Volume 55 - Number 3 - Fall 1989

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:30208 Abul-ata, Mohamed F.; Suchindran, C. M. Truncation bias in the first two moments of birth intervals according to data ascertainment method. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 532-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"How truncation bias affects the mean and variance of birth-order-specific birth interval distributions is our focus here. We attempt to shed some light on the magnitude and direction of bias for four ascertainment methods of considering birth interval data....We discuss sensitivity of the mean length of birth interval for detecting changes in fertility levels for each ascertainment method. To this end, stochastic models...are derived based on certain assumptions. The first two moments corresponding to these models are applied to a hypothetical population with assumed fertility parameters. The patterns of variation in the mean and variance of birth-order-specific intervals are then examined for varying fertility levels, birth orders, observation periods (marital durations), and data ascertainment methods."
Correspondence: C. M. Suchindran, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30209 Adeokun, Lawrence A. Investigating the timing of additional children in non-contraceptive societies. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 127-45 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the relative merits of alternative approaches to fertility analysis in a predominately non-contraceptive population, using data concerning the Yoruba of Nigeria collected during the Next Child Project. He stresses the need to combine qualitative and quantitative approaches and for innovation in the analytical techniques employed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30210 Anderton, Douglas L. Comment on Knodel's "Starting, stopping, and spacing during the early stages of fertility transition" Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 467-72 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by John Knodel concerning the relative importance of stopping and spacing behaviors in historical fertility declines. He critically examines "Knodel's use of age at last birth and McDonald's decomposition [of spacing and stopping effects, and asserts that they] are inadequate to identify the possible role of spacing in the population and potentially misleading." He illustrates the discussion with "parity-specific mean birth intervals for women with both 6 and 8 children ever born from the 1860 birth cohort of once-married women in Utah [United States]." A response by McDonald and Knodel is included (pp. 471-2).
For the article by John Knodel, published in 1987, see 53:20277.
Correspondence: D. L. Anderton, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Thompson Hall, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30211 Augustyniak, Hanna. Ethnographic factors in environmental differences in female reproductive attitudes and behavior (studies in the Warmia and Mazury regions). [Czynnik etnograficzny w srodowiskowym roznicowaniu postaw i zachowan prokreacyjnych rodzin (badania na Warmii i Mazurach).] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 286, 1989. 262 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes the impact of environmental, ethnographic, and regional factors on family formation, reproductive attitudes, and reproductive behavior in Poland. Data are from a 1979 survey of 3,428 married couples in Warmia, Mazury, and Lubawska, regions settled by Poles after World War II. Factors affecting fertility include marriage age, family characteristics, and educational status. Fertility differentials by ethnographic group are noted, although a general trend toward small families is apparent.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30212 Avramov, Dragana. Current population problems in Yugoslavia. [Aktuelni demografsko populacioni problemi u SFRJ.] Demografska Sveska CDI, No. 1, [1988?]. vi, 20, [4] pp. University of Belgrade, Institute of Social Sciences, Demographic Research Centre: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author compares reproductive behavior in Yugoslavia in the 1980s with trends in the more demographically developed European countries. Natural increase, birth rate, and total fertility rate are analyzed by parity and maternal age. Economic conditions, family planning programs, improvements in women's status, changing marital patterns, and women's educational levels are considered as they affect the Yugoslav fertility transition. Internal geographic variations in fertility rates, below-replacement levels, and future implications are discussed. Data are from U.N. population estimates and projections as assessed in 1984.
Correspondence: Demographic Research Centre, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Belgrade, Narodnog fronta 45, Postanski fah 927, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30213 Azelmat, Mustapha; Ayad, Mohamed; Belhachmi, Houcine. National Survey on Family Planning, Fertility, and Health of the Population of Morocco (ENPS), 1987. [Enquete Nationale sur la Planification Familiale, la Fecondite et la Sante de la Population au Maroc (ENPS), 1987.] Mar 1989. xxii, 187 pp. Ministere de la Sante Publique, Service des Etudes et de l'Information Sanitaire: Rabat, Morocco; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
Results are presented from the 1987 National Survey on Family Planning, Fertility, and Health of the Population undertaken in Morocco as one in a series of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted by Westinghouse's Institute for Resource Development. Following an introductory chapter to the country and the survey, chapters are included on nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, contraception, fertility preferences, and mortality and health. Appendixes are included on the organization of the survey and sources of data error.
Correspondence: DHS, IRD/Westinghouse, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 20145. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30214 Barmby, Tim; Cigno, Alessandro. A sequential probability model of fertility patterns. Hull Economic Research Papers, No. 160, Jan 1988. 15 pp. University of Hull, Department of Economics and Commerce: Hull, England. In Eng.
"In the present paper we have adopted a sequential method of estimation [of British fertility patterns] which allows us to make maximum use of available information about individuals (from survey data) and about the economic environment (from aggregate time series and other sources). This estimation procedure mimics the actual sequential decision process of parents, whose actions year by year are conditioned by the realisation of past decisions (actual births) and by new information about the economic environment." Factors affecting fertility decisions include age at marriage, child worth, husband's and wife's income, and women's educational status. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Department of Economics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30215 Bendardaf, Ibrahim B. Socioeconomic modernization and demographic changes in Syria. Pub. Order No. DA 8826581. 1988. 191 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study analyzed empirically, using the Syrian Fertility Survey data, the relationships between socioeconomic modernization, fertility and fertility control....The observed fertility analysis showed that the most important determinants of children ever born are respectively: duration of marriage, the efficiency with which contraceptive methods are used (specially the oral pill), second birth interval, first birth interval and secondary sterility, child mortality, spontaneous abortion, and breastfeeding."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Missouri.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30216 Benz, Ernest J. Fertility in three Baden villages, 1650-1900. 1988. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author studies fertility in three Austrian villages between the years 1650 and 1900. Data are from "reconstituted family histories in local genealogies...as well as economic and political data from municipal and provincial archives. Extensive tables, graphs, and maps document the fertility transition on the densely populated Rhine plain. A measure of the percentage of couples practising family limitation is introduced." Celibacy, illegitimacy, marital fertility rates, contraceptive use, and infant mortality rates, and the variables affecting them are traced through two centuries.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Toronto.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30217 Birg, Herwig. A biographic theory of aging and fertility. [Az oregedes es a termekenyseg biografiai elmelete.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1987. 409-30 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
The concept of a biographic approach to the analysis of the effects of economic change on the life course in modern society is introduced. Particular attention is given to changes in the aging process and their implications for long-term obligations, as well as their impact on fertility. The effect on fertility of changes in the labor force and in employment opportunities is also examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30218 Blau, David M.; Robins, Philip K. Fertility, employment, and child-care costs. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-6, Jun 1988. 38 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"A sample of labor market and birth histories is used to estimate the effects of child-care costs on employment and fertility decisions. The empirical analysis is reduced form in nature and is based on hazard functions for transitions among various fertility-employment states. Higher child-care costs are estimated to lower the birth rate for nonemployed women, but not for employed women. Higher child-care costs also increase the rate of leaving employment and reduce the rate of entering employment. The results suggest that potential behavioral effects of child care subsidies could be significant and should be taken into account when alternative child-care policies are being debated." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30219 Bonneuil, Noel. Contextual and structural factors in fertility behavior. [Conjoncture et structure dans le comportement de fecondite.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 135-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author critically examines the concept of cycles in population dynamics as developed by Easterlin. An alternative format for the analysis of fertility trends in European countries since 1931 is proposed using a chaos theory that allows the net reproduction rate to be depicted as a dynamic time-dependent system. This reveals the existence of two periodic cycles separated by an unstable pass. The impact of mortality on these cycles is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30220 Bozik, James E.; Bell, William R. Forecasting age specific fertility using principal components. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 396-401 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors present a mathematical model that uses principal components to forecast age-specific fertility rates. Data applied to the model concern white women and cover the period 1921-1984. The authors conclude that the "approach appears to have potential for producing reasonable forecasts and forecast intervals for the age-specific rates using a small number of components."
Correspondence: J. E. Bozik, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30221 Bravo, Jorge H. Human fertility and internal migration in contemporary Mexico. Pub. Order No. DA8902042. 1988. 117 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Economic and extra-economic factors of human fertility and internal migration are analyzed in the context of contemporary Mexico, the data covering mainly the period 1960-1980. The main determinants considered are landholding, geographical location in relation to metropolitan centers, policy and institutional factors."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(11).

55:30222 Callum, Christine; Farid, Samir; Moussa, Mohamed. Child loss and its impact on fertility. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 239-78 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The impact of infant and child mortality on fertility in Egypt is analyzed using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. "There was a significantly lower likelihood of contraceptive use in the event of an infant death, which persisted after taking parity and socio-economic status into account. A significant reduction in interval length associated with an infant death was observed among users and non-users of contraception, though it was more pronounced among the former." Regional variations are analyzed. Findings also indicate "that the effect on ultimate parity represents the most striking impact of infant mortality on fertility."
Correspondence: M. Moussa, Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Solah Salem Road, POB 2086, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30223 Cigno, Alessandro; Ermisch, John. A microeconomic analysis of the timing of births. Hull Economic Research Papers, No. 159, Aug 1987. 45 pp. University of Hull, Department of Economics and Commerce: Hull, England. In Eng.
"An intertemporal microeconomic model of family decisions is developed to analyse the effects of personal characteristics, wage rates and career structures on the time profile of childbearing among married couples [in the United Kingdom]. The effects of the mother's age on the 'quality' of the child, and the financial implications of interrupting the mother's career to care for a child are taken explicitly into account. The demographic consequences of economic policies are also examined." Data are from the Women and Employment Survey, conducted in Great Britain among a sample of women aged 16-59 in 1980.
Correspondence: Department of Economics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30224 Coale, Ansley J. A reassessment of fertility trends in Egypt, taking account of the Egyptian Fertility Survey. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 21-86 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The data from the Egyptian Fertility Survey were analysed to ascertain the trends just before 1980 in fertility and marriage. The analysis consisted of a detailed examination of tabulations of births and marriages by single years of age and by single years of occurrence prior to 1980....Nothing in the Egyptian Fertility Survey results lends support to the appearance of a large increase in the rate of childbearing in 1979. The fact that this increase implies a sharp rise in duration-specific fertility at all durations supports an interpretation of a change in completeness of registration in 1979 rather than a genuine increase in the birth rate. The occurrence of a substantial decline in fertility between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s is confirmed....There has also been a decline in marital fertility at higher ages and higher durations of marriage."
Correspondence: A. J. Coale, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30225 Cochrane, Susan H.; Farid, Samir M. Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa: analysis and explanation. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 43, ISBN 0-8213-1208-1. LC 89-5792. 1989. xiv, 122 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents a detailed analysis of fertility in 10 sub-Saharan African countries for which World Fertility Survey data are available....The analysis indicates that fertility is higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world and that in 7 of the 10 countries it has been rising to some extent over the last 20 years whereas in other parts of the world it has been falling. The high current level of fertility results from a pattern of early and universal marriage and very little use of contraception. Fertility would be even higher if it were not for prolonged and near universal breastfeeding. Low usage of contraception arises from relatively poorer contraceptive knowledge and higher family size preferences and higher infant and child mortality than is generally true in other regions."
Correspondence: World Bank, Publications Department J2190, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30226 Das Gupta, Monica. The use of genealogies for reconstructing social history and analyzing fertility behaviour in a North Indian village. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 88-102 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter experiments with an innovative technique of relating fertility behaviour to its social and economic determinants....An attempt has been made to combine genealogical information with social historical information on the families in the genealogies, in order to test the applicability of some of the widely known theories of fertility behaviour in the context of the experience of successive generations within one village in northern India....Essentially, these theories fall into two groups, which are in no sense mutually exclusive. The first is that children are desired because they are economically valuable, while the second is that they are desired as security assets against the risks their parents face."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30227 Dechering, Wim. Fertility trends on tea plantations in Sri Lanka: a socio-demographic research project among Indian Tamils. [Ontwikkeling van fertiliteit op theeplantages in Sri Lanka: een sociaal-demografisch onderzoek onder Indiase Tamils.] Sociaal Antropoligische Studien, No. 5, ISBN 90-6695-016-1. LC 88-107185. 1987. 305 pp. DSWO Press: Leiden, Netherlands. In Dut.
Demographic trends among the Indian Tamils working on tea plantations in central Sri Lanka are analyzed using data collected by the author between 1978 and 1980. The author notes that since World War II, both fertility and mortality have declined rapidly among this lower-caste, poor, stateless, and relatively isolated population. Consideration is given to the demographic impact of international trends in the tea market, nationalization of the plantations, and the decline of the plantations over time, particularly with regard to age at marriage, infant and child morbidity and mortality, fertility, and family planning.
Correspondence: DSWO Press, Middelstegracht 4, 2312 TW Leiden, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30228 Dewit, David J.; Rao, K. V.; Murty, Komanduri S. Covariates of birth spacing patterns in Panama: a hazard model analysis. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 116-7 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to examine the importance of non-biological factors on the hazard rate of moving from first to second birth parity. Using data from the Panama World Fertility Survey (1975), this paper examines sources of variation in the spacing of births in the second birth interval among 3,004 Panamanian women in the reproductive ages, 20 to 49....A set of socioeconomic and demographic covariates are entered into a proportional hazards model to observe the effect on the outcome variable survival. To control for age effects, the analysis is carried out on three separate birth cohorts: 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years."
Correspondence: D. J. Dewit, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30229 El-Shalakani, M.; Pandey, A. Distribution of births in an abrupt sequence: a stochastic model. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 95, No. 1, Jul 1989. 1-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A probability model for the distribution of number of births in a time segment...has been derived. The provision that birth propensities in the process of human reproduction may change over time has been considered." The model is illustrated with data from a demographic survey conducted in 1969-1970 in rural Varanasi, India.
Correspondence: M. El-Shalakani, Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

