Volume 55 - Number 3 - Fall 1989

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

55:30113 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. The changing shape of Soviet mortality, 1958-1985: an evaluation of old and new evidence. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1989. 243-65 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine mortality trends in the Soviet Union during the period 1958-1985. Data for infant mortality, age and sex differentials, and life tables are analyzed. Findings indicate that "the official mortality rates for persons aged 60 and over in 1958-59, 1968-71, and 1984-85 are implausibly low. Poor-quality data at the older ages, particularly in rural areas and the less developed regions of the country, contributed to these low mortality rates of the old. As data quality has improved with time, the reported mortality rates at old ages have increased." Adjustment for error is calculated, and the importance of considering sources of error in mortality data for the aged is emphasized.
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30114 Arriaga, Eduardo E. Changing trends in mortality decline during the last decades. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 105-29 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The chapter reviews changing trends in mortality decline from 1950 to 1980 in selected developing countries. The author attempts to determine whether the slowing of the mortality decline is actually occurring and if it is an inevitable trend. He also considers whether those developing countries with available data for analysis are an accurate representation of developing countries in general. Available data for the 1970s are then analyzed to clarify recent mortality trends and causes of death. Finally, "developing countries for which recent information is available [are] compared with the United States in 1980, to determine the age patterns and causes of death that contribute to the differentials in life expectation between them."
Correspondence: E. E. Arriaga, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30115 Blum, Alain; Monnier, Alain. Recent mortality trends in the U.S.S.R.: new evidence. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1989. 211-41 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors study three main areas in recent mortality trends in the USSR using demographic data recently published in the Soviet Union. "The first is infant mortality, a subject of considerable controversy among Western scholars. The new data make it possible to undertake a synthesis of this debate and understand the phenomenon more clearly. Secondly, long and short-term trends in mortality can be illuminated as a result of the publication of a series of life expectancies at birth that cover almost the whole of the post-war period and of two complete life tables. Finally, a table of causes of death conforming to the recommendations by WHO has been published. This table which contains most interesting results is studied in detail and the figures are compared with those for other European countries."
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30116 Bouckaert, Andre. Crisis mortality: extinction and near-extinction of human populations. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 217-30 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses crisis mortality from wars, famines, epidemics, natural disasters, and environmental pollution as a factor in the extinction and near-extinction of human populations. He develops the concept of secondary disaster, defined as the impact of disturbed social and economic forces on mortality. The impact of such crises on fertility and migration are also examined.
Correspondence: A. Bouckaert, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Louvain, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30117 Capocaccia, R.; Farchi, G.; Mariotti, S.; Verdecchia, A.; Angeli, A.; Scipione, R.; Feola, G.; Morganti, P. Mortality in Italy in 1985. [La mortalita in Italia nell'anno 1985.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 89/6, 1989. v, 55 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality data for Italy are presented for 1985. "The age-and-sex specific rates for the whole of Italy are reported for 45 different death causes, as well as the national standardized rate referred to 1971 population. The standardized rates for each of the 21 regions and the three main geographical subdivisions: North, Center, South/Islands are also reported. This report belongs to a series describing mortality in Italy since 1970, using the same methods, with yearly up-dating editions."
For a previous publication in this series presenting data for 1981, see 53:30208.
Correspondence: Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30118 Fogel, Robert W. Second thoughts on the European escape from hunger: famines, price elasticities, entitlements, chronic malnutrition, and mortality rates. NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long-Run Growth, No. 1, May 1989. 84 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author investigates causes of the mortality decline that occurred in Europe toward the end of the nineteenth century. Making reference to new research approaches and assumptions, he reevaluates the extent to which the elimination of periodic mortality crises, especially those due to famine or epidemics, contributed to this decline. Aspects considered include the measurement of food supply variations, whether the European famines between 1500 and 1800 were man-made or related to natural disasters, the impact of government food distribution policies, and general improvements in nutritional status.
Correspondence: NBER, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30119 Horiuchi, Shiro. Some methodological issues in the assessment of the deceleration of the mortality decline. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 64-78 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author focuses on six factors that could lead to an underestimation of mortality decline in developing countries. It is asserted that "the problem in the use of absolute change in conventional mortality measures for assessing mortality trends can be avoided by selecting appropriate measures of mortality change and/or comparing observed changes with some 'standard' schedule of mortality decline. In many cases, the effects of changes in the completeness of death registration, and changes in age misreporting patterns, can, to some extent, be assessed by utilizing existing methods of demographic analysis. On the other hand, the adjustment of observed mortality decline for the other three factors (that is, the interrelationships of fertility, mortality and growth, heterogeneity and differential age structures) seem to require detailed mortality data on the subnational level and/or development of new methods and models."
Correspondence: S. Horiuchi, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30120 Jozan, Peter. Some features of mortality in postwar Hungary: the third epidemiological transition. Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1989. 21-42 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Trends in mortality in Hungary since the end of World War II are analyzed. Two distinct periods are identified. In the period 1945-1965, mortality decreased to unprecedented levels and life expectancy increased to nearly 70 years. However, in the past two decades mortality has begun to rise, and life expectancy has stabilized and in some cases decreased. The author identifies Hungary as being in the third stage of the epidemiological transition, in contrast to the countries of Western Europe, which have entered a fourth stage in which degenerative diseases have been relegated to a very advanced age.
Correspondence: P. Jozan, Department of Population Statistics, Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30121 Kamara, Joseph A. L. The use of model life tables in the estimation of mortality trends for African countries. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 7.1.31-46 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author evaluates several different methods for using model life tables to estimate mortality trends in African countries. The purpose is to determine which method is least sensitive to assumptions about age patterns of mortality, in order to compensate for the fact that African data for mortality by sex and age are often inadequate.
Correspondence: J. A. L. Kamara, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, 99 Gower Street, London WC1, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30122 McAvinchey, Ian D.; Wagstaff, Adam. Distributed lags in the relationship between unemployment and mortality: the case of the United Kingdom. Department of Economics Discussion Paper, No. 87-21, [1987]. [34] pp. University of Aberdeen, Department of Economics: Aberdeen, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the problem of determining an 'optimal' polynomial distributed lag structure in a model of the relationship between unemployment and mortality. It argues that--contrary to the claims of Brenner...there are no strong a priori reasons for supposing a low degree polynomial will be appropriate. The paper outlines a method for determining the lag length and polynomial degree from the data and applies the method to postwar data for the United Kingdom. The results suggest that the restrictions imposed by Brenner...are inappropriate and that the model is almost certainly misspecified in other respects."
Correspondence: University of Aberdeen, Department of Economics, Dunbar Street, Old Aberdeen, AB9 2TY, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30123 McAvinchey, Ian D.; Wagstaff, Adam. Income effects on mortality rates: estimates from a varying parameter model. Department of Economics Discussion Paper, No. 87-20, [1987]. 30 pp. University of Aberdeen, Department of Economics: Aberdeen, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper proposes a new approach to modelling the mortality consequences of economic instability using a varying parameter model. The economic instability hypothesis is tested against several alternative hypotheses about the 'income elasticity' of mortality and against a naive first-order autoregressive mortality model." The model was tested on time series data from the United Kingdom. Results indicate that "the mortality consequences of economic instability have almost certainly been exaggerated in the past."
