Volume 55 - Number 2 - Summer 1989

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

55:20575 Bose, A. B.; Gangrade, K. D. The aging in India: problems and potentialities. ISBN 81-7017-230-6. LC 88-901762. 1988. xvi, 132 pp. Abhinav Publications: New Delhi, India; Citizenship Development Society: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers by various authors on aspects of demographic aging in India. The 11 papers were presented at a seminar held on May 27, 1987, in Bombay, and are grouped under two main topic headings: problems of aging and potentialities of aging. The work concludes with a program of action concerning aging in India.
Correspondence: Shakti Malik, Abhinav Publications, E-37 Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20576 Gauthier, Herve. Aging and state expenditures. [Vieillissement et depenses de l'Etat.] Action Nationale, Vol. 78, No. 5, May 1988. 282-300 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The debate concerning the impact of demographic aging in developed countries is reviewed, with particular attention to the situation in Canada. The author first reviews the available data on which forecasts of future trends in demographic aging are based. He then summarizes results of studies on the effect of these trends on government costs in specific areas, such as health, and on overall government costs. He concludes that Canada's position in this regard is more favorable than that of developed countries as a whole.
Correspondence: H. Gauthier, Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec, 117 St. Andre, Quebec, Quebec G1R 3Y3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20577 Gauthier, Herve. Aging and state expenditures: two new studies. [Vieillissement et depenses de l'Etat: deux nouvelles etudes.] Action Nationale, Vol. 79, No. 2, Feb 1989. 176-85 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The author comments on two additional studies on the impact of demographic aging in developed countries, particularly Canada. Both the economic and social effects are considered.
For a related study, published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: H. Gauthier, Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec, 117 St. Andre, Quebec, Quebec G1R 3Y3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20578 Habliczek, Laszlo; Monigl, Istvan. Long-term changes in the size and age composition of the population of Hungary. [Dlugookresowe zmiany w liczbie i strukturze ludnosci wegier.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/92, 1988. 3-33 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors examine demographic trends in Hungary, particularly over the last 20 years, with a focus on changes in population size and shifts in age composition. Population projections for the next 35 years are also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20579 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Survey of persons aged 60 and over in households, 1985. Part B: selected characteristics of persons aged 60 and over. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 840, Mar 1989. 217, 77 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Selected data on persons in Israel aged 60 and over are presented for 1985. The data are from a survey of 4,500 persons aged 60 and over, and concern such topics as "housing conditions, functioning, household management, smoking, nutrition habits, use of health services, family relationships and friendships, work, income and leisure activity." This is the second in a planned series presenting the results of the survey.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, POB 13015, Jerusalem 91030, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20580 Kestenbaum, Bert. An accounting of the 1919 birth cohort. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 397-9 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author presents an accounting of the experience of a cohort that has spent its entire working life under the U.S. Social Security program. Consideration is given to the percentage of persons who have actually received Social Security and/or Medicare benefits. Data are from U.S. government sources.
Correspondence: B. Kestenbaum, Social Security Administration, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20581 Longino, Charles F. A population profile of very old men and women in the United States. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 1988. 559-64 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article presents the first population profile of men and women age 85 and over [in the United States]. It was developed with the 1980 census PUMS sample A, of which nearly 70% were women. Men were better off than women in both socioeconomic and relational characteristics in that they had higher personal incomes from nearly all sources and were far more likely to be married and living independently. They were not found in nursing homes in as great a proportion as were very old women. In a sense, then, the generalizations about the very old have a female bias."
Correspondence: C. F. Longino, Center for Social Research in Aging, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20582 Palach, Hanna. Selected problems concerning changes in the population age structure in Czechoslovakia in comparison with those in Poland. [Wybrane problemy zmian w strukturze ludnosci wedlug wieku w Czechoslowacji na tle Polski.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 9, Sep 1988. 38-40 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
A comparative analysis of changes in the characteristics of the populations of Czechoslovakia and Poland by age and sex since 1921 is presented. The emphasis is on changes occurring since 1950.