55:30230 Ford, Kathleen; Huffman, Sandra L.; Chowdhury, A. K. M. A.; Becker, Stan; Allen, Hubert; Menken, Jane. Birth-interval dynamics in rural Bangladesh and maternal weight. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 425-37 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article reports on the results of a study conducted in rural Bangladesh on the influence of maternal weight on the components of birth intervals, including gestation and intrauterine mortality, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea, and the duration of waiting time to conception (the menstrual interval). When biological factors (including maternal age, parity, and supplementation practices) and behavioral variables, including religion, education, and occupation, were controlled, maternal weight was found to be related to the risk of intrauterine mortality and to the probability of resuming menses in the postpartum period. The implications of these findings for policies and programs in developing countries are discussed." Data are from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and cover the period 1975-1980.
Correspondence: K. Ford, Department of Population Planning and International Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30231 Fulton, Duncan; Randall, Sara. Households, women's roles and prestige as factors determining nuptiality and fertility differentials in Mali. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 191-211 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Through a comparison of two populations we explore the determination of different fertility [and nuptiality] patterns. In particular this paper aims to address the separation of those constraints which operate on the population as a whole from those which affect the decisions and actions of smaller units and individuals....We argue that an examination of roles, interests and decisions involved in marriage and reproduction in the two societies concerned suggests that while differences in marriage patterns are responsible for the observed differences in fertility, it does not follow that fertility strategies are determining marriage." Factors considered include men's and women's status, socioeconomic characteristics, familial relationships, social class, and household structure. The authors incorporate a micro-approach to demographic analysis that uses supplementary data to interpret results. Data are for two rural areas in Mali.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30232 Fux, Beat. Overlying cultural factors: the saturation of tensions as an explanation of fertility decline in Switzerland. [Uberlagerte kulturelle Faktoren: ein Sattigungsmodell zur Erklarung des schweizerischen Geburtenruckgangs.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique, Vol. 125, No. 2, Jun 1989. 165-88 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The purpose of this article is to provide an explanation of the recent decline of fertility in Switzerland with a saturation model. This process, which can be observed in the majority of highly developed countries since about 1965, is part of a long-term process of limitation of births." Factors considered in the model include the segregation between the work place and household, the development of social security systems, excessive consumption, and changing values. The model attempts to show that individuals are experiencing increasing structural and cultural tensions due to an increase in the impact of such factors that lead them to react in a variety of ways, some of which can affect the number and timing of births. The author suggests that both the fertility level and fertility decline have different determinants and concludes that fears of the "dying out" of the Swiss population are premature.
Correspondence: B. Fux, Universitat Zurich, Soziologisches Institut, Birchstrasse 95, CH-8050 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30233 Gorwaney, Naintara. Patterns, trends, and determinants of immigrant fertility: assimilation of the foreign born. 1988. University of Southern California: Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"'Assimilation', 'disruption', and 'selectivity' perspectives have been used to examine the impact of migration on fertility. The purpose of this research is to describe (a) fertility trends and determinants among immigrants to the United States from different countries in 1980, and (b) to examine the extent to which the observed fertility changes and patterns are compatible with these different perspectives....The data are drawn from 1/100 public use samples of the 1970 and the 1980 United States censuses....This research makes a comparative analysis of migrants to the United States from 13 high- and low-fertility countries and regions from North America and Europe, Latin America and Asia....The analyses of these perspectives suggest that the time dimension of the fertility measure must be taken into consideration. In the short-run, disruption is applicable, and in the long-run, assimilation and/or selectivity perspectives are more applicable."
Correspondence: Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0892. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30234 Guatemala. Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social (Guatemala City, Guatemala); Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama (Guatemala City, Guatemala); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). National Survey of Infant and Maternal Health, 1987. [Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil, 1987.] May 1989. xxii, 140 pp. Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social: Guatemala City, Guatemala; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
Results are presented from the 1987 National Survey of Infant and Maternal Health undertaken in Guatemala as one in a series of Demographic and Health Surveys being conducted by Westinghouse's Institute for Resource Development. Following a general introduction to the country and the survey, chapters are included on infant mortality and health; nuptiality, lactation, and postpartum amenorrhea; fertility levels and trends; knowledge about fertility control and use of contraception; and fertility preferences. Appendixes are included on survey methodology, the sample surveyed, and data quality.
Correspondence: DHS, IRD/Westinghouse, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30235 Halli, S. S. The seasonality of births in Canada. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 321-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study uses the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey data on reproductive history to examine birth and pregnancy seasonalities, and shows that the 'worst' months for births are January and February and the 'best' months are March, April and May. There is no systematic pattern in the seasonality of pregnancies, possibly because effective birth control allows couples to plan the timing of births." Consideration is given to maternal age, climatic and biological factors, and infant mortality.
Correspondence: S. S. Halli, Department of Sociology, University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30236 Havanon, Napaporn. Rice, labor, and children: a study of peasants' livelihood strategies in northeast Thailand. Pub. Order No. DA8822527. 1988. 245 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the ways in which rural households organize their economic activities and demographic behavior as responses to resource constraints and opportunities in a particular physical and socioeconomic environment. The analysis examines two major aspects of peasants' responses--production and fertility." The data concern rural peasant households in northeast Thailand that grow rice as the staple food and tend to maintain their farm work as the primary source of income. "The findings indicate that the absolute amount of wage income the individual households receive does not have any impact on the demand for children. However, the percentage of total income derived from wage income, net of total household income, does have a positive impact on the demand for children. This finding points to the importance of the structure of household income rather than income level per se in determining the desire for children in rural populations."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30237 Hoem, Britta. To what extent have mothers of two children who participated in the Swedish Fertility Survey of 1981 had children at the desired time and what has this meant for third-child fertility? [I vilken utstrackning har tvabarnsmodrarna i den svenska fruktsamhetsundersokningen fran 1981 fatt barnen vid onskade tidpunkter och vad har det betytt for tredjebarnsfruktsamheten?] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, ISBN 91-7820-038-5. [1989?]. 17, 7 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This report follows up the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey and concerns family relationships and other factors affecting the timing of the first two children born and the effect of this timing on subsequent fertility. Separate consideration is given to mothers' marital status at the first birth and after the second and to mothers' educational level.
Correspondence: Section of Demography, University of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30238 Hogan, Timothy D. Granger causality and the link between fertility and female labor force patricipation. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 537-8 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper presents results of formal tests of the nature of the causal link between fertility and women's labor force participation [in the United States] based upon the econometric conception of causality developed by Granger....This project's results provide evidence to reject the hypotheses that work status determines fertility or that the two decisions are mutually determined. This bivariate analysis does not, however, provide any statistical test of the hypothesis that some other factor/set of factors determine both fertility and work status."
Correspondence: T. D. Hogan, Center for Business Research, College of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4406. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30239 Horne, Amelia D.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Dynamics of childbearing statistics in twentieth century developing and developed countries. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 526-31 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In the present paper, the dynamics of childbearing indices in the twentieth century are presented for 21 developing and 30 developed countries, the latter of which, having completed the demographic transition, make a convenient point of comparison for developing regions. The experience of childbearing over time is measured by projected ages at first and last birth, length of reproductive span, and inter-birth spacing. The extension of the childbearing models...is applied to the 51 countries....Thus, a detailed picture of the timing of fertility for synthetic cohorts of women is obtained....Historical annual data on age-specific fertility rates, required for the calculation of the childbearing statistics presented here, were collected for all developing and developed countries."
Correspondence: M. N. El-Khorazaty, P.O. Box 5835, Manama, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30240 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Fertility data from the 1984 microcensus (working material). [Termekenysegi adatok az 1984. evi mikrocenzus alapjan (munkaanyag).] ISBN 963-7056-19-X. 1987. 219 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Fertility data for Hungary from the 1984 microcensus are presented by educational status, occupation, household structure, and housing. The data concern birth order, birth intervals, duration of time living with children, and fertility following remarriage. Additional statistics are provided on health, higher education, commuting, and child-care facilities.
Correspondence: Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly U.5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30241 Impens, K. K. The impact of female unemployment on fertility in Flanders. In: Population and family in low countries VI, edited by R. L. Cliquet, G. Dooghe, J. de Jong-Gierveld, and F. van Poppel. Vol. 18, 1989. 119-40 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of female unemployment on fertility in Dutch-speaking Belgium. "Parity-specific bivariate life tables and multivariate proportional hazards analyses on the birth and (un)employment history of the NEGO IV sample (3,101 female respondents of the Flemish Region, aged 20 to 44 years, 1982-1983), reveal a significant birth probability reducing impact of unemployment. This effect is parity-specific, direct as well as indirect, and, as far as the first birth timing is concerned, declines with rising educational level. Some implications for fertility theory and social, family and demographic policy are deduced."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30242 Iriso Napal, Pedro L.; Reher, David-Sven. Fertility and its determinants in Spain, 1887-1920. An attempt at an explanation. [La fecundidad y sus determinantes en Espana, 1887-1920. Un ensayo de interpretacion.] Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas, No. 39, 1987. 45-118 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Fertility trends in Spain from 1887 to 1920 are analyzed. Using path analysis, the authors first develop a model of rural fertility. Some key factors affecting fertility are examined in detail; these include nuptiality, infant mortality, male labor force activity, illiteracy, and urbanization. The authors then analyze urban fertility in the same way. Consideration is also given to the significance of migration and cultural factors.
Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