Correspondence: University of Aberdeen, Department of Economics, Dunbar Street, Old Aberdeen, AB9 2TY, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30124 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Life expectancy remains at record level. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 70, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1989. 26-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Life expectancy in the United States in 1988 is discussed. It is noted that although expectations of life at birth remained unchanged from 1987's record level of 74.9, 1988 marked the first time in 20 years that life expectancy for newborn boys showed a slight decrease.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010-3690. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30125 Moen, Phyllis; Dempster-McClain, Donna; Williams, Robin M. Social integration and longevity: an event history analysis of women's roles and resilience. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 4, Aug 1989. 635-47 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the implications of multiple roles for the longevity of women. Drawing on a two-wave 30-year panel study of 427 wives and mothers in upstate New York, we use event history techniques to test the effects of both the number and the nature of roles on the duration of women's lives. We find that social integration, defined by the number of roles occupied, promotes longevity, but that one form of integration--membership in a voluntary organization--is especially salutary."
Correspondence: P. Moen, Sociology Program, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. 20550. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30126 Munoz Pradas, Francisco. The estimation of Chilean mortality (1860-1940): limits and possibilities. [La estimacion de la mortalidad chilena (1865-1940): limites y posibilidades.] Latin American Population History Newsletter, No. 15, Spring 1989. 2-9 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Spa.
The limitations and errors in data sources, primarily censuses and vital statistics, concerning mortality in Chile from 1865 to 1940 are examined. Solutions are offered to adjust the sources' underestimations, particularly with regard to infant mortality.
Correspondence: F. Munoz Pradas, Centre d'Estudis Demografics, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellatierra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30127 Norstrom, Thor. Real wages, alcohol consumption and mortality in Sweden, 1861-1913. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1988. 183-96 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Factors affecting the decline in mortality among Swedish men that occurred during the latter part of the nineteenth century are analyzed. In addition to the impact on mortality of changes in real wages, the author develops the hypothesis that a decline in alcohol consumption was a contributing factor. These relationships are explored using time-series analyses on official data for the period 1861-1913. The results indicate that "real wages as well as alcohol consumption per capita had a statistically significant effect on male mortality. When the alcohol predictor was omitted in the model, the wage effect did not reach statistical significance. The decline in male mortality during the study period was, on the average, about one per cent per year. According to the results, a good half of this decrease is attributable to the trends in real wages and alcohol consumption."
Correspondence: T. Norstrom, Swedish Institute for Social Research, University of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30128 Rodriguez, Leticia. Mexico: the contribution of causes of death to changes in life expectancy, 1970-1982. [Mexico: contribucion de las causas de muerte al cambio en la esperanza de vida, 1970-1982.] CELADE Serie B, No. 56, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.73. Mar 1989. iii, 109 pp. Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA]: Ottawa, Canada; U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Methods developed by John H. Pollard are used to analyze the impact of changes in causes of death on life expectancy over time in Mexico. Data are from the World Health Organization and the Mexican censuses of 1970 and 1980. The focus of the study is on a comparison of differences in life expectancy and causes of death by sex between 1969-1971 and 1981-1982. The author describes the available sources of data and summarizes recent mortality trends by sex and age. Consideration is also given to the probable effect on future mortality trends of further changes in causes of death. Some comparisons are made between the mortality situation in the Netherlands and Mexico in 1982.
Correspondence: CELADE, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30129 Rogers, Andrei; Gard, Kathy. Applications of the Heligman-Pollard model mortality schedule. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-89-1, Mar 1989. 21, [16] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the Heligman-Pollard model of mortality schedules and its application to U.S. data. The authors "apply it to a historical time series, move on to examine forecasting application, extend the discussion to causes of death, turn to a study of spatial differences, and then consider descriptions of sex-specific mortality schedules that are disaggregated by race. Finally, we propose an alternative model to the Heligman-Pollard specification and offer a few conclusions."
Correspondence: Population Program, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30130 Tsenov, Angel. The needs of old and elderly people for medical aid. [Potrebnosti na vazrastnite i starite khora ot meditsinska pomoshch.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1989. 24-30 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The dynamics of increased life expectancy in Bulgaria from the 1930s to 1975 are reviewed separately for the rural and urban population. The increase in the size of the population over age 60 is noted, and implications for the provision of health services are assessed. The importance of planning and of projecting changes in the population is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30131 Tu, Edward Jow-Ching; Liang, Jersey; Li, Shaomin. Mortality decline and Chinese family structure: implications for old age support. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 4, Jul 1989. S157-68 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examined the effect of mortality change on the probabilities of survival for various family members and parent/child joint life expectation in Chinese mainland and Taiwan during the past 60 years. Major increases in life expectancy have led to the doubling of the average number of person years of an individual's life spent as a grandparent during that time. In a sense, the family burden of old age support is twice as much as before. It is concluded that the role of family in providing old age support needs to be complemented and reinforced by public programs."
Correspondence: E. J.-C. Tu, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

55:30132 Bhatia, Shushum. Patterns and causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 136-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines patterns and causes of neonatal and infant mortality in rural Bangladesh based on data from a maternal-child health and family planning (MCH/FP) survey and compares health-serviced areas with non-serviced populations. A decline in infant mortality is reported for serviced areas but is confined to neonatal deaths only. "Cause-of-death data indicated that the differences in the neonatal mortality rates between the two areas was mainly due to a marked decline in tetanus neonatorum deaths in the MCH/FP program area, because of the tetanus toxoid immunization of pregnant women there. The interventions in the MCH/FP area, however, did not dignificantly influence mortality due to any other cause. This study provides an explanation for the limited impact of infant mortality of health interventions that focus on diarrheal diseases and immunizations of children."
Correspondence: S. Bhatia, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30133 Kikhela, D. Nzita. Techniques for collection and analysis of data on perinatal mortality in Kinshasa, Zaire. Infant Mortality and Health Studies: Technical Study, No. 61e, ISBN 0-88936-529-6. 1988. x, 87 pp. International Development Research Centre [IDRC]: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The methodological findings of a study in Kinshasa [Zaire] from 1981 to 1986 are presented here as a step toward the better study of mortality in the young. These findings focus on three topics: data gathering, the preparation and/or application of a conceptual framework, and the determination of which families are at risk." The author discusses some details of survey methodology, including selection of interviewers and the sample population, questionnaire design, and the conceptual framework to which the data are applied. "Lastly, an appropriate methodology is presented for determining families at risk. This methodology, segmentation, is not novel. However, we believe that presenting its possibilities is likely to favour its greater use in developing countries where the design of an effective [health] policy requires, as a prerequisite, the identification of the target groups."
Correspondence: IDRC, PO Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3H9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30134 Patel, Vibhuti. Sex-determination and sex-preselection tests in India: modern techniques for femicide. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1989. 2-11 pp. Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"In India during recent years techniques that were developed to detect genetic deformities in fetuses have been increasingly used mainly for determining the sex of fetuses so that female fetuses can be exterminated. This paper explores the factors underlying this practice and the related practice of preselecting the sex of offspring, examining both the widespread availability and use of sex-determination and sex-preselection techniques and the root causes of female devaluation in India. Also presented and analyzed are the responses of women's groups and the government to these uses of modern technology to carry out the ultimate abuse of women--not allowing them to be born."
