Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

55:10497 Courgeau, Daniel. Methods for measuring spatial mobility: internal migration, temporary migration, commuting. [Methodes de mesure de la mobilite spatiale: migrations internes, mobilite temporaire, navettes.] ISBN 2-7332-2009-8. 1988. ix, 301 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study reviews both traditional and newly developed methods for analyzing human migration and spatial mobility. The first part is concerned with using direct sources of information such as population registers, censuses, and surveys. The second part examines the links between these various data sources and the methods required to analyze them, with an emphasis on the use of sophisticated models to examine different types of mobility. A third part concentrates on the use of indirect methods of estimating migration from incomplete or inadequate data, with particular reference to the study of migration in developing countries. The geographical scope of the work as a whole is worldwide.
Correspondence: INED, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10498 Dail, P. W. Immigration and migration in America: social impact and social response. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1988. 441-52 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses various social problems resulting from migration to and within the United States, including poverty, acculturation, education, housing, employment, social adjustment, and family difficulties. The potential impact of migrants on the U.S. society and economy is assessed, and government policy responses to their problems are considered.
Correspondence: P. W. Dail, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Family and Child Development, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10499 Dierx, Adriaan H. A life-cycle model of repeat migration. Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 18, No. 3, Aug 1988. 383-97 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper develops a theoretical model which analyzes the impact of the spatial distribution of a family's stock of human capital on its migration decision. This stock of human capital is composed of location-specific and non-specific human capital. The distribution of location-specific capital is a function of the residential and employment history of the family, while non-specific capital is distributed evenly over space. An empirical specification of the model is derived and estimated with a [U.S.] data set consisting of a number of cases from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics."
Correspondence: A. H. Dierx, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10500 Kasai, Sho. Remittances of out-migrants to their original families: evidence from two Indonesian villages. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, May 1988. 15-29 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
Based on a survey conducted in two rural villages in Java, Indonesia, in 1985, the author measures the economic and social impacts of remittances from out-migrants on their original households.
Correspondence: S. Kasai, Population Research Institute, Nihon University, 8-24 Kudan-Minami 4-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10501 Knapp, Thomas A.; Graves, Philip E. On the role of amenities in models of migration and regional development. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1989. 71-87 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The role of location-specific amenities in human migration decisions, and subsequently regional development, is explored. A framework is developed which motivates a new assessment of existing alternative models of regional development, indicating the need for additional modeling efforts which focus upon amenities as critical elements in such analyses. The approach hinges upon the notion that amenity values are capitalized into wages, rents, or other local prices. This process of capitalization enables researchers to explore the implicit value that society places upon amenities, which can then be used in assessing future regional-development trends in a more comprehensive manner."
Correspondence: T. A. Knapp, Department of Economics, Pennsylvania State University, Wilkes Barre, PA 18766. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10502 Laguerre, Michel S. Migration and urbanization in Haiti. Sociologus, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1987. 118-39 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
Migration patterns in Haiti are analyzed. The focus is on the capital, Port-au-Prince, and its dual role as the center of rural-urban migration within Haiti and as the exit point for international migration to the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10503 Lauby, Jennifer; Stark, Oded. Individual migration as a family strategy: young women in the Philippines. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 473-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Migration behaviour by individuals, migration decisions and migration outcomes are not neutral to the needs and constraints facing the migrants' families who stay put. In this paper evidence from the Philippines is presented and analysed which suggests that the choice of migrant members and migration destination are largely determined by familial characteristics." The authors demonstrate how family needs and influence affect the age and sex distribution of migrants.
Previously published in 1987 as Harvard University Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 35; see 54:20548.
Correspondence: J. Lauby, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10504 Mueser, Peter R.; White, Michael J. Explaining the association between rates of in-migration and out-migration. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-6, Dec 1987. 21, [7] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"A positive association between rates of in-migration and out-migration across locations has long been observed. This apparent paradox has usually been attributed to the impact of in-migration on population composition. We argue here that the intrinsic structure of population dynamics may also induce this effect, and we develop a formal model of this process. Empirical analyses using migration data for states in the U.S. over 1955-60, 1965-70 and 1975-80 show that the intrinsic mechanism may swamp the compositional effect."
