Volume 55 - Number 2 - Summer 1989

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

55:20397 Amoateng, Acheampong Y.; Heaton, Tim B. The sociodemographic correlates of the timing of divorce in Ghana. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1989. 79-96 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
World Fertility Survey data are used to analyze the social and demographic correlates of the timing of divorce in Ghana. "On the whole, we find that marriages are quite unstable....Within 10 years of marriage, 23 percent of the women have dissolved their marriages. Of couples married in the 1970s, 32 percent are expected to divorce within 10 years after marriage....While aspects of modernization such as education, age at marriage, and smaller family size decrease the chances of a woman dissolving her marriage, other trends such as rising female employment and urbanization increase the chances of divorce."
Correspondence: A. Y. Amoateng, Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20398 Atoh, Makoto; Nakano, Eiko; Otani, Kenji; Kaneko, Ryuichi. Attitudes toward marriage and family among unmarried Japanese youth: major findings of the Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 188, Oct 1988. 1-21 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from the 1987 Japanese Survey on Attitudes toward Marriage and Family among Unmarried Youth aged 18-35. Topics examined include marriage intentions, costs and benefits of marriage, desired marriage type, desired age at marriage and age gap for spouses, attitudes toward coresidence with parents after marriage, cohabitation and sexual behavior before marriage, probabilities of first marriage by socioeconomic characteristics, and desired number of children and sex preference.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20399 Bracher, Michael. A reconsideration of first marriage trends in Australia. Australian Family Project Working Paper, No. 7, Dec 1988. 32 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Trends in first marriages in Australia since the 1920s are analyzed, with a focus on the demographic and economic factors associated with the rapid decline that has occurred in recent years. "The results of the regression analyses indicate a close association between employment and first marriage, marriage being more likely the higher the proportion employed among the unmarried population." A negative association between real disposable income and marriage is also identified.
Correspondence: Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20400 Caldwell, John; Caldwell, Pat; Bracher, Michael; Santow, Gigi. The contemporary marriage and fertility revolutions in the West. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 5, No. 2, Nov 1988. 113-45 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper reports on the attempt, as one part of a national study of Australia, the Australian Family Project, to obtain participants' explanations for the timing of their marriages and births, and for their acceptance or rejection of formal marriage. The context will be, at its broadest, the demographic trends in the West (as we have defined it) over the last three decades, more narrowly the changes in Australia and the United States and, most specifically, the behavioural statistics reported by the Australian Family Project survey itself." The impact of economic factors, changes in attitudes toward cohabitation and sexuality, and contraceptive use is emphasized.
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 476).
Correspondence: J. Caldwell, Department of Demography, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20401 Carmichael, Gordon A. With this ring: first marriage patterns, trends and prospects in Australia. Australian Family Formation Project Monograph, No. 11, ISBN 0-7315-0398-8. 1988. xviii, 233 pp. Australian National University, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia; Australian Institute of Family Studies: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
Recent trends in first marriages in Australia are analyzed. Data are from three main sources: the 1981 census; the national vital statistics system; and the Australian Family Formation Survey, a survey of 2,544 persons aged 18-34 conducted in 1981-1982. Chapters are included on age at first marriage and proportions marrying 1920-1970, 1970-1985, and beyond; determinants of age at first marriage through a review of the literature, from census and vital statistics data, from survey data, and using a multivariate approach; and those who marry and those who never marry. The study examines the increasing popularity of marriage from the 1940s to the 1960s and the subsequent move away from marriage in the 1970s and 1980s. Factors associated with early and late marriages are identified in order to model the marriage timing process for men and women.
Correspondence: Bibliotech, ANUTECH Pty Ltd., GPO Box 4, Canberra 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20402 Cassidy, Margaret L.; Lee, Gary R. The study of polyandry: a critique and synthesis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1989. 1-11 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Polyandry, the marriage of [a] woman to two or more men, is a rare form of marriage that has engendered much controversy and speculation. This paper examines how certain ethnocentric and/or androcentric biases have hindered the objective study of polyandry and explanations for its existence. A synthesis of the characteristics shared by polyandrous societies is also presented, in order to further our understanding of the conditions under which polyandry might be practiced and culturally endorsed."
Correspondence: M. L. Cassidy, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, WI 54702. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20403 David, Martin H.; Flory, Thomas S. Change in marital status and short-term income dynamics. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-47, 1988. [7] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors examine the economic well-being of members of household units that have experienced a shift in household structure due to a change in marital status in the United States. The degree of financial change, the differences between the impacts on men and women, and time factors are the specific issues addressed. Findings include the indication that marriage dissolutions lead to substantial reductions in income for women. Data are from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) for the period 1983-1986.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20404 Ermisch, John. Divorce: economic antecedents and aftermath. In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 42-55 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the economic consequences of divorce in Great Britain. Special consideration is given to the importance of remarriage and the influence of economic circumstances on the likelihood of divorce and remarriage. The economic conditions of female-headed households are also considered.
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 2 Dean Trench Street, Smith Square, London SW1P 3HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20405 Farley, Reynolds; Bianchi, Suzanne M. The growing racial differences in marriage and family patterns. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 385-90 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Marriage and family formation patterns of blacks and whites in the United States are described, with a focus on the divergent experiences of the two groups. Consideration is given to age at first marriage and divorce and remarriage patterns. The authors hypothesize that the increasing socioeconomic status of black women and the accompanying increased partner selectivity might account for the observed variation between blacks and whites.
