Volume 55 - Number 2 - Summer 1989

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:20247 Agyei, William K. A.; Mbamanya, Joseph. Determinants of cumulative fertility in Kenya. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 135-44 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the effects of age at first marriage, level of education, place of residence, marriage disruption, religion, contraceptive use, and work status on cumulative fertility in Kenya, using data from the 1977-78 Kenya Fertility Survey. Age at first marriage is the main determinant of cumulative fertility, but there are significant effects of level of education and marriage disruption. Place of residence is only significant for the Coast province. The implication of the findings is that to promote any real decline in fertility, emphasis should be placed on providing higher education and work opportunities for young women as an alternative to early marriage."
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20248 Alachkar, Ahmad; Eberstein, Isaac W. Income, fertility, and economic development. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 121-37 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The present research uses available data for 126 nations, circa 1983, to examine the cross-sectional relationship between national income and fertility. Initially, interest is in assessing the extent of variablity in this relationship among societies at different stages of economic development. Second, this relationship is decomposed into its direct and indirect parts through the use of a plausible recursive model containing school enrollment and infant mortality as sequentially intervening variables. Findings suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between national income and fertility varies widely by stage of economic development. Further, school enrollment and infant mortality also vary widely in importance by stage of development."
Correspondence: A. Alachkar, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20249 Bernhardt, Eva M. Fertility and employment. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 55, ISBN 91-7820-042-3. Apr 1989. xii, 30 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between fertility and female labor force participation in contemporary Western Europe using data from a number of published sources. Although fertility has an immediate and negative impact on women's employment, the author concludes that this effect is temporary and declines in importance as the child gets older. "On the other hand, the effect of employment on fertility is a much more debated issue, and the author questions whether the presumed negative relationship really holds in contemporary Western Europe." It is argued that countries with more modern attitudes toward the role of women in the family and society have the best chance of achieving a birth rate near replacement level.
Correspondence: University of Stockholm, Section of Demography, Stockholm S-106 91, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20250 Bideau, Alain; Nadalin, Sergio O. Study of fertility in a Lutheran evangelical community in Curitiba (Brazil) from 1866 to 1939. [Etude de la fecondite d'une communaute evangelique lutherienne a Curitiba (Bresil) de 1866 a 1939.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 1,035-64 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The present study consists of an analysis of fertility in a Lutheran evangelical community, founded in about 1866 in Curitiba, the former capital of the province of Parana, Brazil....An analysis of fertility rates from 1866 to 1939 throws light on the characteristics of the pioneer families, who took no steps to restrict their fertility until the end of the nineteenth century, and on the gradual spread of contraception among the children of immigrants and foreigners who continued to arrive." Fertility differentials between this population and other populations in Brazil are considered.
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Centre Pierre Leon, UA 223, CNRS, Universite Lumiere, Lyon 2, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20251 Blangiardo, Gian C. The possible effects of Chernobyl on the reproductive behavior of the Italian population: the case of Lombardy. [A proposito dell'effetto Cernobyl sul comportamento riproduttivo della popolazione italiana: il caso della Lombardia.] Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 99-120 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author considers the possible impact of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, USSR, in April 1986 on the reproductive behavior of the population of Lombardy, Italy. Psychological effects on the fertility rate, contraceptive use, and induced abortion are analyzed and correlated with the event.
Correspondence: G. C. Blangiardo, Istituto di Scienze Statistiche e Mathematiche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20252 Blau, David M.; Robins, Philip K. Fertility, employment, and child-care costs. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 287-99 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"A sample of [U.S.] labor-market and birth histories is used to estimate the effects of child-care costs on employment and fertility decisions. A reduced-form empirical analysis is performed, which is based on hazard functions for transitions among various fertility-employment states. Higher child-care costs result in a lower birth rate for nonemployed women but not for employed women. Higher child-care costs also lead to an increase in the rate of leaving employment and a reduction in the rate of entering employment. The results suggest that potential behavioral effects of child-care subsidies could be significant and should be taken into account when alternative child-care policies are being debated."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 393).
Correspondence: D. M. Blau, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina, Gardner Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20253 Bloom, David E. Fertility timing, labor supply disruptions, and the wage profiles of American women. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 49-63 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzed the first birth fertility patterns of [U.S.] women and their labor market consequences using data contained in the Census Bureau's June 1985 Current Population Survey." Consideration is given to mothers' educational and occupational level, age, and race. The labor market effects of remaining childless and of delaying childbearing are also discussed.
Correspondence: D. E. Bloom, Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20254 Blum, Alain. Achieved fertility of female cohorts in the USSR and in its constituent republics. [Descendance atteinte dans les generations de femmes en Union Sovietique et dans ses republiques.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 1,143-51 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Data on achieved fertility for the USSR and its major constituent republics are presented. The data are discussed in an article by Anatole Vishnevskij.
For the article by Anatole Vishnevskij, also published in 1988, see 55:10301.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20255 Borg, Mary O'M. The income-fertility relationship: effect of the net price of a child. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 301-10 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article examines the relationship between income and completed family size in empirical fertility models. The relationship, which is hypothesized to be positive, often is negative in empirical studies. This perverse result is thought to occur because of the many correlations between income and other factors that affect fertility. In this research, these other factors--such as the net price of a child, the opportunity cost of the wife's time, and supply factors--are statistically controlled, and the income effect is positive and significant. When the net price of a child is not controlled, however, the income effect becomes negative and significant." The data concern the Republic of Korea and are from a 1976 survey.
Correspondence: M. O'M. Borg, Department of Economics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32216. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20256 Brass, William. Is Britain facing the twilight of parenthood? In: The changing population of Britain, edited by Heather Joshi. 1989. 12-26 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this chapter is to examine the evidence on whether Britain is likely to experience a notable population decline in the imminent future, with particular attention to the use of relevant indices and their interpretation." The primary emphasis is on future trends in fertility. Consideration is given to population forecasting and the importance of births, the distorting effects of birth timing, the importance of birth order and the parity progression ratio, and some socioeconomic extrapolations. The author concludes that "evidence that Britain is facing a revolt from childbearing leading to significant falls in population size and severe age composition disturbance is lacking."
Correspondence: W. Brass, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20257 Calot, Gerard. Fertility and nuptiality in Austria, England and Wales, Federal Republic of Germany, France, GDR and Switzerland, over the last 40 years. In: Demographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: vier Jahrzehnte Statistik, Forschung und Politikberatung. Festschrift fur Karl Schwarz, edited by Charlotte Hohn, Wilfried Linke, and Rainer Mackensen. Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 18, 1988. 93-121 pp. Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This article aims to present an overall picture of the major changes that have taken place in the development of fertility and nuptiality during the past 40 years in industrialized countries." The geographical scope covers six countries: Austria, England and Wales, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the German Democratic Republic, and Switzerland. The data were assembled as part of an international project carried out by France's National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED). Both period and cohort analyses are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20258 Chandran, P. E. Biological influence of infant death on fertility. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 217-21 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the biological influence of infant death on subsequent fertility in three Asian countries--Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka, comparing the birth interval between two consecutive births up to the sixth birth by survival status of the preceding infant among breast-feeding women not using contraception. There is consistent evidence of biological influence in each of the three countries. Infant death shortens birth intervals by up to 30%, though its influence varies between the countries." The data are from the World Fertility Survey for the three countries concerned.
Correspondence: P. E. Chandran, Provincial Unit of Research, Church of the Province of Kenya, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20259 Cliquet, R. L.; Bosman, E.; Van Dongen, W. The background, consequences, and policy implications of recent changes in reproductive and related behavior in the member states of the European Economic Community. [Achtergronden, gevolgen en beleidsimplicaties van de recente veranderingen in het reproductief en relationeel gedrag in de OESO-lidstaten.] CBGS Werkdocument, No. 57, 1989. 49 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The consequences and policy implications of recent demographic trends for the countries of the European Economic Community are reviewed. Consideration is given to effects on the individual, family, and society. The need for adequate economic and social policy responses is stressed, as well as for policies that attempt to influence the demographic process. The authors conclude that the objective of such policies should be to raise the quality of life in such a way that the decision to have children does not compete with choices for other life options.
Correspondence: CBGS, Nijverheidsstraat 37, 7de Verdieping, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20260 Cornwell, Gretchen T.; Robinson, Warren C. Fertility of U.S. farm women during the electrification era, 1930-1950. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1988. 277-91 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The effects of rural electrification on the fertility of U.S. farm women is analyzed using ordinary least squares and data from population and agricultural censuses for 473 rural farm counties for the years 1930, 1940, and 1950. "Overall, the results of multivariate analyses generally support the conceptual model. The effects of farm production/technology factors, electrification, and sociodemographic characteristics are evaluated....The effects of electrification net of the other variables are significant when subsamples of Southern and non-Southern counties are examined separately, with electrification related to lower fertility in Southern counties and higher fertility in non-Southern counties. The findings emphasize the importance of considering potential demographic impacts when introducing rural development projects in developing countries."
Correspondence: G. T. Cornwell, Population Issues Research Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20261 Ebigbola, Joshua A. Fertility level in south western Nigeria in the decade of rapid development 1971-1981. Research for Development, Vol. 3-4, Jul 1987. 115-32 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria. In Eng.
Fertility trends in southwestern Nigeria in the period 1971-1981 are analyzed. It is noted that during this decade, two national development plans were conducted using the wealth generated by the oil boom.
Correspondence: J. A. Ebigbola, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, University of Ife, Ife, Nigeria. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20262 El Deeb, Bothaina. Quantitative analysis of the relationship between child mortality and fertility in Egypt, Sudan, Kenya and Lesotho. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 3.3.17-33 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The present study aims at quantifying the effect of child mortality on both fertility behaviour and fertility attitudes in Egypt, Sudan, Kenya and Lesotho. The results of the fertility surveys conducted in these countries in the context of the World Fertility Surveys are used and...multivariate analysis is utilized....The quantitative analysis of the effect of child mortality on the number of children desired exhibited a tremendous effect of child loss on fertility norms in Lesotho. By far, the effect of child loss on desired family size in Sudan, Egypt and Kenya has followed that of Lesotho."
Correspondence: B. El Deeb, Woman/Child Research Unit, Population Studies and Research Centre, CAPMAS, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20263 Fargues, Philippe. The decline in Arab birth rates. [La baisse de la fecondite arabe.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 975-1,004 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The decrease in the birth rate of member countries of the Arab League and the factors affecting regional differences in fertility are considered. Changes in marriage patterns, the age of women at first marriage, urbanization, and educational levels of women all have contributed to lower fertility; however, the increased percentage of women employed outside the home has had the greatest impact.
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20264 Galvez Gonzalez, Ana M.; Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo; Herrera Leon, Lorenzo. Seasonal behaviour of births in Cuba. [Comportamiento estacional de los nacimientos en Cuba.] Revista Cubana de Salud Publica, Vol. 14, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1988. 56-68 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Official data for the periods 1969-1976 and 1978-1985 are used to examine the extent of seasonal variations in fertility in Cuba. Seasonal variations in nuptiality are also examined and compared with fertility trends.
Correspondence: A. M. Galvez Gonzalez, Instituto Superior de Ciencias Medicas de La Habana, Facultad de Salud Publica, Municipio Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20265 Greenhalgh, Susan. Fertility as mobility: sinic transitions. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 629-74, 761-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The link between small family size and upward socioeconomic mobility as the primary explanation for the modern decline in fertility is examined in the context of rapid fertility declines in areas of Chinese culture. "Viewing fertility as mobility, the article analyzes the institutional structures and cultural patterns that shaped fertility behavior in late-traditional China. In the contemporary period, it argues, the fundamental cause of fertility decline in both the People's Republic of China and Taiwan was a set of institutional transformations that altered the security and mobility benefits of children, modified the costs of childrearing, and changed the terms in which cost-benefit calculations were made. However, the reason fertility declined so rapidly lies in the high degree of economic rationalism in Chinese culture, an attribute that, despite varying political-economic systems, persisted in traditional or modified form in both parts of China."
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20266 Gueye, Mouhamadou; van de Walle, Etienne. Some joint determinants of fertility and infant and child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 3.3.1-16 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Our focus here is the proximate, socioeconomic and cultural determinants common to both fertility and infant or child mortality....We want to explore these interrelations at the level where they are encountered in Africa, i.e. mostly in the context of natural fertility regimes. We will, however, consider the role of contraception." Recent literature is first briefly reviewed. "[It is found that] breast feeding and sexual abstinence have been and remain important proximate determinants of fertility for most African societies....[Their effects] are not restricted to fertility. The main effect of these types of behaviour on mortality is certainly through the birth interval."
Correspondence: M. Gueye, Bureau National du Recensement, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20267 Halli, S. S. Toward a re-conceptualization of minority group status and fertility hypothesis: the case of Orientals in Canada. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1989. 21-45 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the minority group status hypothesis, which has been used to explain fertility differences between minority populations. In the light of critical assessment of past research, an attempt will be made to reconceptualize the minority group status hypothesis and verify its applicability to the Chinese and Japanese ethnic groups in Canada."
Correspondence: S. S. Halli, Department of Sociology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20268 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. The impact of women's employment on second and third births in modern Sweden. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1989. 47-67 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Some aspects of Swedish fertility patterns during the 1960s and 1970s are analyzed using data from a fertility survey conducted in 1981 concerning 4,223 women. The focus is on the relationship between employment and fertility. The authors challenge the assumption that the cost of a second or third birth is necessarily higher for women with higher educational status or firmer positions in the labor force than for other women. They conclude that "a woman's personal values and life course strategy (whether deliberately chosen or pressed upon her by accident and circumstances) appear as the strongest determinants of her childbearing behaviour, while income effects and opportunity cost differentials are valuable concepts which provide an understanding of more marginal changes and marginal differences. Perhaps a main outcome of the many-faceted developments over the last quarter-century has been the emerging dominance of the two-child norm and the ability to live up to it, while more directly measurable influences have been reduced to mediators."
Correspondence: B. Hoem, Section of Demography, University of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20269 Horne, Amelia D.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Suchindran, C. M. Differentials in model childbearing measures in developing countries. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 379-84 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In the present paper, we use synthetic childbearing measures...to study the timing of fertility events in developing countries. Specifically, the data for 33 countries of the WFS [World Fertility Survey] are used. Childbearing experiences of Middle Eastern, African, Asian, and Latin American/Caribbean countries are compared, in addition to their residential and educational differentials. The association between childbearing measures and practice of family planning is also assessed."
Correspondence: A. D. Horne, American University in Cairo, POB 2511, 113 Sharia Kasr El-Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20270 Ilinigumugabo, Aloys; Randriambanona, Robert. The impact of types of nuptiality and dissolved unions on fertility in four countries in black Africa. [L'impact des types de nuptialite et des ruptures d'union sur la fecondite dans quatre pays de l'Afrique noire.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.1.19-43 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"After presenting the concepts and hypotheses of the study, the authors show, by means of the Duration Ratio (DRAT), that the polygamous nature of unions, their social legitimacy as well as the wife's conjugal mobility can have a negative impact on fertility in Black Africa. They also argue that, in countries where voluntary dissolution of first marriages is frequent, remarriage is frequent too, and that women contracting several successive unions are not subject to a strong fertility selection. On the other hand, in countries where voluntary dissolution of first marriages is rather uncommon, remarriage is rare too, and divorced or separated women are characterized by subfertility." The four countries examined are Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, and Rwanda.
Correspondence: A. Ilinigumugabo, Institut de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place de l'Universite 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20271 Jacobson, Cardell K.; Heaton, Tim B.; Taylor, Karen M. Childlessness among American women. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 186-97 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors examine reasons for the increasing levels of childlessness in the United States using data from Cycle III of the 1982 National Survey for Family Growth. "The most important demographic factors are marital status and fecundity status, followed by age, race or ethnicity, education of the respondent, labor force status, and region. Father's education and mother's education are slightly, but not significantly, related to childlessness. Contrary to findings from less representative samples, urban-rural differences and religion are not related to childlessness."
Correspondence: C. K. Jacobson, Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20272 Kamau, R. K.; Mati, J. K. G. Birth interval and pregnancy outcome. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 65, No. 7, Jul 1988. 470-7 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The relationship between birth interval and pregnancy outcome in Kenya is analyzed using data for 615 women. "Birth intervals that were 25-36 months long were associated with the most favourable pregnancy outcome. Poor pregnancy outcome was followed by very short birth intervals with more than 75% of the birth intervals being 24 months long or less. When no contraceptives were used 58% of the birth intervals were 24 months long or less compared with only 25.5% when contraceptives were used. Breastfeeding alone is not very effective in prolonging the birth interval since 33.4% of women resumed regular menstruation by 4-6 months when they are still breastfeeding. Only 31% of married women were abstinent by three months postpartum and therefore in this group of women abstinence played no role in prolonging the birth interval."
Correspondence: R. K. Kamau, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30588, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:20273 Klinger, Andras. Prospects of reproduction. [A reprodukcio jovoje.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 67, No. 1, Jan 1989. 5-28 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in developed countries over the past 30 years are first analyzed using data from U.N. and other published sources. The author then considers possible future trends in fertility up to 2025, and notes that the countries considered will probably experience TFRs of between 1.6 and 2.3.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20274 Lence Anta, Juan J. A study of a forecast of Cuban fertility for a year of the 1986-1990 quinquennium. [Estudio sobre un pronostico del nivel de la fecundidad cubana para un ano del quinquenio 1986-1990.] Revista Cubana de Salud Publica, Vol. 14, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1988. 43-54 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Fertility trends in Cuba over the past 30 years are analyzed. Consideration is given to trends in age-specific fertility and to the causes of the decline in fertility that has occurred over time. The analysis is used to estimate fertility in 1987.
Correspondence: J. J. Lence Anta, Buenaventura No. 467 entre Dolores y Pocito, 10 de Octubre, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20275 London, Bruce; Hadden, Kenneth. The spread of education and fertility decline: a Thai province level test of Caldwell's "wealth flows" theory. Rural Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 1, Spring 1989. 17-36 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"Recent research by John Caldwell (1982) has suggested that the spread of mass education produces declines in fertility by helping to change the direction of 'wealth flow' between generations within families. Thai province-level data are used to test several dimensions of Caldwell's argument in the context of controls for other potential structural (i.e., ecological and political-economic) determinants of aggregate fertility decline. Strong support is found for hypotheses derived from wealth flows theory, net of the support that is also found for selected ecological and political-economic hypotheses."
Correspondence: B. London, Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20276 Lopreato, Joseph; Yu, Mei-yu. Human fertility and fitness optimization. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 9, No. 5, Sep 1988. 269-89 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Census and other survey data from across the world reveal major differences in fertility rates between the more economically developed and the less economically developed societies. The former are significantly more likely than the latter to feature families of two children or fewer. Multiple regression analysis shows that, among various indicators of 'modernization,' three (female level of education, female gainful employment, and proportion of physicians in the population) account for 71% of the variation in family size; all three variables have strongly significant, direct, and negative effects on fertility. The paper hypothesizes about the possible evolution of a reproductive psychology toward the two-child family and seeks to explain highly depressed rates of reproduction by reference to both ultimate and proximate factors."
Correspondence: J. Lopreato, Department of Sociology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20277 Lutz, Wolfgang; Feichtinger, Gustav. Age structure effects in the estimation of final parity distributions. [Altersstruktureffekte bei der Schatzung schliesslicher Paritatsverteilungen.] In: Demographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: vier Jahrzehnte Statistik, Forschung und Politikberatung. Festschrift fur Karl Schwarz, edited by Charlotte Hohn, Wilfried Linke, and Rainer Mackensen. Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 18, 1988. 157-68 pp. Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The problems of estimating final parity distribution are analyzed using data for the 1936 birth cohort in the Federal Republic of Germany and 1984 period data for Finland. Fertility tables based on parity are constructed, and the effects of age structure on the estimation of parity distribution are assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20278 Mbuh, Rosemary K. Female work status and fertility in Puerto Rico: a socio-demographic study. Pub. Order No. DA8818466. 1988. 113 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between female work status and fertility in Puerto Rico among women of childbearing age (15-49) living in the island in 1982....The analysis of the relationship between female labor force participation and fertility is based on one data source, the Fertility and Family Planning Survey conducted in 1982. A longitudinal retrospective approach for studying the relationship between female labor force participation and fertility within a specified period is used....In contrast with the theoretical assumption that nonfamilial labor force participation of women is more negatively related to fertility than is the familial type, the present study found that in Puerto Rico today, familial labor force participation of women is more negatively associated with fertility."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Fordham University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(7).