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10505 Peuples Mediterraneens (Paris, France). Migration and the Mediterranean. [Migrations et Mediterranee.] Peuples Mediterraneens/Mediterranean Peoples, No. 31-32, Apr-Sep 1985. 286 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
These are the proceedings of a round table held in Marseilles, France, November 28-December 1, 1984, on migration in the Mediterranean region. The 19 papers are divided into three main topics concerned with emigration, immigration, and social reproduction; evidence of social change among migrants; and migrant myths. The overall theme of the round table concerns the permanent as opposed to temporary nature of migration from developing to developed countries in the region.
Correspondence: Peuples Mediterraneens, BP 1907/75 327 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10506 Poulain, Michel; Savane, Landing; Thiam, Babaly. Concerning the accuracy of the measurement of migration: the results of a survey undertaken in Mali. [A propos de la fiabilite de la mesure de la migration: les resultats d'une enquete menee au Mali.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 145, ISBN 2-87085-162-6. Aug 1988. 16 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Methods of measuring migration are reviewed and assessed using data from a repeat survey involving three rounds conducted at six-month intervals in Mali in 1982 and 1983. The survey included some 2,000 individuals in Bamako and the rural village of Benakoro located 20 kilometers from the capital. The authors outline three factors that should be taken into account when deciding on methods to obtain migration data: the simplicity of the question, the accuracy of the responses, and the complexity of the method of data analysis selected. The need to question the accuracy of migration data obtained regardless of method is also stressed.
Correspondence: Departement de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10507 Ritchey, P. Neal; Hastings, Donald W.; Robinson, Walter W. Confidence to be given findings derived from fixed-period definitions of migration. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 4, Winter 1987. 201-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Some of the errors in measurement of migration and its determinants that occur with the use of fixed-period data are identified. Consideration of this issue yields a typology of studies based on the nature of the determinants related to migration. Sources of distortion are numerated. The logical severity of each distortion is detailed. Use of the typology permits an appraisal of the potential confidence to be given to the validity of findings associated with classes of migration research which use fixed-period data." A test case based on 1970 U.S. census data is used to illustrate the typology.
Correspondence: P. N. Ritchey, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10508 Schaeffer, Peter V. Family migration in an uncertain environment. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1988. 221-7 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the joint family migration decision and exploits analogies to the traditional portfolio selection problem....The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents a short review of the literature on rural-to-urban migration in developing countries. It is followed by a discussion of the similarities between portfolio choices and location choice. Section 4 contains the model, and Section 5 gives an interpretation of the first-order necessary conditions. Implications for further research are discussed in the concluding section."
Correspondence: P. V. Schaeffer, Urban and Regional Planning Program, School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado, 1200 Larimer Street, Campus Box 126, Denver, CO 80204-5300. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10509 Stpiczynski, Tadeusz. Migration from 1918 to 1987 in the Central Statistical Office surveys. [Migracje ludnosci w latach 1918-1987 w badaniach GUS.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 7, Jul 1988. 22-6 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
Migration patterns in Poland over the past 70 years are discussed as part of a review of migration research conducted by the Central Statistical Office on its seventieth anniversary.
Correspondence: T. Stpiczynski, Departament Spisow i Badan Demograficznych, Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00-925 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10510 Struck, Ernst. Migration patterns and the effects of migration on household structure and production in an East Anatolian village. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 79, No. 3, 1988. 210-9 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The impact of migration on an east Anatolian village in Turkey is analyzed. Data are from a survey conducted in 1980-1981 of the 70 households in the village. Changes in migration patterns over time are described. The author notes that, despite ongoing contact between migrants and the village of origin, the impact of migration on the village's economic situation has been slight.
Correspondence: E. Struck, Department of Geography, University of Passau, Schustergasse 21, D-8390 Passau, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

55:10511 Appleyard, Reginald; Stahl, Charles. International migration today. ISBN 92-3-102527-9. 1988. 382; 286 pp. Unesco: Paris, France. In Eng.