Correspondence: V. Patel, SNDT Campus, Bombay, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30135 Tapia Zapatero, Jaime; Tapia Chavez, Raul; Olivos Torres, Gladys. Perinatal mortality in Chile, 1956-1986. [Mortalidad perinatal en Chile, 1956-1986.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 106, No. 4, Apr 1989. 287-95 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The trend of perinatal mortality in Chile is analyzed for the period from 1956 to 1986, showing changes in late fetal mortality according to age of the mother, parity, and weight of the newborn. Overall perinatal mortality, including both late fetal and early neonatal mortality categories, followed a general downward trend. The decrease was not steady, however, and the rate was not the same for both categories."
Correspondence: J. Tapia Zapatero, Hospital Herminda Martin, Unidad de Neonatologia, 18 de Septiembre 310, Chillan, VIII Region, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

55:30136 Aaby, Peter. Observing the unexpected: nutrition and child mortality in Guinea-Bissau. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 278-96 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Using a study of child mortality and nutrition in Guinea-Bissau as an example, the authors discuss how to allow for the unexpected in research design and how to analyze it when it occurs. "To sum up our experience from Guinea-Bissau, the most fruitful structure of data collection with respect to demographic questions appears to be a combination of longitudinal surveys and more open-ended interviews/participant observation. The essential feature of the research process is the pursuit of all contradictions. This is best done by using different levels of observation and data collection. The combination of different sets of data and approaches facilitates the recognition of contradictions and the analysis of the unexpected."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30137 Abdel Aziz, Abdallah M. The effect of reproductive behavior on infant and early childhood mortality in Jordan. Pub. Order No. DA8821539. 1988. 198 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study integrates various aspects of earlier studies of child mortality into a comprehensive examination of the reproductive factors affecting infant and early childhood mortality in Jordan. The probability [of an infant dying] is studied over a series of short age intervals employing logit models. The major features of this study include: a detailed examination of the quality of data; utilization of individual, household and community data; tracing the risk of dying over age; and estimating infant mortality for different patterns of reproduction. This study employs data from the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey, in which the units of analysis are live births which took place in the 5-year period 1971-76. The main findings of the study are that the duration of breastfeeding and the length of the preceding birth interval are important determinants of mortality during infancy....Projections of infant mortality utilizing these results indicate that the potential gains due to changes in birth spacing can be substantial, especially if births are spaced by at least two years."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(8).

55:30138 Bailey, Mohamed. Individual and environmental influence on infant and child mortality in rural Sierra Leone: a multivariate analysis. Journal of Population Studies, No. 12, Jun 1989. 155-85 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
The impact of individual and environmental factors on infant and child mortality in rural Sierra Leone is explored. "The method of multivariate regression analysis was performed to distinguish the effects of these variables. Higher birth orders, male births and low family income were associated with high mortality. Duration of breastfeeding, maternal education and larger rural places showed negative effects on mortality. Although the variables, piped water and health center/dispensary services were not significant, they exhibited the expected negative influence on mortality. Recommendations for reducing mortality are suggested." Data are from a 1979 survey of currently married women aged 15 to 49 years.
Correspondence: M. Bailey, Department of Sociology/Demography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30139 Basu, Alaka M. Is discrimination in food really necessary for explaining sex differentials in childhood mortality? Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul 1989. 193-210 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the assumption is questioned that it is the intra-household distribution of food which is an important cause of the observed sex differences in childhood mortality in much of South Asia. An analysis of data from a recent field study as well as a fresh look at information from secondary sources, leads to the conclusion that, at present, the causal link from malnutrition to mortality is ambiguous at best. Other possible real-world determinants of sex differences in mortality are examined and it is found that differential utilisation of modern health care is probably an important...determinant. Finally some of the socio-economic influences on sex discrimination in health care are examined and a case is presented for increasing women's employment outside the home."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Parisila Bhavan, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30140 Bhuiya, Abbas; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Karim, Rezaul. Malnutrition and child mortality: are socioeconomic factors important? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 357-64 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The influences of household economic condition, maternal education, sex, and nutritional status of children on mortality [in Bangladesh] were examined using multivariate analytical techniques. Weights of around 1,700 children aged 2-60 months in five villages...were taken during the first half of 1981. The children were followed for 18 months and their survival was recorded. The severely malnourished children had a risk of death nine times that of their counterparts with better nutritional status. Female children had a higher risk of death than the males. Mother's education and economic condition of household also showed negative relationships with the risk of death, but the effect of mother's education was modified by economic condition and sex of the children."
Correspondence: A. Bhuiya, Department of Demography, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30141 Briend, Andre; Bari, Abdul. Critical assessment of the use of growth monitoring for identifying high risk children in primary health care programmes. British Medical Journal, Vol. 298, No. 6688, Jun 17, 1989. 1,607-11 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors investigate "whether change in weight was a more useful index than weight for age in assessing the risk of dying among malnourished children." Data are from a study conducted in a rural community in Bangladesh being served by an international health organization and concern 1,011 children under age five, of whom 66 died. The authors find that "for identifying children with a high risk of dying, weight for age is a more efficient screening tool than a recent change in weight."
Correspondence: A. Briend, ICDDR,B, Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:30142 Callum, Christine; Cleland, John. The effect of birth spacing on infant and child mortality. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 215-37 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The effect of birth interval length on infant and child mortality is examined using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. Two dominant findings have emerged from the analysis. "The first concerns the effect of the length of the immediate preceding birth interval. Children born after long intervals of four or more years are much less likely to die in infancy and childhood than children born after shorter intervals. The shorter the preceding interval, the greater becomes the risk of dying....This striking relationship persists regardless of the socio-economic status of the family, the region of residence, the birth order or sex of the child or maternal age....The second dominant finding concerns the impact of the length of the interval following the birth of a child. When this interval is less than 18 months in duration, the risk of dying between age one and two is doubled and that of dying between age two and five is raised by 38 per cent."
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30143 Chen, Lincoln C. Micro-approaches to the study of childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 263-77 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to advance the proposition that our understanding of the determinants of childhood mortality in developing countries would be strengthened by the application of micro-demographic methods to complement traditional demographic approaches....This chapter illustrates these comparative uses of micro-demographic techniques in the study of childhood mortality in one rural region of Bangladesh. The two case studies selected illustrate simultaneous demographic and micro-studies of mortality determinants in the same population over similar time periods. By comparing the findings generated from two different approaches, the comparative roles and advantages of large scale quantitative versus smaller scale but in-depth micro methods are highlighted." Data are from official Bangladesh sources for the years 1974-1977.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30144 Deeb, Mary E. Household structure as related to childhood mortality and morbidity among low income areas in Amman. Pub. Order No. DA8819040. 1987. 183 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author studies the impact of improved household structure on child mortality and morbidity in a low-income urban population in Jordan for the period 1981-1985. Physical improvements of housing such as piped water and electricity were shown to be important determinants of improved child survival that counteracted the impact of maternal education as a factor by 1985.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(9).

55:30145 Eid, Ismail; Casterline, John B. Differentials in infant and child mortality. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 179-213 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Trends in infant and child mortality in Egypt are reviewed using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. The focus is on mortality differentials by demographic and socioeconomic variables and characteristics of rural villages. Factors considered include sex of child, maternal age, birth order, birth interval, place of residence, respondent's and spouse's educational and occupational status, environment, socioeconomic status, and availability of medical services. A multivariate analysis indicates the net effects of the differentials on child survival in Egypt.