Correspondence: R. Farley, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20406 Finnas, Fjalar. The demographic effect of mixed marriages. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 2, R 1988. 145-56 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper gives a formal expression for the demographic effect of mixed marriages; i.e., the effect on the number of children, and thereafter illustrates the long-term effects of these marriages with a simple simulation model." The data concern the Finnish- and Swedish-speaking populations of Finland.
Correspondence: F. Finnas, Social Science Research Unit, Vasaesplanaden 15B, SF-65100 Vasa, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20407 Fortier, Celine. The impact on nuptiality of unbalanced sex distribution in the marriage market. Interpretation problems. [Influence du desequilibre des sexes dans le marche matrimonial sur la nuptialite. Problemes d'interpretation.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 2, Autumn 1988. 175-92 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The impact of sex disparities in numbers on the various sex specific ratios, traditionally used in nuptiality analysis, is not clear. Most authors consider that individuals pertaining to the sex group which is in minority on the marriage market, will tend to marry sooner and at [a] higher rate, and vice versa. There are however many counter-examples. Actually, a comparative analysis of the various results obtained so far is meaningless. There is indeed no agreement on the definition of the marriage market and the unbalance of sexes, nor on the way to measure it." The focus of the study is worldwide, with emphasis on data concerning Canada.
Correspondence: C. Fortier, Universite de Paris I, Sorbonne, 12 place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20408 Gendreau, Francis; Gubry, Francoise. Nuptiality in Africa: levels, trends, and socioeconomic characteristics. [La nuptialite en Afrique: niveaux, tendances et caracteristiques socio-economiques.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.1.1-18 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Nuptiality trends in Africa are analyzed. Separate consideration is given to data sources, age at marriage, divorce and remarriage, and polygamy. The socioeconomic factors affecting marriage are also examined; these include urbanization, educational status, occupation, ethnic group, and religion.
Correspondence: F. Gendreau, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20409 Haskey, John. Current prospects for the proportion of marriages ending in divorce. Population Trends, No. 55, Spring 1989. 34-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article estimates the proportion of marriages which would end in divorce [in England and Wales] were the various marriage duration-specific divorce rates to persist unaltered at their 1987 levels. On this basis, just under four in every ten marriages would ultimately end in divorce, but one in every two couples would celebrate their silver wedding, and one in seven their golden wedding."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20410 Haskey, John. Trends in marriage and divorce, and cohort analyses of the proportions of marriages ending in divorce. Population Trends, No. 54, Winter 1988. 21-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in marriage and divorce up to 1987 in England and Wales are described. "One in 10 brides marrying in 1987 were aged under 20, compared with about one in 5 of those marrying in 1981. One third of marriages in 1987 involved at least one divorced partner, whereas the corresponding proportion was only one in 6 in 1971. For one in 12 couples who divorced in 1987 both partners were divorcing for a subsequent time, compared with only one in 20 couples who divorced in 1981. Various cohort analyses of divorce are also presented, including the proportion of husbands and wives who had divorced by 1987 according to their age at marriage, marital status before marriage and year of marriage."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20411 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. Union dissolution in contemporary Sweden. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-40, 1988. 52 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper, we study the extent and structure of the general decline in the stability of marital and nonmarital unions in Sweden over the quarter century between the 1950s and the late 1970s, a period marked by much change...of demographic behavior. We focus on the event that a conjugal union breaks up and the partners stop living together and [we] use hazard regression techniques to analyze dissolutions among a reasonably large number of Swedish women from all walks of life." The impacts of childbearing and occupational and educational status on dissolution rates are considered.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20412 Horvath, Laszlo. Divorces in Hungary in the 1980s. [A valasok Magyarorszagon az 1980-as evekben.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 67, No. 1, Jan 1989. 29-52 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in divorce in Hungary in 1980 are examined using data from official sources. Having presented the data, the author attempts to identify the factors affecting the frequency of divorce, including educational status, geographic factors, income, and social class. In a concluding section devoted to the future of marriage, the author suggests that stable marriages based primarily on emotional rather than economic foundations will become less common, as the economic aspects of marriage are likely to increase rather than decrease in importance.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20413 Kamaras, Ferenc. Thirteen years after the date of marriage (longitudinal study of persons married in 1974, 1987). 1988. 41 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Results of a longitudinal study on marriage in Hungary are presented. Data were collected in interviews in 1987 by district nurses of 4,397 women married in 1974, out of 5,287 women originally selected for the study. Topics covered include the stability of marriage, family plans and family size, fertility, housing, secondary employment, and attitudes toward the population situation in general.
Correspondence: Population Statistics Department, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly, U.5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20414 Kaneko, Takeharu; Mita, Fusami. Differentials in marriage duration-specific divorce rates. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 188, Oct 1988. 58-62 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Divorce in Japan from 1975 to 1988 is examined, with an emphasis on marriage age and its relationship to the probability of divorce.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20415 Karkal, Malini; Rajan, S. Irudaya. Age at marriage: how much change? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 24, No. 10, Mar 11, 1989. 505-6 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Recent trends in age at marriage in India are reviewed. The authors conclude that "there is no doubt that the age of marriage of girls has been showing an increasing trend over the years. However it continues to be much lower than the legally prescribed age and a large number of girls continue to be married at very young ages."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20416 Khalidi, Musa S. Divorce in Libya: a critical commentary. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1989. 118-26 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Role changes within marriage in Libya are reviewed in the context of a review of some recently published studies. The primary focus is on divorce, particularly in Jabal el-Akhdar.
