample from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. Factors found to be influential in fertility decisions include geographic factors, land tenure, perceived costs and benefits of children, age, educational aspirations for daughters, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use, mortality of previous children, and educational status of husband and wife. Policy implications for family planning are considered.
Correspondence: S. H. Cochrane, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30440 Day, Alice T. Kinship networks and informal support in the later years. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 183-207 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of the aged and their sources of informal social support (family, friends, and neighbors), with attention given to changes in contemporary family patterns and attitudes that affect the structure of family support of the elderly. She identifies trends in family structure and kinship systems and argues for "extending the concept of family as household to a broader concept of family as network, in which persons related by blood live in separate residential units and exchange emotional and practical support." The geographic focus is on Australia and the United States.
Correspondence: A. T. Day, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30441 De Vos, Susan; Palloni, Alberto. Formal models and methods for the analysis of kinship and household organization. Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 2, Summer 1989. 174-98 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the use of formal models for analyzing kin-group and household organization. We begin by presenting a conceptual framework that relates the supply of kin to rules of household formation, demographic constraints, and observed household structure. This framework is used to evaluate an array of techniques and models of kinship and households." The geographical scope of the study is worldwide.
Correspondence: S. De Vos, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30442 Faessen, W. B. M.; Nollen-Dijcks, J. B. Households and nuclear families: the Housing Demand Survey and the partial enumeration compared. [Huishoudens en gezinnen; het Woningbehoeftenonderzoek en de Registertelling vergeleken.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1989. 15-22 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Data on the number, size and composition of households [in the Netherlands] are derived from the [1985-1986] Housing Demand Survey (HDS), and a partial enumeration referring to January 1st 1987 produced statistics on nuclear families and non-family persons. Although the HDS and the partial enumeration differ in design and in purpose, the results of both refer to similar categories of persons....From the similarity between the results it is concluded that the results of both surveys could be combined to produce new information. The figures from the HDS could be deepened into smaller regions than is now the case, with the aid of the municipal figures from the partial enumeration, and the figures on nuclear families and non-family persons from the partial enumeration could be extended with household data from the HDS."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30443 Ferment, Bob. The influence of economic factors on household formation. In: Population and family in the low countries VI, edited by R. L. Cliquet, G. Dooghe, J. de Jong-Gierveld, and F. van Poppel. Vol. 18, 1989. 55-75 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper looks at the nature and strength of the influence of economic factors on the formation of households. First, a concise survey of so-called 'new home economics' is presented, in which much attention is paid to Gary Becker's 'A Treatise on the Family'....Next, a statistical analysis of the Dutch household situation is presented. Forecast results with regard to the number of households in Holland in the year 2000 under alternative economic scenarios conclude the paper."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30444 Goldberger, Arthur S. Economic and mechanical models of intergenerational transmission. American Economic Review, Vol. 79, No. 3, Jun 1989. 504-18 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author critically examines Gary Becker's attempt to integrate the theory of income distribution (intragenerational differences) with the theory of mobility (intergenerational differences) in an economic model of the family. He assesses Becker's "claims of distinctiveness, integration, explanatory power, and surprise, and [arrives] at a rather skeptical view of the contribution that the core of microeconomics has made to this study of the family." A reply by Becker is included (pp. 514-8).
Correspondence: A. S. Goldberger, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30445 Grebenik, E.; Hohn, C.; Mackensen, R. Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828657-0. LC 88-19622. 1989. [ix], 250 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume is a compilation of papers presented at a seminar held in West Berlin in September 1984 by the IUSSP's Committee on Family Demography and the Life Cycle. "The chapters that follow consist of selected and revised versions of papers discussed at that seminar, and deal with divorce, widowhood, remarriage, the departure of children from the parental home, kinship networks, and the living arrangements of the elderly." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30446 Gronvold, Rebecca L. Aging and cohabitation. 1988. University of Southern California: Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The determinants and consequences of cohabitation for older Americans are delineated using a theoretical framework that posits social structural determinants of cohabitation. The availability of partners for cohabitation is determined by sex ratios and criteria for mate selection." The author considers determinants including socioeconomic and legal factors, educational level, health, and income. "Plausible explanations for the relative infrequency of cohabitation among the older population includes cohort socialization, lesser availability of partners for older women, declining male libido with age, and misreporting of marital status. The number of older cohabitors are expected to increase in the future."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Southern California.
Correspondence: Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30447 Hardee-Cleaveland, Karen. Desired family size and sex preference in rural China: evidence from Fujian province. Pub. Order No. DA8900877. 1988. 245 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation looks at the determinants of desired family size and sex preference in rural Fujian province, using data from a household economy survey conducted in 1985....[It] tests the hypothesis that desired family size is influenced by a variety of demographic, social, economic, and environmental factors, and uses regression methodology to analyze the rural Fujian survey data."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(10).

