Volume 55 - Number 3 - Fall 1989

A. General Population Studies and Theories

Works of a general and comprehensive nature. Studies that are limited to well-defined problems of demography are cited under the relevant topic and are cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

A.1. General Population

Global population studies.

A.1.1. General Population--Long Studies

Comprehensive, book-length surveys of the present status of demography and its principal branches, including the historical development of these studies, analytical studies of demography as a whole, and global population studies.

55:30001 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). World population at the turn of the century. Population Studies, No. 111; ST/ESA/SER.A/111, Pub. Order No. E.89.XIII.2. ISBN 92-1-151174-7. 1989. vii, 126 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is the sixth in a series of periodic reviews of world, regional and international developments in the field of population prepared by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat....Special emphasis has been given in the present report to the status of various regions of the world in relation to the demographic transition, in particular to the fertility transition." Chapters are included on recent population and economic developments; demographic trends such as population growth, mortality, fertility, age structure, and international migration; demographic transitions in developing countries, including determinants of fertility and mortality changes; and developed countries with below-replacement fertility rates. Africa and China are also discussed as examples of areas experiencing demographic transition at different rates.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.1.2. General Population--Short Studies

Short (fewer than 100 pages), general works on population and global population studies. Items on activities of research institutions in demography are also included.

55:30002 Demetrius, Lloyd. The demographic evolution of human populations: the role of selection and environmental factors. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 3, Aug 1989. 353-72 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author examines the role of selection and environmental factors in the demographic evolution of human populations. "I briefly describe the dynamical changes in the Malthusian parameter and population entropy under the action of natural selection and environmental action. In the subsequent section I describe how the nature and magnitude of these two forces may be inferred from local changes in the two parameters. The rules described in this section are illustrated by an analysis of the demographic transition in Sweden. I exploit these rules to infer the nature and magnitude of the forces underlying the changes in birth and death rates in Sweden over the past 200 years." The results indicate that "demographic changes during the pre- and posttransitional phases are determined mainly by environmental factors, whereas the changes during the transitional phase are mainly due to cultural selection."
Correspondence: L. Demetrius, Max Planck Institut fur Biophysikalische Chemie, D-3400 Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30003 Keyfitz, Nathan. Decomposition and reassembly of the age-time distribution. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 49, Feb 1989. vi, 21 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper tries to account for age-time sets of data in terms of [simple] elements that will lead to understanding of the dynamics that produced the outcome, and to see how changes in those elements would change (or would have changed) the distribution." The author uses a "profile of intercohort differences [to summarize] the evolution of vital rates through time. Its calculation is shown in detail for Japan, and in summary for 38 other populations. Among other results, the summary brings out the sharp upturn in population increase after the first World War, the baby boom in the developed countries after the second World War, and the sudden onset of the unprecedented population expansion that still continues in the less developed countries."
Correspondence: Population Research Institute, Nihon University, 3-2, Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30004 Keyfitz, Nathan. The growing human population. Scientific American, Vol. 261, No. 3, Sep 1989. 118-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationships among technological and economic development, world population growth, and carrying capacity are explored. Consideration is given to the effect of industrialization on birth and death rates, the impact of agricultural production on the environment, age distribution and family planning program strength in developing countries, and projections for the future of the world's population. Data are from official and other sources.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, Population Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

55:30005 Kowalska, Anna. The current state and future prospects for the population of the modern world. [Stan i perspektywy sytuacji ludnosciowej wspolczesnego swiata.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1986. 55-90, 225, 232-3 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The growing disparity between the population dynamics of developed and developing countries is explored. The author analyzes data from 154 countriess and divides these countriess into 13 types defined by various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Consideration is given to probable future population developments.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30006 Lukaszewicz, Aleksander. Population, development, and the contradictions of freedom. [Ludnosc, rozwoj, antynomie wolnosci.] Ekonomista, No. 1, 1987. 65-79 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationships between demographic trends and individual freedom are explored. "They are examined mainly from the following viewpoints: freedom from hunger, possibility of performing a useful work, freedom from ecological harms, exposure to harms resulting from the density of population on the geographic space. The problems are related to the property relations as well. An active demographic policy is postulated."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

A.2. Population Theory

Discussions of the main principles of demography and population theory not applied to actual data, including such concepts as Malthusianism, the demographic transition, overpopulation, optimum population, and stable and stationary population models as distinct from methodological studies and models using data, which are classified under N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models .

