Volume 55 - Number 2 - Summer 1989

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

55:20622 Steinmann, Gunter; Komlos, John. Population growth and economic development in the very long run: a simulation model of three revolutions. Mathematical Social Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, Aug 1988. 49-63 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We propose an economic growth model capable of simulating the four main historical stages of civilization: hunting, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial. An output-maximizing society is assumed to respond to changes in factor endowments by switching technologies. Changes in factor proportions arise through population growth and capital accumulation. A slow rate of exogenous technical progress is assumed. The model synthesizes Malthusian and Boserupian notions of the effect of population growth on per capita output. Initially the capital-diluting effect of population growth dominates. As population density increases, however, and a threshold is reached, the Boserupian effect becomes crucial, and a technological revolution occurs. The cycle is thereafter repeated. After the second economic revolution, however, the Malthusian constraint dissolves permanently, as population growth can continue without being constrained by diminishing returns to labor. By synthesizing Malthusian and Boserupian notions, the model is able to capture the salient features of economic development in the very long run."
Correspondence: G. Steinmann, Department of Economics, University of Paderborn, D-4790 Paderborn, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

55:20623 Adamchak, Donald J. Population aging in Sub-Saharan Africa: the effects of development on the elderly. Population and Environment, Vol. 10, No. 3, Spring 1989. 162-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Demographic trends of the elderly population in Sub-Saharan Africa are explored for the period 1960 to 2020 using U.N. data. The author notes that the elderly population will increase by 82 percent between 1980 and 2000, and by 93 percent from 2000 to 2020. Consideration is given to the impact of this trend on social security, pension plans, and other social policies, as well as on institutional changes in the economy, education, health, and the family.
Correspondence: D. J. Adamchak, Department of Sociology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20624 Birdsall, Nancy. Economic analyses of rapid population growth. World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 1989. 23-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries.
Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20625 Dandekar, Hemalata C. Men to Bombay, women at home: urban influence on Sugao Village, Deccan Maharashtra, India, 1942-1982. Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia, ISBN 0-89148-035-8. LC 85-48240. 1986. xix, 325 pp. University of Michigan, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
A micro-level analysis of the impact of industrialization and the availability of work in nearby Bombay on the Indian village of Sugao is presented. "The village's evolving relationship to local market centers and the increasing linkages and flows of people, money, and goods between it and the city of Bombay are examined. Also described are the impact on the village and its families of changes in living and working conditions in the city and of cash and kind remittances sent home. The psychological and social toll of prolonged family separations is elaborated from a societal as well as an individual perspective. Thus, this book deals both with the worker in the urban industrial milieu and with the family 'at home' in the rural, agrarian hinterland over four critical decades of planned, induced change."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20626 Duza, M. B. Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries. Population Sciences, Vol. 7, 1987. 1-30 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed.
Correspondence: M. B. Duza, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20627 Hammer, Jeffrey S. The demographic transition and aggregate savings in less developed countries. Journal of Economic Development, Vol. 12, No. 2, Dec 1987. 21-37 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"Savings functions estimated with cross section, country level data often find savings rates increasing with income. This paper argues that this result is partly due to the omission of demographic changes which occur as countries develop, rather than to an underlying convexity of the savings function. Using some concepts from demography, a theoretical connection is established between declines in child mortality and [subsequent] declines in birth rates on one hand and changes in aggregate saving on the other. The magnitude of this effect is then appraised by a variety of methods." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. S. Hammer, Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Yale University, Social Science Library, New Haven, CT.

55:20628 Hess, Peter N. Population growth and socioeconomic progress in less developed countries: determinants of fertility transition. ISBN 0-275-92979-5. LC 87-38472. 1988. xiv, 166 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The determinants of aggregate fertility change in contemporary developing countries are studied. The major theories developed to explain the fertility transition are first reviewed. The results of a regression analysis are presented in the next three chapters. First, a formal empirical model is constructed, consisting of two simultaneous equations for total fertility rate and change in real per capita gross domestic product and using data for 51 developing countries for the periods 1962-1972 and 1972-1981. The model is then extended to include family planning program effort. The results are tested in various ways, and a revised model of the fertility transition is proposed. Discussion follows of the suitability of various approaches to fertility analysis, and policy-oriented conclusions concerning education, family planning programs, urbanization, income, and cultural factors are presented. The author also concludes that socioeconomic development and family planning programs are mutually supportive, that there is no evidence to support the Reagan administration's contention that state control of the economy leads to demographic problems, and that reducing high rates of fertility has fostered real economic growth.