These two volumes are a product of an international symposium, Issues and New Trends in Migration: Population Movements within and across National Boundaries, organized by Unesco in Paris, France, October 4-7, 1983, and are supplemented by regional Unesco studies. The first volume, edited by Appleyard, is concerned with current trends and prospects for international migration and presents a series of regional studies. The second volume, edited by Stahl, takes a more issue-oriented approach, examining the "links between internal and international migration, insertion of immigrant labour into the receiving country's economy, the problems of socio-cultural adaptation of immigrants and their children, the effects of immigration on women, the impact of emigration and return upon the sending countries, and the future prospects for international migration."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10512 Bidegain Greising, Gabriel. Colombian-Venezuelan labor migration. [Las migraciones laborales colombo-venezolanas.] ISBN 980-6110-19-6. 1987. 175 pp. Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales [ILDIS]: Caracas, Venezuela; Universidad Catolica Andres Bello: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
This is a collection of eight studies by various authors on aspects of labor migration between Colombia and Venezuela. Topics covered include fertility and mortality among Colombians in Venezuela; social, economic, and demographic change in Colombian migration to Venezuela; the integration of migrants into the labor force; the impact of economic recession in Colombia on migration; the impact of the crisis in Venezuela in the 1980s on migration and the labor force; Venezuelan migration policy; and Colombian policy.
Correspondence: ILDIS, Plaza la Castellana, Edif. Parsa 1er piso, Apartado 61.712 Chacao, Caracas 1060-A, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10513 Brosnan, Peter; Poot, Jacques. Modelling the determinants of trans-Tasman migration after World War II. Economic Record, No. 63, Dec 1987. 313-29 pp. Burwood, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper identifies the economic and demographic factors responsible for migration flows between Australia and New Zealand by means of a probabilistic model of emigration in both directions. The largely uncontrolled flows between the two countries have the same determinants as those commonly found in studies of internal migration. The cost of migration (proxied by the real cost of air travel), labour market conditions and the potential earnings differential play a role, although the results are modified by the incidence of return migration and age composition."
Correspondence: P. Brosnan, Victoria University, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10514 Harney, Robert F. "So great a heritage as ours": immigration and the survival of the Canadian polity. Daedalus, Vol. 117, No. 4, Autumn 1988. 51-97 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The role of immigration in Canada's development is reviewed, with a focus on the period since World War II. Attention is paid to the consequences of the changing ethnic make-up of the immigrant population, and how it has affected multiculturalism and bilingualism. The author also considers the future impact of current changes in the immigrant population from primarily European to Asian in character. The focus is on the impact of immigration on questions posed by the choice between "balkanization and assimilation, between petty nationalism and laissez-faire continentalism, between a begrudging, ungenerous dualism and a separated Quebec."
Correspondence: R. F. Harney, Department of History, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10515 Heijke, J. A. M. Migration of Mediterraneans: economy and labor market. [Migratie van Mediterranen: economie en arbeidsmarkt.] Bedrijfskundige Signalementen, ISBN 90-207-1472-4. LC 86-214723. 1986. 80 pp. H. E. Stenfert Kroese: Leiden, Netherlands. In Dut.
The author analyzes trends in migration from the Mediterranean countries to northern Europe during the last 60 years, with a focus on the period after World War II. Consideration is given to the demographic impact on local populations, including the rise of discrimination and changes in welfare policies, as immigrants and their families stayed on through the economic recession that occurred in the 1980s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10516 Hersak, Emil. Immigration in Mediterranean Europe. Razvoj Development International, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 89-104 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
In the first part of the article, quantitative data on immigration and labor migration to Spain, Portugal, Greece, and Turkey are presented. The author notes that there are currently some 2 million foreign workers in these countries. The second part focuses on the possible development of immigration in Yugoslavia. The author concludes that the economic system in Yugoslavia is not conducive to encouraging labor immigration; however, the prospects of increased immigration of this nature cannot be ignored.
Correspondence: E. Hersak, Centre for Migration and Nationalities Studies, Zagreb, Yugoslavia. Location: New York Public Library.