Correspondence: I. Eid, Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Salah Salem Road, POB 2086, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30146 Feyisetan, Bamikale J. Understanding the relationship between child care practices and child mortality: the need for ethnographic approaches in child mortality studies. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 7.2.37-55 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper makes a case for the use of ethnographic observation as a complement to the structured tools of data collection (the questionnaire and...formal interviewing) widely used in mortality studies in Africa. The case is built on two observations that suggest, among others, the inadequacy of the formal tools of data collection alone to yield adequate data that provide sufficient insight into the mechanisms through which behavioural practices affect child health and consequently child mortality." Ethnographic methods are the means by which anthropologists gather information that provides detailed recordings of the social-cultural context in which a particular behavior occurs.
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30147 Fisek, Nusret H. Determinants of child mortality in Turkey. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 156-62 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Determinants of infant and child mortality in Turkey are studied. The author finds that low utilization of available health services and noncompliance with recommendations of health care providers are the main factors affecting infant and child mortality. "These findings indicate that the provision of health services alone is not sufficient to control mortality. Cultural values and socio-economic conditions have to be changed."
Correspondence: N. H. Fisek, Hacettepe University, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30148 Goldin, Claudia; Margo, Robert A. The poor at birth: birth weights and infant mortality at Philadelphia's almshouse hospital, 1848-1873. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1989. 360-79 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Birth weights and infant mortality in Philadelphia from 1848 to 1873 are analyzed using almshouse hospital case records. The mean birth weight was 7.48 pounds for live infants and compares favorably with mid-20th century standards; only 10% were below the critical level of 2,500 grams. The absolute risk of fetal and first-day mortality, holding birth weight constant, is considerably higher than in modern data. There is no evidence of a time trend in birth weight, with the important exception of a sharp drop from 1866 to 1870. A mother's length of stay in the almshouse increased the weight of her infant. The poorhouse, despite much criticism, had some ameliorative impact."
Correspondence: C. Goldin, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30149 Guzman, Jose M. Trends in socio-economic differentials in infant mortality in selected Latin American countries. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 131-44 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author studies changes in infant mortality trends in Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, Guatemala, and Panama using data from 1983 and 1984 CELADE sources. The primary objective is to examine how infant mortality differentials have changed within countries in the different socioeconomic groups and geographic regions. Consideration is also given to the impact of residence characteristics, maternal education, and social class on such differentials.
Correspondence: J. M. Guzman, CELADE, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30150 Haaga, John G. How is birthspacing related to infant health? Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1988. 108-20 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This paper reviews possible biomedical mechanisms connecting birthspacing with infant mortality and assesses their likely importance in accounting for the strength of these relationships observed in household surveys in developing countries. This is partly to help refine estimates of the effects of family planning programs on infant health and partly to identify promising leads for research and the design and targetting of future maternal and child health interventions."
Correspondence: J. G. Haaga, RAND Corporation, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30151 Hoffman, Howard J.; Denman, Daniel W.; Damus, Karla; van Belle, Gerald. Comparison of matched versus unmatched analyses in a case-control study of SIDS risk factors. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 318-23 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors compare the quality of matched and unmatched analyses, based on a case-control study of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the United States. The comparison takes into account DTP immunization, low birth weight, ethnic group, maternal age, prenatal care, maternal educational status, and breast-feeding. "Data were collected for eligible SIDS cases who died during a 15-month period from October 1978 through December 1979."
Correspondence: H. J. Hoffman, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30152 Holian, John. Infant mortality and health care in Mexican communities. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 5, 1989. 677-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1976-77 Mexican Fertility Survey show a high degree of correlation among community background characteristics, access to medical services and utilization of health care in a sample of 125 localities. All of these factors are related to infant mortality at the bivariate level. Use of prenatal and infant health care, but not proximity to medical personnel and facilities, is found to affect infant survival independently of the community's degree of socio-economic development. The findings point to the need to employ separate measures of medical access and health utilization."
Correspondence: J. Holian, Cuyahoga Community College, 11000 Pleasant Valley Road, Cleveland, OH 44130-5199. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30153 Ismail, Abdel F.; Casterline, John B.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C. Household income and child survival. In: Egypt: demographic responses to modernization, edited by Awad M. Hallouda, Samir Farid, and Susan H. Cochrane. 1988. 279-313 pp. Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The major aim [of this research] is to estimate the effects of household income on infant and early childhood survival [in Egypt]. Because the analysis incorporates a number of other socio-economic characteristics, namely region and type of place of residence, maternal education and paternal status, we will also consider the relative importance of each as determinants of mortality in Egypt. A further objective is to examine the extent to which income effects operate indirectly through other household characteristics, such as sanitation conditions, and through parental characteristics, such as maternal age and parity. Finally, to obtain a more detailed picture of the role of household income, we perform analyses separately for infant and early childhood mortality (ages 1-4 years), and utilize a variety of income measures." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: A. F. Ismail, Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Salah Salem Road, POB 2086, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30154 Kwok, Kwan Kit; Tan, Poo Chang; Tan, Boon Ann; Tey, Nai Peng; Arshat, Hamid. Survival functions for the first year of life in Peninsular Malaysia. Jun 1988. 54 pp. National Population and Family Development Board: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This study analysed the chances of survival in the first year of life using retrospective birth histories from the 1984/85 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The main objectives of the study are: (a) to estimate the empirical survival functions of the main [ethnic] subgroups of the population by means of life table techniques, (b) to highlight the main differentials in survival chances of these groups, (c) to fit a logistic function to the data and (d) to examine further the main socio-economic differentials in survival chances, controlling for the effects of the main covariates."
Correspondence: National Population and Family Development Board, No. 22 Jalan Murai Dua, 51100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30155 Marcotte, John E. The impact of piped water on child mortality and breastfeeding in Ecuador and Brazil. Pub. Order No. DA8901177. 1988. 228 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of piped water on child mortality and breast feeding duration in Ecuador and Brazil. "Each chapter shows differentials in the impact of piped water for urban and rural areas, regions, low and non-low income households, education groups, the literate and illiterate, crowded and not crowded housing, and dwellings with and without a gas or electric cooker."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(11).

55:30156 Palloni, Alberto. Effects of inter-birth intervals on infant and early childhood mortality. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 163-88 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the effects of inter-birth intervals on infant and early childhood mortality. The relationships between birth intervals and breast-feeding are first defined. Methodological problems in designing an optimum estimation model are then discussed. "Third, some of the most important hypotheses are tested on a sample of Latin American [and Caribbean] countries with available information. Finally, an effort is made to measure the effects of breast-feeding and pace of child-bearing....In only a few cases...are these effects significantly altered by special contingencies, such as mother's education, levels of mortality and fertility, and patterns of breast-feeding. Finally...it is verified that the main mechanisms through which the effects of inter-birth intervals operate do not, solely or mainly, involve the existence and variable duration of breast-feeding."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30157 Reed, Allen H.; Kau, Tsui-Ying. Formulation of an equation to assess patterns of infant mortality in Detroit. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 328-33 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this paper we derive an equation to be used to examine patterns of infant mortality in the 51 subcommunities which comprise the city of Detroit. The paper demonstrates the use of regression diagnostics to fit multiple regression models, successively reducing the extent of collinearity by deletion of nearly linearly related variables....Data for this study were compiled from two 1980 [U.S.] census summary tape files. Information was aggregated by subcommunity and included variables describing income, education, population density, average number of children per family and per broken family."