Correspondence: Praeger, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library.

55:20629 Kurbatov, V. P. Demographic problems of the People's Republic of China. [Demograficheskie problemy KNR.] Narody Azii i Afriki, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1987. 13-23 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Demographic trends in China are reviewed, with a focus on the changing official attitude toward the relationships among population growth, economic development, and the environment. The author notes that the goal of achieving zero population growth by the year 2000 is only possible by implementing a strict policy of fertility control. The one-child policy is described, and difficulties in implementing it in rural areas are noted. Consideration is given to the negative social consequences of one-child families and to the economic problems involved in finding employment for today's rapidly growing labor force.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

55:20630 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Population and consumption in Morocco. Part 1: The impact of consumption on demographic trends. [Population et consommation au Maroc. Premiere partie: l'influence de la consommation sur les variables demographiques.] Jul 1988. 56 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is the first of a planned two-part study concerning the relationships between consumption and selected demographic variables in Morocco. The emphasis in Part 1 is on the demographic impact of consumption. Data are from a survey on household expenditures conducted in 1984-1985, and from the censuses of 1971 and 1982. Separate consideration is given to infant mortality, female age at marriage and fertility, the rural exodus and rural-urban migration, urbanization, and literacy and education.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Avenue Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20631 Palmer, Ingrid. Gender issues in structural adjustment of Sub-Saharan African agriculture and some demographic implications. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 166, ISBN 92-2-106879-X. Nov 1988. 27 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to point the way to a framework for analysing (a) the relevance of gender issues to the response of small scale export and food agriculture to structural adjustment policies [in Sub-Saharan Africa] and (b) the potential demographic implications of that response." Female-headed farms, differences in men's and women's crops, division of economic accounting units, land rights, gender division of labor, and unequal access to inputs are all discussed as factors affected by agricultural development policies.
Correspondence: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20632 Quesnel, A.; Vimard, P. The dynamics of population in a plantation economy. The Dayes plateau in southwest Togo. [Dynamique de population en economie de plantation. Le plateau de Dayes au sud-ouest du Togo.] Collection Etudes et Theses, ISBN 2-7099-0942-1. 1988. 460 pp. Editions de l'ORSTOM: Paris, France; Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The demographic system that has developed in Western Africa in conjunction with plantation economies is analyzed. The data concern the Dayes plateau in Togo and were collected in multi-round surveys between 1970 and 1976. Following an introduction to the survey and the methodology of the study, the Dayes plantation economy is described. Factors affecting natural increase and human reproduction are then examined, including nuptiality, fertility, and infant mortality. Consideration is also given to migration and to some new demographic factors and their possible influence on future population dynamics in the region.
Correspondence: Editions de l'ORSTOM, 70 route d'Aulnay, 93143 Bondy Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20633 Sadie, J. L. The avoidable costs of population. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1987. 20-5 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
The social and economic consequences of current demographic trends in South Africa are analyzed using the concept of avoidable costs. The author presents projections of the population up to the year 2000 organized under four major categories: executive and managerial; professional; semi-skilled; and the unskilled, peasants, underemployed, and very poor. Comparisons are made with projections for the same four categories for Canada to show the problems faced by South Africa, in that relatively small growth in the first two classes is contrasted to massive growth in the other, and particularly the least privileged, classes. Consideration is given to the implications for the provision of schools and for the labor force. The author concludes that "if a problem is to be tackled at its roots it is to the control of human numbers that our attention is to be directed."