Correspondence: M. S. Khalidi, Department of Sociology, St. Paul's College, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2M6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20417 Khlat, Myriam. Consanguineous marriages in Beirut: time trends, spatial distribution. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 324-30 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Twenty-five per cent of all marriages are consanguineous in a population-based sample of couples from Beirut, [Lebanon]. Marriages between distant relatives decline with time, while first-cousin marriages remain relatively stable. Among first-cousin marriages, the proportions of father's brother's daughter marriages (37 per cent) and of patrilateral unions (48 per cent) are particularly low. A spatial representation demonstrates an uneven distribution of consanguineous marriages, and an association of high levels of endogamy with Muslim religion, low educational level, and low occupational status."
Correspondence: M. Khlat, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20418 Kooy, G. A.; Maas, L. C. More and less modern attitudes toward marriage in the 1980s. [Meer en minder moderne huwelijksopvattingen in de jaren tachtig.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1988. 19-43 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in attitudes toward marriage in the Netherlands are explored. Data are from a sample of 604 married couples surveyed in 1983, and concern attitudes toward attachment, personal freedom, appreciation of relationships outside marriage, marriage as an institution, and roles within marriage. Two distinct attitudes toward marriage are identified, the traditional and the modern. Higher levels of education are associated with modern attitudes, and more church attendance with traditional attitudes. Age and sex factors are also considered.
Correspondence: G. A. Kooy, Knoppersweg 22, 6668 AV Randwijk, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20419 Landale, Nancy S. Agricultural opportunity and marriage: the United States at the turn of the century. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 203-18 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the marriage behavior of rural white males in the United States at the turn of the century. The principal goal of the analysis is to assess the role of agricultural opportunity in determining nuptial timing and prevalence. The major issue addressed is whether restricted opportunity in farming retarded entry into marriage. Overall, the findings suggest that rural young men were less likely to enter marriage when local opportunity in agriculture was poor. One mechanism through which the local opportunity structure influenced nuptiality was occupational choice. Young men who entered nonagricultural pursuits or who were employed as farm laborers were far less likely to have married than young men who became farmers."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 444).
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Department of Sociology, Population Research Center, University of Chicago, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20420 Makoteku, Ottieno J. A.; Acholla-Ayayo, A. B. C. Marriage patterns in Kenya and their inter-relation with fertility. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.1.61-72 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper describes a number of marriage patterns that still exist or have existed in Kenya in the recent past....The effects of fertility and family structures on some of these patterns have also been discussed." The impact on marriage of factors including religion, education, urban residence, and modernization is also considered. Data for three regions of Kenya are used to compare marriage patterns.
Correspondence: O. J. A. Makoteku, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20421 McCaa, Robert. Isolation or assimilation? A log linear interpretation of Australian marriages, 1947-60, 1975, and 1986. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1989. 155-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
A critique of a recent study by Alan Gray concerning the analysis of nuptiality in Australia is presented. "An alternative log-linear assimilation model is presented and tested. Multivariate methods neatly decompose the problem to take into account overall secular change, sexual imbalances, country-of-birth preferences or prejudices, as well as sex-specific patterns. Thus, in the Australian case, where Gray concluded that shifting nuptial country-of-birth preferences were primarily a function of changing opportunities, a log-linear analysis shows that, on the contrary, a dramatic rise in marital assimilation occurred in spite of only modest changes in opportunities." A reply by Gray is included (pp. 163-6).
For the study by Gray, published in 1987, see 54:10425.
Correspondence: R. McCaa, Department of History, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20422 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Changing partners: a longitudinal study of remarriage. Population Trends, No. 53, Autumn 1988. 27-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A sample is analysed of those people [in the United Kingdom] who were married at the time of the 1981 Census to a different spouse from the one to whom they were married ten years previously. Comparisons are made between the 1981 and 1971 Census characteristics of the new spouse (and household) and the previous one. Appreciable differences are found between new marriage and the old--and these are compared with the changes in the circumstances of those married to the same spouse in 1971 and 1981. These analyses are practicable because of the use of the OPCS Longitudinal Study."
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, London Research Centre, County Hall, London SE1 7PB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20423 Oppenheimer, Valerie K. A theory of marriage timing. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, No. 3, Nov 1988. 563-91 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"With the use of a modified job-search theory, a conceptual framework is developed to show that some factors influence marriage timing by either facilitating or impeding assortative mating. Transition-to-work is emphasized because work structures people's lifestyles and is the major source of socioeconomic status; however, its nature is often unpredictable in early adulthood, while other personal attributes emerge early. The theory is applied to the dynamics of assortative mating under two contrasting scenarios: when gender roles are highly segregated, and when women's economic roles start to resemble those of men. Finally, the implications of the analysis for Becker's reduced-gains-to-marriage argument are assessed." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, p. 440).
Correspondence: V. K. Oppenheimer, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:20424 Platte, Erika. Divorce trends and patterns in China: past and present. Pacific Affairs, Vol. 61, No. 3, Fall 1988. 428-45 pp. Vancouver, Canada. In Eng.
"China's new marriage laws, far-reaching economic reforms and political turmoil are the major variables responsible for the waves of divorce that swept the country in the early 1950s and thirty years later. With the legal divorce procedures geared towards reconciliation rather than dissolution of a marriage the leadership has been able to check upward trends....Current divorce patterns, including causes of divorce, age at divorce, duration of marriage until divorce, sex of petitioner of divorce, and remarriage reflect a mix of continuity and change. Traditional ideas are slow to recede, especially in the countryside where some 80 percent of the population lives. Indications are that the incidence of divorce in China will remain at a relatively low level in the time to come."