55:20279 Moors, Hein; Schoorl, Jeannette. Lifestyles, contraception and parenthood. Proceedings of a workshop, Amsterdam, September 25-27, 1986. Publications of the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI] and the Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS], Vol. 17, ISBN 90-70990-07-5. 1988. ix, 407 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This book documents trends and consequences of adolescent fertility and voluntary childlessness as two important factors which underlie--and in turn are influenced by--changing lifestyles. It is essentially interdisciplinary in nature. Contributions from thirteen European countries and the United States deal with both methodological issues and special topics, such as cohabitation, contraceptive behaviour, social and psychological differentials and the consequences of these trends for individuals and society."
Correspondence: NIDI, Lange Houtstraat 19, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20280 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Education and fertility. [Education et fecondite.] Dec 1988. 24 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
The relationship between education and fertility in Morocco is analyzed using official data from the 1982 census, two recent family planning surveys conducted in 1979-1980 and 1983-1984, and the national statistical data base. The results suggest that the decline in fertility that has occurred is confined to urban areas, and is associated with higher levels of education.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20281 Pick, James B.; Tellis, Glenda L.; Butler, Edgar W.; Nag, Swapan. Socioeconomic effects on fertility in Mexican border state municipios, 1980. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 373-8 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The present study is designed to examine socioeconomic effects on fertility for all 272 municipios in the six U.S.-Mexico border states, an area termed the border region." A review of relevant literature is first presented, followed by a discussion of the variables affecting fertility. The authors find that literacy has a significant negative influence on fertility. Data are from official and other published Mexican sources.
Correspondence: J. B. Pick, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20282 Qvist, Jan. Cohort fertility in Sweden, 1945-1985. [Kohortfruktsamhet, 1945-1985.] Demografiska Rapporter 1987, No. 3, ISBN 91-618-0217-4. LC 88-171552. 1987. 67 pp. Statistiska Centralbyran: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
Family formation patterns in Sweden are analyzed using official data for women born during the period 1930-1960. The data concern births, deaths, emigration, and changes in marital status. Consideration is given to the impact of the increase in consensual unions on changes in marital fertility. The results show that fertility began to decline in 1965, primarily because of a change in fertility among young women. However, since 1983 there has been an increase in fertility, mainly due to women in higher ages having a second or third child. Differences in childlessness over time are considered. Reasons for the variations in fertility at different parities over time are also discussed.
Correspondence: Statistiska Centralbyran, S-115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20283 Rao, K. Vaninadha; Murty, Komonduri S. Age at first birth in Guyana: a hazards model analysis. In: American Statistical Association, 1986 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1986]. 367-72 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
First birth patterns in Guyana are examined through an analysis of the covariates of age at first birth. "An outcome of this study would be the estimated risks of first birth for various sub-groups in the population by employing the Cox's Proportional hazards model." Data are from the 1975 Guyana Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20284 Rodgers, Joseph L.; Udry, J. Richard. The season-of-birth paradox. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 171-85 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The social and psychological factors affecting the seasonality of births in the United States are examined using data from the Cycles II and III of the National Survey of Family Growth for 1973-1975 and 1979-1981. "Vital statistics data show a remarkably consistent seasonality in U.S. birth patterns, with peaks in late summer and winter months, and a valley in the spring. An attitude survey of college students suggests that peaks in the actual birth distribution occur in unpopular months in which to give birth; the valley in the actual birth distribution occurs in popular months." The authors attempt to explain this apparently paradoxical finding.
Correspondence: J. L. Rodgers, Department of Psychology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20285 Schoemaker, Juan. Fertility in marginal areas. [Fecundidad en areas marginales.] Revista Paraguaya de Sociologia, Vol. 24, No. 68, Jan-Apr 1987. 103-17 pp. Asuncion, Paraguay. In Spa.
Trends in fertility in poor neighborhoods of Asuncion, Paraguay, are discussed using data from a survey conducted in 1984. The author develops the concept of the strategy for survival as a major factor affecting fertility. The relatively higher levels of fertility among the marginal population are seen as the result of strategies developed by women to protect the standard of living of the family group. Implications for family planning policies are considered.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20286 Shafiqul Islam, S. M. Fertility estimates for Bangladesh based on birth-history data. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 101-17 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper attempts to estimate the levels and trends in fertility for Bangladesh and to study the effects of various response errors on these estimates using the birth history data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey, 1975-76. Fertility in Bangladesh remained high up to 1970. A substantial decline in fertility was found to have occurred during the period 1971-75. The observed dip in fertility has reflected the effects of the 1971 war of liberation and the 1974 widespread famine in Bangladesh. This dip in fertility was probably temporary and it may revert to its previous level. The total fertility rate for Bangladesh was estimated to be 5.9 during the period 1971-75. Reported fertility in the 5-10 years before the date of the survey was exaggerated, which perhaps could be associated with the errors in the data resulting from the misplacement of events over time. Fertility rates beyond the 15 years preceding the survey were found to be substantially affected by age misreporting, omission and misplacement of events."
Correspondence: S. M. Shafiqul Islam, University of Chittagong, University Post Office, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20287 Smith, Herbert L. Integrating theory and research on the institutional determinants of fertility. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 171-84 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article links recent conceptual theories regarding the determinants of fertility with research designs appropriate for testing those theories. The most important causal factors in these theories--typically social or cultural institutions, occasionally emergent properties of the collective behavior of individuals--are properly conceptualized at the macro level. Research designs must therefore feature variation at this level and are at a minimum comparative. Noncomparative micro-level research designs will be misspecified from the standpoint of theory. A case is also made for continuing to incorporate the observation of individual-level behavior into any comprehensive research design. A focus on macro determinants of fertility does not imply that fertility outcomes are determined at the institutional level. Instead, there remains some process whereby systemic properties are translated into individual behaviors. Recommendations for comparative community-level studies are discussed. The multilevel analysis framework is reviewed as a paradigm for the conceptual features of cross-contextual analysis."
Correspondence: H. L. Smith, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20288 Sri Lanka. Department of Census and Statistics (Colombo, Sri Lanka); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Sri Lanka: Demographic and Health Survey, 1987. ISBN 955-577-009-3. May 1988. xvii, 183 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
Results are presented from the 1987 Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey, one in a series of surveys being conducted as part of the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development's Demographic and Health Surveys program. The data concern 5,865 ever-married women aged 15-49. The report contains chapters on nuptiality and risk of conception, fertility, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, and mortality and health.
Correspondence: Department of Census and Statistics, 6 Albert Crescent Road, P.O. Box 563, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20289 Sufian, A. J. M.; Johnson, Nan E. Son preference and child replacement in Bangladesh: a new look at the child survival hypothesis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 207-16 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Birth history data from women in the 1975-76 Bangladesh Fertility Survey were used to search for intentions to replace dead children." The results do not show that birth intervals were shorter when a previous sibling had died or that son preference influenced duration of birth intervals. However, median intervals were shorter in urban areas because of shorter duration of breast-feeding among urban women.
Correspondence: A. J. M. Sufian, College of Architecture and Planning, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20290 Teachman, Jay D.; Schollaert, Paul T. Economic conditions, marital status, and the timing of first births: results for whites and blacks. Sociological Forum, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1989. 27-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The effects of aggregate economic conditions on the timing of first births in the United States are explored using data from the 1973, 1976, and 1982 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth. "We develop and test a causal model, separately by race, in which economic conditions influence both marital status and first-birth timing. Our results indicate that economic conditions are significant predictors of both outcomes, with economic conditions for females having effects different from those for males. A particularly noteworthy finding is that favourable wage trajectories for females lead to a decreased likelihood of being married and slower birth timing (a finding opposite to that predicted on the basis of opportunity costs). For blacks, the majority of the effects of economic conditions on the transition to parenthood are direct, while for whites a significant proportion of effects are indirect through marital status."
Correspondence: J. D. Teachman, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20291 Traore, Baba; Konate, Mamadou; Stanton, Cynthia. Demographic and Health Survey of Mali, 1987. [Enquete Demographique et de Sante au Mali, 1987.] Jan 1989. xxii, 187 pp. Institut du Sahel, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
Results are presented from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey of Mali, conducted as one in a series supported by Westinghouse's Institute for Resource Development. Following a chapter on the characteristics of the country and survey methodology, chapters are included on nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, contraception, fertility preferences, and maternal and child mortality and health. A separate part presents data concerning men on nuptiality and parity, contraception, and fertility preferences.
Correspondence: CERPOD, Institut du Sahel, BP 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20292 Tsuya, Noriko O.; Choe, Minja Kim. Achievement of one-child fertility in rural areas of Jilin Province, China. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 122-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors discuss China's state-mandated family planning programs and present data illustrating fertility trends since 1945. Particular attention is paid to recent changes in fertility rates in rural areas of Jilin Province. The authors discuss the fertility effects of the one-child campaign in Jilin and the acceptance of one-child certificates. Consideration is also given to the sex of the first child, ethnicity, and parents' educational, occupational, and economic status.
Correspondence: N. O. Tsuya, Population Institute, Nihon University, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20293 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]. Population Statistics Division (London, England). Live births in 1987. Population Trends, No. 53, Autumn 1988. 35-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article presents the latest annual statistics for live births (1987) and conceptions (1986) in England and Wales with summary results for the United Kingdom, Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland. There were 682 thousand live births in England and Wales during 1987, 3 per cent more than in 1986. The total period fertility rate (the average number of children who would be born per woman given current age-specific fertility rates) was 1.81 in 1987 compared with 1.77 in 1986. Over 23 per cent of all births in England and Wales during 1987 occurred outside marriage."
Correspondence: Population Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20294 Vaninadha Rao, K.; Balakrishnan, T. R. Age at first birth in Canada: a hazards model analysis. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 53-72 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The main aim of this paper is to throw some light on the first birth patterns in Canadian society through an indepth analysis of the covariates of age at first birth....The results indicate that ever married women with low age at marriage, premarital pregnancy, low education, not [working] and not [using] contraception before first pregnancy are the potential early starters of family." Data are from ever-married women ages 18-49 surveyed during the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: K. Vaninadha Rao, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20295 Venkatacharya, Kilambi; Teklu, Tesfay. Reverse survival methods of estimating birth rates under non-stable conditions. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 73-97 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Three methods of estimating birth rate under nonstable conditions are examined....These three methods are shown to belong to a broad system of reverse survival methods. It is also shown that they all give robust estimates and in most cases give extremely close values for birth rates." The methods are applied to data from Africa.
Correspondence: K. Venkatacharya, Regional Institute for Population Studies, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20296 Wang, Feng. The role of individuals' socioeconomic characteristics and the government family planning program in China's fertility decline. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1988. 255-76 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The roles of individual socioeconomic characteristics and of government population policy in the rapid decline in fertility that occurred in China in the 1970s are explored. "Using the 1982 Chinese 1/1,000 fertility survey data for Hebei province of China, this paper examines variation in fertility among women of two age cohorts by linking their fertility outome with their socioeconomic background and earlier reproductive experiences. In addition, this paper assesses the effect of government policy by comparing the determinants of fertility outcome between two cohorts of women and by studying the factors affecting their current contraceptive use. The findings reveal that the individual's socioeconomic background was important in explaining earlier fertility variation. Government policy, although powerful enough to override most of the effect of socioeconomic factors on fertility, was not able to eliminate differences in contraceptive behavior among Chinese women."
Correspondence: F. Wang, Graduate Group in Demography, University of California, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20297 Wineberg, Howard; McCarthy, James. Child spacing in the United States: recent trends and differentials. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 51, No. 1, Feb 1989. 213-28 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1985 U.S. Current Population Survey, this study examines trends and sociodemographic differentials in child spacing in the United States. Hypotheses are developed reflecting the possible importance of changing fertility desires and changing patterns of contraceptive use in relation to child spacing. Hypotheses are tested by both bivariate and multivariate life table methods....The general conclusions are that younger women are less likely to experience short birth intervals and that sociodemographic differentials in spacing have been reduced in the recent past."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Center for Population Research and Census, Portland State University, School of Urban and Public Affairs, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20298 Wojtun, Bronislaw S. Trends in fertility of the population of South Poland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Midsouth Journal of Economics and Finance, Vol. 12, No. 2, Summer 1988. 139-48 pp. Memphis, Tennessee. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this study is to present trends in fertility of the population of South Poland...for the time period between the end of [the] Napoleonic Wars and the outbreak of World War II....The study draws also a comparison with the neighboring countries and areas." Data are from Austrian and Polish censuses.
Correspondence: B. S. Wojtun, LeMoyne-Owen College, 807 Walker Avenue, Memphis, TN 38126. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20299 Wright, Robert E. The impact of income redistribution on fertility in Canada. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 139-56 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper speculates on the role of income redistribution as a means of raising fertility in Canada. It is argued that if the relationship between income and fertility is non-linear at the household level, then changes in the income distribution in a society have important consequences for changes in aggregate fertility. In order to test this hypothesis, a simple fertility model is estimated using micro-data collected in the 1981 Canadian Census. The relationship between income and fertility is found to be non-linear with properties that indicate that transfers of income from 'rich' to 'poor' households will likely further depress the overall level of fertility in Canada."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, Department of Economics, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20300 Zanamwe, L. The relationship between fertility and child mortality in Zimbabwe. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 3.3.35-48 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author analyzes the relationship between fertility and child mortality in Zimbabwe. The focus is on the importance of socioeconomic determinants, including education, women's status, and residence characteristics, and also the impact of proximate determinants such as family planning, contraceptive use and breast feeding.
Correspondence: L. Zanamwe, Department of Geography, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