55:30243 Khalifa, Mona A. Determinants of birth intervals in Sudan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 301-20 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using individual birth history data from the Sudan Fertility Survey, 1979, parity-related differences in fertility are demonstrated, as well as differences between socioeconomic groups. Rural women, women with no education and those married to uneducated husbands show rapid parity progression and its cumulative effects on fertility which are consistent over all birth intervals. Urban women, women with some education and those married to educated husbands, however, go rapidly through their second and third birth intervals and then more slowly at higher parities."
Correspondence: M. A. Khalifa, Department of Statistics, Cairo University, Khartoum Branch, POB 1055, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30244 Knodel, John; Pramualratana, Anthony; Havanon, Napaporn. Focus group research on fertility decline in Thailand: methodology and findings. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 41-55 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The authors utilize the technique of focus group research to study the fertility transition in Thailand. They define focus groups, discuss the use of this research method as a means of demographic inquiry, describe its advantages and limitations, and present the methodology for data interpretation. The second part of the paper focuses on Thai reproductive behavior as studied through this qualitative approach. Social change, cultural background, contraceptive use, and family planning services are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30245 Kravdal, Oystein. Sociodemographic differentials in the number of children: a study of women born 1935, 1945 and 1955. Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 89/7, ISBN 82-537-2766-6. 1989. 138 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng. with sum. in Nor.
This is the first report from a project involving the analysis of recent fertility trends in Norway using data from censuses and the Central Population Register. The focus is on variations in the total number of children at ages 29 and 39 for women born in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Factors considered include marital status, age at marriage, educational status, geographic factors, religion, and occupation.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30246 Krishnan, Vijaya. The effects of religious factors on childlessness: the Canadian case. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 58, Apr 1989. 24 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper examines, within the framework of logistic regression analysis, the effects of selected socio-economic and demographic factors (e.g., age at marriage, religious preference, religious assiduity, and wife's wage) on childlessness using data on women who are currently married or living common-law, aged 35-44, from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey. Differential childlessness among two groups of women, classified by generation of Canadian residence, are examined in order to see whether generational status accounts for any observed effect. The findings show that, contrary to earlier assertions, Catholics are more likely than non-Catholics to be voluntarily childless. The evidence, however, suggests that wives who attend church services quite frequently are less predisposed to choose the non-parenthood role. Also, the results indicate that choice of motherhood and wife's participation in the labour force are incompatible; the higher the wage, the more likely she is to remain childless."
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30247 Lee, Sang Hun. Trends in birth order in Korea: 1975-1984. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Dec 1988. 201-11 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The author examines changes in the birth order distribution in the Republic of Korea from 1975 to 1984, a period of rapid economic growth and fertility decline. Changes are analyzed by age of mother and place of residence. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: S. H. Lee, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30248 Liao, Tim F. Outliers and influential cases in cross-national research: testing the threshold hypothesis of fertility decline. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-5, Oct 1987. 22, [9] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Reanalyzing previously published research on the threshold hypothesis of fertility decline, this paper demonstrates the sensitivity to influential cases of cross-national analysis of aggregate data using multiple regression. This sensitivity becomes more crucial if the analysis hinges on the statistical test of one or a few parameter estimates. In such a case, the removal of merely one influential observation from the estimation may reverse the conclusion that would be achieved otherwise." The geographical focus is on Latin America.
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30249 Lord, Evelyn. Fairs, festivals and fertility in Alkmaar, North Holland, 1650-1810. Local Population Studies, No. 42, Spring 1989. 43-53 pp. Matlock, England. In Eng.
The author examines seasonal trends in fertility in Alkmaar, North Holland, for the period 1650-1810. The timing of events such as fairs and holidays is studied "to see what effect these had on the conception level and whether or not any difference can be observed between these and other societies where festivals fell in the early part of the year." Data are from baptismal records of several religious denominations.
Correspondence: E. Lord, Department of English Local History, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30250 McNicoll, Geoffrey. On the local context of demographic change. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 10-24 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses empirical research directions for the micro-approach to the study of fertility. He discusses two things necessary "to make the micro-studies enterprise genuinely productive for the field....First, a much less casual tie between data gathering and theory development than has existed for the most part thus far....And second, research that is informed by immediate and pressing concerns of public policy...." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30251 Michaels, Gerald Y.; Goldberg, Wendy A. The transition to parenthood: current theory and research. Cambridge Studies in Social and Emotional Development, ISBN 0-521-35418-8. LC 87-32649. 1988. xii, 381 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors concerning the transition to parenthood. "Following an introductory chapter that offers perspectives on the transition to parenthood, the chapters in Part I examine typical or normative development during pregnancy and the first year of new parenthood. Factors that promote dimensions of growth and change for individuals, couples, and families are discussed. The chapters in Part II consider biomedical and psychosocial risk factors that affect the parent and infant. Parent risks, such as maternal age, and infant risks, such as premature birth, are discussed in conjunction with adaptive and maladaptive modes of response to risk conditions. The chapters in Part III cover both informal and formal means of assisting prospective and new parents. Interventions suitable for the pre-conception, pregnancy, and postnatal periods are presented, and prescriptive recommendations are offered. A concluding chapter by the editors follows this section." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30252 Mougne, Christine M. Structural change and fertility decline in a northern Thai community: an historical perspective. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 103-23 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Anthropological fieldwork was conducted between 1972 and 1974 in the northern Thai village of Ban Pong to investigate the socioeconomic factors affecting the exceptionally positive response of Thai women to family planning. "This chapter will concentrate on two main areas of structural change--land and labour, and marriage and residence--and examine the interaction between such changes and the decline of fertility. The analysis will begin at the time of the most recent settlement of Ban Pong one hundred years ago, and will follow the patterns of socioeconomic and demographic change up to the present day. I will also look briefly at the position of women in the community to highlight the significance of this important cultural factor on changing fertility behaviour."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30253 Murphy, Mike. The progression to the third birth in Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 52, ISBN 91-7820-039-3. May 1989. 27 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the patterns of progression from second to third birth in Sweden in the period 1960 to 1980 from analysis of the 1981...Swedish Fertility Survey. The approach adopted is the widely-used one of hazards regression which attempts to explain...these patterns of differential progression to the third birth. Within this framework, a number of social, demographic and economic factors which were obtained prior to the third conception are included in a formal regression-type model which quantifies their relative and joint importance. Such techniques are both powerful and appropriate for fitting models to survival [processes] such as this one. However, they are not without their problems, and some of these will be brought out and illustrated in areas relating to: the form of data source, the variables used in the analysis, [and] transformation and interpretation of results."
Correspondence: Demography Unit, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30254 Nawar, Laila; Hobcraft, John. An analysis of determinants of fertility. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 87-100 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to take a summary view of the major determinants of fertility included in the Egyptian Fertility Survey. Our analysis includes both the proximate and the more remote determinants and is particularly concerned to discover how the remote determinants operate through the proximate determinants to bring about observed levels of fertility. The proximate determinants of fertility explicitly identified here include entry into sexual exposure through first marriage, [age at first marriage], the impact of union dissolution, contraception and periods of infecundity following a birth....The remote determinants are the many socio-economic, cultural, institutional and community factors which operate to alter fertility-related behaviour." The authors include a regression analysis of correlates of fertility subsequent to first marriage.
Correspondence: L. Nawar, Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Salah Salem Road, POB 2086, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30255 Norway. Statistisk Sentralbyra (Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway). The number of children in families. [Barnetall i ekteskap.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 88/21, ISBN 82-537-2689-9. 1988. 39 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
This report provides an overview of married women's fertility using 1980 Norwegian census data. Sections are included on marriages by number of children, number of children by duration of marriage, and number of children within a marriage by residence, employment, and education.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30256 Pandey, Arvind; Dwivedi, S. N.; Mishra, R. N. A stochastic model for the study of last closed birth intervals with some biosocial components. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-27, Oct 1988. 31 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"We present a stochastic model to describe the variation in last closed birth intervals for women of a given marriage duration by parity as well as regardless of parity. The model is derived under some simplified assumptions relating to human reproduction process accounting for the nonexposure period in the beginning of the reproductive life caused by such biosocial components as adolescent sterility and temporary separation between partners, called an inoperative period. We illustrate the model regardless of parity on an observed set of data taken from a rural area of northern India and estimate the risk of conception before and after the first birth."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30257 Pandey, Arvind; Suchindran, Chirayath M. Modelling fertility with mortality as a competing risk: an application. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-19, Jun 1988. 35 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"A set of stochastic models is presented to study the human reproductive process with mortality of women at successive ages as a competing risk. Distributions of ages of women at successive births and birth intervals by order and final parity are derived. These models are used to compare the risk of fertility as the function of (1) age only, (2) parity only, and (3) both age and parity. We apply these models using vital statistics data on fertility and mortality of women aged 15-49 in [the] United States for the period 1970."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30258 Pandey, Arvind; Suchindran, C. M. Probability models of reproductive events. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 515-9 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this paper, we derive probability distribution of maternal ages at any specific order of birth, at final parity, and at next-to-last birth from current fertility and mortality experiences of [a] population. From these distributions we obtain the mean maternal ages conditioned on birth order and final parity and the mean birth interval. In addition, we estimate the parity progression ratios and ultimate parity distribution of the population." These concepts are illustrated using U.S. official data for the year 1970.
Correspondence: A. Pandey, University of North Carolina, University Square East 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30259 Pandey, Arvind; Suchindran, Chirayath M. Probability models of reproductive events using vital statistics data. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-3, Aug 1987. 17, [2] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"A class of analytical models to study the reproductive events of women from current fertility and mortality experiences of a population is presented. Distributions of maternal ages conditioned on specific birth order, final parity, and next-to-last birth have been derived so as to estimate their moments from the data on age-specific fertility and mortality rates. Further, fertility indices, such as mean birth interval, parity progression ratios, and ultimate parity distribution are ascertained." The models are applied to 1970 U.S. vital statistics data.
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30260 Peng, Xizhe. Major determinants of China's fertility transition. China Quarterly, No. 117, Mar 1989. 1-37 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The major determinants of China's fertility transition over the past 40 years are reviewed. The emphasis is on the links between intermediate variables such as socioeconomic and institutional factors and the decline in fertility, as well as on differences among regions. The author concludes that China has succeeded in reducing fertility prior to extensive modernization, due primarily to the development of an effective family planning program. The particular cultural and political factors that enabled such a program to be developed so effectively are noted.
Correspondence: X. Peng, Institute of Population Research, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30261 Poulain, Michel. A note concerning the comparability of five-year legitimate fertility rates calculated by age groups at marriage. [Note concernant la comparabilite des taux quinquennaux de fecondite legitime calcules par groupes d'ages au mariage.] DH: Bulletin d'Information, No. 53, Nov 1988. 31-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Some methodological issues concerning the calculation of five-year marital fertility rates for age groups immediately following marriage are considered. Data for France in the eighteenth century are used to illustrate the issues discussed. The emphasis is on the difficulty of making comparisons between the first five-year period in which the marriage occurred and subsequent five-year periods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30262 Pullum, Thomas W.; Tedrow, Lucky M.; Herting, Jerald R. Measuring change and continuity in parity distributions. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 485-98 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Procedures are developed to allocate the change in mean fertility to the change in specific parities or groups of parities. One procedure uses the proportion at each parity and another uses parity progression ratios. Both are based on the delta method for approximating change in a function of several variables. Drawing on an analogy to survival in a life table, the relational logit model is applied to parity progression. This method allows several parity distributions to be synthesized and to have differences summarized with two parameters. The three procedures are applied to successive cohorts of white U.S. women who completed their childbearing between 1920 and 1980."
Correspondence: T. W. Pullum, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30263 Rao, K. Vaninadha; Balakrishnan, T. R. Timing of first birth and second birth spacing in Canada. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 293-300 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In Canadian society the influence of first birth timing on the subsequent birth interval has been eroded over time, as shown by the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The influence of first birth timing is significant for second births among women married during the baby boom period, but not for those married thereafter. Religiosity, marital status, and place of residence are significant factors in second birth timing in Canada."
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30264 Rasevic, Miroslav. The demographic implications of low fertility trends in Proper Serbia. [Demografske implikacije nedovoljnog radanja u SR Srbiji van teritorija SAP.] Statisticka Revija, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, 1986. 160-6 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The implications of current low fertility trends in Proper Serbia (Serbia excluding Kosovo and Vojvodina), Yugoslavia, up to the year 2050 are analyzed. The author notes that past trends resulted in a continued positive rate of population growth up to 1980. However, after 1980 only a significant increase in fertility will prevent population decline. If current fertility trends continue, the population of Proper Serbia will decline from 5.7 to 3.8 million by the year 2050. The need for effective population policies to raise fertility is stressed.
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Institute of International Politics and Economics, POB 750, Makedonska 25, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30265 Schmid, J. The background of fertility behaviour in Europe--new social and psychological aspects. In: Population and family in the low countries VI, edited by R. L. Cliquet, G. Dooghe, J. de Jong-Gierveld, and F. van Poppel. Vol. 18, 1989. 1-16 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The recent European fertility decline is examined, with a focus on social, psychological, and behavioral aspects. Decision-making concerning reproductive behavior is discussed, and causes and consequences of decreased fertility are considered. These include changes in family and marriage patterns, economic conditions, wage earning, child worth, women's status, individual independence, and sexual behavior. Implications for fertility research, particularly in developed countries, are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30266 Schmid, J. The background to fertility behavior in Europe--new social and psychological aspects. [De achtergrond van het vruchtbaarheidsgedrag in Europa--nieuwe sociale en psychologische aspecten.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1988. 1-17 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut.
Changes in the factors affecting fertility and the family in Europe in the twentieth century are reviewed. Factors considered include industrialization, education, contraception, cohabitation, and individualism. The author posits that the cumulative impact of these changes has been to weaken the family and to reduce the level of fertility.
Correspondence: J. Schmid, Lehrstuhl fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Universitat Bamberg, Hornthalstrasse 2, 8600 Bamberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30267 Seiver, Daniel A. Seasonality of fertility: new evidence. Population and Environment, Vol. 10, No. 4, Summer 1989. 245-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents evidence that the seasonal pattern of American fertility applies to nonwhites as well as whites. The patterns are also changing in the same way over time: the summer trough in births is shrinking in magnitude, and the spread of airconditioning, reducing the heat of summer, can explain this shrinkage. The summer hypothesis is further buttressed by evidence, for the total population, that summer temperature extremes can explain a significant portion of the variation around the seasonal trend, in both the North and South. These temperature-induced variations appear to be offset within seven months of their occurrence."
Correspondence: D. A. Seiver, Department of Economics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30268 Shlomowitz, Ralph. Fertility and Fiji's Indian migrants, 1879-1919. Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1987. 205-13 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Fertility trends among Indian migrants to Fiji from 1879 to 1918 are analyzed. Consideration is also given to the fertility of Indian migrants to Suriname and Mauritius.
Correspondence: R. Shlomowitz, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30269 Shulman, Holly B. Investigating lunar cycles in monthly fertility rates. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 471-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We have attempted to simultaneously model and estimate a deterministic lunar effect in conjunction with a model for monthly general fertility rates....Despite numerous approaches to parameterization of a lunar component, no significant effect was found. Several intrinsic shortcomings of the data may make detection extremely difficult anyway. Hence, there is no need to include a lunar effect in the model for the monthly fertility rates."
Correspondence: H. B. Shulman, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30270 Siu, Yat-ming. Family structure, marriage and fertility in Hong Kong: demographic effects of the changing Chinese family. Pub. Order No. DA8907145. 1988. 200 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The relationship between family structure and fertility is studied using a model that emphasizes the temporal correspondence among variables. It "is tested under two specific conditions: the early post-nuptial period for women aged 21-45 and cumulative experience for women aged 35 to 45....[Findings indicate that] women who lived in extended households had a faster pace of early fertility, and higher cumulative fertility than women in [a] nuclear residence. Age at marriage played an important role in mediating the pronatal effect of the extended family." Data are from 1967 and 1972 Hong Kong family planning surveys.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(12).