Correspondence: H. Palach, Akademia Rolniczo-Techniczna w Olsztynie, 10 957 Olsztyn, Kortowo, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20583 Rashad, Hoda. Demographic characteristics of women in Islamic countries. Population Sciences, Vol. 7, 1987. 31-56 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper presents demographic characteristics of women in the Islamic world. The criterion adopted for inclusion in the analysis is the country's participation in the Islamic Conference Organization." Comparisons are made between African Islamic and Asian Islamic countries. A brief overview of population size and characteristics is first presented. Trends in nuptiality, women's economic participation, and women's literacy and educational levels are then analyzed. Data are for the period 1970-1980 and are from the World Bank and the Population Council.
Correspondence: H. Rashad, Institute of Statistical Studies and Research, Cairo University, Orman, Giza, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20584 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report. Survey of hill tribe population: 1987. Mae Hong Son province. Pub. Order No. E-Sur-Hil-K No.2-88. [1988]. [x], 49, 66 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is one in a series of reports presenting results from demographic surveys undertaken among the hill tribe populations of Thailand. This report concerns the hill tribe population of Mae Hong Son province, which was surveyed in 1987. The survey provided community, individual, and household data including births and deaths in the past year, relationship to head of household, age, sex, religion, place of birth, migration, educational status, language, occupation, marital status, fertility, and family planning.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Bangkok Metropolis 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20585 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report. The survey of hill tribe population: 1987. Lampang, Sukhothai, Phetchabun and Phrae province. Pub. Order No. E-Sur-Hil-K No.4-88. [1988]. [x], 72, 218 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is one in a series of reports presenting results from demographic surveys undertaken among the hill tribe populations of Thailand. This report concerns the populations of Lampang, Sukhothai, Phetchabun, and Phrae provinces, which were surveyed in 1987. The survey provided community, individual, and household data, including births and deaths in the past year, relationship to head of household, age, sex, religion, place of birth, migration, educational status, language, occupation, marital status, family size, and family planning.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Bangkok Metropolis 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20586 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report. The survey of hill tribe population: 1987. Lamphun, Phitsanulok and Loei province. Pub. Order No. E-Sur-Hil-K No.5-88. [1988]. [x], 57, 83 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is one in a series of reports presenting results from demographic surveys undertaken among the hill tribe populations of Thailand. This report concerns the populations of Lamphun, Phitsanulok, and Loei provinces, which were surveyed in 1987. The survey provided community, individual, and household data, including births and deaths in the past year, relationship to head of household, age, sex, religion, place of birth, migration, educational status, language, occupation, marital status, family size, and family planning.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Bangkok Metropolis 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20587 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report. The survey of hill tribe population: 1987. Nan province. Pub. Order No. E-Sur-Hil-K No.3-88. [1988]. [x], 49, 80 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is one in a series of reports presenting results from demographic surveys undertaken among the hill tribe populations of Thailand. This report concerns the hill tribe population of Nan province, which was surveyed in 1987. The survey provided community, individual, and household data including births and deaths in the past year, relationship to head of household, age, sex, religion, place of birth, migration, educational status, language, occupation, marital status, fertility, and family planning.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Bangkok Metropolis 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20588 United States. Congress. Senate. Special Committee on Aging (Washington, D.C.); American Association of Retired Persons [AARP] (Washington, D.C.); Federal Council on the Aging (Washington, D.C.); United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Administration on Aging (Washington, D.C.). Aging America: trends and projections: 1987-88 edition. 1987. xiii, 186 pp. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report provides background information on the status of aging in [the United States]. The data presented provide a broad overview of the health, income, employment, housing, and social characteristics of today's older population."
For the 1985-1986 edition, see 52:10603.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

55:20589 Chahnazarian, Anouch. Determinants of the sex ratio at birth: review of recent literature. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 214-35 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper reviews recent literature on the determinants of the sex ratio at birth. The first part provides an overview of the major findings on the biological determinants, and their implications on the racial differentials and the wartime increases in the sex ratio at birth. The second part discusses the sociodemographic factors of the sex ratio at birth (age of parents, birth order, and socioeconomic status). About thirty studies based on samples of millions of births drawn from national vital registration statistics in various countries are reviewed and compared. The results indicate that birth order and paternal age appear to be negatively correlated with the sex ratio at birth. Parents of higher socioeconomic status may be more likely to bear sons than parents of lower socioeconomic status. Some possible causal mechanisms are suggested for the effects of the sociodemographic factors."