55:20301 Feyisetan, Bamikale J.; Togunde, Oladimeji. Fertility and indices of women's status: a study of relationships in Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 229-47 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Using data derived from the Nigerian segment of the World Fertility Survey of 1981/82, an examination of the relationships between fertility and selected indices of women's status was undertaken....Our findings indicate among others that: (i) fertility is lowest among non-working women and highest among women who either had pre-nuptial and post-nuptial working experience or work for financial remuneration in non-familial enterprises; (ii) female education is significantly inversely related to fertility; (iii) mothers in monogamous unions have lower fertility than their counterparts in polygynous unions; (iv) the age difference between spouses is negatively correlated with fertility."
Correspondence: B. J. Feyisetan, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20302 Gyepi-Garbrah, Ben. Fertility and marriage in adolescents in Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 2, 1988. 5.3.1-15 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper will examine dimensions and implications of adolescent fertility and marriage in Africa. It will also include an overview of the demographic, health and socioeconomic implications of pregnancy and childbirth among adolescents. The data used were drawn from secondary sources including surveys, censuses, research and administrative publications."
Correspondence: B. Gyepi-Garbrah, Regional Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20303 Heaton, Tim B.; Lichter, Daniel T.; Amoateng, Acheampong. The timing of family formation: rural-urban differentials in first intercourse, childbirth, and marriage. Rural Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 1, Spring 1989. 1-16 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
Factors affecting rural-urban fertility differentials in the United States are examined using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Youth. "Three key family formation events are examined: first sexual intercourse, first birth, and first marriage. Using life table techniques, the timing of these events for different levels of urbanization is compared. The four levels of urbanization considered are central cities, suburbs, nonmetropolitan urban places, and rural areas. Multivariate life table regression analysis is also used to determine whether rural-urban differentials persist once other socioeconomic and demographic variables are taken into account."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Department of Sociology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20304 Hoque, M. Nazrul. Rural electrification and its impact on fertility: evidence from Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA8818077. 1988. 214 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study attempts to link several aspects of rural electrification and village-level development to fertility-related behavior, i.e., family planning practice, ideal family size, and children ever born. It argues that the effects of socioeconomic development due to electrification shift the functions of familial institutions to nonfamilial ones. The expansion of education, communication, and family planning services through electrification provides essential channels for individuals to become involved in the larger society and to experience nonfamilial roles and activities. Such shifts decrease rewards and increase costs for having a large family. Thus, rural electrification is associated with fertility decline in the context of socioeconomic development. Data from 400 electrified and 200 nonelectrified households in 25 electrified villages, and 200 households in 4 nonelectrified villages [in Bangladesh] demonstrate that there are significant differences in fertility-related behavior among rural women in electrified and nonelectrified households and villages."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Pennsylvania State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(7).