Correspondence: A. H. Reed, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30158 Retherford, Robert D.; Choe, Minja Kim; Thapa, Shyam; Gubhaju, Bhakta B. To what extent does breastfeeding explain birth-interval effects on early childhood mortality? Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 439-50 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article shows that in Nepal breastfeeding almost completely explains the effects of following birth interval on childhood mortality during the first 18 months of age and partially explains the effect of following birth interval on childhood mortality between 18 and 60 months of age. Breastfeeding does not explain the effect of preceding birth interval on childhood mortality. The analysis is based on an application of hazard models to data from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, Population Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30159 Rosenberg, Margit. Breast-feeding and infant mortality in Norway 1860-1930. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 335-48 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using medical records from maternity clinics in the two Norwegian cities Oslo and Bergen, the effect of lactation on infant mortality during the period 1860-1930 is examined, comparing those who were and were not breast-fed in a total of about 6,900 live born infants. The mortality of children not breast-fed was nearly three times that of those who were breast-fed. In a Cox regression analysis the infant's year of birth and the mother's marital status were found to influence mortality in addition to lactation....The duration of lactation was found to have a continuing protective effect on infant survival after weaning--the longer the duration, the lower the mortality after cessation of lactation."
Correspondence: M. Rosenberg, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, POB 1072, Blindern, 0316 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30160 Simic, Snezana; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kunitz, Stephen J. Identification of factors influential in decreasing the infant mortality rate in Yugoslavia. [Identifikovanje faktora koji uticu na smanjivanje smrtnosti odojcadi u Jugoslaviji.] Acta Medica Iugoslavica, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1988. 19-30 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Factors associated with the recent decline in infant mortality in Yugoslavia are analyzed using log-linear regression models. The authors conclude that this decline was probably due to a general improvement in economic and social conditions associated with development rather than to specific improvements in medical care.
Correspondence: S. Simic, Institute of Social Medicine, University of Belgrade School of Medicine, 11001 Belgrade 6, Studentski trg 1, Yugoslavia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:30161 Tawiah, E. O. Child mortality differentials in Ghana: a preliminary report. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1989. 349-55 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relationship is examined of child mortality in Ghana with six socioeconomic factors: mother's type of place of residence, education, occupation and work status, and current husband's education and occupation. Using data from the 1979-80 Ghana Fertility Survey, Trussell's marriage duration model was employed to estimate probabilities of dying at exact ages 2 and 5 in different population subgroups. The two education variables (mother's and husband's education) have the largest effect on child mortality, followed by husband's occupation and mother's occupation, in that order."
Correspondence: E. O. Tawiah, Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30162 Traore, Baba; Traore, Mamadou; Campbell, Oona. A study on the effects of breast-feeding on diarrheal morbidity, nutritional status, and infant mortality in Mali. [Etude des effets de l'allaitement sur la morbidite diarrheique, l'etat nutritionnel et la mortalite des enfants au Mali.] Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 2, May 1989. 42 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
The authors first analyze breast-feeding practices in Mali. The effect of various factors on diarrheal disease is also considered, including residence, educational status, water supply, and sanitation. The relationships among these factors and breast-feeding, nutritional status, and mortality are then examined. Data are from the Demographic and Health Survey, a survey of some 3,200 women conducted as one in a series of surveys carried out in cooperation with the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development.
Correspondence: CERPOD/INSAH, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30163 Utomo, Budi; Iskandar, Meiwita B. Socio-economic differentials in infant and child mortality in Indonesia in the 1970s: trends, causes, and implications. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 145-55 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines socioeconomic differentials in infant and child mortality in Indonesia in the 1970s using data from the 1971 and 1980 censuses. Infant and child mortality rates are analyzed by per capita income, urban or rural residence, and maternal educational status. Principal causes of death are presented. Improvements in education and public health services and access to clean water and sanitation facilities are the main factors identified for decreasing infant and child mortality.
Correspondence: B. Utomo, Department of Population and Biostatistics, University of Indonesia, J1. Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30164 Weiss, Philip. The geography of child survival in the frontline. Geography, Vol. 74, Pt. 2, No. 323, Apr 1989. 151-5 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
The author critically examines trends in child mortality in the Frontline states of Africa, that is, those countries in close proximity to the war in Southern Africa. He reports on an international symposium on child survival and development, held in Harare, Zimbabwe, in March 1988.
Correspondence: P. Weiss, Mount Pleasant School, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

55:30165 Hanson, Bertil S.; Isacsson, Sven-Olof; Janzon, Lars; Lindell, Sven-Eric. Social network and social support influence mortality in elderly men: the prospective population study of "men born in 1914," Malmo, Sweden. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 130, No. 1, Jul 1989. 100-11 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association of all-cause mortality with different aspects of social network, social support, and social influence. The study sample (n=621) was a random half of all male residents of Malmo, Sweden, born in in 1914, of whom 500 (80.5%) were interviewed and examined in 1982-1983....During the follow-up period from September 1982 to November 1987, 67 (13.4%) of the 500 participants died. In univariate analysis, a higher mortality risk was found among men with low availability of emotional support and low adequacy of social participation and among men living alone....These relative mortality risks changed little after adjustments for social class, health status at baseline, cardiovascular risk factors, alcohol intake, physical activity, and body mass index in the multivariate analysis...."
Correspondence: B. S. Hanson, Department of Community Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:30166 Myers, George C. Mortality and health dynamics at older ages. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 189-214 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Mortality trends among the aged in 19 developed countries are examined, with an emphasis on health dynamics. Using data from the World Health Organization, the author discusses death at older ages, comparisons in life expectancies, age-specific death rates, mortality ratios by sex, causes of death, and trends in death rates and morbidity.
Correspondence: G. C. Myers, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30167 Pison, Gilles; Langaney, Andre. Age patterns of mortality in Eastern Senegal: a comparison of micro and survey approaches. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 297-317 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The authors compare the roles of micro-approach and traditional large-scale quantitative surveys in demographic analysis. "The primary aim of small scale surveys is often a detailed study of behaviour patterns; but the quality of the data collected may also mean improved population estimates, particularly in developing countries. A small scale population survey conducted in the Bandafassi area of Eastern Senegal will be used here to illustrate this secondary role. A presentation of the Bandafassi study is followed by a description of several new data collection techniques which were used on this occasion and which are specific to small scale surveys. Then the age-specific mortality estimates obtained in Bandafassi with these new techniques are compared with those obtained through traditional survey methods, and the improvements discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30168 Polach, Jiri. Regional differences in lost years of potential life of males and females of working age in Czechoslovakia during the period 1980-1983. [Regionalni rozdily ztracenych let potencialniho zivota v CSSR v obdobi 1980-1983 u muzu a zen produktivniho veku.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1989. 117-27 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Adult mortality for males and females of working age in Czechoslovakia is analyzed for the period 1980-1983. The analysis is presented in terms of years of potential life lost by region and district.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30169 Rogers, Andrei; Rogers, Richard G.; Branch, Laurence G. A multistate analysis of active life expectancy. Public Health Reports, Vol. 104, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 222-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A multistate analysis is used to estimate life expectancy for the elderly aged 65-85 and to determine what portions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. Data are from Massachusetts for 1974 and 1976. "Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, Institute of Behavioral Science, Campus Box 484, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30170 Timaeus, Ian; Graham, Wendy. Measuring adult mortality in developing countries: a review and assessment of methods. CPS Research Paper, No. 88-4, ISBN 0-902657-23-2. Dec 1988. v, 55 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews experience of the measurement of adult mortality in developing countries, assesses the performance of existing approaches and suggests some possible routes to the development of improved methods. Rather than discussing the use of mortality data in the allocation of resources directed at reducing ill-health, we focus on issues that arise in the measurement of the mortality of adults in countries with unsophisticated statistical information systems....[The authors conclude that] in countries where civil registration is seriously inadequate, a dual strategy based on sample routine health reporting systems and single-round surveys asking indirect questions may be more appropriate."