55:30007 Cowen, T. Normative population theory. Social Choice and Welfare, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan 1989. 33-43 pp. Heidelberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"Utilitarian and contractarian solutions to the problem of optimal population are examined and shown to have unacceptable implications. As argued by Parfit, for instance, utilitarianism may imply large numbers of people at a very low standard of living. An analogy is drawn between optimal population for a society and the optimal structure of an individual life. The ideal life need not maximize cardinal utility, because an individual may prefer a shorter life with less, more intense utility to a very long life with higher total utility ('Methuselah's Paradox'). The optimal population is what an individual would prefer if he had to sequentially live out each life in his choice."
Correspondence: T. Cowen, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:30008 Demeny, Paul. Demography and the limits to growth. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 213-44 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author outlines theories, empirical findings, and intellectual debates in the field of demography on questions concerning the limits to population growth. He begins by discussing the concept of carrying capacity and by giving some recent estimates of resource limits to population growth. The article "then briefly traces...some early views on resource limits to population growth, characterized by a shift of thinking about such limits toward optimism as the industrial revolution gathered force, and the reemergence of concerns about resources...under the influence of the 'population explosion' in the third quarter of the twentieth century. The discussion closes with comments on views about the prospect for...the early and orderly attainment of a stationary population."
Correspondence: P. Demeny, Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30009 Grebenik, E. Demography, democracy, and demonology. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 1-22, 178, 180 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Developments in the methods of assessing population trends are discussed and their implications for population policy are considered. Two conflicting influences on population change are identified--the Malthusian principle of a growth potential so great that limitation by disease, famine, and war is inevitable; and concern over population decline as a result of birth limitation originating in the last century, termed 'fear of race suicide.' These are the two 'demons' of the essay's title that have alternatingly troubled scholars and policymakers since Malthus's day."
Correspondence: E. Grebenik, Population Studies, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30010 Hecht, Jacqueline. French utopian socialists and the population question: "seeking the future city" In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 49-73 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The evolution of population theory among nineteenth-century utopian socialists in France is described. Particular attention is paid to reactions to Malthusian theories.
Correspondence: J. Hecht, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30011 Kingsland, Sharon. Evolution and debates over human progress from Darwin to sociobiology. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 167-98 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the study of human social progress from Darwin to sociobiology and its relevance for demographers and social planners. The intellectual background to "On the Origin of Species" is first examined, with a focus on the influence of Malthus. Two alternative views of human evolution developed by Herbert Spencer and Alfred R. Wallace are then described. "The third section discusses Darwin's own ideas of human evolution in 'The Descent of Man'. The fourth section surveys the emergence of the engineering mentality characteristic of the twentieth century, exemplified in the eugenics movement...." The final section is concerned with sociobiology and the implications of the biological origins of social behavior for population policy and social planning.
Correspondence: S. Kingsland, Johns Hopkins University, Department of the History of Science, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30012 Petersen, William. Marxism and the population question: theory and practice. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 77-101 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Marxist approaches to population issues are reviewed, with a focus on the history of population theory in the Soviet Union. The author concludes that the interest of this school of thought in population matters was slight and that developments were minimal.
Correspondence: W. Petersen, Ohio State University, Department of Demography, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30013 Steinmann, Gunter. Population, resources and limits to growth. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 6.2.23-33 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author argues that "assumed consequences of the apparently inevitable explosion of the world population, such as famine, unemployment, economic backwardness, illiteracy, pollution and depletion of the world's natural resources...are exaggerated and unjustified." His disagreement with Malthusian theory is presented based on his belief that "it is only in circumstances, where human efforts and technical progress are being counteracted by the political and social system, that additional people must lead to a decrease of the longrun standard of living. This is the case when the political and social organizations conserve the traditional economic, technical and institutional structure and prevent the necessary changes."
Correspondence: G. Steinmann, Department of Economics, University of Paderborn, P.O. Box 1621, Paderborn, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30014 Tomaselli, Sylvana. Moral philosophy and population questions in eighteenth century Europe. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 7-29 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to theories of population growth and decline that were developed during the eighteenth-century Enlightenment in Europe. Particular attention is given to the work of Montesquieu, Hume, Steuart, and Rousseau.
Correspondence: S. Tomaselli, University of Cambridge, Newnham College, Cambridge CB3 9DF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30015 Tuljapurkar, Shripad. An uncertain life: demography in random environments. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3, Jun 1989. 227-94 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper concisely reviews the demography of populations with random vital rates, highlights examples and techniques which yield insight into population dynamics, summarizes the state of significant applications of the theory, and points to open problems. The central picture in this theory is of a time-varying but statistically stationary equilibrium for population, sharply distinct from the notions of classical demography. The deepest biological insights from the theory reveal the temporal structure of life histories to be a rich arena for natural selection."
Correspondence: S. Tuljapurkar, Environmental Sciences/Physics, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30016 Wright, Robert E. The Easterlin hypothesis and European fertility rates. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1989. 107-22, 179-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Richard Easterlin has argued that fertility should fluctuate cyclically depending on the relative economic status of young adults. Evidence in support of this hypothesis has been derived primarily from the experience of the United States. This note explores the relevance of the 'Easterlin hypothesis' in the European context. For a sample of Western European countries, simple time-series regression models are estimated and Granger causality tests are performed. Only limited support for the hypothesis is found."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, Department of Economics, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30017 Wrigley, E. A. The limits to growth: Malthus and the classical economists. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 30-48 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to the work of Malthus and the classical economists, with a focus on the relationship between demographic factors and development. It is concluded that, far from being in opposition to each other, Malthus and classical economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo shared a common viewpoint about the limits to growth and the implications of the necessary relationships among population, resources, and the environment.
Correspondence: E. A. Wrigley, All Souls College, Oxford OX1 4AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.3. Interrelations with Other Disciplines