55:30448 Hill, Allan G.; Thiam, Adam S. The structure of households amongst the Malian Fulani: linking form and process. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 334-45 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The family and household structures of two populations differing in social class structure and geographic location in Mali are compared. The focus is on the socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting household formation, including marriage patterns, age, number and sex of persons within households, and fertility and mortality rates. Data are from a demographic survey conducted in 1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30449 Hohn, Charlotte; Mackensen, Rainer. Introduction. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 1-18 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to the volume "Later Phases of the Family Cycle: Demographic Aspects". Included are "remarks on basic concepts such as family demography, definitions of family and household, family life cycle, and life course [along] with a brief introduction to the individual chapters in the book. In each case, we have tried to stress observations which relate to the life course, and to assess the relative contributions made to formal and to substantive demography." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Federal German Institute for Population Research, Postfach 55 28, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30450 Horska, Pavla. A historical model of the Central European family. [K historickemu modelu stredoevropske rodiny.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1989. 137-43 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author develops a historical model of the family in Central Europe. It is suggested that age at marriage was earlier in southeastern Europe than in northwestern Europe. Particular attention is given to Czech data sources on the family and household from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. The predominance of the nuclear family is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30451 Imbrogno, Salvatore; Imbrogno, Nadia I. Soviet women and the autonomous family. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1989. 1-19 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union."
Correspondence: S. Imbrogno, Department of Social Policy, Planning, and Administration, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30452 Kiernan, Kathleen. The departure of children. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 120-44 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the stage in the family life cycle during which children depart from their parental home. "This multi-generation transition, when the young move to living independently and their parents enter the child-free phase of their lives, has social, economic, and psychological significance....The main focus of this chapter is on the demographic aspects of this transition, and particularly on the timing of these transitions during the life courses of parents and children." Comparisons are made among Denmark, Great Britain, and the United States.
Correspondence: K. Kiernan, Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30453 Kim, Eung Suk; Lee, Seung Wook. A study on the association between the ideal and actual number of children. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Dec 1988. 113-28 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between ideal and actual numbers of children in families in the Republic of Korea is reviewed using data from the National Fertility Survey of 1985 concerning 8,414 women. Consideration is given to changes in the relationship over time and to differences between rural and urban areas.
Correspondence: E. S. Kim, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30454 Klijzing, Erik. Socio-economic characteristics of lifestyles and living arrangements in the Netherlands. In: Population and family in low countries VI, edited by R. L. Cliquet, G. Dooghe, J. de Jong-Gierveld, and F. van Poppel. Vol. 18, 1989. 97-117 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The author describes the socioeconomic characteristics of various life-styles and living arrangements in the Netherlands using data from a 1984 national life-style survey. Married and consensual relationships are analyzed according to educational level, employment status, income, fertility, and housing. Socioeconomic differences and trends in life-styles are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30455 Lachinov, Iu. N. Economic functions of the family. Soviet Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 3-13 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author makes a case for the inclusion of the study of the family in economic research. Special consideration is given to socioeconomic factors affecting family characteristics and the economic functions of the family, including the types of individuals certain families produce and their effect on the economy. The geographical focus is on the USSR, with some comparative data offered for the German Democratic Republic and Great Britain.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Ekonomika i Organizatsiya Promyshlennogo Proizvodstva, No. 7, 1988, pp. 19-29.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30456 Li, Yinhe. Urban family and marriage in contemporary China. Pub. Order No. DA8905579. 1988. 167 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the proposition that among the urban non-agricultural residents who comprise 12 percent of the whole Chinese population, the patterns of family and marriage are converging on that common to most industrial societies. Further, it is demonstrated that this trend is caused by the modernization of Chinese society." Data were collected in surveys conducted in five major Chinese cities.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(12).

55:30457 Lisov, V. A.; Shaposhnikov, A. N. Methods and results of constructing a typology of families based on level of material well-being. Example of the rural population. Problems of Economics, Vol. 32, No. 1, May 1989. 33-51 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
A methodological approach is developed to analyze the well-being of family households among the rural population of Altai Krai, USSR. Well-being is defined in both material and nonmaterial terms, and various factors are assigned components to construct an integral typology of families. Implications for the development of social policy to improve the socioeconomic status of poor families are discussed.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Izvestiya Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Ekonomiki i Prikladnoi Sotsiologii (Novosibirsk, USSR), No. 8, 1988, pp. 56-66.