55:10517 Hoefer, Michael. All about U.S. immigration statistics. Population Today, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan 1989. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The quality of data collected by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is assessed, with a focus on differences between U.S. and U.N. definitions of immigrants, emigrants, and refugees. The author suggests that "gaps in migration data collected for the U.S. limit their usefulness for studying international migration and estimating national population change. For example, no information is collected on emigration of legal permanent residents or U.S. citizens, nor is there any direct information on the immigration of U.S. citizens. Data collected on legal immigrants are based on a legal and administrative definition that often conflicts with the demographic definition of an immigrant."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10518 Jaspers Faijer, D. J. Some notes on the estimation of international migration. In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F. H. A. G. Zwart, edited by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen. 1988. 63-87 pp. Geo Pers: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
Some methods of estimating levels of international migration are presented, with particular reference to the application of IUSSP guidelines to the study of migration in Latin America. Consideration is given to census questions on place of birth, residence five years before, date of arrival, place of residence of surviving children, and estimates based on mother's place of birth. Data for Paraguay, Costa Rica, and Honduras are used to illustrate the problems associated with each method.
Correspondence: D. J. Jaspers Faijer, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE], Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10519 Jasso, Guillermina. Whom shall we welcome? Elite judgments of the criteria for the selection of immigrants. American Sociological Review, Vol. 53, No. 6, Dec 1988. 919-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the direction and magnitude of the effects of personal, kinship, market, and contextual attributes of visa applicants on their desirability as immigrants to the United States, as judged by members of the professional staff of the U.S. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy....[Three conclusions emerge from the analysis.] First, there is unanimous support for granting preference to visa applicants who have a job offer or a United States-citizen sibling. Second, there is severe disagreement by applicant's region of origin. Third, there is a range of disagreement on other attributes, for example, on whether the United States should favor the immigration...of older versus younger applicants or of male versus female applicants."
Correspondence: G. Jasso, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10520 Korner, Heiko. International labour migration--theoretical considerations and evidence from the experience of the Mediterranean sending countries. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1987. 723-34 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author reviews the impact of international labor migration on Southern European economies. Theoretical as well as empirical approaches are presented, and problems associated with a formal cost-benefit analysis are discussed. The author finds that the positive effects of migration on employment and the balance of payments outweigh any negative effects on Southern European economies. Comments by Shahnaz Kazi are included (pp. 733-4).
Correspondence: H. Korner, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Karolinenplatz 5, 6100 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10521 Kuijper, H. Undiminished increase of immigration in 1987. [Voortgaande stijging immigratie in 1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 10, Oct 1988. 16-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in international migration in the Netherlands are reviewed. Consideration is given to the emigration of aliens and nationals from the Netherlands, the effects of immigration on population growth, the distribution of aliens in the Netherlands by country of origin, and immigration by sex and family type and relationship. The author notes that "in 1987, 96 thousand persons immigrated into the Netherlands, a 10% rise compared with 1986. Emigration dropped 5% to...52 thousand...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10522 Makannah, Toma J. Collecting data on international migration by direct measurement. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 1.3.1-17 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The principal objective of this paper is to review the main data collection systems...used for the generation of direct information on international migration and evaluate their current uses in African countries....Section II...examines the advantages and disadvantages of the data collection systems and reviews African experiences; Section III highlights emerging issues on the direct measurement of international migration in Africa. Section IV...proposes strategies to enhance the usefulness of sample surveys and population censuses, as sources of direct information on international migration in Africa."
