Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

55:10683 Balasubrahmanyan, Vimal. The good, the tolerable, and the jarring: changing images of women in FP propaganda. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 49, Dec 3, 1988. 2,571-3 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The changing images of women in the Indian Government's information campaign developed to promote the national family planning program are described. The focus is on how these changes reflect an improvement in the status of women in India.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10684 Burch, Thomas K. Sex-role homogeneity, female status and demographic change. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 88-4, Jun 1988. 13 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
This study is concerned with changes in the role and status of women and their impact on demographic change. In particular, the author "considers a non-cultural (in fact a fundamentally biological) mechanism by which growing similarity in the roles and/or status of men and women might lead to household crowding and thence to lower fertility, lower marriage rates and higher rates of marital dissolution, and to smaller and simpler household structures...." The role of cultural factors, particularly regional and religious factors, is also considered. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10685 Carlson, Les; Kangun, Norman. Demographic discontinuity: another explanation for consumerism? Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 22, No. 1, Summer 1988. 55-73 pp. Columbia, Missouri. In Eng.
The authors argue that the modern consumer movement was partially the result of profound and unique changes in the demographic structure of the United States. They suggest that the consumer movement became particularly effective because it occurred after a period of rapid population growth, and that this increase contributed not only to the spread of consumerism but also to the social discontent of the 1960s and 1970s.
Correspondence: L. Carlson, College of Business Administration, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10686 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Demographic transition and welfare issues. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 252, Mar 24, 1988. iii, 46 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The impact of demographic change in Japan on social welfare is analyzed, with particular reference to the effect of demographic aging. Consideration is also given to the effects of changes in industrial structure, urbanization, and family and household structure on the population as a whole, and on the elderly and the support systems available to them. Data, the most recent of which are for 1985, are from official sources.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10687 Martine, George. Frontier expansion, agricultural modernization, and population trends in Brazil. In: Population, food and rural development, edited by Ronald D. Lee, W. Brian Arthur, Allen C. Kelley, Gerry Rodgers, and T. N. Srinivasan. International Studies in Demography, 1988. 187-203 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes "the agricultural development of a land-rich country, Brazil, within the context of its overall growth strategies." The importance of both frontier expansion and modernization of agricultural production is noted. "The purpose of this chapter is to discuss these two factors, their interrelations with demographic trends, and their implications for social development."
Correspondence: G. Martine, International Labour Office, Brasilia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10688 Rosenberg, Peter. Population changes and the social budget: fears, hopes and facts. International Social Security Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, Nov 1988. 135-48 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The impact of current demographic trends in the Federal Republic of Germany on social benefits is determined by linking calculations based on demographic models with others based on economic models. The author concludes that some of the additional costs of caring for the elderly caused by demographic aging will be partially offset by reductions in expenditure in other branches of social security.
Translated from the German article published in Sozialer Fortschritt (Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of), Vol. 36, Nos. 1-2, 1987, pp. 15-21.
Correspondence: P. Rosenberg, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

55:10689 Sandefur, Gary D.; Tienda, Marta. Divided opportunities: minorities, poverty, and social policy. Public Policy and Social Services, ISBN 0-306-42876-8. 1988. xv, 279 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This volume examines the socioeconomic status of racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, their experiences with poverty, and the effects of federal social policies on these groups. Specific chapters cover the economic status of different minority groups, family and intergenerational processes, and social policies toward minority groups from 1787 to 1987. Several chapters present original data analyses and discuss the policy implications of this information for minorities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10690 Wells, Nicholas; Freer, Charles. The ageing population: burden or challenge? ISBN 0-333-42920-6. LC 87-18120. 1988. xviii, 270 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England; Stockton Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on elderly life in the contemporary United Kingdom. The first part explores various issues and prevailing beliefs about the elderly, including both social and economic aspects and demographic and health trends. The second part focuses on the challenge of providing for the elderly and the aging.