Correspondence: A. Chahnazarian, Department of Population Dynamics, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20590 Imhof, A. E.; Kloke, I. E.; Plichta, K. Life planning--the consequence of the steadily increasing life span from 1650 to 2000. Faced with longer life spans, do we need life plans? [Lebensplanung--die Konsequenz der stetig wachsenden Lebensspanne in den Jahren 1650 bis 2000. Brauchen wir angesichts einer langeren Lebensspanne einen Lebensplan?] Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1988. 193-7 pp. Darmstadt, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The increase in life expectancy since 1650 is described, and the need for individuals to develop a "life plan" that will provide fulfillment, particularly in old age, is examined. Discussions of this topic in the United States and at two seminars at the Free University of Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, are outlined.
Correspondence: A. E. Imhof, Freie Universitat Berlin, Fachbereich Geschichtswissenschaften, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, D-1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20591 Jabbar, Fahad A.; Wong, Simin S. Age at menarche and reproductive pattern among Saudi women. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, Vol. 108, No. 3, Jun 1988. 94-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
A study on age at menarche and reproductive history in Saudi Arabia is presented. The data are from a cancer survey conducted in Riyadh in 1986 among 2,675 women aged 14-59. The results show a decline in mean age at menarche by 0.4 years in women born during the past 20 years as compared with women born 45 years ago. They do not support the hypothesis that higher fertility is associated with early menarche.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:20592 Miller, Jane E. Determinants of intrauterine growth retardation: evidence against maternal depletion. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 235-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This analysis examines the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and risk of intrauterine growth retardation using data on Swedish infants from the 1973 World Health Organization study of perinatal mortality....The results obtained here do not support maternal depletion as an explanation for the association between short birth intervals and elevated risk of SGA [small for gestational age], since there is no evidence of an attenuation of the risk of SGA with increasing length of interval in the under 18 month birth interval range."
Correspondence: J. E. Miller, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20593 Mulder, Monique B. Menarche, menopause and reproduction in the Kipsigis of Kenya. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 179-92 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Among the Kipsigis, a population of south-western Kenya who do not use contraception, age at menarche and age at last live birth could be determined for a cohort of post-menopausal women, through reference to clitoridectomy ceremonies that can easily be dated. While a woman's age at last live birth was strongly associated with the length of her reproductive lifespan, completed family size was better predicted by age at menarche. The demographic implications of variation in menarcheal age are discussed." Data are for the period 1982-1983.
Correspondence: M. B. Mulder, Evolution and Human Behavior Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20594 Saar, E.; Shalev, C.; Dalal, I.; Sod-Moriah, U. A. Age at menarche: the influence of environmental conditions. International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 32, No. 1, Apr 1988. 33-5 pp. Secaucus, New Jersey. In Eng.
Differences in age at menarche between two groups of Caucasian Jewish high-school girls living in two Israeli towns with significantly different climates are analyzed. The age at menarche was significantly lower in the hot town of Elat than in the temperate town of Safad.
Correspondence: E. Saar, Unit of Physiology, Institute of Physical Education, Kaye College of Education, P.O. Box 65, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20595 Villarreal, Sylvia F.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mendoza, Fernando. Sexual maturation of Mexican-American adolescents. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989. 87-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The sexual maturation patterns of 1,403 Mexican-American adolescents are described. The report is based on data from the Hispanic Health and Examination Survey...,which was carried out by the National Center for Health Statistics from 1982 to 1984. Ages of subjects ranged from 10 through 17 years....Comparison of median ages at entry [into puberty] to results from studies around the world reveals that Mexican-Americans begin and end puberty a few months later than is usual."