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

55:20425 Prokopec, Jiri. Marriages and divorces in the Czech countries during the nineteenth century. [Manzelstvi a rozvody v Ceskych zemich v 19. stoleti.] Demografie, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1988. 310-3 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines marriage patterns in Czechoslovakia during the nineteenth century with particular emphasis on the Catholic church's attitude toward divorce as it affected marriage trends. Maternal mortality rates, marriage duration, fertility, multiple marriages, and women's status are discussed in relation to marriage patterns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20426 Raha, Manis K.; Coomar, Palash C. Polyandry in India: demographic, economic, social, religious and psychological concomitants of plural marriages in women. ISBN 81-212-0105-5. LC 87-903596. 1987. xv, 440 pp. Gian Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of 22 previously published studies on polyandry in India. Separate parts are devoted to polyandry in North and Northwest India, South India, and East and Northeast India. A section of special issues concerning polyandry is included.
Correspondence: Gian Publishing House, 29/6 Shakti Nagar, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20427 Romaniuc, Anatole. Polygyny and kinship in tropical Africa: a demographer's viewpoint. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.1.45-60 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relationship between polygyny and kinship in Zaire is analyzed, with a focus on the impact of both modernization and traditional influences. The additional effects of postpartum abstinence and political organization are also considered. Data are from three consecutive surveys conducted in Zaire in 1950, 1955-1957, and 1975-1976.
Correspondence: A. Romaniuc, Demography Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20428 Srivastava, J. N. Patterns in child marriage incidence and its decline in Uttar Pradesh. Population Research Centre Series C: Analytical Report, No. 39, Aug 1988. iii, 55 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
Trends in child marriage in Uttar Pradesh, India, are analyzed using census data for 1971 and 1981. Special attention is paid to differences in the level of child marriages in rural and urban regions and by economic regions and level of economic development. Inter-censal changes are noted and the factors that have helped reduce the number of child marriages discussed.
Correspondence: Population Research Centre, Department of Economics, Lucknow University, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20429 Tas, R. F. J. Divorces in the Netherlands, 1950-1987. [Echtscheidingen in Nederland, 1950-1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 3, Mar 1989. 17-29 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in divorce in the Netherlands are analyzed from 1950 to 1987 using official data. The data show a steady increase in the number of divorces up to 1985; a decline in the number of divorces for 1986, 1987, and 1988; and a probable rise again in 1989. The impact of the growing popularity of consensual unions on the divorce rate is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20430 Teti, Douglas M.; Lamb, Michael E. Socioeconomic and marital outcomes of adolescent marriage, adolescent childbirth, and their co-occurrence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1989. 203-12 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The present study focuses upon socioeconomic and marital outcomes associated with adolescent marriage, adolescent childbirth, and their co-occurrence in a group of 30- to 55-year-old white and black women [in the United States]....Results suggest that the degree of risk associated with the co-occurrence of adolescent marriage and adolescent childbirth is different from that associated with either event alone."
Correspondence: D. M. Teti, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Catonsville, MD 21228. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20431 Tomlinson, Ian. The consequences of heterogamy and homogamy on the similarity between spouses. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 193-206 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author demonstrates two models of human mate selection to determine the degree of preference that would be necessary to explain the observed correlations between spouses for traits such as hair color or eye color. "In the first, 'sexual' preferences can be expressed for any phenotype not necessarily one's own; in the second, preferences are only expressed for an individual's own phenotype. The results of the examination indicate how much active choice would be needed to account for the observed correlations between human mates, and suggest whether human mating preferences are more likely to be sexual or assorting."
Correspondence: I. Tomlinson, Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20432 Veronesi, Fosca M.; Poli, Irene. A class of models to discriminate ancient populations under the bio-demographic aspect. The link of the "Partecipanze" [Una classe di modelli per differenziare popolazioni antiche nell'aspetto bio-demografico. Il vincolo delle "Partecipanze"] Statistica, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1988. 163-75 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The paper is concerned with the problem of discriminating two ancient populations with respect to the presence of the 'Istituto delle Partecipanze', a sort of collective property of the land, beginning in 1253 in some areas of the Emilia region. A time series analysis on the marriages registered in the last four centuries has been performed and different classes of the ARIMA models have been fitted to the data. The results give evidence to the heterogeneous development that characterizes the two populations in some aspects of the their bio-demographic history."
Correspondence: F. M. Veronesi, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20433 Wijewickrema, S. Marriage and intermarriage in Belgium: indications culled from registration data. IPD Working Paper, No. 1989-1, [1989]. 22, [11] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
Using nationality-specific census data, the author examines nuptiality patterns of natives and foreigners in Belgium for the period 1947 to 1985, with a focus on intermarriage between the two groups. An increase in the incidence of such marriages is noted.
Correspondence: Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Centrum voor Sociologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20434 Wolfson, Michael C. Divorce, homemaker pensions and lifecycle analysis. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan 1989. 25-54 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper addresses aspects of life cycle demographic analysis in three ways. First, the paper describes a methodological innovation--essentially a generalization of multi-state life table techniques using a newly developed Monte Carlo microsimulation model, DEMOGEN. Second, the DEMOGEN model is applied to an analysis of divorce behaviour. This analysis shows, among other things, that higher divorce rates are not necessarily associated with more time spent by children growing up in lone-parent families. Finally, the DEMOGEN model is used to assess the impact of a major public pension reform option--the inclusion of homemakers under the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans. This latter analysis includes estimates of overall costs and distributional impacts by lifetime income and demographic status."