Correspondence: MacMillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

55:10691 Piesowicz, Kazimierz. Some significant changes in the population of Polish territories during World War II. [Wazniejsze zmiany w zaludnieniu ziem Polskich w czasie II wojny swiatowej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/93, 1988. 77-123 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"This paper is devoted...to the analysis of various demographic and social changes--both spatial and structural--which occurred [in] Polish territories as direct or indirect consequences of World War II. [The] author discusses Poland's population war losses, [including]...births [in] the occupied Polish territories, 1940-1944, and displacement of a population and migration during the war. [He] concludes his reflections with remarks relating to social changes under the German occupation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10692 Reber, Vera B. The demographics of Paraguay: a reinterpretation of the Great War, 1864-70. Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 2, May 1988. 289-319 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
The demographic impact of the War of the Triple Alliance of 1864-1870 on the population of Paraguay is discussed. The author challenges the conclusion that military actions, disease, and famine cost Paraguay more than half its population. Using a comparative analysis of growth rates in nineteenth-century Latin America, together with a re-evaluation of Paraguayan census data and household structure, the author concludes that the population declined between 8.7 and 18.5 percent over the course of the war.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10693 Rybakovskii, L. L. The demographic development of the USSR over seventy years. Soviet Sociology, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1988. 80-93 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
Past trends in population dynamics in the Soviet Union are reviewed, with particular attention paid to the demographic impact of World War II.
This is a translation of the Russian article published in 1987 and cited in 54:20083.
Correspondence: L. L. Rybakovskii, Sociological Research Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Pr. 14, Moscow V-71, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

55:10694 Basu, Salil; Kshatriya, Gautam; Jindal, Anil. Fertility and mortality differentials among the tribal population groups of Bastar District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 3, Jun 1988. 407-16 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors examine fertility and mortality differentials and their impact on health care and natural selection potentials among tribal populations in rural India. Data are from the Bastar District and concern 366 mothers who have completed their reproductive life span.
Correspondence: S. Basu, Department of Population Genetics and Human Development, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Raod, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10695 Boerma, J. T. Monitoring and evaluation of primary health care and child survival and development. In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F. H. A. G. Zwart, edited by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen. 1988. 127-53 pp. Geo Pers: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper provides a brief overview of recent developments in the field of health regarding the emergence of PHC [Primary Health Care] and CSDR [Child Survival and Development Revolution] as strategies to improve [the] health of the underprivileged. After identifying the need for good monitoring and evaluation of health programmes, the most important reasons for the lack of such evaluations are summarized. Major factors that influence the quality of monitoring and evaluation in the context of PHC/CSDR are the availability of appropriate health indicators, accurate and complete systems of data collection on health and the extent to which the community is involved." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, UNICEF/WHO, P.O. Box 44145, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10696 Bongaarts, John. Modeling the spread of HIV and the demographic impact of AIDS in Africa. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 140, Oct 1988. 42 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of the computer simulation model described here is to project, for periods up to one or more decades, the annual incidence and prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS in a population with given epidemiological, behavioral and demographic characteristics. In addition, the epidemic's impact on a range of demographic variables is calculated....The simulated population is stratified by age, gender, sexual behavior, marital status and infection/disease status. The concluding section provides an illustrative application of the model to a Central African population. In this hypothetical simulation covering the period from 1975 to 2000 HIV prevalence in the adult population rises from 0 to 21 percent. By the end of the projection period mortality is about double the level that would have prevailed in the absence of the epidemic but, due to the very high birth rates that prevail in most of Africa, the growth rate of the population remains substantially positive."