Correspondence: T. J. Makannah, U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10523 Massey, Douglas S. Economic development and international migration in comparative perspective. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 383-413, 534, 536 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Development and migration are related because the processes of capital substitution, enclosure, and market penetration destroy the foundations of the peasant economy and create a pool of displaced persons who seek better opportunities elsewhere. Given the cyclical nature of economic growth, the persistence of international wage differentials, and the decline of transport costs, some movement abroad is inevitable. The extent of emigration is determined by the degree of economic integration between countries, but once begun, international migration tends to feed on itself and grow rapidly. Historically, among European countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, emigration was extensive and reliably linked to the onset of industrialization. As a contemporary example, Mexico conforms closely to expected patterns and its level of emigration is not exceptional by historical standards."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, Population Research Center, University of Chicago, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10524 Maylah, Mohamed H. The international labour migration to Kuwait: its impacts, determinants and future prospects. Pub. Order No. BRD-81062. 1987. 348 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Labour migration to the Arab Gulf states began--though in small numbers--long ago, but it has developed spontaneously and its ethnic composition has markedly changed after the emergence of oil. With the intention of removing some of the prejudice and misconception surrounding the rapid increase in the number of immigrants in the Gulf region, this study [investigates] causes and consequences of labour migration to Kuwait, within the framework of the general problem of labour demand and supply in the state, and the economic theory of labour mobility. Regression techniques are employed on published and unpublished statistics to examine the significance of migration hypotheses, and to test the human capital model in the context of the supply of immigrant labour time and earnings determination in Kuwait's labour market."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the Council for National Academic Awards, England.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(2).

55:10525 Melotti, Umberto. Immigration from the third world in Italy: causes, tendencies, and characteristics. [L'immigrazione dal terzo mondo in Italia: cause, tendenze, caratteristiche.] Terzo Mondo, No. 57-58, 1988. 5-24 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
Recent trends in immigration to Italy from developing countries are analyzed. The author reviews patterns in international migration and the current international division of labor. The difficulties in distinguishing between immigrants and refugees is noted. The author then shows how third world immigrants are filling the gaps in the Italian labor force, and concludes that Italy must accept the consequences of adapting to the ethnic and cultural changes resulting from this immigration and take steps to improve the imbalances in the current labor system to reduce the demand for future immigration.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10526 Quibria, M. G. A note on international migration, non-traded goods and economic welfare in the source country. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1988. 377-87 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This note extends the work of Rivera-Batiz to the case where capital is collectively owned and the decision to emigrate entails both a withdrawal of labor services from the source-country and the surrender of the ownership of capital. In this framework, which seems to have wide real-world relevance for socialist, labor-managed and peasant economies, it is found that emigration helps increase the welfare of the non-migrant. This result, which seems quite robust to its specifications, is exactly the opposite of that of Rivera-Batiz and points to the need for great caution in drawing policy conclusions with regard to issues pertaining to emigration."
For the article by Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, published in 1982, see 49:30479.
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10527 Quibria, M. G. On generalizing the economic analysis of international migration: a note. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 21, No. 4, Nov 1988. 874-6 pp. Ontario, Canada. In Eng.
The author critically examines an article by Kar-Yui Wong concerning "two important, well-known propositions on international factor movements--namely, first, finite international factor movements are beneficial to the nationals of the destination-country but detrimental to those who are left behind in the source-country; and second, marginal movements do not have such welfare implications....The present paper, by utilizing the indirect trade utility function, derives...results in a manner that is both direct and at once intuitively transparent."
For the article by Wong, published in 1986, see 53:20523.
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, 2330 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 2800, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10528 Richmond, A. H. Caribbean immigrants in Britain and Canada: socio-economic adjustment. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1988. 365-86 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to compare the socio-economic experience of Caribbean immigrants in [Great Britain and Canada] and to show how differing immigration trends, together with changing economic circumstances, influenced the processes of integration." Employment status, income, occupations, and educational opportunities of male and female immigrants in the two countries are compared using data from official British and Canadian sources. "In absolute terms Caribbean immigrants in Canada are clearly better off than their counterparts in Britain. However, relative to other immigrants, and the native-born population with similar demographic characteristics and educational qualifications, those in Canada experience similar disadvantages."
Correspondence: A. H. Richmond, Department of Sociology, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario, M3J IP3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10529 Siampos, Georgiou. Emigration and return migration. [Apodemia kai palinnostese.] The Greek Economy, 1987-1988, 1988. 3-11 pp. Epiloge: Athens, Greece. In Gre.
Trends in post-World War II emigration from and return migration to Greece are reviewed. The sources of available data are first described and estimates of migration are presented. The author also considers migrants' age, sex, marital status, educational status, and economic characteristics. The places of origin and destination are discussed, and the causes and consequences of emigration are analyzed. Current policies affecting migration in Greece are also reviewed.