55:30271 Smith, R. M. Transactional analysis and the measurement of institutional determinants of fertility: a comparison of communities in present-day Bangladesh and pre-industrial England. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 215-41 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The focus of this paper is influenced, indeed largely determined, by the work that Mead Cain has recently undertaken on 'institutional determinants' of fertility in village-focused research in Bangladesh and India....My own research relates to village-focused economic and demographic analysis of certain pre-industrial English communities....Both display 'natural fertility', for in neither situation is there much evidence to suggest significant amounts of parity-dependent fertility control. Nonetheless, total fertility levels in the two contexts are very different--a difference determined very largely by the age and incidence of marriage....It is a consideration of the institutional forms that relate to certain of these differences which forms the focus of this chapter." Institutions are defined here as "'rules that govern social interaction'...or structures within which social and economic intercourse occur."
For the article by Mead Cain, published in 1983, see 52:30794.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30272 Sugareva, Marta. Natality: status and prospects. [Razhdaemost--sastoyanie i perspektivi.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1988. 28-34 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Causes and consequences of the current fertility decline in the Lovech area of Bulgaria are examined. Demographic aging of the population and decreased average family size are noted as factors precipitating this decline. The need for implementation of a pronatalist policy is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30273 Sun, Te-Hsiung; Ting, Tin-Yu. Innovation-diffusion or adjustment: the case of Taiwanese fertility transition. Journal of Population Studies, No. 12, Jun 1989. 67-89 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper examines two competing perspectives in demographic transition theory and uses Taiwan as the case for analysis. Five KAP surveys of Taiwanese women's fertility behavior from 1965 to 1980 are adopted in this analysis. Both cross-sectional and pooled-time series analyses are presented to determine the impact of these two perspectives in the process of Taiwanese fertility transition. Findings suggest that both innovation-diffusion and adjustment models were important in explaining this fertility transition. Innovation-diffusion seemed to play a more important role in the early years whereas adjustment showed increasingly significant influence toward the end of the period."
Correspondence: T.-H. Sun, Research, Development, and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30274 Tabah, Leon. Modernization and fertility decline in Asia. [Modernisation et baisse de la fecondite en Asie.] Population et Societes, No. 235, May 1989. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent fertility trends in Asia are reviewed. The emphasis is on the relationship between the demographic transition and successful economic development.
Correspondence: INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30275 Teachman, Jay D.; Schollaert, Paul T. Gender of children and birth timing. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 411-23 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We address the impact of the gender of children on birth timing [in the United States]. Our findings suggest that a preference to balance the gender of children affects the timing of births, not a preference for either sons or daughters. At parity 2, women with children of the same sex time a third birth more rapidly than women with a boy and girl. At parity 1, women with a boy time second births more rapidly than women with a girl. This seemingly anomalous finding is explained, however, by the fact that women with boys are more likely than women with girls to be married at any point in time and thus less likely to have disrupted fertility careers." Data are from the 1973, 1976, and 1982 rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth.
Correspondence: J. D. Teachman, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30276 Tey, Nai Peng; Tan, Boon Ann; Tan, Poo Chang; Kwok, Kwan Kit. Direct and indirect determinants of fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. 1988. 62 pp. National Population and Family Development Board: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This paper has attempted to quantify and assess the fertility-inhibiting effects of three main intermediate variables, namely marriage, contraception and breastfeeding for the major [ethnic] subgroups of the [Malaysian] population. It also provides an update on our knowledge of the socioeconomic and demographic factors that effect fertility, and...the channels through which their effects are mediated." Data are from the 1984/85 Malaysian Population and Family Survey.
Correspondence: National Population Family Development Board, No. 22 Jalan Murai Dua, 51100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30277 Thomson, Elizabeth; McDonald, Elaine; Bumpass, Larry L. Couple (dis)agreement and baby boom fertility. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-28, Oct 1988. 23, [5] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors compare couple contraceptive use and fertility in the United States during the baby boom years and the 1970s. "We argue that...outcomes of [husband-wife] disagreement were a function of two primary features of the contraceptive regime--the behavioral status quo and wives' contraceptive autonomy. The contraceptive regime of the Baby Boom years differed in these two respects from that of the 1970s; many married couples did not use regular, effective contraception, and available methods required couple cooperation for effective use. Under this regime, we hypothesize that fertility disagreement should have had relatively pronatal effects, with wives' and husbands' desires equally likely to prevail. Using couple data from three waves of the Princeton Fertility Surveys, we find that disagreeing couples were as likely as couples who both wanted no more children to use effective contraceptive methods, but that disagreement led to pregnancy outcomes midway between those of couples who did not and did want another child, having average rather than antinatal effects....We discuss the implications of these findings for fertility prediction and the conceptualization and measurement of unwanted fertility."
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30278 Trussell, James; Vaughan, Barbara; Farid, Samir. Determinants of birth interval length. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 133-58 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the determinants of birth interval length for Egyptian women using a hazard model and data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. Variables considered include birth order, previous birth interval, maternal age, breast-feeding behavior, contraceptive use, parental educational status, and residence characteristics. Length of previous birth interval and other biological variables were found to be powerful predictors of birth intervals.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30279 Turke, Paul W. Evolution and the demand for children. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 61-90, 179, 181 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An interpretation of fertility transition is offered applying facts and theories of evolution to concepts and relationships in the literature on fertility determinants. The discussion is centered on a kin hypothesis involving five propositions....Preliminary support for the kin hypothesis is established with data from the demographic and anthropological literature." The focus of the propositions is on the effect of socioeconomic factors, particularly modernization, on childrearing costs and kinship networks. The author concludes that "as people enter modern economies, kinship networks break down, increasing the opportunity costs of rearing children, while opportunities themselves proliferate. These factors, in combination with a decrease in kin-based corporate control of resources, have been hypothesized to lead to reduced demand for children in modern societies."
Correspondence: P. W. Turke, Evolution and Human Behavior Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30280 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Fertility of American women: June 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 436, May 1989. iv, 71 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Fertility trends among women in the United States in 1988 are analyzed using data from the June 1988 supplement to the Current Population Survey. The data are presented by age, birth order, marital status, labor force participation, and ethnic group. Data are also included on birth expectations.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30281 Upadhyay, R. B. Factors associated with fertility change in India (1971 to 1985) (a path-analysis model). IIPS Newsletter, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1988. 1-12 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines the influence of socioeconomic factors on fertility in India. Seven socioeconomic variables and fertility measurements are used in a path analysis model that examines the causal factor of fertility changes for 1971, 1975, 1981, and 1985. Findings indicate that fertility decline has been most influenced by female literacy during the period 1981-1985. Data are primarily from Indian censuses.
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30282 van de Walle, Francine. Birth expectations in Bobo-Dioulasso. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 167-79 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author investigates some proximate determinants of birth intervals and family size expectations using data for 6,000 postpartum women living in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Factors considered include maternal age, breast-feeding, knowledge of contraceptive methods, sexual abstinence, family size expectations, and personal reasons for avoiding pregnancy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30283 Ventura, Stephanie J. Trends and variations in first births to older women, 1970-86. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 47, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1925. ISBN 0-8406-0415-7. Jun 1989. iv, 27 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Trends and variations in first-time childbearing [in the United States] by women in their thirties and older are presented for the years 1970-86. The report focuses on the decline in childbearing by women in their twenties, particularly well-educated women, and the extent to which these women have delayed motherhood. Maternal and infant health characteristics are also discussed. The information presented is drawn from the live birth certificates of all States and the District of Columbia."
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30284 Vidal, Jolanda M. K.-T. Spanish integration in Europe: the demographic transition. [Spaniens Integration in Europa: der demographische Ubergang.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1988. 461-78 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author discusses trends in fertility and reproductive behavior during the last 30 years in Spain, with an emphasis on the impact of cultural and socioeconomic modernization. Like other Western European industrialized societies, Spain is experiencing a demographic transition, which the author examines in terms of demographic aging, mortality, life expectancy, nuptiality, women's status, and legalized abortion.
Correspondence: J. M. K.-T. Vidal, Institut fur Soziologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Konradstrasse 6, 8000 Munich 40, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30285 Vignikin, Kokou. Agricultural production and migration: the case of southeastern Togo. [Production agricole et migrations: le cas du sud-est Togo.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.1.61-76 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of migration in southeastern Togo, Africa, on agricultural productivity and fertility is examined. The author makes a case for increased fertility as a means of compensating for the loss of family members due to migration from rural areas. The strategy developed by the rural household involves increasing fertility in order to provide agricultural workers. The increased family size overcomes the economic burden of providing for a larger household.
Correspondence: K. Vignikin, Unite de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30286 Vining, Daniel R. Below-replacement fertility in five regions of the world. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 3, Spring 1989. 211-20 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study is concerned with fertility trends in developed countries. Specifically, the author presents "(1) a complete empirical treatment of below-replacement fertility in the developed world, including East Asia; and (2) the hypothesis that economic development means demographic decline. My hypothesis is that countries that become developed have below-replacement fertility."
Correspondence: D. R. Vining, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30287 Vishnevskii, A. G. Methods for the quantitative analysis of fertility. [Metody kolichestvennogo analiza rozhdaemosti.] In: Metody issledovaniya, edited by A. G. Vishnevskii. 1986. 45-78, 181-2 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses problems involved in the analysis of fertility. A system of indexes of various aspects of fertility is described that uses both real and simulated data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30288 Vlassoff, Carol. Micro-study of culture and fertility in rural Maharashtra. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 74-87 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The present paper discusses the advantages of incorporating a micro-approach into larger demographic surveys, using a study conducted by the author in rural India as an illustrative case. The study examined the relationship between cultural factors and fertility and family planning among rural Indian women. The main objectives of the research were to explore the nature and degree of traditionalism among these women, and the extent to which cultural attitudes and values influenced fertility and family planning practice." Data are for the period 1975-1976.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30289 Wang, Jiansheng. A microeconomic study of fertility behavior in rural China. Pub. Order No. DA8825071. 1988. 293 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to design and carry out a field survey in rural China based on the microeconomic theory of fertility and cost-benefit analysis in order to ascertain the impact of the changing economic environment on fertility determinants and desires."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at New York University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30290 Wilson, Chris. The proximate determinants of marital fertility in England 1600-1799. In: The world we have gained: histories of population and social structure, edited by Lloyd Bonfield, Richard M. Smith, and Keith Wrightson. 1986. 203-30 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The method of family reconstitution is used to analyze the proximate determinants of marital fertility in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England. The data cover 16 parishes and are from reconstitutions carried out by the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure. Consideration is given to fecundability, the postpartum non-susceptible period including breast-feeding, and other factors that, in the absence of contraception, increased the intervals between births.
Correspondence: C. Wilson, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30291 Xie, Yu. Measuring regional variation in sex preference in China: a cautionary note. Social Science Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1989. 291-305 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper critically examines the issue of measuring regional variation in sex preference in China. It demonstrates that the conclusion of previous research...on this subject is largely an artifact that is due to floor and ceiling effects as well as sampling variability. This paper proposes alternative measures that are combined with statistical models. After correcting for floor and ceiling effects and considering sampling variability, it is shown that while sex preference undoubtedly exists in China, the degree of sex preference does not vary by region. Differentials are evident, however, by educational attainment and urban status."
Correspondence: Y. Xie, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30292 Yadava, R. C.; Pandey, Arvind. On the distribution of straddling birth intervals. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-1, Jul 1987. 16 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Based on some simplified assumptions relating to the human reproduction process, we discuss probability models for the study of straddling birth intervals. One of the models for illustration has been applied to an observed set of data taken from a sample survey on maternity histories of women in Varanasi [India]."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30293 Yamaguchi, Kazuo. A formal theory for male-preferring stopping rules of childbearing: sex differences in birth order and in the number of siblings. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 451-65 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Through mathematical deductions, this article shows certain macro-demographic consequences of individually employed male-preferring stopping rules in childbearing [for the United States]. It is shown that male-preferring stopping rules generate differences between boys and girls in birth order and in the number of siblings. Two situations are considered regarding the latent probability of having a boy: population homogeneity and population heterogeneity. The sex difference in the number of siblings exists even under population homogeneity, and the difference remains constant when each couple employs a distinct alternative rule. On the other hand, the sex difference in the birth order exists only under population heterogeneity. Substantive implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: K. Yamaguchi, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30294 Yusuf, Farhat; Rukanuddin, A. R. Correlates of fertility behaviour in Pakistan. Biology and Society, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jun 1989. 61-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The present study analyses some recent data from the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (PCPS) on demographic, socioeconomic and family planning correlates of fertility in Pakistan." Average parity is taken as the dependent variable and the independent variables were studied after controlling for variations in the age distributions of women in different categories of these variables. "Finally, an attempt was made to fit a series of multiple regression models. The object was to study the effects of selected independent variables on the cumulative fertility levels in Pakistan, and separately for the rural and urban segments of the national population."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

55:30295 Bell, Martin. Spatial variations in fertility in Queensland. APRU Discussion Paper, No. 1/89, Jan 1989. v, 44 pp. University of Queensland, Department of Geographical Sciences, Applied Population Research Unit [APRU]: St. Lucia, Australia. In Eng.
Fertility differentials among the local authority areas of Queensland, Australia, are described using data from official sources. The author also attempts to identify regional empirical regularities in the age profile of fertility. Regression analysis is used to explain the observed differentials in fertility. The implications of the analysis for population forecasting are also considered. This is the first in a planned series of discussion papers.
Correspondence: APRU, Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30296 Bondarskaya, G.; Darskii, L. Ethnic differentials in fertility in the USSR. [Etnicheskaya differentsiatsiya rozhdaemosti v SSSR.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 12, 1988. 16-21 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Ethnic differentials in fertility in the USSR are analyzed using data from official sources. Age-specific and total fertility rates for women of various nationalities are presented by Union republic for selected years from 1945 to 1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30297 Boyd, Robert L. Racial differences in childlessness: a centennial review. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-13, Mar 1988. 31, [11] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper presents an overview of black-white differences in childlessness from the late 1800s to the present [in the United States]. The paper begins with a brief description of past trends and a review of the health and social factors underlying the high rates of black childlessness early in this century. This historical sketch is followed by a discussion of the racial divergence since 1940. Here it is suggested that recent trends in childlessness are largely the result of broad societal changes, including the movement to greater economic opportunity for women and blacks. Finally, the paper offers suggestions for future research."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30298 Casterline, John B.; Eid, Ismail. Village characteristics and reproductive behaviour. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 575-607 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"In this chapter we have investigated the relationship between village characteristics and reproductive behaviour in rural Egypt....The EFS [Egyptian Fertility Survey] indicates that in rural Egypt little volitional control is exercised over fertility, and hence we have argued that, while village factors might motivate larger or smaller families, there is no reason to expect substantial fertility differentials according to type of village. Thus differentials in fertility aspirations as well as differentials in levels of contraceptive use and recent fertility have been examined. Our approach has been to first develop models of the individual-level predictors of fertility, and then to test for additional effects of village characteristics....It is clear from the findings that motivations for large and small families are influenced by features of the village setting. The emergence of non-agricultural economic opportunities and the modernization of agricultural practice were hypothesized to transform the role of children and, as a consequence, the value placed on having a large number. The results are consistent with this reasoning...."
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30299 Chamnivickorn, Suchittra. Fertility, labor supply and investment in child quality among white and Asian-American women. Pub. Order No. DA8821005. 1988. 425 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines differences in fertility, labor force participation, and investment in child quality among U.S. adult white women and the three largest groups of Asian-American women (Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos). The results indicate that "the interaction between quantity and quality of children implies greater parental investments in child quality for Japanese immigrant women, less for the Chinese immigrants and least for Filipino immigrant women." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 U.S. censuses.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30300 Chandna, R. C.; Sharma, Dhaneshwari. Education as a determinant of fertility (a case study of Kullu town). Population Geography, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1987. 45-55 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The relationship between fertility and parents' educational status is analyzed using data for 50 percent of the females living in Kullu town, India. Findings indicate a negative correlation between fertility and the educational level of both males and females. However, the impact of female educational attainment is most influential in determining family size.
Correspondence: R. C. Chandna, Department of Geography, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30301 Clerici, Renata. Fertility, employment, and migration. Differential fertility according to migration experience using census data. [Fecondita, lavoro e migrazioni. Fecondita differenziale secondo esperienze di mobilita da dati di censimento.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 26, No. 93, Mar 1989. 35-51 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Differential fertility in Italy by occupation is analyzed using census data. The author uses the own-children method to develop retrospective estimates of period fertility for women in 1976 and 1981. The occupational status categories used are "employed in the same sector, employed in a different sector, no longer employed, new employed, never employed. A strong relation appears between work status changes and fertility trends: the women who recently obtained a new job touch the lowest level of fertility, while those who left their job reach the highest level." The impact of migration and nuptiality is also considered.
Correspondence: R. Clerici, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30302 Diabira, Talibe. The fertility of the young in Mauritania: an in-depth analysis of data from the National Mauritanian Fertility Survey. [Fecondite des jeunes en Mauritanie: analyses approfondies des donnees de l'Enquete Nationale Mauritanienne sur la Fecondite.] Serie Etudes et Recherches, No. 2, Sep 1988. 57 pp. Direction de la Statistique et de la Comptabilite Nationale, Centre d'Etudes Demographiques et Sociales [CEDS]: Nouakchott, Mauritania. In Fre.
Fertility, particularly unwanted pregnancy, among young women in Mauritania is analyzed using data from the National Fertility Survey of 1981, which was conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey. Consideration is also given to the consequences of adolescent fertility, measures that could be adopted to reduce it, and trends in nuptiality.
Location: New York Public Library.