55:20305 Johnson, Nan E.; Elmi, A. M. Polygamy and fertility in Somalia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 127-34 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The 1983 Somali Family Health Survey showed that polygamy and monogamy selected women with different social characteristics. Wives in polygamous unions were prone to be younger at first marital cohabitation and to have previous marital disruptions. Since a young age at first cohabitation and number of previous marriages have opposite effects on the cumulative fertlity rate of women, the difference in this rate between wives in polygamous and monogamous unions vanished when both factors were controlled in a multivariate analysis."
Correspondence: N. E. Johnson, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20306 Kies, C. W. Family planning in rural Kwazulu: transition from traditional to contemporary practices. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1987. 16-9 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"In this paper some of the traditional practices affecting fertility will be explored briefly, as well as the role of modern contraception and the extent to which these customs are still practised. The investigation was conducted amongst the black population on the Makathini Floodplain [South Africa]." Data were collected in 1979 and 1982 and include information on premarital sex, marriage, sexual activity after first birth, lactation, abstinence, and family planning.
Correspondence: C. W. Kies, Department of Development Aid, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20307 Lee, Bun Song; Pol, Louis G. Effect of marital dissolution on fertility in Cameroon. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 293-306 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Analyzing 1978 Cameroon World Fertility Survey data and using a multivariate regression model which compares the fertility rate of women who have had at least one marital disruption with that of continuously married women, we studied the relationship between marital instability and fertility. The results show that fertility rates for women married more than once are significantly lower than those for continuously married women even before the end of their first marriage. Furthermore, marital disruption significantly reduces fertility rates after the dissolution of the first marriage. Finally, even after the length of reproductive time lost is controlled, there is an inverse relationship between the number of marriages and fertility. The results are discussed in the context of economic development, modernization, and urbanization."
Correspondence: B. S. Lee, Department of Economics, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NB 68182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20308 Linde, Hans. The socio-ecological drop in marital fertility during the process of fertility decline in Germany. [Das sozialokologische Gefalle der ehelichen Fruchtbarkeit im Prozess der Nachwuchsbeschrankung in Deutschland.] In: Demographie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: vier Jahrzehnte Statistik, Forschung und Politikberatung. Festschrift fur Karl Schwarz, edited by Charlotte Hohn, Wilfried Linke, and Rainer Mackensen. Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 18, 1988. 169-86 pp. Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Rural-urban and regional differences in marital fertility in the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed for the period 1961-1980 using the work of Karl Schwarz as a starting point. Regional differences in the timing of fertility decline are examined, the role of socioeconomic structure is discussed, and the importance of population density as a key factor in fertility differentials is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20309 Myllyluoma, Jaana L. Lifestyle and first pregnancy among Finnish adolescents. Pub. Order No. DA8819997. 1988. 228 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examined the relationship between adolescents' lifestyles and the risk of having a first pregnancy during the teenage years among five cohorts of Finnish young women during the latter 1970's. Linked registry and survey data from Finland for 2,400 young women ages 14, 16 and 18 were analyzed by survival methods to test whether or not maturity-prone behaviors were associated with an increased risk of pregnancy, and goal-oriented behaviors were associated with a decreased risk of pregnancy. Results from proportional hazards models indicated that, net of socioeconomic status, region of residence, and age at menarche, and regardless of the age at time of measurement, the hazard of first pregnancy was significantly increased by maturity-prone substance use. Using alcohol and cigarettes above the age-average was by far the most consistent predictor of having a teenage pregnancy in this sample of Finnish teens."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(7).

55:20310 Pecze, Zoltan; Pongracz, Tiborne. Socioeconomic background of adolescent pregnancies. [A serdulokori terhessegek tarsadalmi--demografiai hattere.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 67, No. 2, Feb 1989. 166-82 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Results of a sample survey on adolescent pregnancy undertaken in Hungary in 1983 are presented. A comparison is made among four subgroups, defined by different pregnancy outcomes. The focus is on the factors that influence adolescents to decide whether to interrupt or complete their pregnancy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20311 Ramachandiran, V. An attempt to measure the fertility differentials of a semi-urban community of Pondicherry, South India. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1987. 90-3 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Fertility differentials in a semi-urban area of India are examined. The data are for the period 1978-1982 and are from the Jawaharlal Institute Urban Health Centre in Pondicherry.
Correspondence: V. Ramachandiran, Jawaharlal Institute Urban Health Centre, Department of P. and S. M., Pondicherry 605 006, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20312 Rank, Mark R. Fertility among women on welfare: incidence and determinants. American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 2, Apr 1989. 296-304 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article examines the incidence and determinants of fertility among women on welfare [in the United States]. The analysis reveals that welfare recipients have a relatively low fertility rate. This rate is below that of women in the general population and is not an artifact of a more favorable demographic structure. Furthermore, the longer a woman remains on welfare, the less likely she is to give birth. The underlying mechanisms behind these findings are explored...." Data are from 1980 welfare records for Wisconsin and in-depth interviews conducted in 1986.
Correspondence: M. R. Rank, Department of Sociology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20313 Srb, Vladimir. Changes of reproduction of Czechoslovak Gypsies 1970-1980. [Zmeny v reprodukci Ceskoslovenskych Romu 1970-1980.] Demografie, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1988. 305-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The fertility of the Czechoslovakian Gypsy population is analyzed using data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses. The differential fertility rate is compared with the overall fertility rate for Czechoslovakia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20314 Stevenson, J. C.; Everson, P. M.; Crawford, M. H. Changes in completed family size and reproductive span in Anabaptist populations. Human Biology, Vol. 61, No. 1, Feb 1989. 99-115 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
Changes in fertility among selected Anabaptist sects located in the states of Kansas and Nebraska are analyzed. The study focuses on differences among the Amish, Hutterite, and Mennonite populations. Data are from studies on aging conducted in 1980 and 1981. "Completed family size has decreased significantly in all three communities since 1870. Since the early 1900's the mean age of the mother at first birth has fluctuated but the mean age of mother at the birth of the last child is decreasing significantly for the communities of Goessel and Henderson, thus effectively shortening the reproductive span. The pattern is somewhat different for Meridian, the most conservative of the three communities."
Correspondence: J. C. Stevenson, Department of Anthropology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

55:20315 Casterline, John B. Collecting data on pregnancy loss: a review of evidence from the World Fertility Survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 81-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Estimates of levels and differentials of pregnancy loss are presented for 40 developing countries participating in the World Fertility Survey (WFS) program. Judged against agreed-upon levels of spontaneous loss in human populations, WFS surveys measured from 50 to 80 percent of recognizable losses. The coverage of induced abortions appears to be much worse. Consistent with data from other sources and settings, the probability of loss is strongly correlated with maternal demographic characteristics: age, pregnancy order, pregnancy spacing, and pregnancy loss history."
Correspondence: J. B. Casterline, Department of Sociology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20316 Doenges, Catherine E.; Newman, James L. Impaired fertility in tropical Africa. Geographical Review, Vol. 79, No. 1, Jan 1989. 99-111 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Birthrates in tropical Africa are among the highest in the world, but many zones in the region have below-norm fertility. Proximate determinants are the framework used to explain the occurrence of these zones. Of greatest significance are factors that affect duration of postpartum amenorrhea, incidences of sterility and spontaneous intrauterine abortions, and frequency of intercourse."
Correspondence: C. E. Doenges, Department of Geography, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20317 Larsen, Ulla; Menken, Jane. Measuring sterility from incomplete birth histories. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 185-201 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this article, methods are presented for measuring the level and age pattern of sterility from incomplete birth histories, such as those that can be collected in demographic surveys of women who may not yet have reached the end of their reproductive span. The characteristics of the methods are examined in a simulation study that demonstrates that estimates based on information about fertility subsequent to a given age are more robust to variations in reproductive determinants, sample size, and sampling variation than the other measures, which include the frequently employed length of the open birth interval. In an illustrative analysis of World Fertility Survey data from sub-Saharan Africa, sterility was found to be high in Cameroon, intermediate in Lesotho and Sudan, and low in Ghana and Kenya relative to an English historical population."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Department of Statistics, University of Lund, S-22007 Lund 7, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20318 Poston, Dudley L.; Rogers, Richard G. Development and childlessness in the states and territories of Brazil. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 267-84 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This article provides an analytical account of the variability in and correlates of Brazil's childlessness rates. Following from the socioeconomic development model, which suggests that involuntary childlessness predominates among developing countries and voluntary childlessness among developed countries, this paper examines the extent to which levels of development are related to age-specific rates of childlessness in the states and territories of Brazil. We find both variation within the age-specific childlessness rates and important associations between measures of economic development in 1970 and the rates of childlessness in 1980. Moreover, childlessness in Brazil tends to be more voluntary than involuntary, particularly among the younger women in the more modernized subregions of the country."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, International Population Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20319 United States. Congress. House. Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families (Washington, D.C.). Alternative reproductive technologies: implications for children and families. 1987. iv, 235 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report is from a hearing before the House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families concerning alternative reproductive technologies. The primary focus is on resolving infertility problems by such means as artificial insemination and surrogate motherhood, and their implications for children, families, and societies. The witnesses are prominent researchers, attorneys, and clinicians in the field of alternative reproduction.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library.

55:20320 United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment (Washington, D.C.). Infertility: medical and social choices. Pub. Order No. 052-003-01091-7. LC 87-619894. May 1988. vii, 402 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The scientific, economic, legal, and ethical considerations involved in both conventional and novel reproductive technologies designed to resolve infertility are assessed in this report. Topics covered include data collection; the prevention of infertility; information to protect consumers; provision of access to infertility services; the reproductive health of veterans; the transfer of human eggs, sperm, and embryos; record-keeping; surrogate motherhood; and reproductive research. The primary geographical focus is on the United States, but the experience of other countries is also considered.
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402-9325. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