Correspondence: S. F. Villarreal, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

55:20596 Beeghley, Leonard. Individual and structural explanations of poverty. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1988. 201-22 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article illustrates the difference between individual and structural accounts of poverty in the U.S. Some of the correlates of poverty among individuals are job loss, low skills, female family head, discrimination against blacks and hispanics, family size, and age at marriage. The structural factors producing a high rate of poverty are the reproduction of the class system, macroeconomic policies, the vicious circle of poverty, the structure of the electoral process, the structure of the economy, institutionalized gender discrimination, and institutionalized ethnic discrimination. Thus, the variables accounting for each phenomenon are different. A theoretical rationale for the relationship between social structure and rates of events is presented, and similarities between the approach used here and research in other disciplines are noted."
Correspondence: L. Beeghley, Department of Sociology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20597 Berger, Mark C. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 311-21 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March [U.S.] Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates."
Correspondence: M. C. Berger, Department of Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0034. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20598 Boyd, Robert L. Government involvement in the economy and the distribution of income: a cross-national study. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1988. 223-38 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study explores the effect of government involvement in the [U.S.] economy, as measured by central government expenditures as a percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on the distribution of income. It is hypothesized that state spending--in the form of transfer payments to firms and households, government purchases, and military spending--will have a negative influence on income inequality only at high levels of economic development. Multivariate analysis confirms this hypothesis. The results show that government expenditures as a percent of GDP and level of industrialization interact to produce a negative impact on income inequality."
Correspondence: R. L. Boyd, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, University Square, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20599 Garfinkel, Irwin; Oellerich, Donald. Noncustodial fathers' ability to pay child support. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 219-33 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article explores the extent to which noncustodial fathers [in the United States] can pay child support by estimating the income of noncustodial fathers and coupling these estimates with simulations of alternative normative standards for how much absent parents should be expected to contribute to the costs of rearing their children. The study indicates that the amount that is currently paid in child support (6.8 billion [dollars] in 1983) is far below the amount that should be paid under the various standards--from 24 billion to 29 billion."
Correspondence: I. Garfinkel, Institute for Research on Poverty, Department of Social Work, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20600 Joshi, Heather. The changing form of women's economic dependency. In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 157-76 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews the evidence about the changes and continuities in the role of women and men in the British economy, and summarizes research findings about the direct and indirect effect of gender on women's earning power. It concludes by drawing lessons for effective policy to bring about equality of opportunity for each sex, and by reviewing the evidence for effects of the changes to date on family formation in Britain." Attention is given to occupational segregation; unpaid domestic work; the male-female pay gap, with an example from the 1946 cohort; effects of family responsibility on pay; occupational change after childbearing; and the opportunity costs of child rearing. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: H. Joshi, Birbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20601 Massey, Douglas S.; Eggers, Mitchell L. The ecology of inequality: minorities and the concentration of poverty 1970-1980. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. OSC 89-1 (PRC), Jan 1989. 40, [10] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper we use tract-level data to examine trends in the geographic concentration of poverty among whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 60 U.S. metropolitan areas from 1970 to 1980. We describe changes in the distributional structure of income, the extent of income inequality, and the degree of spatial segregation by income. We relate these factors to levels and trends in poverty concentration. We show that concentrated urban poverty is confined principally to blacks outside the west and to Hispanics in the northeast....The occurrence of rising poverty under conditions of high racial/ethnic segregation explains the growing spatial isolation of poor blacks and Hispanics in U.S. urban society."
Correspondence: NORC Librarian, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20602 Rexroat, Cynthia. Economic transformation, family structure, and poverty rates of black children in metropolitan areas. American Economic Review, Vol. 79, No. 2, May 1989. 67-70 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
Changes in the poverty level of related black children in families in the United States are examined for the period 1969-1979. The data concern a sample of 45 SMSAs that contained at least 100,000 blacks in 1980. "The research investigates the extent to which changing family structure, family composition, and areal economic conditions are associated with changing poverty rates of black children across metropolitan areas."