Correspondence: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10697 Dobbing, John. Infant feeding: anatomy of a controversy 1973-1984. ISBN 3-540-19514-9. 1988. xvi, 169 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the controversy that developed during the mid-1970s concerning the marketing of breast-feeding substitutes and the impact on infant mortality. Specifically, it concerns the accusation that the infant food industry caused a decline in breast-feeding through inappropriate marketing of breast milk substitutes, especially in developing countries. The evolution of the controversy and the emergence of a WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes are described.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10698 Ford, Kathleen; Huffman, Sandra. Nutrition, infant feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 461-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The duration of amenorrhoea among a group of chronically malnourished women in a rural area of Bangladesh is examined by application of multivariate hazard models with time-varying covariates, including the influence of maternal nutrition, seasonality and patterns of infant feeding. Both maternal weight at pregnancy termination and the pattern of infant feeding affected the length of post-partum amenorrhoea. Analyses focused on season of birth showed the importance of differences by education in infant feeding."
Correspondence: K. Ford, Department of Population Planning and International Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10699 Kabir, M. Humayun. Breastfeeding supplements in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, 1986. 1-11 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author discusses socioeconomic factors affecting both choice of and timing of initiation to breast-feeding supplements in urban and rural Bangladesh. Consideration is given to mother's age and occupation, family income, and area of residence. The author finds that cooked rice is used to supplement infants' diets at approximately 22 months for urban children and 24 months for rural children. Data are from a survey conducted in Bangladesh from January to June of 1982.
Correspondence: M. H. Kabir, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, University of Dhaka, Ramna, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10700 Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Liskin, Laurie; Church, Cathleen A.; Harris, John A. Mothers' lives matter: maternal health in the community. Population Reports, Series L: Issues in World Health, No. 7, Sep 1988. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors investigate community-oriented maternal health care systems in developing countries. Sections are included on the extent and causes of maternal mortality; pregnancy-related health risks; community health care for women and girls, with a focus on women's status, nutrition, family planning, and sexually transmitted diseases; health care during pregnancy, labor, and delivery; referral centers; postpartum care; and training community-level health care providers.
Correspondence: PIP, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins University, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10701 Manton, Kenneth G. The global impact of noncommunicable diseases: estimates and projections. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, 1988. 255-66 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relationship between population age structure and chronic disease is explored using official and published data for selected countries. "Two types of analyses are presented in this article. The first is demographic. In these analyses it will be shown that the impact of chronic disease on a society necessarily increases as life expectancy increases and that, when life expectancy reaches 60 years in a country, the health burden of chronic disease in the population is likely to be quite high already. The second type of analysis will illustrate the economic consequences of chronic disease in an adult population. In addition, we will show the possible economic benefits of controlling risk factors that have an impact on multiple chronic disease in a population."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10702 Masironi, Robert; Rothwell, Keith. Smoking trends and effects worldwide. [Tendences et effets du tabagisme dans le monde.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, 1988. 228-41 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine worldwide trends in smoking and the effect of smoking on health and mortality. They find that smoking "is responsible for as much as 90% of all cases of lung cancer, 75% of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and 25% of cases of ischaemic heart disease in men under 65 years, as well as for a number of other types of cancer, pregnancy complications and more frequent respiratory ailments in children from smoking families....Smokers are sick more often than non-smokers, and it has been calculated that the number of lost days of work of smokers is 25-50% higher than that of non-smokers."
Correspondence: R. Masironi, Programme Tabac ou Sante, WHO, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10703 Pamuk, Elsie R.; Mosher, William D. Health aspects of pregnancy and childbirth: United States, 1982. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, No. 16, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1992. ISBN 0-8406-0396-7. LC 88-16406. Dec 1988. iv, 74 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Statistics collected in 1982 [for the United States] are presented on the timing of the first prenatal visit, the source of prenatal care, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, low birth weight, and how delivery was paid for. The data are shown by characteristics of the mother and the pregnancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10704 Ryan, Kenneth J. Giving birth in America, 1988. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 298-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the quality of obstetric care in the United States, with a focus on the increase in malpractice claims, pregnancy complications, infant and maternal mortality, the increased rate of cesareans, and available options for infertility treatment. He examines the impact of poverty, low educational status, smoking, drug and alcohol consumption, and other social factors such as career involvement and sexual behavior.