55:30303 Dietzenbacher, Erik. The dynamics of population growth, differential fertility, and inequality: comment. American Economic Review, Vol. 79, No. 3, Jun 1989. 584-7 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by David Lam in which the relationship between population growth and income distribution was analyzed in an applied model that allowed for both differential fertility across income classes and intergenerational mobility. The author presents a new model and discusses its merits.
For the article by Lam, published in 1986, see 52:40350.
Correspondence: E. Dietzenbacher, Econometrics Institute, University of Groningen, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30304 Eggebeen, David J.; Uhlenberg, Peter. Changes in the age distribution of parents, 1940-1980. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 10, No. 2, Jun 1989. 169-88 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
The authors examine how fertility patterns of U.S. women have changed during the period 1940-1980 and "how these changes have affected the age distribution of parents for successive cohorts of children. We find that the average age of mothers and fathers has declined across cohorts of children. Part of the reason for this decline in mean ages is the precipitous decline in the proportion of black and white children who have mothers and fathers more than 35 years older than themselves. The proportion of white children born to teenage mothers changed very little during this time period. However, the likelihood of black children being born to very young mothers increased rapidly after 1960." Data are from the U.S. census.
Correspondence: D. J. Eggebeen, Department of Individual and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30305 Garenne, Michel; van de Walle, Etienne. Polygyny and fertility among the Sereer of Senegal. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1989. 267-83 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The effect of polygyny on fertility in Senegal is examined. The authors find that "although plural marriages are less fertile and the rank order of the wife has an effect, the mechanism appears to operate through the age difference of the spouses and the greater likelihood of temporary separate residence in the case of polygynous marriages. An examination of birth intervals suggests that the lower fecundity of older men, rather than a reduction of the frequency of intercourse, is the main factor. However, there is little relation between the fertility of different wives of the same polygynists." Data are from a longitudinal study conducted during the period 1963-1981.
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, BP 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30306 Haines, Michael R. Social class differentials during fertility decline: England and Wales revisited. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1989. 305-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Differentials [in fertility] across occupational or socio-economic groups have been studied for England and Wales to examine the pace of the adoption of fertility control across groups. Occupation of husband was used to create social-class aggregates. The conclusion...that 'higher' social-class or status groups led the decline, while 'lower' social-class or status groups lagged, although not by many years, [is supported by]...a re-analysis of the 1911 Census of Marriage and Fertility of England and Wales, using alternative aggregations and other measures of socio-economic well-being."
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Wayne State University, Department of Economics, Detroit, MI 48202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30307 Hernandez, Raul; Gonzalez, Fernando; Catasus, Sonia; Morejon, Blanca; Grove, Rosario; Farnos, Alfonso. Cuba: socioeconomic aspects of fertility differences. A case study. [Cuba: aspectos socioeconomicos de los diferenciales de la fecundidad. Un estudio de casos.] 1988. 175 pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Fertility differentials in Cuba are analyzed using data from a survey of 3,302 women aged 15-59, which included women from urban, suburban, and rural areas. Attention is paid to the impact on fertility of family characteristics, educational and cultural levels, economic activity, age at marriage, desired family size, birth spacing, and use of contraception and induced abortion.
Correspondence: CEDEM, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30308 Herold, Joan M.; Westoff, Charles F.; Warren, Charles W.; Seltzer, Judith. Catholicism and fertility in Puerto Rico. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 79, No. 9, Sep 1989. 1,258-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between fertility and religious association in Puerto Rico by applying Bongaarts's proximate determinants framework to data from a fertility and family planning survey conducted in 1982. The survey was a two-stage, disproportionate stratified cluster sample design that resulted in completed personal interviews with 3,175 women aged 15-49. The results show no significant difference between Catholics and non-Catholics with regard to fertility, age at first marriage, contraceptive usage, and breast-feeding.
Correspondence: J. M. Herold, Emory University, International Health Track, Division of Public Health, Woodruff Health Sciences Center, Drawer G, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30309 Horne, A. Dale; Suchindran, Chirayath M. Maternal age at last birth and reproductive span. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 159-75 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Variations in female age at last birth and length of reproductive span among subgroups of the Egyptian population are presented. Using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey, the authors evaluate differences among women according to educational status, parity, status of first marriage, number of marriages, and urban or rural residence. Implications for maternal and infant health and population growth are discussed.
Correspondence: A. D. Horne, American University in Cairo, POB 2511, 113 Sharia Kasr El-Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30310 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). Birth order differentials in India, 1984. [1988]. ix, 213 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Results are presented of a special survey conducted by units of the Sample Registration System (SRS) in 1984 on differential fertility in India. Separate consideration is given to India and the major states and rural and urban areas. Differential fertility is also analyzed by age, age at marriage, religion, caste, household income, and household expenditure on food.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, West Block 1, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30311 Jia, Zhongke. An inquiry into causes of county-level specific fertility differences in Gansu province. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, 1987. 25-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Fertility differentials among the 78 counties of Gansu province, China, are analyzed using data from the 1982 census. Three alternative methods of analysis are applied to the data to identify the social, political, and economic factors that affect fertility differentials. The author also notes that changes in population characteristics are associated with fertility differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30312 Liao, Tim F. Immanence and transcendence: the relationship between patterns of family decision-making and fertility among Catholics and Protestants. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-8, Feb 1988. 16, [2] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"[Guy E.] Swanson attributes the spread of Protestantism and the Reformation vis-a-vis the existence of Catholicism to the form of governance in the European societies....In this paper the author takes up Swanson's theoretical framework, and studies the Catholic fertility differential...in the light of this organizational/patterns of decision-making approach. It is concluded that an American woman living in a sociological setting that used to be conducive to the existence of Catholicism in the old days would have a higher fertility, regardless of being a Catholic and her marital age, though this effect of patterns of decision-making in the family would not be dependent on her religion." Data are from a 1978 survey of 650 women in Detroit, Michican.
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30313 McHorney, Colleen A. Too young, too soon, too fast: rapid repeat pregnancy among inner-city adolescents. Pub. Order No. DA8822561. 1988. 268 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation...studies repeat pregnancies among [U.S.] adolescents to develop and test a multidimensional model identifying sociological, psychological, cognitive, interpersonal, and behavioral antecedents of subsequent adolescent fertility." Chapters are included on the social context of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood, past conceptualizations of the determinants of adolescent fertility behavior, the development and justification of the model, and the methodological aspects of the study.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30314 Mulder, Monique B. Marital status and reproductive performance in Kipsigis women: re-evaluating the polygyny-fertility hypothesis. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1989. 285-304 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The effects of marital status on fertility and offspring survivorship are examined with data on six marriage cohorts of Kipsigis women, agro-pastoralists of south western Kenya. Neither marriage order, nor the average number of co-wives married to a man during a woman's reproductive years, is associated with completed family size, nor with any of the components of reproductive performance. The mechanisms whereby polygyny might potentially lower the reproductive performance of polygynously married women in the Kipsigis and other populations are discussed in some detail, with particular reference to resource shortages, sexual and economic favouritism, the observance of post partum taboos, disease, husband's age, co-wife co-operation, education, sterility, and age at menarche and marriage."
Correspondence: M. B. Mulder, University of Michigan, Evolution and Human Behavior Program, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30315 Osheba, Ibrahim K. T. Determinants of regional fertility differences in Egypt. Pub. Order No. DA8821633. 1988. 207 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This is a study of both the direct (proximate) and antecedent determinants of the difference in fertility between rural Lower and rural Upper Egypt and between urban Lower and urban Upper Egypt. Data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and the 1976 population census of Egypt are utilized. The methodology used derives from the analysis of covariance, regression decomposition, and the multilevel model." Factors considered include duration of marriage, contraceptive usage, infant and child mortality rates, age at marriage, and educational status.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30316 Ross, G. Alexander. Delaying the fertility decline: German women in Saginaw County, Michigan, 1850-1880. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1989. 157-70 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Using U.S. manuscript censuses from 1850 to 1880, the study examines changes in fertility of women in Saginaw County, Michigan, during the period in which the county became a major center of the lumber industry in North America. The German states were an important source of immigration to Saginaw County during this period and the paper focuses particularly on the fertility of German women in contrast to native-born women and those of other nativity. The comparison reveals that, although other groups of women exhibited a marked decline in fertility, German women sustained a high fertility level to the end of the period of study."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30317 Singh, K. P. Religion and fertility: a study in differentials. Population Geography, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1988. 18-27 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
Fertility differentials among religious groups in India are examined, with a focus on minority status and on demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The impact of these factors on acceptance of family planning programs is discussed.
Correspondence: K. P. Singh, Director of Population Research Centre, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, Union Territory, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30318 Weeks, John R.; Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Brindis, Claire; Korenbrot, Carol C.; Minkler, Donald. High fertility among Indochinese refugees. Public Health Reports, Vol. 104, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 143-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"From 1975 to 1988, nearly 900,000 Indochinese refugees were resettled in the United States. This paper examines patterns of fertility among these refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who have exhibited high levels of reproduction since their arrival. Data are drawn from sample surveys in San Diego and San Francisco [California]. Fertility levels were found to exceed five children per ever-married woman....Fertility levels were significantly higher among rural second-wave refugees than in the more urban first-wave groups." Factors affecting fertility levels were fertility level in sending area; preference for male children; and cultural, financial, and motivational limitations to using family planning. "The data suggest that this refugee population will continue to put pressure on maternal and child health resources, and that continued residence in the United States could lead to desires to limit family size, thus increasing demand for methods of fertility control."
Correspondence: J. R. Weeks, International Population Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

55:30319 Ellis, Gary B. New reproductive technologies: medical and social choices. Distinguished Lectures in the Social Sciences, Nov 1988. 14 pp. Northern Illinois University, Social Science Research Institute: De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
The author discusses trends in infertility in the United States, with a focus on the size of the affected population, the scope of childlessness, and the personal and societal problems created by it. Possible causes of infertility are examined, and diagnostic and treatment possibilities, including future reproductive technologies, are discussed. The author also addresses some ethical issues raised by the new technologies.
Correspondence: Social Science Research Institute, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, IL 60115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30320 Murthy, G. V. S.; Kapoor, S. K.; Reddaiah, V. P.; Nath, L. M. A study on pregnancy wastage in rural area of Haryana. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 26-34 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Pregnancies occurring in a rural Indian village from June 1983 to May 1984 are analyzed according to spontaneous or induced abortion, fetal death, live birth, birth order, and maternal parity. Other factors considered that affect pregnancy outcomes are socioeconomic status, caste, and maternal age.
Correspondence: G. V. S. Murthy, Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