Correspondence: C. Rexroat, Joint Center for Policy Studies, 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20004. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20603 Simon, Julian L.; Sullivan, Richard J. More on immigrants' earnings over time. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 157-75 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Immigrant earnings have been found to be below those of natives in the earliest years after immigration, but with time in the United States, earnings catch up and then surpass those of natives. We obtain this result using an alternate data set, confirming previous work of Barry Chiswick. Our catch up period is between 20 and 30 years, later than Chiswick's result. After adding variables for foreign education and English ability, the catch up period is only 3 years after entry. In a context where other variables are not held constant, we consider effects of discrimination in admission by schooling and age. Both are found powerful selection factors in increasing the earnings levels of immigrants."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20604 Smith, James P. Children among the poor. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 235-48 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article investigates a number of issues that clarify the premises underlying the assignment of children into poverty [in the United States]. Conventional definitions indicate much larger poverty rates among children than among adults. Three possible theoretical reasons for this greater representation of children among the poor are explored. It is shown that the most direct mechanism--poorer parents having more children--is of little importance. Instead, the greater incidence of poverty among children is the result of (1) a labor supply effect of children's reducing family income as mothers work less and (2) the assumption of greater household 'needs' when children are present. The research presented here also demonstrates that long-term permanent poverty rates among children are much lower than the conventional yearly measures."
Correspondence: J. P. Smith, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20605 Wander, Hilde. Effects of a stagnating or decreasing population on income and private consumption in western industrial countries. [Einflusstendenzen stagnierender oder abnehmender Bevolkerung auf Einkommen und privaten Verbrauch in westlichen Industrielandern.] In: Demographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: vier Jahrzehnte Statistik, Forschung und Politikberatung. Festschrift fur Karl Schwarz, edited by Charlotte Hohn, Wilfried Linke, and Rainer Mackensen. Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 18, 1988. 141-55 pp. Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The effects of a stagnating or decreasing population on income and private consumption are analyzed using models based on data for the Federal Republic of Germany. The models cover a period of 120 years and involve three scenarios: pseudo zero growth, population decrease, and zero growth as a result of immigration balancing population decrease.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

55:20606 Breton, Roland J. L. Religion and demographic change in India. [Religion et evolution demographique en Inde.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 1,089-122 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This study of demographic change in India over a century of detailed censuses shows characteristic behaviour in each socio-religious community, although within the context of its own traditions, and susceptible to more or less rapid change. For example, the highest growth rates at the time of the British Raj were recorded among Christians, but since independence, birth rates among them have clearly begun to fall, much as in the West. Other communities have tended, each in its own fashion, towards slower growth, but much more gradually, notably the Moslems. The transition of India towards a regime of increasingly controlled fertility has occurred at very different rates in different religious groups and provinces."
Correspondence: R. J. L. Breton, Institut de Geographie, Universite d'Aix-Marseille II, Jardin du Pharo, 58 boulevard Charles Livon, 13007 Marseille, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20607 Chevan, Albert. The growth of home ownership: 1940-1980. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 249-66 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Housing [in the United States] went through a major transition between 1940 and 1980 as the proportion of home owners nearly doubled. This article examines how that change took place. Compositional changes in the population and process changes led by post-World War II housing policies and programs are tested as explanations for the growth of home ownership. A process analysis and a decomposition of the change in home ownership between cohorts are used to evaluate each interpretation of change. A combination of both explanations accounts for the change in home ownership."
Correspondence: A. Chevan, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20608 De Vos, Susan; Holden, Karen. Measures comparing living arrangements of the elderly: an assessment. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 688-704, 762, 764 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The ability to evaluate differences in living arrangements across countries in terms of the relative importance of culture or socioeconomic factors depends in part on the measure used and whether it takes into account demographic conditions and cultural biases. This note discusses four measures that have been adopted for measuring the living arrangements of the elderly, and, using data from Latin America, Asia, Northwest Europe, and North America, evaluates them in terms of their usefulness in comparative studies. The authors recommend the use of a classification scheme that recognizes major life-course factors while employing few categories."