Correspondence: J. L. Sadie, Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20634 Saghayroun, Atif A. R. Population and women in development. LC 87-981365. Mar 1987. viii, 116 pp. Arrow Press: Khartoum, Sudan; National Population Committee, Economic and Social Research Council: Khartoum, Sudan. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of papers that were presented at the Workshop on the Role of Women in the Development of Population Activities, held in Khartoum, Sudan, March 18-20, 1985. The geographical focus is on the Sudan. Topics covered include health, family planning, population policy, food production, the shadow economy, drought, and regional issues.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20635 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Demographic-economic models and policy simulations for Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand: a comparative study. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 88, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/625. 1988. x, 282 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is the final report of an ESCAP project concerned with the comparative study of demographic and economic interrelationships for selected Asian countries. It presents models and policy simulations for these interrelationships for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. The models for the three countries are presented separately and are followed by a comparative review of the three studies. Particular attention is paid to exploring the impact of demographic and economic changes on urbanization and migration.
Correspondence: ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

55:20636 Broclawski, Jean-Pierre. The Japanese economy and the aging of the population. [L'economie japonaise face au vieillissement de sa population.] Economie Prospective Internationale, No. 29, 1987. 77-96 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The consequences of the projected demographic aging that will occur in Japan in the coming years are reviewed. The author notes that although the process of demographic aging will begin later than in other developed countries, it is likely to accelerate faster and cause problems in the cost of social services. The legislation implemented in 1983 to protect the financial health of the pension fund and the health system from the consequences of these demographic trends is described. Consideration is also given to the likely effects of demographic aging on wage and saving rates.
Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20637 Fleming, Grant; Jackson, Kenneth. New Zealand population change and economic change: a review of the evidence and the literature. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1988. 46-60 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper sets out to examine the relationships between rates of economic and population change and the model of analysis adopted by economists at any particular point in time. This is done by considering the evidence of New Zealand's population and economic growth, the nature of economic writing in the inter-war period and that which has appeared since 1945. Our conclusion is that the degree of change in approach [has been], until recently, insignificant and does not appear to justify any suspected links between rates of growth and mode of approach."
Correspondence: G. Fleming, Department of Economics, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20638 Foot, David K. Public expenditures, population aging and economic dependency in Canada, 1921-2021. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan 1989. 97-117 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The decline in population growth, demographic aging, and the economic provision for an increasing dependent population in Canada are described. The author considers changing labor market conditions as he explores the measures of dependency. "Calculations with Canadian data (1921-2021) show that demographic and economic dependency in Canada are currently at historically low levels. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of the general increases in labor force participation rates, that have characterized the past two decades, have more than offset the effects of the general increases in unemployment rates, and that future increases in participation rates and, perhaps, decreases in unemployment rates could provide a significant alleviation of the impacts of population aging on government expenditures in the years ahead."
Correspondence: D. K. Foot, Department of Economics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20639 Groblewska, Celina. Defining the demographic processes and socioeconomic development in Poland. [Ksztaltowanie procesow demograficznych a rozwoj spoleczno-gospodarczy Polski.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 278, 1988. 786 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A summary and review of demographic research conducted in Poland between 1981 and 1986 is presented in this two-volume work. The focus of the research was on the demographic aspects of socioeconomic development and general demographic trends in Poland. The first volume presents the final reports from the heads of groups studying specific themes. The second volume describes the specific projects carried out within those themes. The themes concern population theories; population dynamics, including fertility and mortality; migration; family and household; and social policy and population reproduction. Lists of the relevant research are given in Polish, English, and Russian.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20640 Kocianova, Helena. Social and economic correlations of demographic trends in developed capitalist countries. [Socialne ekonomicke souvislosti demografickych perspektiv ve vyspelych kapitalistickych zemich.] Politicka Ekonomie, Vol. 35, No. 10, 1987. 1,096-107 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
Future population trends in developed market-economy countries are considered, and their likely social and economic impact assessed. Data are from published sources, including the United Nations. Consideration is given to changes in age distribution and their impact on the economy; the effect of demographic aging on the cost of providing social services, including social security; expected developments in the labor supply; and the effect of these changes on housing.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20641 Lee, Ronald D.; Lapkoff, Shelley. Intergenerational flows of time and goods: consequences of slowing population growth. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 96, No. 3, Jun 1988. 618-51 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
A theoretical model of intergenerational transfers is developed in order to examine the effect of low fertility and older age distributions in developed countries on consumption. "With the aid of time budget and consumer expenditure surveys, empirical estimates of the age profiles of various types of time and goods consumption are presented, and we conclude that (1) the net direction of intergenerational transfers is from younger to older ages; (2) under the golden-rule assumption, these transfers largely constitute an externality to childbearing; and (3) they are not large enough to offset the capital dilution effect that would result from higher fertility and more rapid population growth."