Correspondence: G. Siampos, Department of Statistics and Information Science, Athens School of Economics and Business Science, 76 Patission Street, Athens 104 34, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10530 Stark, Oded; Taylor, J. Edward. Relative deprivation and international migration. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 1-14 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article provides theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence that international migration decisions are influenced by relative as well as absolute income considerations. Potential gains in absolute income through migration are likely to play an important role in households' migration decisions, but international migration by household members who hold promise for success as labor migrants can also be an effective strategy to improve a household's income position relative to others in the household's reference group. The findings reported in this article provide empirical support for the hypothesis that relative deprivation plays a significant role in Mexico-to-U.S. migration decisions. The findings also suggest that this migration is an effective mechanism for achieving income gains in households that send migrants to the U.S. and that households wisely choose as migrants those of their members who are most likely to provide net income gains."
Correspondence: O. Stark, Migration and Development Program, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10531 Stokvis, P. R. D. The Netherlands in international migration, 1815-1960. [Nederland en de internationale migratie, 1815-1960.] In: De Nederlandse samenleving sinds 1815, edited by F. L. van Holthoon. ISBN 90-232-2079-X. 1985. 71-92 pp. Van Gorcum: Assen, Netherlands. In Dut.
International migration trends in the Netherlands from 1815 to 1960 are analyzed. The focus is on the destination of emigrants and on migrant characteristics such as sex, age, occupation, and religion. Consideration is also given to Dutch migration policy and to the role of unemployment, recruitment programs, agricultural expertise, and psychosocial factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10532 Taylor, Lowell J.; Bean, Frank D.; Rebitzer, James B.; Baker, Susan G.; Lowell, B. Lindsay. Mexican immigrants and the wages and unemployment experience of native workers. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-1, Sep 1988. 19 pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of legal and illegal Mexican immigration on the unemployment experience and wages of native workers in metropolitan areas of the Southwestern United States. The analysis is based on individual-level data on wages, annual earnings, current employment status, and job history for the year 1979 for males residing in 47 standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs) in five southwestern states, as well as aggregate-level data on the numbers of legal and undocumented Mexican immigrants in each SMSA." The data indicate that the labor market effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 may be the opposite of those intended. "Rather than improving the earnings and employment prospects of natives, the increase in the number of legal immigrants and any decrease in the number of undocumented immigrants brought about by IRCA may reduce earnings and increase unemployment among natives."
Correspondence: Urban Institute, Library/Information Clearinghouse, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10533 Uner, Sunday. Labour migration from Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 10, 1988. 81-100 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This study is concerned with Turkish labour migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labour migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination and...geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labour migration are also analysed."
Correspondence: S. Uner, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10534 Veltman, Calvin. Modelling the language shift process of Hispanic immigrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Winter 1988. 545-62 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides a longitudinal interpretation of the 1976 Survey of Income and Education data on the linguistic integration of Hispanic immigrants to the United States. The assumptions required to sustain such an analysis are examined, followed by the presentation of data suggesting that age at time of arrival and length of residence in the U.S. largely explain observed patterns of language shift. The analysis shows that movement to English is extremely rapid, occurring within fifteen years of arrival in the U.S. Further, most of the younger immigrants make English their preferred personal language."
Correspondence: C. Veltman, Universite du Quebec, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10535 Yasin, Jehad A. An econometric analysis of the determinants of international labor migration to Western Europe and its consequences upon labor-sending countries. Pub. Order No. DA8802831. 1987. 172 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this dissertation is twofold: first, to investigate determinants of international labor migration to West Germany from a group of twelve countries classified in this study as high income and low income countries; second, to analyze the impact of workers' remittances on the consumption level of two labor sending countries [Morocco and Turkey]....This study demonstrates that economic factors are responsible for [the] flow of international labor migration to West Germany....It has also been found that immigration policy as a variable is more effective in reducing the inflow of labor migration to West Germany from low income countries than it is from high income countries..., that workers' remittances have a positive relationship with the level of consumption and that in countries where the economies are under-developed, remittances may have a long-term development effect."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(12).