Correspondence: S. De Vos, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20609 Goldscheider, Calvin; Goldscheider, Frances K. Ethnicity, religiosity and leaving home: the structural and cultural bases of traditional family values. Sociological Forum, Vol. 3, No. 4, Fall 1988. 525-47 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we explore the links between ethnicity and religiosity and the transition to adulthood by examining variation in expectations to live independently from parents before marriage." Data are from the High School and Beyond senior cohort, a nationally representative panel of seniors in U.S. high schools in 1980. The results show that "variation in premarital residential independence is linked in part to the use of a foreign language and foreignness. Residential concentration and ecological and religious institutional contexts are important factors as are the values associated with religious denomination and religiosity. These findings suggest the continuing importance of ethnicity and religiosity as critical elements shaping family norms."
Correspondence: C. Goldscheider, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20610 Gollac, Michel; Laulhe, Pierre; Soleilhavoup, Jeanine. Training: the 1985 Survey on Education and Professional Qualifications. [Formation: enquete Formation Qualification Professionnelle de 1985.] Collections de l'INSEE, Serie D: Demographie et Emploi, No. 129, Dec 1988. 207 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the fourth in a series presenting results of surveys undertaken by INSEE on education and professional qualifications in France. These surveys, conducted in 1964, 1970, 1977, and 1985, provide one of the main sources of data on professional mobility, social mobility, and the relationships among education, employment, and income. Most of the data in this publication concern educational status.
Correspondence: INSEE, 18 Boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20611 Lee, Barrett A. Stability and change in an urban homeless population. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 323-34 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Few studies have produced the over-time observational data needed to draw valid conclusions about changes in urban homeless populations during the 1980s. One place for which such data exist is Nashville, Tennessee. An ongoing series of enumerations lends little support to Nashvillians' perception that the number of homeless in their city is growing rapidly. Enumeration results also (1) contradict expectations regarding the rise of 'new homeless' groups and (2) show two types of spatial redistribution--from indoor to outdoor and core to peripheral locations--to be under way. The applicability of the enumeration methodology to other communities is discussed, as are the discrepancies between purported and measured demographic changes in homelessness."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 488).
Correspondence: B. A. Lee, Department of Sociology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20612 Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A. Suburbanization and segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, No. 3, Nov 1988. 592-626 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article examines trends in suburbanization for blacks, Hispanics, and Asians from 1970 to 1980 in 59 U.S. metropolitan areas and considers the effect of suburbanization on segregation at the latter date....Despite recent increases, blacks remain less suburbanized than other minority groups. They are less segregated in suburbs than in central cities, but, even in suburbs, black segregation remains quite high. Hispanics and Asians are considerably more suburbanized than blacks. Their segregation in central cities is generally moderate, and in suburbs it varies from low to moderate. Multivariate models indicate the persistence of barriers to the spatial assimilation of blacks."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, Population Research Center, University of Chicago, 5848 South University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:20613 Osuide, Simeon O. Population growth and housing in Nigeria. Habitat International, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1988. 129-35 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author describes the growing housing problem in Nigeria and the effect of the country's rapid rate of population growth on housing needs. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: S. O. Osuide, P.O. Box 67, Ekpoma, Bendel State, Nigeria. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20614 Rastogi, S. R. Demographic aspects of housing condition in two major cities of Uttar Pradesh. Population Research Centre Series C: Analytical Report, No. 37, Nov 1987. 24 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made in the present paper to study the housing status of the residents in big cities of Uttar Pradesh [India] in the context of their migratory characteristics. The housing status has been studied mainly in terms of the congestion in the dwellings, quality of house construction, patterns of dwelling ownership and availability of...water, electricity and [indoor plumbing] in the tenements." Data are from surveys conducted in the cities of Lucknow and Kanpur from 1983 through 1984.