55:20321 Akong'a, Joshua. Functional communication model for family planning extension services in Kenya. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Vol. 18, 1988. 88-107 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
An attempt is made to identify the best communication model that could be adopted for family planning extension work in Kenya. A distinction is first made between information supply and communication, and the author stresses the need for a communication program that would both create and support the demand for family planning in Kenya. "The results of a survey carried out by the author in six districts on family planning field educators and the lay population are introduced in an attempt to understand their opinions of the source, message, channels, receivers and effect of family planning messages."
Correspondence: J. Akong'a, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20322 Back, Kurt W. Family planning and population control: the challenges of a successful movement. Social Movements Past and Present, ISBN 0-8057-9711-4. LC 88-21786. 1989. viii, 177 pp. Twayne Publishers: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the social change that has occurred in the late twentieth century whereby the issues of family planning, population control, and related subjects, formerly considered unfit for public debate, have become accepted as vital topics relevant to public policy intervention. The development of the family planning movement is first described and then contrasted with that of other social movements. The geographical focus of the work is worldwide. The author concludes that the principal aims of the family planning movement have been achieved, and that the problems it faces today are related to this success.
Correspondence: Twayne Publishers, 70 Lincoln Street, Boston, MA 02111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20323 Beets, G. C. N. Birth control in the Netherlands, 1982 and 1988. [Geboortenregeling in Nederland, 1982 en 1988.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 1989. 21-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Analysis of family planning and contraceptive use in the Netherlands for 1988 reveals that "a large share of the [female] population practices reliable methods of birth control. At young ages many girls already take the pill. As the rates of sexual intercourse by age do not differ very much from elsewhere in the western world...the Netherlands can also be characterized as a country with a very low incidence of teenage pregnancy and abortion. From the differential analysis it can be concluded that nonuse of birth control methods coincides with the absence of a male partner. Women with a partner, depending on the completeness of their family, use very reliable methods (pill, IUD, condom or sterilization)." Statistical information on the use of various methods is also presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20324 DaVanzo, Julie; Starbird, Ellen; Reboussin, David; Tan, Boon Ann; Abdullah, S. Hadi. Contraceptive method switching in Peninsular Malaysia: ethnic differences, 1940s-1970s. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jun 1988. 1-21 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"Between 1955 and 1975, the total fertility rate in Peninsular Malaysia dropped from 6.2 to 4.2. Over this period contraceptive use rates increased dramatically and the mix of methods shifted toward the most effective contraceptive methods....This paper reports on an analysis of individual women's histories of contraceptive method use, especially the types of contraceptive method changes they make over their reproductive careers." Special attention is given to ethnic differences in contraceptive acceptance, discontinuation, and method switching. Data are from 1,262 households surveyed in 1976-1977.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 410).
Correspondence: J. DaVanzo, Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20325 DuRant, Robert H.; Sanders, Joe M.; Jay, Susan; Levinson, Richard. Analysis of contraceptive behavior of sexually active female adolescents in the United States. Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 113, No. 5, Nov 1988. 930-6 pp. Saint Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
"Drawing on a theoretical model of adolescent contraceptive behavior, we examined the relationships between various social and behavioral variables and contraceptive use by sexually active female adolescents. Hypotheses were tested with the use of a national random sample of [1,426] sexually active female adolescents..., aged 15 to 20 years, from Cycle III of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. Noncompliance with the initial birth control method was the strongest predictor of the adolescents' contraceptive behavior at the time of the interview. Not acquiring birth control at the initial family planning visit and the frequency of family planning visits during the previous 12 months were the second and third best predictors of subjects' contraceptive use."
Correspondence: R. H. DuRant, Section of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-2500. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20326 Foreit, Karen G.; de Castro, Marcos P. P.; Franco, Eliane F. D. The impact of mass media advertising on a voluntary sterilization program in Brazil. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 107-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The effect of magazine advertising on vasectomy acceptance was tested in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Four advertisements ran for ten weeks in eight magazines. Clinic performance doubled during the campaign and stabilized at 54 percent higher than baseline. The advertisements selectively attracted the target audience without bringing in large numbers of ineligible candidates, completely avoided negative reactions, and recruited men previously unexposed to vasectomy. The cost of the advertising campaign was offset by additional revenue generated by the increase in vasectomies performed. The results suggest that while interpersonal communications can maintain performance in voluntary sterilization programs, mass media promotion may be necessary for program growth."
Correspondence: K. G. Foreit, University Research Corporation, 7200 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20327 Goldberg, H. I.; Lee, N. C.; Oberle, M. W.; Peterson, H. B. Knowledge about condoms and their use in less developed countries during a period of rising AIDS prevalence. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 67, No. 1, 1989. 85-91 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Worldwide data on people's knowledge about condoms and their use have not previously been studied in the context of prevention of HIV transmission. This paper presents survey data taken among women of reproductive age in the developing countries. The results show a wide range in the women's knowledge of condoms, which was poorest in sub-Saharan African countries, including those that are considered to have high HIV seroprevalence. Use of condoms was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa and very low in some other countries with a high prevalence of HIV."
Correspondence: H. I. Goldberg, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20328 Gomez de Leon, Jose; Potter, Joseph E. Modelling the inverse association between breastfeeding and contraceptive use. Population Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, Mar 1989. 69-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors develop a way of modeling the joint temporal association of the adoption of contraception and the termination of breast-feeding over the course of a birth interval using data from the 1981 Mexican Rural Survey of Family Planning concerning 8,103 women aged 15-49. The model "involves first estimating a competing-risks model in which both hazards are considered simultaneous, together with a set of relevant covariates. Conditional analyses are then carried out to estimate the hazards of each event conditional on the timing of the other. By comparing the covariates, we gauge the extent to which the occurrence of one event raises or lowers the hazard of the other. The results show that, in rural Mexico, the timing of the termination of breastfeeding and that of starting contraceptive use are closely related, and that there exists a surprisingly neat interval of 120 days in which the action takes place."
Correspondence: J. Gomez de Leon, Central Bureau of Statistics, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo-1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20329 Harvey, S. Marie; Scrimshaw, Susan C. M. Coitus-dependent contraceptives: factors associated with effective use. Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1988. 364-78 pp. Mt. Vernon, Idaho. In Eng.
Factors associated with effective contraceptive use among 69 sexually active U.S. university women aged 18-34 are explored. "Contraceptive use was analyzed by menstrual cycle phase and results indicated that frequency of use was significantly higher during the ovulatory phase as compared to the menstrual period. Additional findings using discriminant function analysis indicated that compared to risk takers, non-risk takers were more likely to initiate sexual intercourse, have more orgasms, have a non-Catholic background, be living with their partners and have been in their relationships longer. These data suggest that women in less stable relationships and with more sexual inhibitions may be more at risk of an unwanted pregnancy."
Correspondence: S. M. Harvey, Department of School and Community Health, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:20330 Hatcher, Robert A.; Kowal, Deborah; Guest, Felicia; Trussell, James; Stewart, Felicia; Stewart, Gary K.; Bowen, Sylvia; Cates, Willard. Contraceptive Technology: international edition. Special section on AIDS. ISBN 0-940549-02-6. 1989. xviii, 460, [16] pp. Printed Matter: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This international edition of a standard reference work on contraceptive technology is designed to provide contraceptive and reproductive health information for providers of family planning information and services around the world. "The book is divided into sections that explore the status of family planning in international societies, update the management of sexually transmitted diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS), describe the selection and administration of the contraceptive methods, and offer guidelines for managing family planning services. A special series of tables gives a detailed look at family planning practices in the 10 most populous nations and four representative nations from areas not already depicted by the most populous nations: Mexico, Egypt, Turkey, United Kingdom."
For the work from which this international edition was developed, see 54:20403.
Correspondence: Printed Matter, P.O. Box 15246, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20331 Herold, Joan M.; Monterroso, Eugenia; Morris, Leo; Castellanos, Gustavo; Conde, Alvaro; Spitz, Alison. Sexual experience and contraceptive use among young adults in Guatemala City. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 142-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The results of the 1986 Guatemala City Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey are presented. The survey focused on sex behavior, pregnancy, and contraceptive use among persons aged 15-24. The data indicate that both males and females had premarital intercourse at a relatively young age and that only 10 percent of females and 15 percent of males reported that they had practiced any sort of contraception at first intercourse. Data related to contraceptive use by young married persons are also presented.
Correspondence: J. M. Herold, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20332 INADES Documentation (Abidjan, Ivory Coast). Family planning in Africa: toward responsible parenthood. An annotated bibliography. [La regulation des naissances en Afrique: pour une parente responsable. Bibliographie commentee.] Mar 1987. 74 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Fre.
This is a selective bibliograpny concerning family planning in Africa. The bibliography, which is annotated, is organized by subject. The first part is concerned with factors affecting fertility, including demographic, sociological, health, moral, and religious aspects. The second part focuses on family planning, including demographic, sociological, health, moral, and religious aspects. The second part focuses on family planning, including traditional methods and modern contraception. Author and country indexes are also provided.
Correspondence: INADES Documentation, 08 BP 8, Abidjan 08, Ivory Coast. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20333 Indonesia. Biro Pusat Statistik (Jakarta, Indonesia); Indonesia. National Family Planning Coordinating Board (Jakarta, Indonesia); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, 1987. Jan 1989. xv, 137 pp. Biro Pusat Statistik: Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
Results are presented from the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, one in a series of demographic and health surveys being carried out with the support of Westinghouse's Institute for Resource Development. The report includes chapters on marriage, breast-feeding, and postpartum insusceptibility; knowledge and ever-use of family planning methods; current use of family planning methods; nonuse and intentions for use of family planning; fertility; fertility preferences; and mortality and health. Appendixes are included on survey design, estimates of sampling error, personnel involved in the survey, and survey questionnaires.
Correspondence: Biro Pusat Statistik, J1. Dr. Sutomo No. 8, P.O. Box 3, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20334 Jabbar, Fahad Al-A.; Wong, Simin S.; Al-Meshari, Abdul A. Practice and methods of contraception among Saudi women in Riyadh. Family Practice, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1988. 126-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study 2,675 Saudi women attending a gynaecology out-patient clinic were interviewed about their contraceptive practices. The majority of the women (56.0%) were using or had used some form of contraceptive. Oral contraceptives were the most common method; 94.8% of the 1,497 women who practised contraception were using or had used this form of contraception. Sterilization accounted for 0.9% of contraceptive practices, while the intrauterine device was a more common form of contraceptive among the more educated women."
Correspondence: F. Al-A. Jabbar, Department of Community Medicine, College of Allied Health Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20335 Kirby, Douglas; Harvey, Philip D.; Claussenius, David; Novar, Marty. A direct mailing to teenage males about condom use: its impact on knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 12-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the results of a 1987 test mailing to males aged 16-17 years in the United States containing information on condom use and a coupon for free condoms by mail. Special consideration is given to the potential impact of mass direct mailings on contraceptive use and on attitudes about sexual behavior. They find that the recipients of the mailing were significantly more knowledgeable about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, and contraception.
Correspondence: D. Kirby, ETR Associates, Santa Cruz, CA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20336 Kjersgaard, Anne G.; Thranov, Ingrid; Rasmussen, Ole V.; Hertz, Jens. Male or female sterilization: a comparative study. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 51, No. 3, Mar 1989. 439-43 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
"The study compares 709 males and 546 females recruited from recruited from a well-defined geographic area [in Denmark] and sterilized during a 5-year period at the same hospital. Medical records were reviewed and questionnaires sent out. Widespread satisfaction with the sterilization was found. The sterilized women had experienced contraceptive side effects and failures more often than the men. Only 70% of the laparoscopic sterilizations could be carried out during a 1-day admission, 25% of the women complained about long-term sequelae, and there were 1% failures. The vasectomies were carried out on an outpatient basis, there were few postoperative symptoms, and 0.5% failures were recorded. Female sterilization was at least four times as expensive as vasectomy. It is concluded that vasectomy is generally to be preferred to female sterilization, and that the preoperative guidance should involve both man and wife."
Correspondence: A. G. Kjersgaard, Byledet 12, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20337 Lassner, K. J.; Chen, C. H. C.; Oberle, M. W.; da Trindade, T. C. S. M.; Aguinaga, H. Analysis of sterilization failure in Brazil. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 27, No. 2, Oct 1988. 255-63 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"A study of 13,423 female sterilization procedures performed from 1981 to 1984 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was conducted to determine the level of sterilization failure. The lifetable cumulative failure rate was 0.54 at 12 months per 100 initial sterilizations, increasing to 1.04 at 48 months. Results of a multivariate analysis indicated that the differential in the rate of sterilization failure by woman's age at sterilization at 12 and 24 months was statistically highly significant. However, the differential rate of failure by the other variables such as whether sterilized during a training period, number of sterilizations per surgeon per day, and year of sterilization were not statistically significant."
Correspondence: C. H. C. Chen, Room 4057, Building 1, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20338 Lodewijckx, E.; Cliquet, R. L.; Geeraert, A.; Impens, K. K.; Thiery, M. Family planning in Flanders. Results of the Fourth Survey on Family Development (NEGO IV, 1982-83). [Gezinsplanning in Vlaanderen. Resultaten van de vierde C.B.G.S.-survey over gezinsontwikkeling (NEGO IV, 1982-1983).] CBGS Monografie, No. 1988/3, [1989]. 171 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Results are presented from the Fourth Survey on Family Development, conducted in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium in 1982-1983. The survey methods and organization are first described. Contraceptive methods chosen and changes over time are reported next. The third chapter deals with sexual behavior and contraception among adolescents. Other chapters cover reasons for nonuse of contraception among adults, the contraceptive revolution that has occurred since the 1960s, contraceptive effectiveness, the links between fertility planning and actual fertility, factors affecting choice of contraceptive method, and attitudes toward contraception. A final chapter summarizes the results and draws policy conclusions.
Correspondence: CBGS, Nijverheidsstraat 37, 7de verdieping, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20339 Lodewijckx, Edith. Contraceptive sterilization in Flanders. A situation report for the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. [Anticonceptieve sterilisatie in Vlaanderen. Een situatieschets voor de jaren zeventig, tachtig en negentig.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1988. 79-96 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in contraceptive sterilization in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, are analyzed. "Despite the sharp increase of this contraceptive method since the end of the seventies, the use frequency is still lower than in many neighbouring countries and particularly much lower than in the U.S. and Canada. The major difference concerns Flanders' arrears in male sterilization." The paper also examines the timing of sterilization and some determinants of choice of sterilization method.
Correspondence: E. Lodewijckx, Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Departement Biologie, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610-Antwerp, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20340 Morris, Leo; Nunez, Leopoldo; Monroy de Velasco, Anameli; Bailey, Patricia; Cardenas, Carmen; Whatley, Anne. Sexual experience and contraceptive use among young adults in Mexico City. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 147-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The results of the 1985 Mexico City Household Survey of Young Adult Reproductive Health are presented. This survey focused on sex behavior, contraceptive use, and fertility among persons 15-24 years of age. Levels of knowledge of reproduction and contraception are also examined.
Correspondence: L. Morris, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20341 Morris, Leo. Young adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: their sexual experience and contraceptive use. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 153-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This is a comparative study of data from four Young Adult Reproductive Health Surveys and from four other national surveys taken in eight Latin American and Caribbean countries. The emphasis of each survey is on pregnancy, childbearing, sex behavior, fertility, contraceptive use, and sex education for persons aged 15-24.
Correspondence: L. Morris, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20342 Netter, A.; Rozenbaum, H. An illustrated history of contraception from antiquity to the present. [Histoire illustree de la contraception de l'Antiquite a nos jours.] ISBN 2-85128-061-9. 1985. 491 pp. Les Editions Roger Dacosta: Paris, France. In Fre.
This work, which is in two parts, is an illustrated history of both contraception and awareness of the reproductive process. The first part describes the development of human knowledge about reproduction and conception. The second part outlines the various methods of contraception that have been used over the course of history.
Correspondence: Les Editions Roger Dacosta, 19 boulevard Raspail, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:20343 Neumann, Alfred K.; Chang, Wen-Pin. Paying for family planning in China. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1988. 119-30 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The authors present information about China's family planning programme from a family and county level administrator perspective, drawing extensively on unpublished recent information to provide insights into costs and methods of financing. A case history illustrates various family planning options available as well as the payment mechanisms for programme incentives." The study shows the substantial investment made to the family planning program. "Factors of political will, comprehensive administrative support, effective organization, an all encompassing motivational programme and extensive service delivery covering the entire country together with generous decentralized financing are presented as important to programme success. Implications for transfer to other countries and the associated costs of doing so are discussed."
Correspondence: A. K. Neumann, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20344 Piotrow, Phyllis T.; Rimon, Jose G. New directions in family planning communication: 12 predictions for the 1990s. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1988. 17-32 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article describes why Governments in Asia should give more attention to information, education and communication in their family planning programmes. It also points out the new directions that family planning communication in Asia needs to take to become more effective in the next decade. In general, it predicts that in the 1990s, policy makers and programme administrators, equipped with the latest in modern communication technologies, will turn increasingly to well-designed communication campaigns to achieve success in their programmes."
Correspondence: P. T. Piotrow, Center for Communication Programs, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20345 Radecki, Stephen E.; Bernstein, Gerald S. Use of clinic versus private family planning care by low-income women: access, cost, and patient satisfaction. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 79, No. 6, Jun 1989. 692-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Use of private physicians versus public family planning facilities by poverty level and near poverty level women was examined by means of a sample survey conducted in low-income areas of Los Angeles County. Utilization differed by race/ethnicity, with Hispanics more likely to go to federally subsidized family planning clinics (primarily county-run), Whites and Blacks to private physicians. Private family planning offers easier access, greater convenience, and higher satisfaction, albeit at almost double the cost. Clinic usage is influenced by lack of a regular source of medical care and lack of insurance coverage more than poverty level per se. Clinic patients report greater patient education regarding contraceptive methods, but less general medical care during clinic visits. They are more likely than private patients to express a desire for a different source of family planning care."
Correspondence: S. E. Radecki, Department of Family Medicine, University of Southern California, 1420 San Pablo Street, Room B-207, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20346 Rushwan, Hamid. Maternal and child health and family planning services in the Sudan. Ahfad Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1987. 5-11 pp. Omdurman, Sudan. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"This paper presents selected demographic and economic characteristics of Sudan relevant to maternal and child health and family planning services. In the light of these the paper describes and assesses current programs in Sudan." The focus is on the problems that must be resolved in order for such services to improve.
Correspondence: H. Rushwan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20347 Social Development Center (Chicago, Illinois). Family planning: needs and costs. Projections, 1985-2000. 15 countries. [Planificacion familiar: necesidades y costos. Proyeccion 1985-2000. 15 paises.] [1986]. [260] pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng; Fre; Spa.
This is a series of separate reports describing the future needs and costs of family planning from 1985 to 2000 for 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, as prepared by the Social Development Center. The countries are Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and the Dominican Republic. The reports are in English, Spanish, or French, as appropriate to the country being considered.
Correspondence: Social Development Center, 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20348 Srivastava, J. N. Determinants of family planning acceptance in India and Uttar Pradesh. Population Research Centre Series C: Analytical Report, No. 34, Jan 1987. iii, 91 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
The author examines factors influencing family planning program acceptance in Uttar Pradesh, India, as well as in India as a whole, through analysis of "four types of development variables--socio-demographic, economic, health-infrastructural and general infrastructural development." Determinants considered are literacy, infant mortality rates, daily newspaper circulation rates, income, poverty ratios, development of medical facilities, transport, and electrification. Data are from official Indian sources.
Correspondence: Population Research Centre, Department of Economics, Lucknow University, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20349 Warren, Charles W.; Powell, Dorian; Morris, Leo; Jackson, Jean; Hamilton, Pansy. Fertility and family planning among young adults in Jamaica. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1988. 137-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The results of the 1987 Jamaica Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey are presented. This survey focused on reproductive behavior, fertility, and contraceptive use among persons aged 14-24. Despite substantial declines in fertility among young Jamaican women since 1975, the findings indicate a need for improved sex education since a significant number of females become pregnant while enrolled in school.
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