55:30321 Alauddin, M.; VanLandingham, Mark. Young, low-parity women: critical target group for family planning in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1989. 49-58 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors examine the need to target young, low-parity women for family planning services in Bangladesh. Although contraceptive prevalence rates have slowly increased in recent years, the highest fertility rate is among young couples just beginning their families. Recommended interventions include "registration of couples, provision of fieldworker and supervisor training focused on this target group, and the expansion of [maternal and child health] services...." The importance of increased availability of temporary contraceptive methods, media campaigns, and promotion of breast-feeding is also noted.
Correspondence: M. Alauddin, Pathfinder Fund, G.P.O. 2721, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30322 Alvarez Vazquez, Luisa; Catasus Cervera, Sonia. A survey on fertility and the prevalence of contraceptive methods: Las Tunas, 1985. General information. [Encuesta de fecundidad y prevalencia de metodos anticonceptivos: Las Tunas, 1985. Informe general.] 1988. 57, [20] pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
These are the results of a 1985 survey on fertility and contraceptive prevalence in the Cuban province of Las Tunas. The survey included 891 urban and 649 rural households; a total of 1,574 women aged 13-44 were interviewed. Characteristics analyzed included age, marital status, educational status, occupation, and ideal age at marriage. A chapter on reproductive characteristics examines contraceptive methods chosen, age-specific fertility, geographic differences in fertility, and characteristics of heads of households.
Correspondence: CEDEM, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30323 Askew, Ian. Organizing community participation in family planning projects in South Asia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 185-202 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents the findings from a comparative analysis of seven case studies of community participation projects implemented by the nongovernmental Family Planning Associations (FPAs) of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. The analysis focuses on the interactions betweeen staff and communities and assesses the extent to which the organization of the FPAs encourages and enables participation in project implementation. The results suggest that, despite the policy rhetoric seeking greater community involvement and self-reliance in program implementation, FPAs most commonly use participation as a means to generate new demand for services by presenting family planning in a manner that is acceptable and appropriate to the communities involved."
Correspondence: I. Askew, Institute of Population Studies, University of Exeter, Hoopern House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter EX4 6DT, Devon, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30324 Ballweg, John A.; Pagtolun-an, Imelda G.; Baez, Leovigildo. A field study in the Dominican Republic: fertility behavior response to child loss. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1989. 107-22 pp. Ghaziabad, India. In Eng.
"This report is focused on the impact of infant and child mortality on fertility behavior [in the Dominican Republic], as it manifests itself in the acceptance or rejection of family planning program involvement." Findings indicate that child loss is associated with a slight decrease in contraceptive acceptance but that overall contraceptive use increased with household distribution of contraceptives through a community-based distribution program.
Correspondence: J. A. Ballweg, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30325 Bruce, Judith. Fundamental elements of the quality of care: a simple framework. Programs Division Working Paper, No. 1, May 1989. 90 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper argues for attention to a neglected dimension of family planning services--their quality. A framework for assessing quality from the client's perspective is offered, consisting of six parts (choice of methods, information given to clients, technical competence, interpersonal relations, follow-up and continuity mechanisms, and the appropriate constellation of services)." The author examines how far improvements in these dimensions have actually resulted in gains at the individual or program level. "A concluding chapter discusses how to make practical use of the framework and distinguishes three vantage points from which to view quality: the structure of the program, the service giving process itself, and the outcome of care, particularly with respect to individual knowledge, behavior, and satisfaction with services." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Programs Division, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30326 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Palmore, James A.; Ward, Sandra E. Choosing a contraceptive: method choice in Asia and the United States. ISBN 0-8133-7728-5. LC 89-5415. 1989. xxiv, 347 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England; East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
This collection of papers by various authors is a product of a seminar held at the East-West Population Institute in Honolulu, Hawaii, in August 1985; the emphasis is on determinants of contraceptive method choice. Geographical focus is primarily on Asia and the United States. Consideration is given to psychosocial aspects, cultural comparisons of physicians' perceptions, accessibility, and pricing. Country-specific papers are included on the Republic of Korea, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, and the United States.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30327 Crafts, N. F. R. Duration of marriage, fertility and women's employment opportunities in England and Wales in 1911. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1989. 325-35 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1911 Census of England and Wales are examined for evidence of family limitation early in marriage. It is shown that a substantial number of couples used birth control for 'spacing' as well as for 'stopping' fertility. Moreover 'spacing' of births appears to have been more widespread in districts in which women's employment opportunities were relatively good. In general, the results obtained do not fit with the Princeton view of the European fertility transition with its stress on parity-specific family limitation spreading in response to improvements in contraceptive information and technology."
Correspondence: N. F. R. Crafts, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30328 Ding, Weikeh V. Contraceptive sterilization: a multivariate analysis of United States data. Pub. Order No. DA8826982. 1987. 76 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Determinants of contraceptive choice among U.S. women aged 15-44 years were analyzed using data from the 1976 National Survey of Family Growth. Variables considered include wife's education, women's labor force participation, religion, parity, ethnic group, husband's occupational status, and prior family planning.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Dallas.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30329 Easterlin, Richard A.; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Osheba, Ibrahim T. Determinants of fertility control. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 609-43 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The explanation of observed variations in use of fertility control is the central concern of this paper. Generally speaking, use of fertility control is believed to depend on the strength of the household's motivation to limit family size,...its attitudes toward family planning methods, and its ease of access to such methods. In seeking to explain household variations in fertility control, this paper employs a theory that suggests certain measures of motivation, attitudes, and access, and fits an econometric model based on this theory to the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey (EFS) data...."
Correspondence: R. A. Easterlin, Department of Economics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0152. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30330 El-Attar, Mohamed. Knowledge and use of contraception in rural and urban Iraq. Arab Journal of the Social Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2, Oct 1988. 294-308 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates variation in birth control knowledge and practices in Iraq as reported in the 1974 National Fertility Sample Survey. The descriptive and inferential statistical analysis indicated the existence of significant rural-urban differentials in knowledge and use of contraceptive methods by ever-married women. With the continuation of the war with Iran, the Iraqi government has adopted pro-natal policy to spur population growth. Whether such a policy achieves its goals is a matter deserving further investigation."
Correspondence: M. El-Attar, Department of Sociology, Kuwait University, POB 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30331 El-Deeb, Bothina; Casterline, John B. Determinants of contraceptive use. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 527-73 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This chapter presents detailed analysis of contraceptive use in Egypt. Underlying the extensive findings from multivariate analysis is a simple framework: the decision by a woman to contracept is viewed as a function of two types of factors, the motivation to use and the costs of use." A woman's desired family size, age, parity, educational status, socioeconomic status, perceived costs of children, value orientation, and cultural background are considered as determinants of motivation to use contraception. Costs of use include "time costs of obtaining contraceptives, financial costs of contraceptives, and social costs....The first, and the principal, objective of the analysis is investigation of the factors determining current use of contraception, because levels of current use translate directly into effects on fertility....In order to obtain a rough picture of this process, we examine the timing of first use and then carry out multivariate analysis of ever-use and of current use among ever-users, the latter taken as a rough indicator of continuation of use."
Correspondence: B. El-Deeb, Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Salah Salem Road, POB 2086, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30332 Entwisle, Barbara; Casterline, John B.; Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Villages as contexts for contraceptive behavior in rural Egypt. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-22, Aug 1988. 48, [4] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
Contraceptive behavior in a rural Egyptian village is studied from sociological and demographic perspectives. "We aim to show that village setting not only affects contraceptive behavior of individual women, but that the nature of these influences depends on the individual: namely, her stage in the life course and her motivation to limit further childbearing....[It is found that] a wide range of community factors are of potential importance to contraceptive behavior, including characteristics of labor and commodity markets, norms concerning roles of women and children, and the density of health and family planning services. These factors are hypothesized to influence contraceptive behavior by altering the value of children to parents and households, costs of childbearing, and barriers to adopting and continuing to use a contraceptive method."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 490).
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30333 Ewbank, Douglas C. Estimating birth stopping and spacing behavior. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 473-83 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"A decomposition of age-specific marital fertility rates into indices related to spacing and stopping is developed by using Coale and Trussell's indices and the first few parity progression ratios. This approach leads to estimates of the mean birth interval among low-parity births that can be used to address the issue of fertility control early in marriage. In this way the model addresses several of the most serious limitations of Coale and Trussell's approach. The usefulness of the proposed indices is demonstrated by applications to historical data from the United States and Europe."
Correspondence: D. C. Ewbank, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30334 Family Planning Association of Hong Kong. Task Force on the Study of Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Hong Kong 1987 (Hong Kong). Report on the survey of family planning knowledge, attitude and practice in Hong Kong, 1987. 1989. 147 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
These are the results of the 1987 KAP survey, the fifth in a series conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong. The survey covered a total of 1,511 married women aged 15-49. Following an introduction to the survey and its respondents, chapters are included on attitudes toward childbearing, knowledge of and attitudes toward contraception, and contraceptive practice. Other special topics considered include the contraceptive market and knowledge of the Association's services, unwanted births, method change and discontinuation, breast-feeding, parents and sex education, and family life cycle analysis.
Correspondence: Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 10th Floor, Southorn Centre, 130 Hennessy Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30335 Goldman, Noreen; Moreno, Lorenzo; Westoff, Charles E. Collection of survey data on contraception: an evaluation of an experiment in Peru. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 147-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this analysis is to compare two different approaches to the collection of information on contraceptives use. The data for this comparison are derived from the 1986 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Peru. Approximately 7,500 women were interviewed with the standard DHS questionnaire, whereas about 5,000 women received an 'experimental questionnaire.' The major difference between the questionnaires is the inclusion of a six-year monthly calendar in the experimental questionnaire that records pregnancies, contraceptive use, and postpartum information, in contrast to the more common tabular format of the standard questionnaire. The analysis demonstrates that although reports of contraceptive knowledge, ever-use, and current use are relatively robust to the variations in questionnaire design, estimates of past use are dependent on the survey instrument. Several different comparisons indicate that reporting of information on contraceptive histories in the experimental questionnaire is superior to that in the standard one."
Correspondence: N. Goldman, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30336 Huber, Sallie C.; Harvey, Philip D. Family planning programmes in ten developing countries: cost effectiveness by mode of service delivery. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 267-77 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The cost effectiveness of various modes of family planning service delivery based on the cost per couple-year of protection (CYP) is assessed using 1984 data for 63 projects in ten [developing] countries....More than 4.8 million CYPs were provided through these projects during the year studied. Programmes with the highest volume of services delivered corresponded to lowest average costs: social marketing (2.8 million CYPs) and sterilization projects (960,000 CYPs) cost about 2 [U.S. dollars] per CYP, on average: highest costs were for full service clinics and community-based distribution projects....Costs of clinics combined with community-based distribution services fell approximately midway between these two extremes."
Correspondence: S. C. Huber, 407 East 91st Street, New York, NY. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30337 Ilinigumugabo, Aloys. Birth spacing in Rwanda: levels, causes, and consequences. [L'espacement des naissances au Rwanda: niveaux, causes et consequences.] ISBN 2-87085-181-2. May 1989. 243 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Birth-spacing patterns in Rwanda are analyzed using data from a recent fertility survey, the first results of which were published in 1985. The different forms of nuptiality and postpartum sexual taboos are first described. Chapters are included on the hypotheses to be tested in the study, the determinants of birth-spacing, analysis of birth intervals using a proportional hazards model, lactation and postpartum amenorrhea, the instability of conjugal unions in Rwanda, and the impact of changes in birth spacing on fertility and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: CIACO Editeur, avenue Einstein 9, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30338 Islam, M. Mazharul; Uddin, M. Mosleh. An analysis of the empirical relationship between contraceptive prevalence and fertility in Bangladesh. Dhaka University Studies, Part B, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jan 1988. 7-14 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper presents an empirical relationship between contraceptive prevalence and fertility [in Bangladesh]. It also shows how much the level of contraceptive practice is to be raised to reach a targeted level of fertility on the assumption that all other intermediate variables that influence the fertility remain constant. Regression analysis has been used to measure the relationship. A formula derived from Bongaarts's model is used to find the level of contraceptive practice required to reach a targeted fertility." Data are from a variety of sources, including four contraceptive prevalence surveys carried out between 1979 and 1985, the 1975 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, and official statistical sources.
Correspondence: M. M. Islam, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

55:30339 Jones, Elise F.; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Contraceptive failure in the United States: revised estimates from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 103-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
U.S. patterns of contraceptive failure are analyzed based on the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. "It is estimated that only about half of all abortions occurring during the period covered...were actually reported in the survey; thus, contraceptive failure rates calculated from these data are almost certainly inaccurate. An attempt to correct for the underreporting of abortion indicates that actual 12-month use-failure rates are more than one-third higher than those calculated without taking abortion underreporting into account, with rates ranging from six percent for the pill to 14-16 percent for the condom, diaphragm and rhythm and to 26 percent for spermicides. Patterns of contraceptive failure are similar to those found in earlier studies."
Correspondence: E. F. Jones, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30340 Jones, Elise F. The availability of contraception. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 483-526 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
In this report, based on the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey, the author examines the availability of contraception in Egypt. She analyzes regional variations in women's knowledge of contraceptive sources, accessibility of contraceptive services, accessibility and knowledge of method sources, and accessibility of family planning facilities and use of contraception. Data are from 8,012 currently married women who live with their husbands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30341 Koblinsky, Marjorie A.; Brechin, Susan J. G.; Clark, Samuel D.; Hasan, M. Yousuf. Helping managers to manage: work schedules of field-workers in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 225-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning (MCH/FP) Extension Project in Bangladesh identifies and examines barriers to implementation of the national MCH/FP program, and determines strategies to overcome them. This study analyzes field-workers' ability to carry out more tasks than they do presently, and how their performance might be improved when additional field-workers are hired."
Correspondence: M. A. Koblinsky, Maternal and Neonatal Health and Nutrition Project, John Snow Inc., 1100 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30342 Lodewijckx, E.; Impens, K. K. Unwanted and mistimed conceptions in Flanders. Evolution during the past 15 years and demographic implications. In: Population and family in low countries VI, edited by R. L. Cliquet, G. Dooghe, J. de Jong-Gierveld, and F. van Poppel. Vol. 18, 1989. 77-96 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors examine unwanted and mistimed pregnancies in Dutch-speaking Belgium over the last 15 years using data from 1976 and 1983 NEGO fertility surveys. "Temporal changes in planning behaviour, planning result and contraceptive profile are traced by means of Lexis diagrams." The impact on family planning behavior of woman's educational level and religion and her partner's occupation are analyzed. Overall fertility rates indicate that "16% of all conceptions were unwanted and 13% were mistimed. Moreover, a differentiation by educational level of the woman and by profession of her partner subsisted. A fertility decline of another 6% is expected for the eighties. One third to one sixth of this drop should be explained by a continuing decline [in] unwanted conceptions, due to a further amelioration of the contraceptive profile."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30343 Luthra, Rashmi. Communication in the social marketing of contraceptives: a case study of the Bangladesh project. Pub. Order No. DA8903029. 1988. 248 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh. The focus is on the social implications of family planning marketing strategy, especially within the context of a developing country.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(12).