Correspondence: M. C. Wolfson, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

55:20435 Albanese, Paul J. The formation and change of fertility preferences: a case study of the generational change in the size of the Italian family in the United States. Journal of Behavioral Economics, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1988. 35-55 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
The process of fertility preference formation and change is examined from the psychological angle, using the example of changes over time in the size of families of Italian origin in the United States. The relationship between psychological and economic factors in this process of change is considered. The author develops a theory of personality development in which these changes in fertility preference can be seen as an outgrowth of adaptation and cultural change over time.
Correspondence: P. J. Albanese, Department of Economics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20436 Antonov, A. I.; Medkov, V. M. The second child. [Vtoroi rebenok.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 299, [3] pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This study is concerned with the contemporary family living in large cities in the USSR. The focus is on the factors that influence couples to have a second or subsequent child. Consideration is given to socioeconomic and occupational characteristics of couples, their values, and living conditions. The authors include recommendations concerning policies designed to increase fertility and to encourage couples to have more than one child.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20437 Benigno, Francesco. The southern Italian family in the early modern period: a discussion of co-residential patterns. Continuity and Change, Vol. 4, No. 1, May 1989. 165-94 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Recent research on the southern Italian household in the early modern period is reviewed. This research "shows evidence of a multiplicity and a variability of household forms, with a predominance of nuclear households in some areas and the presence of the neolocal principle of family formation also firmly rooted. An analysis of the relationship between family structures and demographic variables, such as age at marriage, demonstrates the inadequacy of a typological approach to household systems in southern Italy."
Correspondence: F. Benigno, University of Catania, Piazza dell'Universita, 95124 Catania, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

55:20438 Bertino, Salvatore; Pinnelli, Antonella; Vichi, Maurizio. Two models for microsimulation of family life cycle and family structure. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 1-23 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Two models are proposed for the microsimulation of the family and an analysis of their structure and life cycle. These models were primarily devised for teaching purposes....Input data comprise annual mortality probability according to sex, age and civil status, annual probability of the first marriage, age combinations between the spouses, the probability of having 1, 2, 3 or more children, at six month intervals from the previous event....The applications of the first model are presented using two mortality and fertility hypotheses (high and low) and a nuptiality hypothesis....The various features of family composition are analysed according to the duration of the couple's marriage and the age of the individual, as well as the characteristic features of the individual's family life cycle given these two demographic conditions." The models are tested using data for Italy.
Correspondence: S. Bertino, Department of Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, Universita degli Studi La Sapienza, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20439 Canada. Statistics Canada. Demography Division. Population Estimates Section (Ottawa, Canada). Postcensal estimates of families, Canada, provinces and territories, June 1, 1987 and 1988. [Estimations postcensitaires des familles, Canada, provinces et territoires, 1er juin 1987 et 1988.] Pub. Order No. 91-204. Jan 1989. 41 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Postcensal estimates of the total number of families, and of selected family characteristics, are presented for Canada for June 1, 1987 and 1988. The data are presented separately by province and are based on 1986 census data. The report includes a glossary of terms, details of the component method used, data sources, and an evaluation of the quality of the estimates.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20440 De Vos, Susan. The socioeconomic dimension to household composition in six Latin American countries. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-39, 1988. 25, [9] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and household composition in six Latin American countries in the middle 1970's. The study finds partial support and partial negation for three commonly-held views of the relationship: a 'family modernization' view, a 'survival strategy' view, and a 'family is important for everyone' view. Mexico exhibited the clearest relationship, consistent with the 'family modernization' view, but the study finds that it is impossible to generalize about one 'Latin America'." Data are from the World Fertility Survey for Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama, and Peru.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20441 Fapohunda, Eleanor R.; Todaro, Michael P. Family structure, implicit contracts, and the demand for children in Southern Nigeria. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 571-94, 761, 763 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An important debate in the population and development literature concerns whether the structure of families independently and systematically affects household decisionmaking processes and fertility differentials. Using a Transactions Framework and data from Southern Nigeria, this article examines, both theoretically and empirically, how three implicit Nigerian family contracts affect spousal reproductive goals and fertility behavior. The data reveal considerable differences in spousal fertility intentions, with fertility behavior strongly influenced by the nature of household contracts. Policy implications of the analysis are explored."
Correspondence: E. R. Fapohunda, Department of Economics, State University of New York, Farmingdale, NY 11735. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20442 Findley, Sally E.; Diallo, Assitan. Foster children: links between urban and rural families? In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.2.43-57 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This study looks at micro-level data to determine the extent and reasons for fostering in rural and urban areas, using evidence from two parallel studies of fostering in urban and rural Mali....Although the rural-urban fostering in the aggregate follows the expected demographic pattern from large to small families, families do not consciously view these transfers of children as an effort to balance family sizes. There is no significant difference in the proportion of children fostered because the foster mother is childless. Rather, the transfer seems to reflect the changing social and economic realities of the rural world."
Correspondence: S. E. Findley, African Studies Center, Boston University, 147 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20443 Floge, Liliane. Changing household structure, child-care availability, and employment among mothers of preschool children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1989. 51-63 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article examines the changing effects of household structure on the employment and continued education of mothers of preschool children. The data come from a four-year longitudinal study of a representative sample of New York City mothers. The findings indicate that household structure changes over time, with a decline in the availability of household members who could provide child care. Both measures of household child-care availability affect women's employment in the directions hypothesized, but their effects decrease through time. Possible reasons for this decline in importance are discussed, as are possible implications for teenage mothers."