Correspondence: K. J. Ryan, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10705 Whiteford, Linda M.; Poland, Marilyn L. New approaches to human reproduction: social and ethical dimensions. ISBN 0-8133-0450-4. LC 88-14398. 1989. viii, 224 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This book consists of 13 studies by various authors on the ethical and social issues surrounding the new reproductive technology, and particularly the implications of the transfer of much of the control of pregnancy and childbirth from women and nature to medical procedures and technicians. The studies are divided into three main subject areas: the ethics of quality, access, and care during pregnancy; ethical decisions in the treatment of newborns; and ethical implications of family formation by surrogacy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

55:10706 Baer, A. Elliptocytosis, malaria, and fertility in Malaysia. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 6, Dec 1988. 909-15 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The author investigates the relationships among elliptocytosis (a dominant Mandelian trait in Malaysian aborigines), malaria, and fertility. "This report considers the hypothesis that the selective advantage of elliptocytosis in a malarious environment includes differential fertility...as well as differential viability. Individuals with the elliptocytosis trait tend to live longer than those lacking it, thus obtaining an opportunity for higher fertility. Based on analyses of living offspring, mothers with elliptocytosis appear to have larger families than mothers lacking the trait....[The author concludes that] individuals homozygous for the elliptocytosis allele...may be differentially susceptible to mortality....A selection model to account for this possibility is presented."
Correspondence: A. Baer, Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10707 Bittles, A. H.; Radha Rama Devi, A.; Appaji Rao, N. Consanguinity, twinning and secondary sex ratio in the population of Karnataka, South India. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 15, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 455-60 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The authors examine the effects of consanguineous marriage on fertility, multiple birth rates, and the secondary sex ratio in Karnataka, India. The data, drawn from over 65,000 live births in the region, illustrate that consanguinity had no significant impact on either the twinning rate or the sex ratio. "The results also indicate that consanguinity is not associated with excess antenatal losses and suggest the possibility of enhanced selection against mutations at X chromosome loci."
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10708 Imaizumi, Yoko. Analysis of multiple birth rates in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 186, Apr 1988. 1-13 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes multiple birth rates in Japan based on data from published vital statistics for the years 1951-1968 and from computer files for 1974-1985. "The higher multiple birth rate since 1974 was attributed to the higher proportion of mothers treated with ovulation-inducing hormones in Japan."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10709 Retherford, Robert D.; Sewell, William H. Intelligence and family size reconsidered. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1988. 1-40 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The major purpose of this study is to examine the association between the measured intelligence and fertility of over 9,000 persons who graduated high school in Wisconsin in 1957. Various measures of association are considered, including the IQ selection differential, which provides an estimate of what the generational change in mean IQ would be if, hypothetically, each child in the birth histories had the same IQ as the mean of its parents' IQ's. This is calculated not only for graduates but also, more realistically, for the complete cohort, including dropouts. The IQ selection differential for the complete cohort is estimated to be eight-tenths of an IQ point decline in a generation....An educated guess, based partly on genetic models and findings from IQ heritability studies as well as on the above estimate of the IQ selection differential, is that the generational change in mean genotypic IQ is about one-third of an IQ point decline for this cohort and its offspring."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10710 Vining, Daniel R.; Bygren, Lars; Hattori, Kanetoshi; Nystrom, Sune; Tamura, Shojiro. IQ/fertility relationships in Japan and Sweden. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1988. 931-2 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
"This study explores the relationship between intelligence and family size in Japan and Sweden. In Japan, there is no relationship, once father's education is controlled for. However, if father's education is not controlled for, then there is a negative relationship between IQ and number of siblings. In Sweden, there is a positive relationship between IQ and fertility only for the male cohort born between 1915 and 1924. The remaining relationships, for both females and males, are neither negative nor positive."
Correspondence: D. R. Vining, Regional Science Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).


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