55:30344 O'Haire, Hugh. Indonesia moves towards private family planning. Populi, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1989. 14-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines Indonesia's effort to transfer the financial responsibility for its family planning program from the government to the people by means of social marketing. Cost, contraceptive availability, and the program's ability to recruit new acceptors are discussed as factors affecting this transition. A profile of Jakarta as an example of family planning in Indonesia is provided, and various UNFPA-supported projects are discussed. Data are from 1985 official Indonesian sources.
Correspondence: H. O'Haire, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30345 Omondi-Odhiambo. Men and family planning in Kenya: an exploration. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 89-52, 1989. 36 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper argues that the dismal performance of the national family planning program in Kenya has been due in part to the lack of male motivation, participation and involvement in the program. It examines existing information from which inferences on the lack of male participation in the program could be obtained, and suggests potential avenues for improving the present limited body of knowledge concerning male fertility. The paper also provides recommendations for rethinking, restructuring and strengthening the national family planning program, not only to address male concerns and interests but also to target the couple as the client." Specific issues addressed include cultural bias against condom use and male sterilization, lack of incentives for males to decrease family size, and the customary focus on female participation in family planning.
Correspondence: Robert H. Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Center for the Study of Population, College of Social Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30346 Oyeka, I. C. A. Influence of the number of living sons on contraceptive use among female teachers in Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 170-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between the number of living sons and contraceptive use among married female teachers in primary and secondary schools of the Enugu urban area, Anambra State, Nigeria. Within each category of number of living children, women with no living sons were least likely to have ever used modern contraceptives. Contraceptive use increased directly with number of living sons. However, women with only sons and no daughters were less likely to have ever used modern contraceptives than were women with at least one son and one daughter. Better educated women who were close to achieving their desired family size, or whose desired family sex ratio was relatively low, were more likely to be contraceptive users."
Correspondence: I. C. A. Oyeka, Department of Applied Statistics and Demography, Anambra State University of Technology, P.M.B. 01660, Enugu, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30347 Riphagen, F. E.; von Schoultz, B. Contraception in Sweden. Contraception, Vol. 39, No. 6, Jun 1989. 633-42 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Results are presented of a 1987 survey of contraceptive use, knowledge, and attitudes. The survey, conducted in Sweden, involved 744 women aged 15-44. The authors found that use of contraception among women at risk of pregnancy was 95 percent and that methods chosen tended to be of the more reliable types. The main reasons for method switching or abandonment were related to health reasons or the search for a more reliable method. Knowledge of the various methods and of both their advantages and disadvantages was high.
Correspondence: F. E. Riphagen, International Health Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30348 Rosenfield, Allan. Modern contraception: a 1989 update. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10, 1989. 385-401 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
Contraceptive practice around the world in 1989 is reviewed. Separate consideration is given to the risks and benefits of oral contraceptives, IUDs, injectable and implant contraceptives, the overall mortality risk of contraception, contraceptive effectiveness, and accessibility.
Correspondence: A. Rosenfield, Columbia University School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30349 Roy, Somnath. Use of contraceptives for family planning. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 3-25 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The focus of this article is on the use of various contraceptive methods for family planning in India. The author reviews the benefits of family planning, presents an overview of the current fertility situation in India, explains the male and female reproductive processes, and defines the available methods of contraception. Included are the advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness of each method, as well as an outline for the implementation of an effective contraceptive program.
Correspondence: S. Roy, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Road, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30350 Stover, John; Bollinger, Lori. Are contraceptive social marketing programs reaching their target markets? Social Marketing for Change Occasional Paper, No. 7, Feb 1989. 6 pp. Futures Group: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses consumer intercepts and discriminant analysis to determine if [contraceptive social marketing] programs primarily serve users from low-income groups and if these users are significantly different from users of commercial contraceptive products. The results indicate that, in general, contraceptive social marketing programs are reaching their target markets." Data are from U.S. demographic and health surveys and from surveys of consumers purchasing contraceptives.
Correspondence: Futures Group, 1101 Fourteenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30351 Tsui, Amy O.; De Silva, Victor; Thapa, Shyam; Hamill, David. Contraceptive method change: a study in rural Sri Lanka. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-12, Mar 1988. 27 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper examines the nature and incidence of various patterns of contraceptive method change and explores their association with reproductive motivation and contraceptive failure. It uses data from a 1986 survey of family planning behaviors of rural Sinhalese married women aged 15 to 44 in 17 districts of Sri Lanka. The study finds a notable degree of rationality in contraceptive method changes occurring with family formation. The attempt to control unwanted fertility leads to more efficacious use of contraception, including traditional methods. Some methodological improvements to the analysis of contraceptive switching are noted as are implications of the findings for programmatic emphases on permanent versus nonpermanent modern methods."
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 484).
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30352 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Levels and trends of contraceptive use as assessed in 1988. Population Studies, No. 110; ST/ESA/SER.A/110, Pub. Order No. E.89.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151176-3. 1989. viii, 129 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The report contains a comprehensive overview of survey-based data on the level of contraceptive use, types of methods employed and recent trends in contraceptive practice. It discusses the availability of contraceptives to national populations, drawing on results of recent international studies. Updated global and regional estimates of average levels of contraceptive use and methods used are included. One new feature is a discussion of the amount of growth in contraceptive use that will be needed if fertility is to decline in developing countries in accordance with United Nations population projections. A new reference table...shows national survey measures of current contraceptive use, by method, for all available countries and dates. Data available through May 1988 are included in the review."
Correspondence: Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30353 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Report of the study on the organizational issues in community participation in national family planning programmes: a comparative analysis of five countries in the ESCAP region. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 87, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/672. 1988. iii, 24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report is compiled from five country reports concerning organizational issues in community participation in national family planning programs. The countries concerned are Bangladesh, China, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. A primary objective of the exercise was to develop a set of recommendations designed to make community participation an effective program strategy. The report first concludes that community participation in all the programs studied is limited or nonexistent and then attempts to identify the factors contributing to the lack of community participation with a view to correcting them.
Correspondence: ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30354 Westoff, Charles F.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Goldman, Noreen. The demographic impact of changes in contraceptive practice in third world populations. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 91-106, 179, 181 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Two questions are posed: How much would fertility decline if unwanted births were prevented? How much would unwanted fertility decline if contraceptive practice improved? Data collected from eight developing countries in the Demographic and Health Surveys suggest that unless wanted fertility declines further, the opportunity to reduce total fertility is largely limited to the extent of unwanted fertility in a population....Likewise the demographic potential of new contraceptive technology may be limited. The article develops a methodology appropriate for the general objective of determining the effect on fertility of improvements in contraceptive practice among those not wanting more births."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30355 Wharton, Chris; Blackburn, Richard. Lower-dose pills. Population Reports, Series A: Oral Contraceptives, No. 7, Nov 1988. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The current situation concerning lower-dose oral contraceptives and their use around the world is described. Consideration is given to health benefits and risks and to unresolved health questions concerning this method of contraception. An extensive unannotated bibliography is included.
Correspondence: PIP, Johns Hopkins University, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30356 Xiao, Bilian. Contraception in China. Outlook, Vol. 7, No. 1, Mar 1989. 2-6 pp. Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"This article summarizes the currently available contraceptives and discusses priority areas of contraceptive research in China." The author notes that IUDs, sterilization, and hormonal methods are the most commonly used forms of contraception and are widely available in China. Family planning continues to be an important priority, and contraceptive research continues in the areas of drug-releasing IUDs, vaginal rings, female injectables, reversible male sterilization, and male oral contraceptives.
Correspondence: B. Xiao, National Research Institute for Family Planning, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

55:30357 Djerassi, Carl. The bitter pill. Science, Vol. 245, No. 4916, Jul 28, 1989. 356-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author develops the argument that the situation concerning the provision of effective modern contraception in the United States has deteriorated over the past decade. He further asserts that "the quality of birth control in the United States is not likely to change by the year 2000, with the consequent likelihood that there will be no significant reduction in the number (1.5 million) of abortions that now take place annually in the United States. Indeed, the contraceptive choices in the United States at the end of this century may be even more limited than they are now." The reason for this situation is identified as the virtual withdrawal of the pharmaceutical industry from contraceptive research because of fears concerning the cost of product liability.
Correspondence: C. Djerassi, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

55:30358 Keller, P. J.; Sirtori, C. Contraception: into the next decade. A preview to the year 2000. ISBN 1-85070-200-4. 1988. 90 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Park Ridge, New Jersey/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a special symposium entitled Contraception Towards the Year 2000, held at the First Congress of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology, in Crans Montana, Switzerland, March 1988. The aim of the symposium was "to evaluate the current and the future state of hormonal contraception from a scientific perspective of technology."
Correspondence: Parthenon Publishing Group, Casterton Hall, Carnforth, Lancashire LA6 2LA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30359 Talwar, G. P. Contraception research for today and the nineties: progress in birth control vaccines. Progress in Vaccinology, Vol. 1, ISBN 0-387-96561-0. LC 87-12692. 1988. xvii, 401 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international symposium held in New Delhi, India, in 1986 to review the status of current research in contraception. The 35 papers are grouped under the headings of population control and development, recently developed contraceptive methods that have not yet completed the final stage of testing, neuroendocrine regulation, immunobiology of pregnancy, birth control vaccines, gamete antigens for birth control vaccines, and basic considerations in immunological approaches to the control of fertility.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

55:30360 Coeytaux, Francine; Donaldson, Dayl; Aloui, Touhami; Kilani, Taoufik; Fourati, Habib. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of mobile family planning services in Tunisia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 158-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents the results of a study conducted in Tunisia in 1986 to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 63 mobile [family planning service] units managed by the Tunisian Office National de la Famille et de la Population (ONFP). In 1985 the units producted one-third of the ONFP's national program output, serving 868 service sites dispersed throughout the rural governorates of Tunisia....Overall, in 1985, the units provided over 250,000 service visits, saw almost 25,000 new acceptors, and provided approximately 34,500 couple-years of contraceptive protection (CYPs). The median cost per visit was [4.93 U.S. dollars] and the median cost per CYP (including tubal ligations) was [18.66 U.S. dollars]. Multivariate analysis is used to identify significant variables that explain variation in unit output; among these, literacy of the population, number of centers served by a unit, and frequency with which centers were served in a month were positively correlated with unit output. Specific recommendations are made on how to improve cost-effectiveness."
Correspondence: F. Coeytaux, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30361 Entwisle, Barbara; Piccinino, Linda J.; Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Components of family planning in rural Egypt. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-7, Jan 1988. 43, [9] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"We use data from the 1982 Community Survey to develop a picture of how national family planning initiatives [in Egypt] over the years have affected family planning activities at the local level. Giving special attention to service delivery, we locate characteristics that are typical, and distinguish those that vary in important ways between villages. The goal of the analysis is to identify and measure family planning components at the village level. We find that cross-sectional variation in service and related activities is best described in terms of traditional and innovative components."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30362 Entwisle, Barbara. Measuring components of family planning program effort. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-11, Mar 1988. 40, [7] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article investigates the measurement of family planning program effort based on data reflecting conditions circa 1982 in 100 developing countries. Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques, it tests some hypotheses implicit in the work of Mauldin and Lapham. Since the data do not fully support these hypotheses, an alternative conceptualization is proposed which consists of eight rather than four components. Discussion focuses on the expanded set of components and includes an assessment of the empirical indicators associated with them."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30363 Feeney, Griffith. The use of parity progression models in evaluating family planning programmes. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 7.1.17-30 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses the use of the parity progression ratio model as a measure of evaluating family planning programs. This type of model measures marital fertility, distinguishes birth order and parity, and can be computed annually. Knowledge of age is not required. The effectiveness of parity progression ratios is illustrated using data from two Kenyan censuses.
Correspondence: G. Feeney, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30364 Namerow, Pearila B.; Weatherby, Norman; Williams-Kaye, Jacqueline. The effectiveness of contingency-planning counseling. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 115-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the implementation of contraceptive contingency-planning counseling at a U.S. family planning clinic and evaluate its effectiveness. "Contingency planning supplements traditional counseling by adding a focus on factors that will affect a woman's ability to maintain her decision to practice contraception over an extended period of time." Effectiveness of the intervention was short-lived, with pregnancy rates at 12 months being equal for both traditionally counseled patients and those who received contingency-planning counseling.
Correspondence: P. B. Namerow, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

55:30365 Alwin, Duane F. Changes in qualities valued in children in the United States, 1964 to 1984. Social Science Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1989. 195-236 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper examines changes that have occurred over the past few decades [in the United States] in parental assessments of qualities valued in children. Data are examined from eight NORC national surveys to assess the degree of change experienced in these parental values, and several explanations are considered for the observed changes....Those child qualities generally thought to be associated with obedience or conformity...are seen to have declined in importance, and the qualities generally associated with autonomy or self-direction...have increased in their assessed importance to parents during this period. The potential sources of these changes are considered, and several explanations are examined."
Correspondence: D. F. Alwin, Department of Sociology, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30366 Apte, Janhavi M. A study of relationship between background characteristics, media exposure and acceptance of family planning in rural Maharashtra. IIPS Newsletter, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct 1988. 13-22 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The effect of the mass media on the promotion and acceptance of India's family planning program is analyzed using data from a survey of currently married males and females interviewed in 1980 in Maharashtra, India. Variables considered are age, sex, educational status, and sex of living children. Findings indicate that exposure to family planning information, especially that which negates existing apprehension concerning certain contraceptive methods, improves the rate of acceptance.
Correspondence: IIPS, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30367 Easterlin, Richard A.; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Soliman, Samia M. The impact of modernization on the motivation for fertility control. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 645-83 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this [paper] is to identify theoretically and empirically the way in which economic and social modernization in Egypt has shaped the motivation for fertility control and thus contributed to the fertility transition, defined as the adoption of deliberate family size limitation and associated reduction in fertility." Using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey, the authors examine three aspects of modernization, namely, educational status of both husband and wife, income, and geographic location. Findings indicate that "modernization variables play a much more important role in explaining differences in demographic behaviour than cultural variables, and among the modernization variables, education is by far the most important....Because the more modernized regions have lower demand for children they tend to have greater contraceptive use and a correspondingly smaller number of children ever born."
Correspondence: R. A. Easterlin, Department of Economics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0152. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30368 Hess, Peter N. The demand for children: evidence from Mexico. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-18, May 1988. [37] pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"A model of the demand for children, which incorporates community influences into the individual decision-making process, is estimated by generalized least squares for samples of married women in contemporary Mexico. The empirical results support an integrated approach to modeling fertility behavior in developing countries. In particular, there appear to be significant community or extra-household influences on the demand for children operating through relative income, birth rate floors, and access to education."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30369 Hoem, Britta. Factors influencing the decisions of mothers of two children to have more children. [Faktorer som paverkar tvabarnsmodrarnas planer pa vidare barnafodande.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, ISBN 91-7820-041-5. Jan 1989. 24, 7 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This report examines Swedish women's intentions to bear or adopt a third child and includes follow-up of participants in the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey. Consideration is given to the continued relationship of the mother with the father of the second child, mother's age, youngest child's age, employment status, education, birth spacing of the first two children, and marital status.
Correspondence: Section of Demography, University of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30370 Maynard-Tucker, Gisele. Knowledge of reproductive physiology and modern contraceptives in rural Peru. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 215-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report is based on fieldwork conducted in a Peruvian community in 1986, which investigated Quechua-speaking Indians' knowledge of the female reproductive organs, perceptions of the way contraceptives work in the body, folk beliefs about conception and menstruation, and opinions about modern contraceptives. The findings reveal that the men have a more accurate knowledge of the female reproductive organs than the women do. However, the women are more knowledgeable about the action of modern contraceptives in the body. Most respondents perceived modern contraceptive methods as the best methods available, but the majority reported using the calendar rhythm method. This preference for rhythm is based on its economic advantage and on its adaptability to folk beliefs about physiology. The men's dominant role in reproductive behavior is related to cultural norms that emphasize traditional gender roles and that prohibit communication about sexual matters between men and women."
Correspondence: G. Maynard-Tucker, Latin American Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30371 McGrath, Paul T. A sequential model of family fertility expectations with special consideration towards the opportunity cost of additional children. Pub. Order No. DA8822359. 1988. 398 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The central objective of this dissertation is to analyze the family's fertility expectations within the context of a constrained optimization problem." A model is developed that analyzes the impact of economic variables on the family's decision to have additional children. Findings indicate that in the United States the decision to have additional children is particulary affected by the impact on the wife's potential earnings and by the ethnic origin of the family. It is also found that the estimation technique chosen affects the outcome of the study.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Northern Illinois University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30372 Myntti, Cynthia. The social, economic and cultural context of women's health and fertility in rural North Yemen. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 429-40 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes contraceptive decision-making among women in rural Yemen, with a focus on the impact of socioeconomic and cultural factors, value orientation, and labor force participation. Consideration is also given to women's perceptions of specific contraceptive methods. Data are from anthropological field work in North Yemen during the period 1977-1979.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30373 Posner, Jill K.; Mbodji, Fara. Men's attitudes about family planning in Dakar, Senegal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 279-91 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A survey of men's behaviour and opinions with respect to family planning, undertaken in Dakar in 1986, shows that contrary to popular belief, acceptance of contraception at least for the purpose of spacing births is substantial, even among men from the most conservative backgrounds. Actual use of contraceptives varied considerably across occupations....Uncertainty about the position of Islam regarding fertility control is apparent even among the highly educated and is given as a reason for rejecting use of contraceptives."
Correspondence: J. K. Posner, USAID, Banjul, Gambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30374 Rijadi, Suprijanto. Community-level effects of village contraceptive distribution centers on the institutionalization of the small family norm in Indonesia. Pub. Order No. DA8907133. 1988. 206 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to examine the relative impact of the village contraceptive distribution center (VCDC) on the institutionalization of the small family norm [in Indonesia]....[A] finding of the study was the difference between villages with simple and complex VCDC organizational structures. We note...that local political-administrative leadership has a large direct impact on institutionalizing the small family norm, but this effect is larger in simple organizations than complex organizations...[and that] community solidarity effect on VCDC is found only in complex organizations. The importance of VCDC lies in the fact that not only does it have the largest direct effect, it also mediates half of the program service effects." Data are from a 1985 study in which 2,100 people from more than 400 villages were interviewed.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(12).