Correspondence: Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

55:30171 Gavrilov, L. A.; Semenova, V. G.; Gavrilova, N. S. Methods of life table analysis. [Metody analiza tablits smertnosti.] In: Metody issledovaniya, edited by A. G. Vishnevskii. 1986. 96-110, 182 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Some recent approaches to life table analysis are described, and new methods for obtaining information from such tables are outlined. The authors find that analyses of mortality differentials by sex based on traditional indexes may lead to incorrect conclusions. They propose an alternative method based on mortality correlation studies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30172 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 41[st] abridged life tables (April 1, 1987-March 31, 1988). Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 258, Mar 3, 1989. 25 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
These abridged life tables for Japan are based on official mortality statistics for the period April 1, 1987, to March 31, 1988.
For a previous set of life tables in this series, published in 1988, see 54:30156.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30173 Pollard, John H. On the derivation of a full life table from mortality data recorded in five-year age groups. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1989. 1-14, 89 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Mortality data are often gathered using 5-year age groups rather than individual years of life. Furthermore, it is common practice to use a large open-ended interval (such as 85 and over) for mortality data at the older ages. These limitations of the data pose problems for the actuary or demographer who wishes to compile a full and accurate life table using individual years of life. In this paper, we devise formulae which handle these problems. We also devise methods for handling mortality during the first year of life and for dealing with other technical problems which arise in the compilation of the full life table from grouped data." The methods are illustrated using Australian data.
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30174 Ramlau-Hansen, Henrik. Applications of life history analysis in actuarial mathematics. Aug 1988. 47 pp. University of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng. with sum. in Dan.
This paper presents summaries of nine papers concerning the applications of life history analysis in actuarial mathematics. Most of the applications considered involve Danish data. The emphasis is on mortality.
Correspondence: Laboratory of Actuarial Mathematics, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

55:30175 Blum, Alain; Houdaille, Jacques; Lamouche, Marc. Evidence on mortality differentials at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. [Elements sur la mortalite differentielle a la fin du XVIIIe et au debut du XIXe siecle.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 29-53 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Differential mortality rates by social class and geographical origin are estimated using data from the fourth arrondissement of Paris for the 1860s, which include information on age at death of the parents of those married. "Two conclusions can clearly be drawn. First, the social factor is much more significant in explaining differences in mortality than the geographical. Secondly, these differences do not appear to have been reduced by the rise in life expectancy--they may even have increased. These estimates were then compared with various other available data to construct an overview of mortality differentials from the 17th century to the present."
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30176 Blum, Alain; Houdaille, Jacques. Inequalities in mortality in the past. [Les inegalites devant la mort dans le passe.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1989. 5-20 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a historical analysis of trends in differential mortality, with emphasis on the evidence for socioeconomic differentials. The authors present results from a current INED research project that provide convincing evidence of differences in mortality by social class in nineteenth-century Paris. Comparisons are made of life expectancy at age 40 by class, showing longer life expectancy for higher social classes.
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30177 Carlson, Elwood. Concentration of rising Hungarian mortality among manual workers. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 4, Jul 1989. 194-203 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
This is a reprint of an article previously published in the April issue of the same journal, at which time the original tables were inadvertently omitted. The study concerns the increase in mortality among male manual workers in Hungary between 1960 and 1984 and its causes.
For the original article, also published in 1989, see 55:20196.
Correspondence: E. Carlson, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30178 Charbonneau, Hubert; There, Christine. Mortality among economists and demographers during the ancien regime. [La mortalite des economistes et des demographes de l'ancien regime.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 1, Pub. Order No. 18. Jan-Feb 1989. 85-106 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The general characteristics of mortality among French economists and demographers during the ancien regime are examined. With the exception of the Revolutionary period, these professionals experienced a longer life expectancy than the general population due to their social class, occupational status, and life style.
Correspondence: H. Charbonneau, Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PI).

55:30179 Cottias, Myriam. Mortality and the proportion of Creoles in Martinique households during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. [Mortalite et creolisation sur les habitations martiniquaises du XVIIIe au XIXe siecle.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 55-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines mortality rates among slaves in households in Martinique between 1766 and 1844 using data from a family plantation. Results indicate that life expectancy varied considerably between households and that high rates of mortality persisted among both children and adults. However, mortality was lower among Creoles than among purchased slaves.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30180 Fix, Alan G. Semai Senoi mortality: two-census method. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1989. 471-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The mortality pattern of a subpopulation of Semai Senoi of Malaysia is studied by using a two-census method. The method yields abridged life tables for both sexes as well as an estimate of the birth rate. The life tables show that Semai mortality is reduced compared to estimates based on stable population methods for the population prior to 1969. Increased health care availability seems to account for this lower mortality."
Correspondence: A. G. Fix, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30181 Ingram, Deborah D.; Gillum, Richard F. The Mortality Surveillance System and its applications to a study of ischemic heart disease mortality. In: American Statistical Association, 1987 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1987]. 324-7 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to familiarize health statisticians with the MSS [Mortality Surveillance System]....In addition, the usefulness of the MSS is demonstrated through an analysis of regional and urbanization differences in ischemic heart disease mortality [in the United States]....The mortality data base of the MSS is derived from the U.S. micro-data death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for the years 1968-83."
Correspondence: D. D. Ingram, National Center for Health Statistics, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30182 Kane, Penny. Famine in China 1959-61: demographic and social implications. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 231-53 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the history of famine in China and the demographic and social implications of the government's response since 1949 to ensure a minimal food supply. The 1959-1961 famine is discussed, with consideration given to mortality, fertility, demographic mechanisms of survival such as marriage patterns, and societal and governmental responses.
Correspondence: P. Kane, Cardiff University Population Centre, University College, POB 78, Cardiff CF1 1XL, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30183 Kunst, Anton E.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P. Medical care and regional mortality differences within the countries of the European community. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1988. 223-45 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper addresses the question whether regional mortality differences within developed countries reflect differences in characteristics of medical care service. It adds two new elements to previous studies on this subject: it concentrates on selected 'avoidable' causes of death, and it makes parallel analyses for ten [European Community] countries. The results show that levels of medical care supply contribute little to the explanation of regional differences in mortality from the selected conditions. It is concluded that if regional mortality differences are related to health care, factors other than the level of supply are probably involved."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30184 Mays, Nicholas; Chinn, Susan. Relation between all cause standardised mortality ratios and two indices of deprivation at regional and district level in England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jun 1989. 191-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between mortality rates for all causes and deprivation of health care services due to socioeconomic status at regional and district levels in England. Data are from the 1981 census. Findings indicate that "it is still not clear how the deprivation variables available in the Census relate empirically to the need for additional health service resources."