Correspondence: V. A. Lisov, Institute of Economics and the Organization of Industrial Production, Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Pr. Nauky 17, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30458 Mayer, Karl U.; Schwarz, Karl. The process of leaving the parental home: some German data. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 145-63 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The process of children leaving their parental home in the Federal Republic of Germany is discussed. The focus of the chapter is on "the timing of the transition in the life cycles of both children and parents, the institutional forms which shape this process, and an assessment of the causal factors that underlie it." Findings indicate that until the mid-1970s, marriage remained the dominant reason for departure.
Correspondence: K. U. Mayer, Max Planck Institute for Education Research, 1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30459 Miron, John R. Housing in postwar Canada: demographic change, household formation, and housing demand. ISBN 0-7735-06141-4. 1988. x, 309 pp. McGill-Queen's University Press: Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in household formation and housing in Canada since the end of World War II are explored. The author examines whether these trends reflect changes in demographic characteristics or changes in prosperity and the price of housing. The focus is on the relationship between household formation and the housing stock. Consideration is given to patterns of family and household formation in the postwar period.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30460 Neal, Arthur G.; Groat, H. Theodore; Wicks, Jerry W. Attitudes about having children: a study of 600 couples in the early years of marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 2, May 1989. 313-27 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Attitudes of ambivalence and hostility toward children were examined by drawing upon a random sample of 600 [U.S.] couples in the early years of marriage. The scales that were constructed for measuring the perceived advantages and the perceived disadvantages of children permitted the development of a value-of-children typology. The typology distinguished four clusters of attitudes toward children: (a) indifference; (b) pro-children; (c) anti-children; and (d) ambivalence. Several alienation variables were associated with negative attitudes toward children, while several integration variables were associated with pro-child attitudes."
Correspondence: A. G. Neal, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30461 Osheba, Ibrahim T.; Cochrane, Susan H. The determinants of desired family size: a causal analysis for policy. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 389-419 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors develop and test a causal model of the determinants of desired family size of Egyptian husbands and wives. The results indicate that "not all variables are equally important for husbands and wives or in different regions of the country, nor do they all have direct effects on family size preferences, but in general we expect that socio-economic factors and demographic factors of age, education, income and landownership and residence are important in determining the factors of educational aspiration, age [at] marriage, old age expectations and contraceptive legitimacy, which in turn affect fertility preferences." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: I. T. Osheba, Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Salah Salem Road, POB 2086, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30462 Poos, L. R. The pre-history of demographic regions in traditional Europe. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 26, No. 3-4, 1986. 228-48 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The origins of regional variations observed in the household formation systems of rural Europe in the preindustrial era are explored. The author notes that recently exploited census-type data sources concerning Byzantine Greece, early Renaissance Italy, and late medieval England have made it possible to argue that the broad regional variations established at the eve of industrialization are in fact discernible from a much earlier era. The available data on household size and type are also reviewed, with a focus on English data.
Correspondence: L. R. Poos, Department of History, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, D.C. 20064. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30463 Poulain, Michel. Changes in the life-space during the final stages. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 208-21 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author explores the changes in an individual's life-space in the later stages of life. Life-space is defined as the sphere of geographical and social activity in which a person interacts. "The factors responsible for...changes [in the life-space] are the departure of children from the parental home, and later the loss of a spouse and of physical or intellectual independence." Findings show that residential mobility rates double between the 70th and 90th year and that mobility rates are twice as high for widowed as for married persons. Data are from official French and Belgian sources.
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30464 Rogers, John. Coastal regions in change, 1650-1950. Family and household in Nordic fishing communities. [Kustbygd i forandring 1650-1950. Familj och hushall i nordiska fiskesamhallen.] Meddelande fran Familjehistoriska Projektet/Reports from the Family History Group, No. 8, ISBN 91-506-0726-X. 1989. 130 pp. Uppsala University, Department of History, Family History Group: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng; Swe; Dan; Nor.
"The reports in this volume represent the first phase of a cooperative effort by historians and ethnologists to study [the] impact of economic, technological and demographic change on the family and household in Nordic coastal regions. Similar techniques and methods are applied to a common ecological setting in order to determine whether or not a pattern of family and household development existed....An introduction describes the project, its organization and its goals. Five national reports provide information on the available sources for the study of the historical development of fishing as well as reviews of the status of research concerning works on fishing and on the family and household. Included also is a contribution dealing with the general problems involved in a comparative study of the family and household in past time."