55:30375 Stark, Oded. Fertility, drought, migration and risk. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 43, Apr 1989. 21 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author questions the hypothesis that a reduction in the demand for large families may result from a strategy by which families reduce financial risks by investing in the education of children who can emigrate and provide alternative sources of income. He suggests that such a strategy might lead to a demand for more children in order to create a spatially diverse, income-sharing family network that could help to mitigate the hazards of agricultural production and reduce income uncertainty. The geographical focus is on developing countries, with particular attention to India.
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

55:30376 Cairns, John A. The demand for abortion in England and Wales. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 5, 1989. 653-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The provision of abortion services in England and Wales is modelled with particular emphasis given to the relationship between the public and private sectors. The presence of excess demand in the public sector is established and its importance as a determinant of private demand is analysed. This study replicates the analysis and findings of one based on 1971 data with data for 1983. It is estimated that nearly one-half of the private sector demand arises as a result of excess demand in the public sector."
Correspondence: J. A. Cairns, Department of Economics, University of Aberdeen, Edward Wright Building, Dunbar Street, Old Aberdeen AB9 2TY, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30377 Goode, Polly T. Abortion bibliography for 1985. ISBN 0-87875-359-1. LC 72-78877. 1988. 271 pp. Whitston Publishing: Troy, New York. In Eng.
This is the sixteenth in a series of annual listings of books and articles on topics related to induced abortion. It is unannotated and is divided into two parts: alphabetical listings by title and by subject. An author index and list of journals cited are included. The geographical scope is worldwide.
For a previous bibliography in this series, published in 1985, see 52:20413.
Correspondence: Whitston Publishing Company, POB 958, Troy, NY 12181. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30378 Lim, Jong Kwon. A review of induced abortion in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Dec 1988. 57-95 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Induced abortion in the Republic of Korea is analyzed. Data are from the 1985 National Fertility and Family Health Survey and concern 7,010 married women aged 15 to 44. The study shows that the practice of induced abortion has increased in parallel with a rise in contraceptive practice but that the abortion rate has recently shown indications of a decline due to a significant increase in contraceptive sterilization. Consideration is given to the relationship between abortion and contraception, the relative contribution of abortion and contraception to the decline in fertility, the abortion rate, reasons given for abortion, and the impact of abortion on health.
Correspondence: J. K. Lim, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30379 Murthy, G. V. S.; Reddiaih, V. P.; Kapoor, S. K.; Kailash, S. Dynamics of induced abortions in rural community of Haryana. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 10, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1987. 93-104 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The dynamics of induced abortion in a rural community in India are examined using data from a 1984 survey on pregnancy outcomes of 816 women. The analysis includes women's acceptance of abortion based on their socioeconomic and educational status, method and location of abortion, gestational age at time of abortion, person motivating induced abortion, reason for abortion, and contraceptive method used by acceptors. Availability of family planning services to acceptors is also considered.
Correspondence: G. V. S. Murthy, Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30380 Spinelli, A.; Grandolfo, M. E.; Pediconi, M.; Stazi, M. A.; Timperi, F.; Andreozzi, S.; Arisi, E.; Figa-Talamanca, I. The voluntary interruption of pregnancy in Italy: 1985-1986. [L'interruzione volontaria di gravidanza in Italia: 1985-1986.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 89/8, 1989. 133 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in legal abortion in Italy in 1985 and 1986 are analyzed. "The number of legally induced abortions was 198,375 in 1986 and 210,597 in 1985, continuing the decline of about 5% per year since 1982. [The] abortion rate decreased from 17.2 in 1982 to 13.9 in 1986, while [the] abortion ratio fell from 381.7 in 1983 to 357.5." Differences by region, age, marital status, gestational age at abortion, abortion facility, and type of abortion are examined.
For a previous report concerning 1984-1985, see 53:30395.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30381 Sweden. Socialstyrelsen (Stockholm, Sweden). Abortion trends in Sweden, 1975-1984. [Abortutveckling i Sverige 1975-84.] Socialstyrelsen Redovisar, No. 1987:1, ISBN 91-38-09491-6. LC 88-135506. 1987. 92 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
Trends in induced abortion in Sweden are reviewed for the period 1975-1984. Data are included on pregnancies, abortions, and births by age; length of gestation; abortion facilities; methods of abortion; type of care; and residence of mother. Comparative data are included for other Scandinavian countries.
Correspondence: Socialstyrelsen, Linnegatan 87 089, S-106 30 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30382 Winter, Eugenia B. Psychological and medical aspects of induced abortion: a selective, annotated bibliography, 1970-1986. Bibliographies and Indexes in Women's Studies, No. 7, ISBN 0-313-26100-8. LC 88-194. 1988. xvi, 162 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is an annotated bibliography of 500 titles on medical and psychological aspects of abortion published between 1970 and 1986. The emphasis is on works in English and the general focus is on the United States, although publications in other languages and on other countries are also included. Author, title, and subject indexes are provided. The bibliography is organized by subject, one of which concerns morbidity and mortality.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

55:30383 Akin, John; Bilsborrow, Richard; Guilkey, David; Popkin, Barry; Ashy, Hosni S.; Ismail, Abdel F. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 447-82 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyse the patterns and determinants of the extent and duration of breastfeeding...in Egypt. The source of data is the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey (EFS)." Variables selected for the analysis include parents' educational status, maternal age, occupational status, contraceptive use, desired family size, marital status, religion, family characteristics, and geographic location. "Overall this study provides an idea of the target population for breastfeeding promotion. It is the higher educated, long-term urban resident mother who comes in contact with family planning programmes who is significantly less likely to breastfeed."
Correspondence: J. Akin, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30384 Carael, Michel. A micro-approach to the study of breastfeeding patterns in rural Kivu (Zaire). In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 180-90 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
A micro-approach is used to analyze patterns of breast-feeding, duration of postpartum amenorrhea, and length of birth intervals in rural Zaire. The aims of the study are "first to detect recent changes in birth intervals, then to explore how to collect suckling frequency data in order to compare it to probabilities of resumption of menstruation. The discussion of preliminary results will focus on the existence of particular breastfeeding patterns depending on environmental factors and social behaviour, and on the difficulties of adequately measuring the frequency of breastfeeding."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30385 Hornsby, Paige P.; Wilcox, Allen J. Validity of questionnaire information on frequency of coitus. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 130, No. 1, Jul 1989. 94-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A total of 91 women provided reproductive histories, including usual frequency of coitus, at their enrollment into prospective studies conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, in 1984-1986. Those data were compared with coital data recorded during study participation. Overall, women reported a significantly higher frequency of coitus on the interviewer-administered questionnaire than they recorded daily....The authors attribute the overestimate on the questionnaire to a tendency to report a coital frequency that might exist in the absence of travel, illness, and other transient factors that are likely to decrease frequency."
Correspondence: P. P. Hornsby, MDA3-05, Natural Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:30386 Kennedy, Kathy I.; Rivera, Roberto; McNeilly, Alan S. Consensus statement on the use of breastfeeding as a family planning method. Contraception, Vol. 39, No. 5, May 1989. 477-96 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"An interdisciplinary international group of researchers in the area of lactational infertility gathered with the purpose of coming to a consensus about the conditions under which breastfeeding can be used as a safe and effective method of family planning. The consensus of the group was that the maximum birth spacing effect of breastfeeding is achieved when a mother 'fully' or nearly fully breastfeeds and remains amenorrheic. When these two conditions are fulfilled, breastfeeding provides more than 98% protection from pregnancy in the first six months. Data are reviewed from thirteen prospective studies in both developed and developing countries supporting the consensus."
Correspondence: K. I. Kennedy, Family Health International, Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30387 Komlos, John. The age at menarche and age at first birth in an undernourished population. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 16, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1989. 463-6 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"A statistically significant relationship has been found between the age at menarche and the age at first birth among chronically-malnourished, lower-class Viennese women born in the late nineteenth century. Because the age at menarche depends on nutritional status, the above relationship is an indication that nutritional status must also have correlated positively with fertility rate, and therefore with population growth in societies with similar characteristics as this sample. Thus, the nutrition sensitivity of the age of first birth, and therefore of population growth are established in a chronically malnourished non-contraceptive historical population."
Correspondence: J. Komlos, Department of History and Economics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30388 Rosetta, Lyliane. Breast feeding and post-partum amenorrhea in Serere women in Senegal. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 16, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 311-20 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The duration of post-partum amenorrhea and of breast-feeding was studied in a population of Serere people in Senegal, using an actuarial method. The use of the Cox method enabled us to show a positive correlation between these two factors and a negative correlation between the duration of amenorrhea, the survival of the breast-fed child, and the weaned status of the child." Particular attention is given to the relationship between maternal nutrition and breast-feeding.
Correspondence: L. Rosetta, Oxford University, Department of Biological Anthropology, 58 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6QS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30389 Savina, Gail; Kennedy, Kathy. The effect of a breastfeeding education program on lactational amenorrhea in the Philippines. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 203-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study was conducted in two communities in the rural Philippines to determine whether breastfeeding mothers could intensify their nursing enough to increase the period of lactational amenorrhea. Women in one community were exposed to a breastfeeding education program before the birth and during lactation, while women in the other community served as a comparison group. Increased breastfeeding was observed in the group that received breastfeeding education, beginning in the sixth month postpartum. Bottle use began earlier and was more common in the comparison group, but the introduction of solid foods at five to six months was similar. No difference in the duration of postpartum amenorrhea (a proxy for the duration of infertility) was observed between the two groups."
Correspondence: G. Savina, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30390 Srinivasan, K.; Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind. Determinants of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 365-71 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A life table analysis is made of the duration of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa, India, taking one variable at a time using data from a baseline survey of fertility and mortality...conducted on the lines of the World Fertility Survey. Then a multivariate...analysis showed that socioeconomic factors including residence, caste status and education influence the breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea periods. There was no effect of maternal age on the length of breast-feeding, but mean lengths of post-partum amenorrhoea varied with age. The durations of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea are strongly related."
Correspondence: K. Srinivasan, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30391 Srinivasan, K.; Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind. Duration of breast-feeding and postpartum amenorrhea in Orissa: a hazard-model analysis. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 88-28, Oct 1988. 20 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In this paper, we present a life table analysis of the duration of breast-feeding and postpartum amenorrhea in Orissa, India....We use a proportional hazard model for a detailed multivariate analysis and find that significant socioeconomic factors influence the breast-feeding and postpartum amenorrhea periods. While there has been no effect of maternal age on the length of breast-feeding, mean length of postpartum amenorrhea varies with the change in age....[It is found that] in Orissa women with longer breast-feeding duration also have greater [periods] of postpartum amenorrhea."
Correspondence: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:30392 Bedard, Marcia E.; Hough, George C.; Weinberger, Margaret; Wright, Kimberly A. Sex ratio imbalances as a factor in out-of-wedlock births. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 539-44 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors analyze sex ratio imbalances as a factor in out-of-wedlock births. The study "was designed to separate the effects of race differences from more general demographic and socioeconomic explanations of high rates of out-of-wedlock births: low sex ratios, high male unemployment, and high poverty rates; and provide an age-specific analysis at the census tract level of geography." Data are from official U.S. sources for Columbus, Ohio, and cover the years 1979-1981. "From a policy perspective, a consistent problem in interventions designed to reduce out-of-wedlock birthrates has been the focus on the marital status of single mothers, rather than their economic status....If the primary goal of policymakers is to assure the stability and wellbeing of all families, then structural poverty and unemployment must be dealt with, regardless of parents' marital status."
Correspondence: M. E. Bedard, Women's Studies Program, California State University, Shaw and Cedar Avenues, Fresno, CA 93740. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30393 Belcheva, Mariya. Illegitimate births in Bulgaria and some related personal and social problems. [Izvanbrachnite razhdaniya v Balgariya i svarzanite s tyakh lichnostni i sotsialni problemi.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1988. 35-45 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes trends in illegitimate births in Bulgaria. Particular attention is given to unmarried women who decide to raise their children alone and the social and personal problems they face. Data are from the Bulgarian Central Statistical Bureau.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30394 Cooksey, Elizabeth C. Outcome of adolescent first premarital pregnancies: the influence of family background. Pub. Order No. DA8822487. 1988. 155 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research focuses upon how aspects of family background influence how adolescents in the United States resolve a first premarital pregnancy....Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are utilized....These data reflect a conscious effort to collect quality abortion reports and thus enable the three pregnancy outcome choices [abortion, out-of-wedlock parenthood, or marriage to legitimate the birth] to be segregated from one another, but simultaneously modelled. Pregnancies occurring between February 1973 and March 1982 are included in the analysis....The independent variables utilized (age at first conception, religious affiliation, race/ethnicity, parental education, family structure, and number of siblings), measure a number of family background characteristics hypothesized to effect how the adolescent resolves her first premarital pregnancy. All of the predictor variables (excluding religious affiliation when not modelled as part of an interaction term with race/ethnicity) were found to be significant predictors of adolescent premarital pregnancy resolution."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).


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