Correspondence: L. Floge, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20444 Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara S. Single mothers and their children: a new American dilemma. Changing Domestic Priorities Series, ISBN 0-87766-405-6. LC 86-23413. 1986. xix, 198 pp. Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The rapid increase of families headed by single women in the United States and its consequences are examined. The authors note that over the past 25 years the proportion of children living in such families has more than doubled to one in five. Particular attention is paid to the merits of providing public assistance to single women with children, and to the need to provide such forms of economic security while avoiding an increase in welfare dependence. The authors conclude that, although the welfare system has not been a major cause of the growth of single-mother families, the solution is more likely to be found in assisting mothers to work rather than in increasing welfare payments. The importance of enforcement of child support obligations is also emphasized.
Correspondence: Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:20445 Goldscheider, Frances K.; Goldscheider, Calvin. Family structure and conflict: nest-leaving expectations of young adults and their parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1989. 87-97 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this article, we explore the expectations of parents about the sequence of marriage and nest-leaving for their children and consider how the factors influencing parents' expectations resemble those that shape their children's." Particular attention is paid to membership in one-parent and stepparent families. Data are from the 1980 High School and Beyond Survey senior cohort, a nationally representative survey of U.S. high school seniors.
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Department of Sociology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20446 Grunwald, Marianne; Schiebel, Bernd; Strohmeier, K. Peter. Family formation in North Rhine-Westphalia: models and microsimulation using panel data. [Familienentwicklung in Nordrhein-Westfalen: Modellierung und Mikrosimulation mit Paneldaten.] IBS-Materialien, No. 27, Pt. 1, ISBN 3-923340-20-6. 1987. 1-115 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This publication is the last in a series presenting results from a longitudinal study of reproductive behavior in North Rhine-Westphalia, Federal Republic of Germany. The study, conducted between 1981 and 1987, involved three surveys of women aged 18-30 at the beginning of the period; 1,054 women participated in all three surveys. The focus of the present paper is on the use of panel data and microsimulation techniques to develop models for forecasting processes of family formation, particularly the birth of children. Results of the simulation models are compared with actual findings from the survey.
Correspondence: Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Universitat Bielefeld, Universitatsstrasse, Postfach 8640, D-4800 Bielefeld 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20447 Haskey, John. One-parent families and their children in Great Britain: numbers and characteristics. Population Trends, No. 55, Spring 1989. 27-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers the latest available evidence from various statistical sources on one-parent families. It is concluded that the best estimate of their number in Great Britain was 970 thousand in 1985, and just over one million in 1986. In 1986, of all families containing dependent children, one in seven was a one-parent family, and nine in every ten one-parent families was headed by a lone mother. It is also estimated that one-parent families in 1986 contained over 1.6 million dependent children, so that about one child in eight lives in a one-parent family."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20448 Hoem, Britta. Early phases of family formation in contemporary Sweden. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-44, 1988. 33 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changes in the early phases of family formation in contemporary Sweden. The focus is on women and the current trend to postpone marriage and childbearing. Factors affecting this trend are educational and occupational opportunities, increased levels of income, recent changes in the status of women, effective contraception, and changes in attitude and in value orientation. Data are from a 1981 Swedish fertility survey for women born in 1936-1960.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20449 Itoh, Tatsuya. Regional differences in household formation in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 188, Oct 1988. 22-39 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses seven indexes of household composition and formation to study changes in household structure in Japan by province from 1920 to 1985. Topics examined include household size and type, including the nuclear family, units smaller than the nuclear family, and elderly households.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20450 Kertzer, David I. The joint family household revisited: demographic constraints and household complexity in the European past. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1989. 1-15 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Debates about the nature and geographical distribution of complex family households in the European past continue to animate much of the work of family history. This article criticizes the common view that demographic constraints prevented the realization of complex family forms in western Europe. It also takes issue with recent attempts to contrast a Mediterranean household system with those found in northwestern Europe and in eastern Europe. Evidence from Italian sharecroppers in the Bologna area in the period 1861-1921 is presented and comparative evidence from eastern Europe is discussed. The important differences between stem and joint family systems are elucidated."
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Department of Anthropology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20451 Kiernan, Kathleen E. The family: formation and fission. In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 27-41 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses trends in the structure and dynamics of British family life. Consideration is given to marriage patterns and age at first marriage, cohabitation and premarital sex, divorce, and extramarital births. Comparisons with other Western European countries are made. The author notes that an important key to understanding recent trends is the changing value placed on traditional legal marriage. Data are from published sources.
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20452 Lerman, Robert I. Employment opportunities of young men and family formation. American Economic Review, Vol. 79, No. 2, May 1989. 62-6 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The hypothesis is reviewed that the primary cause of the increase in one-parent families in the United States since 1965, primarily among blacks, is the lack of male job opportunities. This hypothesis is examined through a review of the recent literature. The author concludes that the results of recent research do not support it consistently.
Correspondence: R. I. Lerman, Heller School, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254-9110. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:20453 Locoh, Therese. A comparative analysis of the size and structure of households. [L'analyse comparative de la taille et de la structure des menages.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.2.17-41 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in household size and structure in Africa are analyzed, and the availability and quality of household statistics are assessed. It is found that "the mean size of households has increased since 1970 (as compared to the earlier decades). This trend runs counter to the expected consequence of modernization i.e. family nuclearization. This trend can be explained by several causes: a) the increased number of young-age people in the African age structure due to lower mortality and stable fertility, b) the evolution of mean age at first marriage, c) urban migrations, d) and...economic difficulties calling for strong solidarities inside lineages."