55:10536 Young, Christabel. Towards a population policy: myths and misconceptions concerning the demographic effects of immigration. Australian Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 2, Winter 1988. 220-30 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The author challenges the claims by a wide range of Australian commentators, journalists, and politicians that Australia's population will stop growing without migration and that migrants make the population younger. The author uses mathematical procedures to analyze age structure and population size and concludes that "there is no demographic justification for a high level of immigration. A continuing high level of immigration would increase the population size beyond acceptable limits, and would make little difference to the ageing of the population or the dependency ratio." Australian population policy is discussed in terms of these findings.
Correspondence: C. Young, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10537 Zlotnik, Hania. The indirect estimation of emigration. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 1.3.19-40 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper will focus on the estimation of lifetime emigration from information that mothers provide on the residence of their offspring. The paper will describe a refined estimation procedure that takes into account changing demographic conditions and their effects on the estimates obtained." Paraguay is used as a test case for the method.
Correspondence: H. Zlotnik, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

55:10538 Brown, Lawrence A.; Brea, Jorge A.; Goets, Andrew R. Policy aspects of development and individual mobility: migration and circulation from Ecuador's rural Sierra. Economic Geography, Vol. 64, No. 2, Apr 1988. 147-70 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Individual out-migration and out-circulation from Ecuador's rural Sierra during the period 1974-1982 are jointly examined to identify differences in each process. Personal attributes operate similarly, but place characteristics associated with development do not. Particular attention is given to land reform policies and related occurrences as forces of regional change, which in turn affect population movements. Also highlighted is the importance of place knowledge, particularly in drawing substantively informed conclusions from statistical analyses of data with broad geographic coverage."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10539 Fielding, Elaine L. Black suburbanization in the U.S.: dispersal or concentration? CDE Working Paper, No. 88-12, Mar 1988. 27 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The goal of this paper is to determine whether the black suburban growth [in the United States] during the seventies was primarily a process of dispersal or concentration. That is, did blacks disperse into exclusively white suburbs or did they tend to concentrate in suburbs which already contained significant black populations?" Consideration is given to rising incomes of middle-class blacks, changing attitudes toward residential integration among whites, and historical racial segregation and discrimination in housing to determine the demographic distributional aspects of recent black suburbanization. Data are from the 1970 and 1980 U.S. censuses.
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 496).
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10540 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Sex-age-specific net migration rates for 47 prefectures of Japan, 1950-1985. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 256, Jul 20, 1988. iii, 75 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data on internal migration by age and sex are presented for the 47 prefectures of Japan for the period 1950-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10541 Koenig, Walter D. Internal migration in the contemporary United States: comparison of measures and partitioning of stages. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 6, Dec 1988. 927-44 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Migration distances were determined for contemporary United States society based on individuals chosen from high school reunion booklets. Parent-offspring distances averaged 771.3 km...and matrimonial distances averaged 866.5 km..., values far higher than those measured for any other human population to date, historic or modern. Migration was divided into 4 stages: (1) birth to graduation from high school, (2) high school graduation to marriage, (3) marriage to birth of first child, and (4) birth of first child to current residence....[It is found that] individuals that moved away to college tended to disperse farther during stages 1 and 3."
Correspondence: W. D. Koenig, Hastings Reservation and Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Carmel Valley, CA 93924. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10542 Mainet, Guy. Migration behavior and ethnic dynamics in African cities. [Comportements migratoires et dynamismes ethniques dans la ville africaine.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1988. 295-304, 174 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the importance of ethnic and family relationships among African migrants in the urban centers of Africa. As Africa experiences rapid urbanization, ethnic ties provide stability and economic potential for those experiencing internal migration and resettlement.
Correspondence: G. Mainet, Faculte des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Departement de Geographie, Universite de Dakar, Dakar-Fann, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10543 Margo, Robert A. Schooling and the great migration. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 2697, Sep 1988. 33 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The effect of increased education of blacks in the United States on their internal migration patterns is explored. "In 1900 90 percent of America's black population lived in the South and only 4.3 percent of those born in the region were living elsewhere. By 1950 the proportion of blacks living in the South had declined to 68 percent and 19.6 percent of those born in the region had left it. Using samples drawn from the public use tapes of the 1900, 1940, and 1950 censuses [the author shows] that better-educated blacks were far more likely to leave the South than less-educated ones....[and that] black school enrollment increased in states that had previously experienced high rates of black out-migration." The impact of socioeconomic and labor market opportunities is also considered.