Correspondence: Population Research Centre, Department of Economics, Lucknow University, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20615 Weeks, John R. The demography of Islamic nations. Population Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1988. 55 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Demographic trends among the world's Islamic population are analyzed. The author notes that the Moslem population of the world is currently estimated at 984 million persons, that the Islamic nations are the fastest-growing population group worldwide, and that almost one-quarter of the world's population may be Moslem by the year 2000. Differences in demographic trends among Moslem populations are explored. Consideration is given to fertility, mortality, and migration; age and sex composition; and population growth and economic development. The author suggests that although almost all Moslem societies have high levels of fertility, mortality, and natural increase, "it is not Islam per se that causes these demographic trends, but the generally early stage of development and the low status of women in traditional, patriarchal societies."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20616 Zhang, Wei-Bin. Coexistence and separation of two residential groups--an interactional spatial dynamic approach. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 91-102 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the spatial and temporal distribution of residents in an urban area. The residents are classified into two groups, that is, black and white, according to their characteristics. A dynamic model is built to explain how the residents are distributed over time and space. The model consisting of a set of partial differential equations is similar to competition-diffusion equations in biology. We investigate conditions of coexistence and separation of the two groups."
Correspondence: W.-B. Zhang, Department of Economics, University of Umea, S-901 87, Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

55:20617 De Bartolo, Giuseppe. The demography of the Albanian minority in Calabria. First results. [La demographie des minorites albanaises de Calabre. Premiers resultats.] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 177-93 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
Demographic changes in the population of Albanian origin in Calabria, located in southern Italy, are discussed. Using data from official Italian sources, the author examines the impact of international migration in the early 1900s and after World War II on this specific population. A decrease in population size, a lower birth rate, and an increased number of elderly people comprise the major demographic changes.
Correspondence: G. De Bartolo, Department of Political Economy, Universita degli Studi della Calabria, Rende (Cosenza), Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20618 Geldstein, Rosa N. The census of the Jewish population of the city of Salta, 1986. [Censo de la poblacion judia de la ciudad de Salta, 1986.] Dec 1988. 176 pp. Centro de Estudios Historicos y Sociales [CEHYS]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
Data from a questionnaire filled out by the members of 319 Jewish families in Salta, Argentina, are analyzed in regard to education, economic activity, natality, fertility, living quarters, and religion. The methodology used is described in detail, as this survey is regarded as a pilot investigation for studying minority populations in Argentina. A facsimile of the questionnaire is also included.
Correspondence: CEHYS, Pasteur 633, 6o Piso, 1028 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20619 Haskey, John. The ethnic minority populations of Great Britain: their size and characteristics. Population Trends, No. 54, Winter 1988. 29-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using information from the 1985, 1986 and 1987 Labour Force Surveys, the total size of all the ethnic minority populations is estimated to be 2.47 million, representing 4.5 per cent of the total population of Great Britain. Of the total ethnic minority population, three in every 10 are of Indian ethnic origin and two in every 10 are of West Indian origin. Approximately one half of the ethnic minority population was born in the New Commonwealth or Pakistan, whilst just over four in every 10 were born in the United Kingdom. The article also gives information on the age distribution of the different ethnic minority populations--overall over one in 3 is aged under 16--and for those born overseas, an analysis of their duration of residence in Great Britain."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20620 Moore, John H.; Campbell, Gregory R. An ethnohistorical perspective on Cheyenne demography. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1989. 17-42 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Administrative censuses of the Southern Cheyenne Indians from 1880, 1891, and 1900 permit family reconstitution, identification of residence groups, and comparisons of fertility between monogamous and polygynous women, when the records are approached by ethnohistorical methods. This approach includes an awareness of the aboriginal adoption practices, kinship system, and naming practices. It is argued that the biases and distortions of administrative records can be effectively corrected to add to our store of information on band and tribal societies."
Correspondence: J. H. Moore, Department of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, 660 Parrington Oval, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20621 Schwartz, Joe; Exter, Thomas. All our children. American Demographics, Vol. 11, No. 5, May 1989. 34-7 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Future trends in the ethnic composition of the U.S. population under age 18 are analyzed using data from official sources. The results indicate that by the year 2010, as many as 38 percent of U.S. children will belong to minority groups.
Correspondence: J. Schwartz, American Demographics, 108 North Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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