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20642 Scott, Peter; Johnson, Paul. The economic consequences of population ageing in advanced societies. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 263, Jul 1988. 41 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"The ageing of the populations of all developed nations over the next 40 years will have an important impact on welfare expenditure and labour supply. This paper uses aggregate data from IMF and OECD studies to examine the way in which income support for the elderly and the labour supply of older workers in developed countries is likely to be affected by demographic developments into the next century. A range of possible policy responses to the increased cost of an ageing population is considered, and the paper concludes that the scope for reducing this cost by altering pension systems or increasing retirement age is slight; the most effective way of coping wiht the cost of an ageing population is by ensuring that the long-run rate of economic growth is maximized."
Correspondence: CEPR, 6 Duke of York Street, London SW1Y 6LA, England. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20643 Soboleva, S. V. Demographic processes in regional socioeconomic development. [Demograficheskie protsessy v regional'nom sotsial'no-ekonomicheskom razvitii.] ISBN 5-02-029089-0. 1988. 206 pp. Nauka, Sibirskoe Otdelenie: Novosibirsk, USSR. In Rus.
Methodological issues concerning regional demographic analysis are reviewed, with reference to the USSR. The focus is on the relationship between demographic factors and a region's socioeconomic development. The author also considers intra- as well as interregional analyses and the development of models for the demographic and economic modeling of migration and population projection.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20644 Thane, Pat. Old age: burden or benefit? In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 56-71 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The 1980s have seen a public debate about the effects upon the economy of the growing proportion of old people in Britain; and the stress has been on the increasing burden of costs that will result....This chapter is a brief review of some of the large body of evidence for [a] more positive view, intended as a contribution to placing the debate about cost in a more balanced framework." Consideration is given to the changing age structure, dependency ratios, and the health and economic status of the aged.
Correspondence: P. Thane, Department of Social Sciences and Administration, Goldsmiths' College, Lewisham Way, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20645 Thiel, Eberhard; Wacker-Theodorakopoulos, Cora; Wille, Eckard; Winkler-Buttner, Diana; Hartel, Hans-Hagen. Population trends and structural change: special study 3 of the HWWA's 1987 structural report. [Bevolkerungsentwicklung und Strukturwandel: Spezialuntersuchung 3 im Rahmen der HWWA-Strukturberichterstattung 1987.] ISBN 3-87895-355-0. 1988. 210 pp. Weltarchiv: Hamburg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The relationships between demographic trends and structural change are analyzed for the Federal Republic of Germany. The emphasis is on the period up to 1985, although some projections to the year 2000 are also provided. Topics covered include the effects of population trends on sectoral and overall economic growth, on employment and productivity, on private household consumption, and on public services in the areas of education, social welfare, and health.
Correspondence: Verlag Weltarchiv GMBH, 2000 Hamburg 36, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

55:20646 Barta, Barnabas. Relationships between the population and environment in the world and in our surroundings. [A nepesseg es a kornyezet viszonya a vilagban es szukebb kornyezetunkben.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 67, No. 3, Mar 1989. 266-80 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationship between population and the global environment is analyzed using data from U.N. sources. The author emphasizes the necessity of international programs to protect the environment and to assist countries in the management of their natural resources. Specific consideration is given to the situation in Hungary.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20647 King, Jane. Beyond economic choice: population and sustainable development. 1987. iv, 41 pp. Unesco: Paris, France; University of Edinburgh: Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
This is the first in a proposed series of publications intended to promote a method of integrated resource planning known as ECCO (Enhancement of Carrying Capacity Options). This method "uses a system of resource accounting to assess national carrying capacity which, in its simplest form, may be expressed as the population size that can be sustained indefinitely by a given territory at a given standard of living." This report describes ECCO and how it was developed, and presents three case studies involving its application in Kenya, Mauritius, and the United Kingdom.