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20454 Madan, Ashok K. Demographic dynamics of household cycles: a microsimulation approach. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 391-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to examine how the average size of the household, which depends upon the size distribution of households, would evolve both temporally and under different scenarios of household extinction, individual mortality, fertility, and household formation tied to the event of marriage." Data are from a sample of Canadian households enumerated in the 1971 census.
Correspondence: A. K. Madan, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20455 Maharatna, Arup. Optimum family size, surplus labour, and the rationality of poor peasants. Indian Economic Journal, Vol. 34, No. 4, Apr-Jun 1987. 25-38 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Factors affecting fertility and family size among the poor in developing countries are examined. In particular, the author challenges the hypothesis that poor parents feel that it is in their own interest to have a large number of children.
Correspondence: A. Maharatna, Burdwan University, Burdwan, West Bengal 713 104, India. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20456 Menahem, Georges. Three modes of domestic organization times two family norms equals six family types. [Trois modes d'organisation domestique selon deux normes familiales font six types de famille.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 1,005-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes the domestic organization of French families using data for 1,739 families from the survey Fecondite-Conditions de Vie carried out in 1981. "There are, (a) associative families in which the occupational and domestic participation of both spouses is more egalitarian, and these contrast sharply with both (b) conjugal families in which women tend to concentrate on motherhood and domesticity, and (c) patrimonial families organized around the exigencies of family business and reproduction. In each of these three types of domestic organization, two sub-groups can be distinguished: traditionalist and modernist, depending on the household's social relations and corresponding behavioural norms. This results in a total of six homogeneous family types defined in terms of behaviour and the strategies on which it is based."
Correspondence: G. Menahem, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20457 Meyer, Sibylle; Schulze, Eva. Living and housing arrangements for the unmarried: a literature study and bibliography. [Lebens- und Wohnformen Alleinstehender: Literaturstudie und Bibliographie.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 59, 1988. 171 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a review of the literature on the unmarried and their living arrangements. Topics covered include reasons for an increase in the number of the unmarried, characteristics of the unmarried, single parents, living arrangements of the unmarried, and cooperative households. The primary geographical focus is on the Federal Republic of Germany, although the literature reviewed also covers other developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20458 Miller, Warren B.; Pasta, David J. A model of fertility motivation, desires, and expectations early in women's reproductive careers. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 236-50 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The relationships among fertility motivations, desires, and expectations are analyzed using a general model with data from 311 recently married and 318 recently mothered U.S. women. "There are three primary differences in the model with respect to the two groups of married women. How soon a woman expects her next child affects how many children she expects only among the just-married women. The number of children expected by the woman is the only antecedent to how soon she expects her next child among the just-mothered women. Both positive and negative maternal motivation has effects among the just-married women, but only negative maternal motivation has effects among the just-mothered women. These and other differences are discussed in terms of psychological and situational developments occurring early in women's reproductive careers."
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 669 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20459 Miron, J. R. Household formation, affordability, and housing policy. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan 1989. 55-77 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper argues that changes in housing affordability [in Canada] are linked to the changing pace and character of household formation and that household formation has been responsive to a variety of public policies generally, and to housing programs in particular. Over the last four decades or so, changes in household formation have reflected policy inducements, price movements and income growth, and the substantial elasticity of demand for separate living arrangements." Data are from official Canadian sources.
Correspondence: J. R. Miron, Department of Geography and Planning, Scarborough College, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto M1C 1A4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20460 Moorman, Jeanne E.; Hernandez, Donald J. Married-couple families with step, adopted, and biological children. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 267-77 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"National estimates of the numbers of families with step, adopted, and biological children have not previously been developed [for the United States]. In this work, parent types for children in married-couple families were indirectly identified by using marriage and birth dates. Families were then classified by the types of children present. A large majority (79 percent) had only biological children; however, a significant minority (16 percent) had at least one stepchild and 4 percent had at least one adopted child. This analysis provides national estimates of the numbers and characteristics of married-couple families with step, adopted, and biological children."
Correspondence: J. E. Moorman, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Division of Epidemiology and Statistical Analysis, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20772. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20461 Murphy, Michael J. Housing the people: from shortage to surplus? In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 90-109 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses "past and likely future trends in households and housing, and [gives] particular attention to the experience of young people setting up home for the first time." The relationship between employment patterns and demand for housing is also considered. Data are from 1971 and 1981 censuses of Great Britain as well as other published sources.
Correspondence: M. J. Murphy, Department of Population Studies, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20462 Omideyi, Adekunbi K. Family size and productivity of rural households in Nigeria. Janasamkhya, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jun 1988. 29-48 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the extent to which high fertility in rural areas of Nigeria has influenced productivity and the resultant effect on quality of life within the household set up. Low farm productivity combined with large family size has resulted in the lowering of household income and savings and to greater poverty. No justification was evident for maintaining a large family for the purpose of increasing farm production for which other developmental measures have to be adopted. Hence to improve quality of life in the rural areas of Nigeria reduction in fertility is called for."
Correspondence: A. Omideyi, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20463 Ramakumar, R. An index of gender preference. Janasamkhya, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jun 1988. 79-92 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"An index to measure the acceptance of the gender composition of a family based on contraceptive acceptance rate is suggested." The factors of family size preference, son preference, daughter preference, and sex of last child are also analyzed for their impact on contraceptive use. Data are for India and are from the 1979 Kerala Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: R. Ramakumar, Department of Demography, University of Kerala, Kariavattom 695 034, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20464 Roussel, Louis. The uncertain family. [La famille incertaine.] ISBN 2-7381-0047-3. 1989. 283 pp. Editions Odile Jacob: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a demographic analysis of the modern family, with a focus on France. The author's main hypothesis is that since the end of World War II, there has been a change from the situation where the family was governed by the need to survive to a situation where individuals are able to make choices concerning the family in accordance with their personal preferences. The consequences of this change are analyzed, particularly in regard to the reproduction of society and to possible government responses.