Correspondence: N. Mays, Department of Community Medicine, United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, St. Thomas's Campus, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30185 Miller, Barbara D. Changing patterns of juvenile sex ratios in rural India, 1961 to 1971. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 22, Jun 3, 1989. 1,229-36 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to contribute to the study of change in mortality differentials between boys and girls over time by examining the changing regional patterns in the juvenile sex ratio in rural India using district-level data from the censuses of 1961 and 1971. The author's purpose here is to describe the pattern of change and to suggest the implications for social theory." The results indicate that sex differentials in childhood mortality are increasing over time in favor of boys and to the detriment of girls.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30186 Rogers, Andrei; Gard, Kathy. The interstate geography of death: a parameterized description. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-88-4, Jun 1988. 21 pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"This paper examines [U.S.] interstate mortality differentials in 1979-1981....[It] begins with a quick overview of the data set, which reveals surprisingly wide variations across states in indices of longevity such as life expectancies at birth. Age patterns of mortality are then studied with the aid of a mathematical representation of probabilities of dying at each age called the Heligman-Pollard model mortality schedule. This model schedule is fitted to data for all 50 U.S. States and the District of Columbia, and a comparison is then made of the parameters associated with each State."
Correspondence: Population Program, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30187 Ruzicka, Lado; Wunsch, Guillaume; Kane, Penny. Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-828651-1. LC 88-31297. 1989. [ix], 259 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This volume is a compilation of papers by various authors concerning biological and socioeconomic factors that are associated with continuing inequalities in mortality, especially infant and child mortality, in developing countries. "Certain of the papers deal with new conceptual approaches and with methodological issues related to the study of differential mortality: other sections address health and mortality problems in particular countries or selected groups of countries in Asia and Latin America. A separate section covers the demographic and health impacts of famine and other disasters. The contribution of fertility decline to mortality change, and the emerging health problems resulting from the aging of the population, are also examined."
The papers were originally prepared for a joint seminar of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and the Japanese National Institute for Research Advancement, held in Tokyo, Japan, November 24-27, 1984.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30188 Ruzicka, Lado. Problems and issues in the study of mortality differentials. In: Differential mortality: methodological issues and biosocial factors, edited by Lado Ruzicka, Guillaume Wunsch, and Penny Kane. 1989. 3-17 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a collection of papers on differential mortality in developing countries. "The chapters in this book are grouped into three sections. The first deals with methodological and conceptual problems in the study of differential mortality; in the second section, regional and country studies of mortality differentials, or specific aspects of such differentials--such as spacing of births, and health dynamics in old age--are presented. The third section is devoted to the impact upon health and mortality of crisis situations....The selection of discussions presented in this book is an attempt to promote further investigations of determinants of mortality differentials and to invite discussion about more effective ways of doing so."
Correspondence: L. Ruzicka, Demography Department, Australian Natural University, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30189 Srb, Vladimir; Vano, Boris. Mortality by family status, 1950-1980. [Umrtnost obyvatelstva podle rodinneho stavu 1950-1980.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1989. 37-41 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors review the mortality rates of the population of Czechoslovakia for the years 1950-1980 according to marital status and sex. Data are from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30190 Staessen, J.; Bulpitt, C.; Clement, D.; De Leeuw, P.; Fagard, R.; Fletcher, A.; Forette, F.; Leonetti, G.; Nissinen, A.; O'Malley, K.; Tuomilehto, J.; Webster, J.; Williams, B. O. Relation between mortality and treated blood pressure in elderly patients with hypertension: report of the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly. British Medical Journal, Vol. 298, No. 6687, Jun 10, 1989. 1,552-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The present paper is based on the results of the trial conducted by the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly. The trial comprised elderly patients with hypertension randomly allocated to placebo or active treatment. We studied the mortality in the patients, who were grouped in thirds of the distribution of treated blood pressure. In addition, the presence of cardiovascular complications at randomisation, the fall in diastolic pressure after randomisation, and some variables of general health, such as haemoglobin concentration and body weight, were examined as possible correlates of mortality."
Correspondence: J. Staessen, Klinisch Laboratorium Hypertensie, Inwendige Geneeskunde-Cardiologie, University Hospital Gasthuisbert, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:30191 Wingard, Deborah L.; Cohn, Barbara A.; Kaplan, George A.; Cirillo, Piera M.; Cohen, Richard D. Sex differentials in morbidity and mortality risks examined by age and cause in the same cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 130, No. 3, Sep 1989. 601-10 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
A prospective study of sex ratios for both morbidity and mortality due to a variety of causes for a single cohort is presented. Data concern a random sample of 5,239 adults who were over age 30 in 1965 and who have been followed through 1983 in a California survey of physical, social, and health indicators. "For both cancer incidence and mortality there was a female excess before age 50 years, followed by a male excess peaking between ages 60 and 69 years. Sex ratios for ischemic heart disease mortality, on the other hand, indicated a male excess at virtually all ages, and that these sex ratios declined with age."
Correspondence: D. L. Wingard, Department of Community and Family Medicine, M-007, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0607. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

55:30192 American Cancer Society (Atlanta, Georgia). Cancer facts and figures, 1989. 1989. 31 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This annual report presents estimated data for 1989 on cancer incidence and mortality for the United States, including Puerto Rico, by state, sex, and major cancer site.
Correspondence: American Cancer Society, 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30193 American Medical Association. Council on Scientific Affairs (Chicago, Illinois). Firearms injuries and deaths: a critical public health issue. Public Health Reports, Vol. 104, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 111-20 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Injuries and deaths resulting from firearm use in the United States are discussed, with a focus on promoting greater public safety through education and legislation. "Gunshot wounds are the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and more than half of all suicides are committed with guns....Educational efforts have been attempted to promote the safer use of firearms, but they have not led to a significant reduction in the number of fatalities, since most firearm incidents are intended to do harm."
Correspondence: William R. Hendee, Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association, 535 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60610. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30194 Dzurova, Dagmar. Typology of districts in the Czech Socialist Republic by causes of death. [Typologie okresu CSR podle pricin umrti.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1989. 128-36 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This article builds on a series of previously published analyses of regional mortality differentials in Czechoslovakia and focuses on the structure of causes of death. The data concern the period 1980-1984 and are presented separately for males and females for the 75 districts of the Czech part of the country.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30195 Graham, Wendy; Brass, William; Snow, Robert W. Estimating maternal mortality: the sisterhood method. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1989. 125-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper describes a new indirect technique for deriving population-based estimates of maternal mortality. The technique, called the 'sisterhood method,' is relevant to developing countries where the alternative data sources and approaches to estimation are often inadequate and inappropriate. The sisterhood method uses the proportions of adult sisters dying during pregnancy, childbirth, or the puerperium reported by adults during a census or survey, to derive a variety of indicators of maternal mortality. The first field trial of the method was carried out in the North Bank Division of The Gambia, West Africa, in 1987. The results indicate a lifetime risk of maternal mortality of 0.0584, or 1 in 17, approximating a maternal mortality ratio of 1,005 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with previous estimates for this region."
Correspondence: W. Graham, Maternal and Child Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London EC1 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30196 Haberman, Paul W.; Natarajan, Geetha. Premature mortality and chronic alcoholism: medical examiner cases, New Jersey. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 6, 1989. 729-32 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"To obtain estimates of premature mortality from nonviolent causes associated with chronic alcoholism, median ages at death were calculated for 994 Essex County, New Jersey Medical Examiner cases aged 25 or older classified as (1) 'nonabusers' or (2) alcoholics whose underlying cause of death was natural disease and (3) those who died of chronic alcoholism....Differences in...life-shortening effects according to sex, race, and natural disease versus chronic alcoholism as underlying and/or contributing cause(s) of death are analyzed."