Correspondence: Division of Population and Human Settlements, Unesco, 7 Place de Fontenoy, Paris 75015, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20648 Mansilla, H. C. F. Ecological and demographic problems in Latin America, 1950-1980. [Los problemas ecologico-demograficos en America Latina, 1950-1980.] Foro Internacional, Vol. 28, No. 2, Oct-Dec 1987. 213-27 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The relationship between population growth and the environment in Latin America from 1950 to 1980 is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the environmental problems posed by rapid urbanization.
Correspondence: H. C. F. Mansilla, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20649 Wiesielkowa, Irina. The impact of the environment on population health. [Wplyw srodowiska na zdrowie ludnosci.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/94, 1988. 41-50 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The effects of the environmental consequences of modernization on human populations are analyzed. Using examples from the USSR and other developed countries, particular attention is paid to the impact of the changing ecological environment, technological conditions, and urbanization on morbidity, mortality, and life expectancy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

55:20650 Bernhardt, Eva M. The choice of part-time work among Swedish one-child mothers. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1988. 117-44 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Aspects of the relationship between female labor force participation and fertility in Sweden are explored. The author notes that women are becoming more inclined to take up part-time work following a first birth. Factors affecting such part-time employment are considered, including previous labor force experience, education, and social background. "Fairly extended work interruptions (of a year or so) in connection with childbirth combined with part-time work seem to constitute a new strategy, which might be called the 'combination strategy'. This way of organizing life after starting motherhood seems to have attracted the kind of women who previously tended toward the 'homemaker strategy' and the kind who in earlier times would have pursued a clearcut 'career strategy'."
Correspondence: E. M. Bernhardt, Section of Demography, University of Stockholm, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20651 de Graaf, A. Mothers no longer have to stay at home. [Moeder hoeft niet meer thuis te blijven.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 2, Feb 1989. 12-4 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends and attitudes concerning women who work and have children under four years of age in the Netherlands are analyzed using data from the 1988 Netherlands Fertility Survey. Although the majority of women surveyed believed that it was possible to be employed and also have young children, only one-quarter were actually employed, and many of those worked part-time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20652 Hojman, David E. Land reform, female migration and the market for domestic service in Chile. Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1989. 105-32 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author examines labor market trends in Chile, with a focus on domestic service and female rural-urban migration. "This article...reports results of research on women in domestic service in Santiago, including a survey carried out in 1986. These results are used to attempt to answer questions concerning the effects on domestic service of changes in the land tenure structure in the countryside in the 1960s and 1970s, together with more recent macroeconomic fluctuations....We also briefly examine a number of related issues, such as the impact of fruit growing, the ethnic question, imports of labour-saving consumer durables and migrants' attitudes towards a possible return to the countryside."
Correspondence: D. E. Hojman, Department of Economics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20653 Junsay, Alma T.; Heaton, Tim B. Women working: comparative perspectives in developing areas. Contributions in Women's Studies, No. 99, ISBN 0-313-26368-X. LC 88-21335. 1989. ix, 131 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The patterns and determinants of female labor force participation in developing countries are investigated using the examples of Thailand, Colombia, and Egypt. The focus is on women's employment in the capital city of the countries concerned. The authors combine the economic model of household time allocation and the sociological life course perspective to examine the influence of social origins, educational status, early work experience, and household conditions on women's labor force participation. They conclude with a review of policies designed to improve the economic status of women in developing countries.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20654 Klijzing, Erik; Siegers, Jacques; Keilman, Nico; Groot, Loek. Static versus dynamic analysis of the interaction between female labour-force participation and fertility. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1988. 97-116 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relationship between female labor force participation and fertility is analyzed using three different methodological perspectives and one set of data. The three methods are simultaneous logit analysis, Granger analysis, and Markov analysis. These are applied in two different ways or on two different subgroups of the data, which are from the 1984 ORIN survey of 1,600 persons aged 18-54 in the Netherlands. "Four of these six analyses favour the inference that fertility decisions do have an impact on labour force participation decisions but not the other way around, whereas the other two confirm earlier findings (from data sets collected during the 1970s) that the relationship is reciprocal." The methodological implications of these findings are considered.