Correspondence: Editions Odile Jacob, 15 rue Soufflot, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20465 Sala-Diakanda, Mpembele. Some conceptual and practical problems concerning the available data on household structure in Africa together with their analysis. [Problemes conceptuels et pratiques lies aux informations disponibles sur la structure des menages en Afrique ainsi qu'a son analyse.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.2.1-16 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Some problems concerning the analysis of household structure in Africa are examined. These include the lack of suitable data and relevant studies, differences between the concepts of family and of household, and questions concerning the definition of a household.
Correspondence: M. Sala-Diakanda, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20466 Santi, Lawrence. Household headship in the United States, 1970-1985: the effects of economic and demographic change. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-42, 1988. 15, [10] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The present paper examines recent change in headship rates among unmarried individuals [in the United States] within the context of recent changes in age and income structure. While age and income changes do operate in theoretically predicted ways, the headship increases observed during the 1970s persist even after these factors are taken into account. During the early 1980s, however, observed increases in headship are found to be due solely to the aging of the population; the effects of income change during this period were negative for all but widowed persons."
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20467 Smith, James E. Method and confusion in the study of the household: a review. Historical Methods, Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring 1989. 57-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A critical review is presented of the study by Steven Ruggles entitled Prolonged Connections: the Rise of the Extended Family in Nineteenth-Century England and America. The debate concerns the evidence for the prevalence of the nuclear family in the past.
For the study by Ruggles, published in 1987, see 53:20462.
Correspondence: J. E. Smith, Rank Xerox Unit, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20468 Smolinski, Zbigniew. Procreative attitudes of newly married couples. [Postawy prokreacyjne nowozencow.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 8, Aug 1988. 1-5 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Results are presented from a 1985 survey conducted among newly married couples in Poland concerning ideal and planned number of children. Both husbands and wives participated in the survey. Comparisons are made with results from a previous survey undertaken in 1975.
Correspondence: Z. Smolinski, Departament Spisow i Badan Demograficznych, Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00 925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20469 Uchino, Sumiko. A regional perspective in population study--based on national consumption expenditure surveys. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 188, Oct 1988. 40-57 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines "regional characteristics of population in [Japan] from the standpoint of consumption behavior and [assesses] the significance of 'regionality' in population study. Data [are from] the National Consumption Expenditure Surveys conducted...every five years...from 1959-1984." Topics covered include differences in household consumption and expenditures, particularly food expenditures, by prefecture and for rural and urban areas, and regional similarity indexes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20470 Vimard, Patrice; N'Cho, Sombo. The nuclear family in the Ivory Coast: structures and probabilities of transition. [Les noyaux familiaux en Cote d'Ivoire: structures et probabilites de transition.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.2.59-75 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze trends in family structure in the Ivory Coast using data from a national multi-round survey conducted in 1978 and 1979. Characteristics of families and households are examined, including number of and relationships among household members, and the presence of unrelated individuals in a household.
Correspondence: P. Vimard, ORSTOM, BP V18, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20471 Volkov, A. G. The family--object of demography. [Sem'ya--ob"ekt demografii.] 1986. 271 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The family in the USSR is analyzed in terms of its role as the basic unit of human reproduction and the laws governing that process. The author examines the typology of families, family characteristics, the family life cycle, family stability, family size, and the formation of young families. Data are from the censuses of 1970 and 1979 and special surveys.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20472 Waldrop, Judith. Inside America's households. American Demographics, Vol. 11, No. 3, Mar 1989. 20-7 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
A statistical profile of U.S. households is presented using data from the Current Population Survey. Consideration is given to the number and structure of households, and the median household income for different age cohorts.
Correspondence: J. Waldrop, American Demographics, 108 N. Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20473 Wall, Richard. Leaving home and living alone: an historical perspective. Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper, No. 211, Jan 1988. 29 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides a historical and geographical perspective on the composition of households in present-day Europe. Many more people today live on their own than was the case in pre-industrial England, but there are some surprising continuities in household composition. In particular, households in the pre-industrial era were no more likely than present-day ones to include distant relatives. In addition, the recent rise in the proportion of one-parent families due to divorce has resulted in a household composition which resembles that produced by early widowhood in the seventeenth century...." Consideration is given to the age at which children leave the parental home, the impact of sex factors on such a move, and geographic variations in household type. The author concludes that "demographic changes have modified the age structure of the population in favour of those age groups where people would be most prone to live alone, while economic changes have made living alone more practical and cultural changes have made it more acceptable."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 6 Duke of York Street, London SW1 6LA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20474 Wall, Richard; Penhale, Bruce. Relationships within households in 1981. Population Trends, No. 55, Spring 1989. 22-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The OPCS Longitudinal Study provides opportunities to explore relationships within households in England and Wales in 1981. Members of households are considered in terms of their relationship to the head (or a joint head) of the household and whether or not they were members of families and, if not, whether they lived with related persons, unrelated persons or alone. Comparisons are made with analyses from other, smaller samples, such as the General Household Survey."
Correspondence: R. Wall, Cambridge Group for the History of Population, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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