Interdisciplinary studies of demographic problems and studies of the interaction of demography with other disciplines. This coding is also used for reports, studies, and surveys from other disciplines that include information of demographic interest.

55:30018 Caldwell, John; Caldwell, Pat. An overview of the potential and actual contribution of the anthropological approach to the understanding of factors affecting demographic variables--fertility, mortality and migration. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 7.2.1-20 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Survey methodology alone will not answer all the demographic questions which arise in Africa. This is particularly the case with regard to the cultural and social context of demographic behaviour. Imported surveys include inappropriate questions and omit needed questions because their construction is based upon implicit assumptions from very different societies. African society is characterized by many unique features and it was because of this that the discipline of anthropology was so important in its study; similarly there is a need for a great deal of anthropological demographic research....[This] research is also needed to test satisfactoriness of responses to survey questions and to design better questions. The paper outlines approaches which can be employed in anthropological demographic research."
Correspondence: J. Caldwell, Department of Demography, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30019 Faia, Michael A. Cultural materialism in the functionalist mode. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 4, Aug 1989. 658-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author critically analyzes Krishnan Namboodiri's 1988 defense of ecological demography and adds his own comments on the state and nature of the field. A reply by Namboodiri is included (pp. 660-1).
For the article by Namboodiri, published in 1988, see 54:40012.
Correspondence: M. A. Faia, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30020 Golley, Frank B. Human population from an ecological perspective. In: Population and resources in Western intellectual traditions, edited by Michael S. Teitelbaum and Jay M. Winter. 1989. 199-210 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Human populations are examined from the perspective of ecological science. Topics covered include resources as a limitation to population growth, the adverse effects of high population growth rates, and the impact of human populations on the environment. The author also examines the apparent conflict between ecologists and those who believe that technology can resolve the ecological problems posed by population growth.
Correspondence: F. B. Golley, University of Georgia, Institute of Ecology, Department of Zoology, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30021 Kreager, Philip. Social and supernatural control in a Mayan demographic regime. In: Micro-approaches to demographic research, edited by John C. Caldwell, Allan G. Hill, and Valerie J. Hull. 1988. 410-28 pp. Kegan Paul International: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the importance of studying social and supernatural aspects of Mayan history in order to more fully understand demographic processes in contemporary Mayan communities, using data for the highland township of Chamula in Mexico. "Basically, analysis proceeds by considering how institutions of hierarchy, family and movement are deployed to sustain, and where necessary adjust and revise, the vital principles which are the core of Chamula identity. It then becomes possible to inquire into the implications for local population processes of variables favoured in other approaches--differential accumulation of wealth, proximate determinants of fertility, relations beteween generations--without denying the primary relevance of Indian experience and institutions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30022 Ocholla-Ayayo, A. B. C. Anthropological techniques for demographic field studies: case study in Kenya. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 3, 1988. 7.2.21-35 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses the importance of anthropological techniques in providing qualitative information to supplement demographic studies. A case study in Kenya utilizes the focus group panel method to obtain information typically unavailable through demographic data sources such as censuses and surveys.
Correspondence: A. B. C. Ocholla-Ayayo, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30023 Piche, Victor. The sociology of demographic phenomena. [Sociologie des phenomenes demographiques.] Sociologie et Societes, Vol. 19, No. 1, ISBN 2-7606-0795-X. Apr 1987. 201 pp. Presses de l'Universite de Montreal: Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This special issue is devoted to research in the Canadian province of Quebec concerning the relationships between sociology and demography. The focus is on studies that attempt to explain demographic phenomena through the analysis of social structures and social relationships. Seventeen papers by various authors are presented that cover topics such as nuptiality, employment, child care, sterilization, surrogate motherhood, migration, and family reproduction in the past. A number of papers form part of a debate on the objectives and methods of social demography.
Correspondence: Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:30024 Szczepanski, Jan. Population and society. [Ludnosc i spoleczenstwo.] Ekonomista, No. 1, 1987. 125-32 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationship between demographic and sociological theory is explored. The need for interdisciplinary cooperation is stressed "especially in...applied research where the demographers tend to determine what has to be an optimal population, and the sociologists search for qualities of the society that meet the requirements of welfare."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