Correspondence: Family History Group, Department of History, Uppsala University, St. Johannesgatan 21, S-752 35 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30465 Santi, Lawrence. The structure of household headship in the United States, 1970-1985. CDE Working Paper, No. 89-1, [1989]. 23, [7] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The present paper is concerned with recent increases in rates of household headship among unmarried individuals, and with headship differentials by sex and [ethnic group]. These trends and differentials are examined in terms of a model which expresses the likelihood of heading an independent household as a function of age, marital status, parental status, and income. The parameters of this model were consistent with theoretical predictions, and quite stable across sex and [ethnic] groups. Nonetheless, net effects of year, sex, and [ethnic group] persist even after the independent variables are taken into account." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30466 Seo, Moon-Hee; Hong, Moon-Sik. A study of family patterns and psychological aspects of the relationship between parent and child. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Dec 1988. 96-112 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics between family characteristics and the psychological relationship of parents and children. The data are from a survey of 118 primary school students and their mothers in the Republic of Korea. The implications of the study for population policy developments are considered.
Correspondence: M.-H. Seo, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30467 Shimizu, Hiroaki. Changes in population and household structure in a village, 1960-1985. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 1, Apr 1989. 34-49 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in household and family formation in a Japanese village during the years from 1960 to 1985 are analyzed. Attention is given to migration and the aging of the population as they affect the nuclear and the extended family. Data are from Japanese censuses.
Correspondence: H. Shimizu, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30468 Skolnick, Arlene S.; Skolnick, Jerome H. Family in transition: rethinking marriage, sexuality, child rearing, and family organization. 6th ed. ISBN 0-673-39879-X. LC 88-18615. 1989. xiv, 623 pp. Scott, Foresman: Glenview, Illinois/London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of published articles on the family in the United States. Topics covered include past and current trends in marriage, divorce, and remarriage; parenthood and children; the politics of the family; changes in age structure and grandparenthood; socioeconomic and ethnic factors; and the family and women's status.
Correspondence: Scott, Foresman, and Company, 1990 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, IL 60025. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30469 Sweet, James A. Changes in the life cycle composition of the United States population and the demand for housing. CDE Working Paper, No. 89-14, [1989]. 46, [7] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"We examine the relationship between changes in the family life cycle composition of the United States population and the demand for housing of various types. We begin by reviewing recent trends in the demographic processes which determine the life cycle distribution of the population (trends in marriage, cohabitation and fertility). We then discuss recent change in the propensity of persons in various life cycle positions to maintain a household....[We describe] the housing type distributions of households at different life cycle stages. Finally, we examine how the life cycle-specific distribution of housing type changed during the 1970s and how the changing distribution of households by life cycle stage affected aggregate housing demand."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30470 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Household and family characteristics: March 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 437, May 1989. iv, 145 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This annual report contains detailed demographic data on household and family characteristics [for the United States] for March 1988. The estimates are based on information gathered in the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey." The data are presented by various factors, including residence, race, Hispanic origin, age, marital status, tenure, size of metropolitan area, occupation, employment status, and educational status and concern both family and household type and size.
For a previous report for 1987, see 54:30425.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30471 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Studies in marriage and the family. Singleness in America. Single parents and their children. Married-couple families with children. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 162, Jun 1989. [5], 38 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report contains three papers that examine some of the causes and consequences of recent changes in patterns of living arrangements in the United States. The first paper, by Arlene F. Saluter, examines singleness and its impact on generations. The second, by Steve W. Rawlings, examines the social and economic aspects of single parents and their children. The third, by Louisa F. Miller and Jeanne E. Moorman, examines the changing characteristics of married-couple families with children. This is the first in a planned series of subject-specific analyses.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30472 Wall, Richard. The residence patterns of the elderly in Europe in the 1980s. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 222-44 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The residential patterns of the elderly in Europe and the USSR in the 1980s are examined. Consideration is given to nonfamily households, nuclear and extended families, and one-person households. Ages and familial relationships of household members are noted. Findings indicate that "there is both a long-standing association of complex households with eastern and southern Europe and nuclear households with north-western Europe, and no sign as yet of a convergence of European countries round a high level of one-person households."
Correspondence: R. Wall, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30473 Young, Christabel M. The effect of children returning home on the precision of the timing of the leaving-home stage. In: Later phases of the family cycle: demographic aspects, edited by E. Grebenik, C. Hohn, and R. Mackensen. 1989. 164-82 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the timing of Australian children leaving their parental homes. Data are from a 1982 nationwide survey of 2,500 young adults aged 18-34. Reasons for leaving home are examined, with consideration given to age and sex factors. Findings indicate that "more than one-half of young adults in Australia now leave home for the first time before they marry (with the number of sons exceeding that of daughters), and about one-half of these return home before leaving finally, again with more men than women returning....Increasingly, independence and conflict are becoming important reasons for leaving home, and these contrast with the more acceptable reasons from the parents' point of view--marriage, study, and job opportunity....Study and travel appear to be reasons for leaving home associated with the more privileged groups, while conflict and job opportunities are relatively more often the reasons for leaving home among the disadvantaged."
Correspondence: C. M. Young, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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