Correspondence: P. W. Haberman, N. J. Department of Health, Division of Alcoholism, DN 362, Trenton, NJ 08625. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30197 Haybittle, J. L.; Brinkley, D.; Houghton, J.; A'Hern, R. P.; Baum, M. Postoperative radiotherapy and late mortality: evidence from the Cancer Research Campaign trial for early breast cancer. British Medical Journal, Vol. 298, No. 6688, Jun 17, 1989. 1,611-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt to identify any excess mortality caused by adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer in the early stages. Data are from a study of 2,800 women who received a mastectomy in the United Kingdom between June 1970 and April 1975. The patients were followed until June 1988. 1,376 of the women had both a simple mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy, while 1,424 underwent a mastectomy without additional treatment. The authors find that "adjuvant radiotherapy after simple mastectomy for early breast cancer produces a small excess late mortality from other cancers and cardiac disease."
Correspondence: J. Houghton, Cancer Research Campaign Clinical Trials Centre, Rayne Institute, London SE5 9NU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:30198 Italy. Istituto Centrale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy); Italy. Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Rome, Italy). Mortality by cause and local health district, 1980-1982. [Mortalita per causa e unita sanitaria locale, 1980-1982.] [1988]. xiv, 750 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
Data on causes of death in Italy for the period 1980-1982 are presented by sex and local health district.
Correspondence: ISTAT, Via Cesare Balbo 16, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30199 Kearney, Robert N.; Miller, Barbara D. Suicide and internal migration in Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3-4, 1988. 287-304 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the rise of suicide rates in Sri Lanka in recent decades and suggests that much of the increase is attributable to the disruptions caused by increased levels of internal migration. Attention is paid to suicide rates by district, sex, and age group. It is shown that, while internal migration cannot explain completely the universal rise in suicide in Sri Lanka, there is a strong association between suicide and internal migration particularly in the Dry Zone districts where migrants comprise more than half the population in most adult-age groups."
Correspondence: B. D. Miller, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30200 Lester, David. Specific agents of accidental and suicidal death: comparisons by state, 1970. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 34, Jul 1989. 182-4 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"Accidental death rates from firearms were positively associated with suicidal death rates from firearms over the United States, and the same was true for deaths from poisoning by solids and liquids and by gases. This positive association was seen as supporting an hypothesis that accidental death rates from a particular method may be a good index of the availability of that method for suicide."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:30201 Matthews, Karen A.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Meilahn, Elaine N.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Wing, Rena R. Educational attainment and behavioral and biologic risk factors for coronary heart disease in middle-aged women. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 129, No. 6, Jun 1989. 1,132-44 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Epidemiologic investigations have shown that low socioeconomic status is related to ischemic coronary heart disease mortality in men and women as well as to major risk factors for coronary heart disease, predominantly in men. The present study investigated the associations between educational attainment and biologic and behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease in a community sample of 2,138 middle-aged women residing in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania....between 1983 and 1985....[The] results suggest many biologic and behavioral factors by which women with little education are at elevated risk for coronary heart disease."
Correspondence: K. A. Matthews, Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:30202 Messner, Steven F. Economic discrimination and societal homicide rates: further evidence on the cost of inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 4, Aug 1989. 597-611 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This research examines the effects of economic discrimination against social groups on national rates of homicide....I hypothesize that nations with intense and pervasive discrimination will exhibit comparatively high levels of homicide, and that the effects of discrimination will exceed those of income inequality. Regression analyses using both INTERPOL and World Health Organization homicide data support both hypotheses. Indicators of economic discrimination against social groups are significantly and positively related to homicide rates despite fairly extensive controls for other theoretically relevant national characteristics....These results suggest that the structuring of economic inequality on the basis of ascribed characteristics is a particularly important source of lethal violence in contemporary societies."
Correspondence: S. F. Messner, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30203 Mirkov, Kiril; Vasilev, Dimitar; Rachev, Elian; Dikov, Ivan; Georgieva, Valeriya. Maternal mortality throughout the world and in Bulgaria. [Maichinata smartnost v sveta i v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1988. 52-70 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors analyze the structure of maternal mortality in Bulgaria and in selected other countries. Factors considered include parity, age, attitude toward pregnancy, socioeconomic conditions, and availability of maternal health services. Risk factors and differentials in rates among countries are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30204 Morgan, Myfanwy; Heller, R. F.; Swerdlow, A. Changes in diet and coronary heart disease mortality among social classes in Great Britain. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jun 1989. 162-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has declined in Britain since the early 1970s and followed a reduction in dietary fat intake in the population. We attempted to determine whether there have been changes in dietary fat [lipids and cholesterol] intakes by social classes and to see whether they correspond to social class changes in CHD mortality, where the greatest reduction has been in the upper social class groups. Dietary fat intake was specially obtained by social class on a household basis from the National Food Survey (NFS) for 1974 and 1981....This study shows that recent social class trends in dietary fat intakes are unlikely to account for the differential changes in CHD mortality. Changes in the prevalence of smoking among social classes are more consistent with the change in CHD mortality."
Correspondence: M. Morgan, Department of Community Medicine, United Medical and Dental Schools, St. Thomas's Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30205 Pekkanen, Juha; Nissinen, Aulikki; Puska, Pekka; Punsar, Sven; Karvonen, Martti J. Risk factors and 25 year risk of coronary heart disease in a male population with a high incidence of the disease: the Finnish cohorts of the seven countries study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 299, No. 6691, Jul 8, 1989. 81-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The efficacy of high levels of cholesterol, raised blood pressure, and smoking as predictors of mortality from coronary heart disease in Finland is examined using data from a prospective cohort study of 1,520 men followed over 25 years. 825 deaths occurred during this time period, of which 335 were due to coronary heart disease. The results confirm that "high risk factor levels...in middle aged men may greatly increase the absolute probability of death from coronary heart disease when the period of study is relevant to the human life span."
Correspondence: J. Pekkanen, Department of Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, SF-00300, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:30206 Schofield, Roger. Did the mothers really die? Three centuries of maternal mortality in "The World We Have Lost" In: The world we have gained: histories of population and social structure, edited by Lloyd Bonfield, Richard M. Smith, and Keith Wrightson. 1986. 231-60 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to estimate the extent of maternal mortality in England and Wales in the period before 1847, when such data began to be collected nationally by the Registrar General's office. The data are from the limited parish register sources available, supplemented by comparative data from Swedish sources. The author concludes that although the risk of dying in childbirth was higher than today, the risk was no greater than the risks women ran of dying from infectious diseases or a variety of other causes.
Correspondence: R. Schofield, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30207 Vollmer, William M.; McCamant, Lynn E.; Johnson, Larry R.; Buist, Sonia A. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and mortality in a screening center cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 129, No. 6, Jun 1989. 1,157-69 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Numerous studies have documented the effects of smoking and reduced pulmonary function on all-cause mortality. The effects of respiratory symptoms are less well studied. This paper examines the joint effects of respiratory symptoms, lung function, and smoking using 11-year mortality data on 698 [U.S.] subjects aged 25 years and older....Symptoms...were significantly associated with all-cause mortality in separate univariate analyses. On a cause-specific basis, these associations appeared to hold for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and vascular disease."
Correspondence: W. M. Vollmer, Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente, Northwest Region, Portland, OR. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).


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