55:20350 Bhattacharya, M.; Joshi, P. L.; Raj, B.; Dwevedi, S. A prospective study of laparoscopic acceptors in a rural area of Allahabad. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 10, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 186-95 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"A total of 1,173 women who underwent laparoscopic sterilizations in...Allahabad district [India] between 1982 and 1983 were studied from the day of the operation and then followed up quarterly for a period of one year. Information on their socio-demographic set up, contraceptive behaviour, pre to post operative health status and subsequent morbidity pattern was recorded. Conclusions reached were that laparoscopic sterilization was popular in the rural areas and younger women were adopting the measure; however, the average parity continued to be between three and five. Contraceptive acceptance prior to sterilizations was very low."
Correspondence: M. Bhattacharya, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Allahabad, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad 211 002, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20351 Deer, Brian. The bogus work of Professor Briggs. International Review of Natural Family Planning, Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring 1988. 16-28 pp. Steubenville, Ohio. In Eng.
A series of three investigative reports, which originally appeared in The Sunday Times of London in 1986, are reprinted here. They concern the work of Professor Michael Briggs, who is accused of falsifying research on oral contraceptives.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20352 Fasoli, Monica; Parazzini, Fabio; Cecchetti, Gabriela; La Vecchia, Carlo. Post-coital contraception: an overview of published studies. Contraception, Vol. 39, No. 4, Apr 1989. 459-68 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Information from published studies testing the effect of hormonal and mechanical interceptive methods in post-coital contraception was pooled with the aim of assessing the efficacy of various regimens." The review "suggests that IUD and high-dose ethinylestradiol are more efficacious forms of post-coital contraception than danazol or combined contraceptives."
Correspondence: M. Fasoli, Istituto Mario Negri, via Eritrea 62, 20157 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20353 Mishell, Daniel R. Contraception. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 320, No. 12, Mar 23, 1989. 777-87 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Current contraceptive practice in the United States is examined using data from published sources. The emphasis is on the effectiveness and side effects of the various methods in common use.
Correspondence: D. R. Mishell, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Women's Hospital, 1240 N. Mission Road, Los Angeles, CA 90033. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