Correspondence: E. Klijzing, Planning and Demography Department, University of Amsterdam, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20655 Korpi, Tomas. Entry into employment after first birth; a reexamination of the transitions to full-time and part-time employment among Swedish mothers. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 53, ISBN 91-7820-040-7. Feb 1989. ii, 29 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Transitions into employment made by mothers after the birth of their first child are analyzed using data from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey. A distinction is made between full-time and part-time employment. The author concludes that the choice between full- or part-time employment involves significant qualitative differences for the woman concerned.
Correspondence: University of Stockholm, Section of Demography, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20656 Macpherson, David A.; Stewart, James B. The labor supply and school attendance of black women in extended and nonextended households. American Economic Review, Vol. 79, No. 2, May 1989. 71-4 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
This analysis compares the labor supply of black women in extended and nonextended households in the United States. "The two foci of the study are 1) the relationship between the labor supply of grandmothers and single mothers in extended households, and 2) the interaction of labor force participation, human capital accumulation, and child care decisions. The study estimates a labor supply model, using 1980 census data, that endogenizes the decision to attend school."
Correspondence: D. A. Macpherson, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20657 Neri, Fabio. Immigration and the Italian labour market: a contradiction. Review of Economic Conditions in Italy, No. 2, May-Aug 1988. 141-52 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The role of immigration in the evolution of the labor force in Italy is analyzed. The author notes that not only is there a growing number of foreign immigrants, but return migration of natives to Italy is greater than Italian emigration. It is also noted that neither Italian migration policy nor the statistical system have evolved to cope with these new conditions. The high level of illegal immigration is also described, and the author concludes that such immigrants either find work in positions Italians no longer wish to fill, or in the black, or illegal, economy.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20658 Smith, Pam. Working life and unemployment tables for males and females, Canada, 1981. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 55, Oct 1988. 28, [22] pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper provides working-life and unemployment tables for Canadian males and females for 1981. The modified method used in calculating the labour force participation rates is based on the number of weeks worked per person and aimed to capture all persons who participate in the production of goods and services. Compared to the conventional approach, the modified rates are higher and appear to capture the demographic groups--mainly the older age groups and females of all ages--who tend to work periodically or for portions of the year, but nevertheless contribute to the national economy."
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20659 Srivastava, J. N. Female status in India and Uttar Pradesh: a study of inter-state and inter-district variation in female education and workforce participation. Population Research Centre Series C: Analytical Report, No. 38, Mar 1988. vi, 144 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
The relationship between female labor force participation and women's status in Uttar Pradesh, India, as well as in India as a whole, is examined using 1971 and 1981 Indian census data. Consideration is given to inter-state and inter-district variations, to differentials between rural and urban areas. Variables studied include female literacy and educational level; labor force sector activity, including agricultural and nonagricultural workers and those involved in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors; and women in white-collar occupations.
Correspondence: Population Research Centre, Department of Economics, Lucknow University, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 22607, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20660 Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France). Population and work opportunities: a multidimensional analysis of the working population and its geographical variations. [La population face a l'emploi: analyse pluridimensionnelle de la population active et de ses differences geographiques.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1988. 325-620 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
These are the proceedings of the Second National Symposium on Demographic Geography held in Montpellier, France, October 2-22, 1988. The 31 papers are divided into four substantive sections considering activity and the working population; employment, the working population, and spatial disparities; the mobility of the working population; and the unemployed labor force. The primary geographical focus is on France, but some papers examine aspects of these issues for other European countries as well.
Correspondence: Espace-Populations-Societes, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20661 Zabolotskii, A. V. Pakistan's labor resources: the demographic and economic foundations of their development. [Trudovye resursy Pakistana: demografo-ekonomicheskie osnovy formirovaniya.] 1985. 247 pp. Izdatel'stvo Nauka, Glavnaya Redaktsiya Vostochnoi Literatury: Moscow, USSR; Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni, Institut Vostokovedeniya: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Factors affecting the growth of the labor force in Pakistan are explored. These include the rapid growth of the population and the increase in the proportion of the population at young ages.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).


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