A.4. Textbooks and Teaching Programs

Major demographic textbooks and teaching aids, general surveys and collections of readings that are particularly suitable as supplements to coursework, studies on the organization and coverage of training programs in demography, and selected items on population education.

55:30025 Burnley, I. H. Population geography. Australian Geographical Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Apr 1988. 116-31 pp. Armidale, Australia. In Eng.
The status of population geography as a field of study in Australian universities is first discussed. The author then reviews studies on various aspects of Australian population geography, including fertility, mortality, international migration, internal migration, and the geography of aging populations.
Correspondence: I. H. Burnley, School of Geography, University of New South Wales, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: New York Public Library.

55:30026 Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques [IFORD] (Yaounde, Cameroon). IFORD special: 15 years. [Special IFORD: 15 ans.] Demographie Africaine, No. 57, Jul-Aug 1988. 183 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
This is a summary of the achievements of IFORD, the U.N.-sponsored demographic training center in Yaounde, Cameroon, whose primary objective has been to train French-speaking African demographers. Separate sections are included on training, research, the documentation center, the activities of IFORD graduates, and administrative and financial issues.
Correspondence: IFORD, Service des Publications, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30027 Pendleton, Brian F. Syllabi and instructional materials for courses in demography. Resource Materials for Teaching, 2nd ed. 1989. ii, 202 pp. American Sociological Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a resource volume for instructors of demography and topical population courses. It includes syllabi, reading lists, sample exercises, and sources submitted by eminent demographers from the United States, Australia, and Canada. Separate sections are included of syllabi for introductory demography courses; introductory demography courses with topical listings; techniques of demographic analysis; specialized courses in population topics, including fertility, migration and urbanization; and interdisciplinary courses, including economics, rural population, and social demography. Sample assignments and exercises are also included.
Correspondence: ASA Teaching Resources Center, 1722 N Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:30028 Tsai, Hong-Chin; Liao, Cheng-Hung. Principles of demography. [Renkou xue.] 1987. 429 pp. Chu Liu Book Company: [Taipei], Taiwan. In Chi.
This is an introductory Chinese-language textbook on demography. It includes chapters on the importance of population research, data sources, population theory, population dynamics, fertility, mortality, migration, population characteristics, spatial distribution, population growth and the environment, population and the economy, and population policy. A final chapter gives examples of empirical research involving international migration. The primary geographical focus is on Taiwan, although global concerns are also addressed.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI. Source: East-West Population Institute Acquisitions List, Jan-Feb 1988.

55:30029 Wickham, Penelope. The insider's guide to demographic know-how. Everything marketers need to know about how to find, analyze and use information about their customers. ISBN 0-936889-03-9. LC 88-22136. 1988. 246 pp. American Demographics Press: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This is an introduction to demographic analysis for salespeople who need to know how to find, analyze, and use data on their potential customers. It contains a number of chapters by various authors as well as a list of useful publications and a glossary of terms. Part 1 is an introduction to the basics of demographic analysis and its value to marketers. Part 2 lists almost 600 federal, state, local, nonprofit, and private sources of demographic data and related services in the United States, including addresses, as well as the phone numbers of over 300 specialists in the Census Bureau and other federal agencies. An appendix includes a statistical profile of the United States.
Correspondence: American Demographics Press, 108 North Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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