55:20354 Barnum, Howard. Interaction of infant mortality and fertility and the effectiveness of health and family planning programs. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 65, LC 88-185153. Jul 1988. 36 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the implications of the interaction of mortality and fertility for the effectiveness of health and family planning programs. Lower infant and child mortality can lead to lower fertility rates through a reduced need for replacement births to achieve a given target family size. Conversely, lower fertility rates can lead to reduced infant mortality as longer birth intervals provide improved quality births, better child care and reduced competition for household time and resources. Taken together, these two effects, that of fertility on mortality and that of mortality on fertility, interact to determine simultaneous mutually consistent levels of fertility and mortality." The need to take into account both the direct and indirect impact of health and family planning programs on mortality and fertility is noted. The focus is on developing countries, with particular reference to Indonesia.
Correspondence: Population and Human Resources Department, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20355 Bhate, Vaijayanti; Srikantan, K. Sivaswamy. Family planning behaviour in Maharashtra. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1987. 82-106 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
Trends in family planning behavior in the state of Maharashtra, India, are reviewed. Comparisons are made between estimates of contraceptive prevalence emanating from official government sources and estimates based on a series of surveys undertaken by the Population Research Centre at the Gokhale Institute, Pune. The authors suggest that some program data may be distorted by the need to meet program targets. They also conclude that although sterilization is the contraceptive method of choice, the goal of the government to lower the net reproduction rate to one by the year 1991 in Maharashtra is unlikely to be achieved, given current family size norms and most families' desire for two sons.
Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20356 Bhate, Vaijayanti; Srikantan, K. Sivaswamy. Family welfare and MCH programme: rural Nasik district 1984-85. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1987. 1-81 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
This is a report on an evaluation survey of the family welfare and maternal and child health program conducted in the rural district of Nasik, Maharashtra, India, in 1984-1985. It is the last but one in a planned series of evaluation surveys to be carried out by the Population Research Centre at the Gokhale Institute, Pune, and covered just under 2,000 households. The survey objectives and methodology are first described. Sections are included on contraceptive prevalence, motivation and satisfaction levels among acceptors, comparisons with non-acceptors, the impact of family planning on fertility, and maternal and child health care. The authors conclude that the desire of most families for two sons, the absence of birth spacing, and a lack of health consciousness make a significant decline in fertility from its present level of about 32 per 1,000 unlikely.
Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20357 El Tom, Abdul R.; Farah, Abdul A.; Lauro, Donald; Fenn, Thomas. Community and individual acceptance: family planning services in the Sudan. Ahfad Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1987. 12-30 pp. Omdurman, Sudan. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Results are presented from a family health project conducted in the Sudan to test the hypothesis that midwives could be successfully trained to provide maternal and child health and contraceptive services for birth spacing. The project involved training 100 midwives serving an area 140 kilometers up the Nile from Khartoum containing some 92,000 people. Data are from surveys carried out at the beginning and after completion of the project. The results indicate that contraceptive use increased over the course of the project, and that training midwives is an effective way to promote contraceptive use in such a community.
Correspondence: A. R. El Tom, Department of Community Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:20358 Entwisle, Barbara; Piccinino, Linda J.; Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Components of family planning in rural Egypt. CDC Working Paper, No. 15, 1988. 50 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors "develop a systematic approach to the conceptualization and analysis of family planning [program] components at the community level, with specific reference to villages in rural Egypt....Using data from the [1982 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey and Rural Fertility Survey]..., we first develop a picture of the program as it operates at the local level....We identify family planning components in the second section, and examine the degree to which delivery of family planning and health services is differentiated at the village level, the distribution of family planning facilities and personnel, and the role of extension workers and outreach activities in relation to other program elements. In the third section, we provide an illustrative analysis of the implications of local family planning efforts for one program outcome, distribution of contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20359 Kim, Joung-Im. Rethinking population communication. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1988. 3-16 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the current renewal of interest in population communication and discusses some major problems in this regard. For simplicity, the term 'population communication'...encompasses all aspects ranging from 'information, education, and communication' (IEC) activities to population information centre and clearing-house services...." The geographical scope is worldwide. The author concludes that there is a "need to move from a fragmentary approach to a holistic approach in developing a communication system for national population programmes."
Correspondence: J.-I. Kim, Department of Communication, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2500 Campus Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20360 Levey, Linda M.; Nyman, John A.; Haugaard, John. A benefit-cost analysis of family planning services in Iowa. Evaluation and the Health Professions, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1988. 403-24 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
Methods for the analysis of publicly funded family planning services are developed using data for Iowa. The adjusted savings were accrued over one- and five-year time frames and for various age groups. The cost of providing such services to more than 56,000 women was calculated to be 59 U.S. dollars per user. The savings, concerning AFDC, food stamps, and Medicaid payments, were shown to be greatest for teenagers provided with family planning services.
Correspondence: L. M. Levey, Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:20361 Mantra, Ida B.; Sunarti. The demographic transition in Indonesia, 1971, 1980, and 1985. [Transisi demografi di Indonesia tahun 1971, 1980 dan 1985.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 15, No. 30, Dec 1988. iv-v, 69-82 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The progress of demographic transition in Indonesia since 1970 is reviewed. The authors describe the government's efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality through health, family planning, and nutrition programs, and particularly through a series of national development plans starting with REPELITA 1 in 1970. However, they note that only eight provinces have achieved significant levels of demographic transition, and they are all located in Java or Bali. The need for greater efforts in the rest of the country is stressed.
Correspondence: I. B. Mantra, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20362 Molyneaux, John W.; Alimoeso, Sudibyo; Lerman, Charles; Moeljodihardjo, Soetedjo. Program impacts on contraceptive distribution and method mix in the Indonesian family planning program: causal modeling with pooled cross-sectional and time series data from East Java. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 15, No. 30, Dec 1988. iii-iv, 37-67 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
Activities undertaken as part of the Indonesian national family planning program and their impact on contraceptive use and choice of method are analyzed using data from East Java for the period 1983-1985. The effect of both fixed and mobile clinics is assessed. The results indicate a highly significant immediate impact of inputs of both kinds on contraceptive distribution and use. Residual impacts over time are smaller, although they are generally positive and occasionally significant.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20363 Muangman, Debhanom; Porapakkham, Yawarat. Impact study of Thailand's National Family Planning Programme on fertility decline in the first half of the Fifth National Socio-Economic Development Plan (1982-1986). Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1987. 25-33 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
Results are presented of an evaluation of the National Family Planning Programme (NFPP) of Thailand conducted by a joint Thai-U.S. team in 1988. "It was found that the continuing fertility decline, from a crude birth rate of 26.9 per 1,000 in 1981 to 21 per 1,000 in 1984, was attributable to increased contraceptive prevalence, which was largely a result of the NFPP. This has affected the population growth rate, which has declined from 1.8% to an estimated 1.6% over the 1981 to 1984 period." Consideration is given to the problems posed by a forecasted 30 percent increase in the number of currently married women aged 15-44 by 1991.
Correspondence: D. Muangman, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 2 Prannock Road, Bangkok 10700, Thailand. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20364 Rajan, S. Irudaya. Family planning programme in India: an economic evaluation. Indian Economic Journal, Vol. 34, No. 4, Apr-Jun 1987. 79-86 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author evaluates the cost-effectiveness of India's national family planning program.
Correspondence: S. I. Rajan, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

55:20365 Sun, T. H. Promotion of a family planning program: the Taiwan model. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1987. 32-42 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
The author examines Taiwan's 25-year-old family planning program as an example of a successful effort to reduce a population's net reproduction rate to replacement level. Although Taiwan has experienced rapid social and economic development during this demographic transition period, it is argued "that the strong family planning program in Taiwan has greatly accelerated the process of fertility decline." The author describes how the program has encouraged fertility control, provided education about the benefits of reduced reproduction, and made available safe, effective, low-cost contraceptive methods. Also discussed are the family planning centers; personnel, including instructors and administrators; methods of field reporting; and program evaluation and effectiveness.
Correspondence: T. H. Sun, Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning, Taichung, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20366 Suyono, Haryono. The strategies, experiences and future challenges of the information component in the Indonesian family planning programme. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1988. 33-44 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article traces the history of the family planning programme in Indonesia from the time when it was seen as part of the Government's efforts to improve maternal and child health care services to the time when it had developed its own well-accepted identity through a multiplicity of services, each aimed at reaching different audiences. It discusses the strategy of the information, education and communication campaign and its further development as part of a sophisticated social marketing programme."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20367 Zabin, Laurie S.; Hirsch, Marilyn B. Evaluation of pregnancy prevention programs in the school context. ISBN 0-669-15844-5. LC 86-46359. 1988. viii, 168 pp. Lexington Books: Lexington, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the evaluation of a school-based program developed in Baltimore, Maryland, designed to reduce levels of adolescent pregnancy. Aspects considered include processes of school-based evaluation, problems of data collection, and the technical and methodological problems involved in data analysis, as well as the actual impact on adolescent pregnancy. The program provided contraceptive and sex education, individual and group counseling, and medical and contraceptive services over a three-year period. The authors suggest that such programs can be effective in reducing adolescent pregnancy if they address a wide range of reproductive health issues.
Correspondence: Lexington Books, 125 Spring Street, Lexington, MA 02173. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

55:20368 Chowdhury, A. I.; Phillips, James F. Predicting contraceptive use in Bangladesh: a logistic regression analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 161-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Data from the Family Planning Health Services Project conducted in Matlab Thana, Bangladesh, for the three-year period 1977-1979 are used to test a procedure for measuring motivation to practice family planning. Several characteristics are incorporated into a regression model that takes into account the complexity of family planning motivation in order to test whether cross-sectional survey responses reliably predict subsequent contraceptive behavior. The results show that multifaceted studies of preferences, attitudes, and beliefs can provide useful data for predicting contraceptive use and its correlates.
Correspondence: A. I. Chowdhury, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20369 Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Marlena. Birth control in the early stage of marriage. [Regulacja urodzen w poczatkowym okresie malzenstwa.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 9, Sep 1988. 34-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Results are presented from a 1985 survey containing questions on family planning conducted among 13,392 newly married couples in Poland during the period from two to six months following marriage. The opinions of husbands and wives concerning various methods of contraception are analyzed.
Correspondence: M. Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Departament Spisow i Badan Demograficznych, Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00 925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20370 Saksena, D. N.; Rastogi, S. R. Reach and effectiveness of media popularising family planning programme: a study conducted in Uttar Pradesh. Population Research Centre Series B: Survey Report, No. 31, Jan 1987. 35 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
The role of information, education, and communication (IEC) in family planning acceptance in India is examined. The effects of interpersonal and mass media communication on married couples' attitudes toward contraceptive use and family planning methods are studied. Socioeconomic and educational status, demographic characteristics, and attitudes of the couples surveyed are also analyzed as variables affecting acceptance of family planning information. Data are from surveys conducted during 1980-1981 of 2,000 currently married males and females in rural and urban areas of Uttar Pradesh.
Correspondence: Population Research Centre, Department of Economics, Lucknow University, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20371 Srivastava, J. N.; Saksena, D. N. Hindu-Muslim differentials in family size ideals and contraceptive attitudes and practice in rural Uttar Pradesh. Population Research Centre Series B: Survey Report, No. 32, Jan 1988. iii, 64 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
The authors investigate differences in ideal family size, attitude toward family planning, and practice of contraceptive methods between Hindus and Muslims living in rural Uttar Pradesh, India. "Hindu-Muslim differences have been analysed after classifying the respondents of the two communities in homogeneous groups in terms of their demographic and socio-economic status." Data were collected during the years 1984 and 1985 from 1,256 Hindu and Muslim women of reproductive age.
Correspondence: Population Research Centre, Department of Economics, Lucknow University, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

55:20372 Agarwal, S. K.; Gokaran, A. G.; Urmil, A. C.; Dutta, M.; Dutta, P. K. A study of some factors associated with decision making among MTP acceptors. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 10, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 196-206 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"This study analyses the various factors associated with decision making for undergoing medical termination of pregnancy (MTP). The study was carried out among 88 women who had either undergone MTP or decided to undergo the procedure at Pune [India] in two hospitals between April and September 1984. Associated factors like age of the acceptors, their social, marital and literacy status, number of living children and reasons for delay in decision making have been discussed."
Correspondence: S. K. Agarwal, Officer Commanding, Station Health Organisation, Ambala Cantt, Haryana, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20373 Amin, Ruhul; Kamal, G. M.; Begum, S. Firoza; Kamal, Haidary. Menstrual regulation training and service programs in Bangladesh: results from a national survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 102-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using nationally representative sample survey data collected in 1986, this study evaluates the training and service programs for menstrual regulation (MR), and estimates the number of MR procedures performed during 1986, in Bangladesh. The results show that most of the MR providers, who received either formal or informal training, were physicians and family welfare visitors (paramedics) employed by the government. They were trained in various aspects of MR performance, including contraindications and complications associated with MR, the techniques of MR performance and follow-up procedures, and maintenance and sterilization of MR equipment....A total of 241,442 MR cases were estimated to have been performed between August 1985 and July 1986."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Institute for Urban Research, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD 21239. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20374 Ferrand, Michele; Jaspard, Maryse. The voluntary interruption of pregnancy. [L'interruption volontaire de grossesse.] Que Sais-Je?, No. 2382, ISBN 2-13-040289-5. 1987. 125 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in induced abortion in France are reviewed. The period from the adoption of anti-contraceptive laws in 1920 to the law liberalizing abortion adopted in 1975 is first outlined. The authors next describe the Veil law of 1975 and its implementation. Statistical data on induced abortions are presented, and sources of data are described. The authors also examine the social dimensions of abortion, including its relationship to contraception and illegal abortion. In a final chapter, they examine the relationship between abortion and fertility.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20375 Gold, Rachel B.; Lehrman, Dorothy. Fetal research under fire: the influence of abortion politics. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 6-11, 38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the medical advances resulting from human fetal research and the impact of this research on the abortion debate in the United States. Particular attention is paid to the role of the U.S. government as a funder of fetal research through the National Institutes of Health. A chronology of judicial, legislative, and administrative acts in this area is presented.
Correspondence: R. B. Gold, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20376 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Van Vort, Jennifer. Teenage abortion, birth and pregnancy statistics: an update. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 85-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research note presents national and state-level statistics on numbers of teenage pregnancies and on pregnancy outcomes for 1985, the most recent year for which the information is available. The information on births comes from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), which compiles data from state vital registration systems (birth certificates). The abortion data are based on a survey conducted in 1986 by The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) of all known abortion providers in the country; the survey produced counts of the number of abortions performed nationally and in each state in 1985."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20377 Holzer, Jerzy Z.; Roszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Wroblewska, Wiktoria. The influence of religion on induced abortions in Poland--results of surveys. [Wplyw religii na przerywanie ciazy w Polsce--wyniki badan.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/92, 1988. 35-57 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
During the period 1972-1984, Polish women were surveyed about the impact of their religious beliefs on their decisions about having an abortion. Results indicate that 50 percent of women consider religious beliefs when making a decision. Higher educational level, longer marriage duration, and urban residence were found to be positively correlated with the acceptance of a woman's right to an induced abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20378 International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Europe Region (London, England). Special feature: abortion. Planned Parenthood in Europe/Planning Familial en Europe/Familienplanung in Europa, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1989. 32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the first issue of the IPPF Europe Region's journal, Planned Parenthood in Europe. This issue is devoted to induced abortion and includes short articles on the legal status of abortion in selected countries, as well as other abortion-related topics. A supplement outlining current abortion laws in individual European countries is included.
Correspondence: IPPF, Europe Region, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20379 Kochanek, Kenneth D. Induced terminations of pregnancy: reporting states, 1985 and 1986. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 37, No. 12, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 82-1120. Apr 28, 1989. 32 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
The situation concerning induced abortion in the United States in 1985 and 1986 is described. Data are from 13 states reporting such data. The total number of abortions reported was 298,719 in 1986, compared with 305,938 in 1985, and 306,792 in 1984. Consideration is given to differences in abortion rates by age and race, marital status, educational status, pregnancy history, type of procedure, and residence characteristics.
For a previous report concerning 1984, see 53:30394.
Correspondence: NCHS, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20380 Munday, Diane; Francome, Colin; Savage, Wendy. Twenty one years of legal abortion. British Medical Journal, Vol. 298, No. 6682, May 6, 1989. 1,231-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The effects of the 1967 Abortion Act, which liberalized the abortion laws in the United Kingdom, excluding Northern Ireland, are assessed. Data are presented on the numbers of abortions for each year from 1969 to 1988 for England, Wales, and Scotland. Other topics considered are the impact of the law reform on illegal abortions and maternal mortality, regional variations in abortion services, gestation and methods, public and medical opinion, and travel from other countries for abortion.
Correspondence: W. Savage, Academic Department of General Practice and Primary Care, St. Bartholomew's and The London Hospitals Medical Colleges, London EC1, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:20381 Sceats, Janet. Trends and differentials in abortion, 1976-1986. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1988. 4-18 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of trends and differentials in induced abortion in New Zealand between 1976 and 1986. Using abortion notification data, she discusses abortion rates in relation to age-related changes in fertility levels and compares abortion trends among various ethnic groups in New Zealand.
Correspondence: J. Sceats, Epidemiology Unit, Waikato Hospital, Private Bag, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20382 Skjeldestad, Finn E. Induced abortions and births. Changes in maternal age and parity in six counties, Norway, 1972-1981. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1988. 115-9 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Changes in induced abortion in Norway between 1972 and 1981 are reviewed using official data from the Chief Health Officers of six counties. Particular attention is paid to the demographic effect of changes in abortion law, making the procedure more easily available, that were adopted in 1976 and 1979. "While nulliparous women showed a continuous increase in the abortion ratio throughout the study period, the abortion ratio for parous women has been relatively stable since 1975. Through the use of induced abortion nulliparous mothers postpone the birth of their first child. Therefore induced abortion contributes to an increasing maternal age at first child birth. The present study can support the hypothesis that multiparous women, among other means, have used induced abortion to establish the 2-child family norm during the 1970s."
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, Kvinneklinikken, Regionsykehuset, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20383 Slonim-Nevo, Vered. Abortions among Israeli women after interruption in contraceptive use. Health and Social Work, Vol. 13, No. 2, Spring 1988. 137-44 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in Israel following interruption of contraceptive use are analyzed using data from two Jerusalem hospitals for 72 women who underwent abortions in 1981. The results show that most of the women had used effective, modern contraception in the past but that they had stopped using contraception because of adverse side effects or instability in partner relationships.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20384 Tatalovich, Raymond; Daynes, Byron W. The geographic distribution of U.S. hospitals with abortion facilities. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 81-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We propose to examine the availability of abortion facilities by means of an index based on the presence of obstetric facilities, which is taken as a measure of a hospital's capability to perform abortions....Data were collected from the 1986 AHA [American Hospital Association] Guide, which lists every registered and nonregistered hospital in the United States and 'associated areas,'...." Results indicate "35 percent of the 3,752 hospitals with the capability of doing abortions are providing that service: Six percent do abortions but not obstetrics, while nearly five times as many (29 percent) offer both abortions and obstetric care. The other 65 percent have obstetric facilities but offer no abortion services."
Correspondence: R. Tatalovich, Department of Political Science, Loyola University, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20385 Unuigbe, J. A.; Oronsaye, A. U.; Orhue, A. A. E. Abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Benin City, Nigeria: 1973-1985. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jun 1988. 435-9 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
A review of maternal deaths occurring over a 13-year period at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Nigeria showed that abortion, primarily induced abortion, was a major cause of death. "The usual victim is the teenage, inexperienced school girl who has no ready access to contraceptive practice. Death was mainly due to sepsis (including tetanus), hemorrhage and trauma to vital organs, complications directly attributable to faulty techniques by unskilled abortion providers, a by-product of the present restrictive abortion laws."
Correspondence: J. A. Unuigbe, P.O. Box 10112, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20386 Vasilev, D. Thirty years of legal induced abortion in Bulgaria: conclusions and problems. [Trideset godini legalno izkustveno prekasvane na bremennostta v Balgariya: izvodi i problemi.] Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1988. 1-10 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in Bulgaria over the 30-year period since its legalization are reviewed. It is shown that over three million abortions were performed during this period and that Bulgaria continues to have one of the highest rates of legal abortion in the world. The primary method of birth control is induced abortion; over half of all pregnancies occurring are terminated in this way. The need to substitute contraception for abortion as a family planning method is stressed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20387 Viel, Benjamin. The risks of unwanted pregnancy: a Latin American perspective. IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1989. 1-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses induced abortion, asserting that it is the most important risk associated with unwanted pregnancy in Latin America. Comparison is made between Cuba, where abortion is legal, and Chile, where it is illegal. The impact of socioeconomic factors, the Catholic church, governmental policies, and family planning programs on the availability of abortion is described. The negative health effects of illegal abortion and unwanted births are also reviewed.
Correspondence: B. Viel, Chilean Academy of Medicine, Clasificador 1349, Correo Central, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

55:20388 Al-Bustan, Mahmoud; Kohli, B. R. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing breast-feeding among Kuwaiti women. Genus, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1988. 265-78 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
Socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing breast-feeding among Kuwaiti women are examined using data collected from 1,553 married women during 1985. "The survey results show that Kuwaiti population is similar to other populations in the Middle East in having moderate incidence and duration of breast-feeding. The findings of a strong positive association between duration of breast-feeding and parity of the infant, and age of the mother at the time of birth of the child were observed which was expected. Further negative association between breast-feeding and family income, education of the mother and age of mother at marriage was confirmed by the data. Survey findings also support the general expectation that housewives have higher incidence and duration of breast-feeding relative to working mothers."
Correspondence: M. Al-Bustan, Department of Community Medicine and Behavioral Sciences, Kuwait University, P.O.B. 5969, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20389 Excler, J. L.; Charron, S.; Faila-Bahati, C. Breast-feeding and birth spacing in Burundi: an approach. [Allaitement au sein et espacement des naissances au Burundi: une approche.] Medecine Tropicale, Vol. 48, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1988. 117-22 pp. Marseilles, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationships among breast-feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and birth intervals are studied using data from the period 1986-1987 for 247 mothers in Burundi from both rural and urban areas. The focus of the study is on breast-feeding practices in traditional rural areas and transitional urban areas and how they affect postpartum amenorrhea and birth spacing.
Correspondence: J. L. Excler, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kamenge, BP 1020, Bujumbura, Burundi. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

55:20390 Jones, Robert E. A biobehavioral model for breastfeeding effects on return to menses postpartum in Javanese women. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1988. 307-23 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of nursing behavior on the duration of lactation amenorrhea in 382 rural Indonesian women who experienced resumption of menses while breastfeeding or were breastfeeding and amenorrheic at the end of a two-year prospective study. Three primary breastfeeding variables (number of night-time nursing bouts, number of day-time nursing bouts, and minutes per bout) were used to develop a behavioral model for breastfeeding....The relationships among the breastfeeding variables in the behavioral model and return to menses were developed and tested by life table and proportional hazards models. Ten per cent of the high intensity breastfeeding group (6 women) delayed menses between 33 and 52 weeks, while 90 per cent (56 women) postponed return of menses for over one year."
Correspondence: R. E. Jones, Center for Demography, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20391 van de Walle, Etienne; van de Walle, Francine. Postpartum sexual abstinence in tropical Africa. African Demography Working Paper, No. 17, Jan 1989. 19 pp. University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Postpartum sexual abstinence in Sub-Saharan Africa is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the relationships between sexual abstinence and birth spacing. The complexity of the relationships among breast-feeding, sexual abstinence, and postpartum amenorrhea in different African cultures is noted.
Correspondence: The Librarian, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20392 Vitzthum, V. J. Nursing behaviour and its relation to duration of post-partum amenorrhoea in an Andean community. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 145-60 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Factors affecting breast-feeding behavior in the Peruvian mountain community of Nunoa are analyzed using data on 30 women collected in 1985, with particular reference to the duration of post-partum amenorrhea. The results indicate that "wealthier women wean their children earlier, supplement their infants' diets sooner, and feed higher quality foods; this translates into a risk of menses at 12 months post-partum nearly seven times greater than that of poorer women. The on-demand prolonged breast-feeding typical among mother-infant pairs of low socioeconomic status is associated with a median duration of post-partum amenorrhoea of more than 21 months."
Correspondence: V. J. Vitzthum, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20393 Wielandt, Hanne; Boldsen, Jesper. Age at first intercourse. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1989. 169-77 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In 1984-85 a representative sample of 286 Danish women and 336 men aged 16-20 years were interviewed about their sexual debut. Seventy-four females (25.9%) and 101 males (30.1%) had not yet experienced sexual intercourse. A maximum likelihood estimation method was used to establish the age distribution at sexual debut....The median age at first sexual intercourse was close to 16.8 years for both females and males. This appeared to be a consequence of age at debut declining among women and remaining unchanged among males during the preceding 20 years."
Correspondence: H. Wielandt, Department of Social Medicine, University of Odense, Campusvej 55, DK-5320 Odense, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:20394 Bumpass, Larry; McLanahan, Sara. Unmarried motherhood: recent trends, composition, and black-white differences. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1989. 279-86 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The National Survey of Family Growth (1982) is used to examine the extent to which racial differences in premarital birth rates [in the United States] can be explained by differences in parents' socioeconomic status, family structure, and residential characteristics. The findings document a large diversity in premarital births within both populations. Black women from high-risk backgrounds are three times more likely to have a premarital birth than black women from low-risk backgrounds. Racial differences in premarital births arise because (1) black women are more likely to come from high-risk backgrounds and (2) black women from low-risk backgrounds are more likely to have a premarital birth than white women with similar characteristics. There are similar rates of premarital births by race among persons from high-risk backgrounds."
Correspondence: L. Bumpass, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20395 Fennelly, Katherine; Kandiah, Vasantha; Ortiz, Vilma. The cross-cultural study of fertility among Hispanic adolescents in the Americas. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 96-101 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines various definitions of marriage in order to compare the nonmarital fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the Americas. The data include distributions of legal marriages and consensual unions among adolescents in Latin America, proportions of Latin American adolescents who have borne a child by categories of marriage and consensual unions, marital distributions among Hispanic adolescents in the United States, and fertility by marital status for young U.S. Hispanics." Data are from the 1980 U.S. census and 1980 censuses and the World Fertility Survey for Latin American Countries.
This paper was originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 390).
Correspondence: K. Fennelly, Department of Health Education, Pennsylvania State University, 1 White Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:20396 Khoo, Siew-Ean; McDonald, Peter. Ex-nuptial births and unmarried cohabitation in Australia. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 5, No. 2, Nov 1988. 164-77 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
The authors examine fertility trends among unmarried couples in Australia. It is found that consensual couples with illegitimate births "are frequently of lower socio-economic status than couples with nuptial births although they do not differ from married couples in their attitudes to marriage and having children. We argue that uncertain economic circumstances make some couples hesitate to marry; instead they decide to live in de facto relationships in which unplanned pregnancies occur."
Correspondence: S. Khoo, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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