Correspondence: NBER, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10544 Meron, Monique. The migration of government employees: farther from Paris and nearer the sun. [Les migrations des salaries de l'Etat: plus loin de Paris, plus pres du soleil.] Economie et Statistique, No. 214, Oct 1988. 3-18, 66, 68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The migration of government employees in France during the period 1978-1984 is reviewed. The author notes that government employees move frequently and that these moves tend to be away from the capital and toward the south and the coasts. Factors associated with migration, such as career interruptions or promotions, are also analyzed.
Correspondence: M. Meron, Departement du Population-Menages, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 12, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10545 Narayan, Shyam; Sharma, H. L.; Singh, B. N. Trends in rural out-migration at micro level. Rural Demography, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, 1986. 41-5 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The authors study trends in rural out-migration at the household level in India. Data are from a 1969 survey of 2,200 households in 52 villages of Varanasi Tehsil, and from a 1978 survey of 3,500 households in rural Varanasi.
Correspondence: S. Narayan, Department of Statistics, Awadh University, Faizabad 224 001, UP, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10546 Pillai, Vijayan K. Correlates of "decision to move or stay" in Ahmedabad, India. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 4, Winter 1987. 191-200 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is a study of the factors associated with the decision to move in the Indian city of Ahmedabad. The objective of the study is to examine the nature and influence of occupational sectors (formal and informal) on the decision to move. A subsample of 1,630 households selected from 2,000 households surveyed in 1976 is used....Empirical findings indicate that the occupational sector has a significant influence on the decision to move or stay. The factors associated with the decision to move or stay vary by sectors."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 31338, Lusaka, Zambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10547 Pillet-Schwartz, Anne-Marie. The organization of space and population migration in Togo: the example of the Kabye region. [Amenagement de l'espace et mouvements de populations au Togo: l'exemple du pays kabye.] Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, Vol. 26, Pt. 3, No. 103, 1986. 317-31 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Attempts by the government of Togo to develop the northern region of Kabye in order to balance the southern capital of Lome are described, with particular reference to the impact on internal migration.
Correspondence: A.-M. Pillet-Schwartz, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10548 Rogerson, Peter A. Changes in U.S. national mobility levels. Professional Geographer, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1987. 344-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the decline in the [U.S.] national mobility level that occurred during 1970-1983. The effects of generation size are discussed in detail; bigger generations may move at lower rates because of the increased competition for jobs and housing. The changing age composition of the population will imply further mobility declines during coming decades if age-specific mobility rates remain constant. A consideration of anticipated changes in the size of the young adult cohort suggests that the national mobility rate may increase slightly over the next decade, before beginning a relatively modest decline during 1995-2040."
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, Department of Geography, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

55:10549 Rowland, Richard H. Union republic migration trends in the USSR during the 1980s. Soviet Geography, Vol. 29, No. 9, Nov 1988. 809-29 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This article examines union republic migration trends in the USSR between 1979 and 1987 and prospects for indigenous out-migration from rural areas in Central Asia. The study is based on migration data derived by the residual technique and migration data from the 1985 microcensus. Results indicate that a south-to-north and probably Russian-dominated migration trend emerged in the 1980s, one which marks an almost complete reversal from earlier periods, especially 1959-70. Although Central Asia continues to have low levels of indigenous out-migration, labor surpluses and relatively waning capital investment in Central Asia may change this situation."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10550 Selivanova, E. Economic reform and population migration in the PRC. Far Eastern Affairs, No. 5, 1987. 80-8 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Eng.
The relationship between the economic reforms recently implemented in China and patterns of internal migration is explored. The growth of rural-urban migration is noted. The author also describes the difficulty faced by the government in attempting to influence internal migration flows.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10551 Weidlich, Wolfgang; Haag, Gunter. Interregional migration: dynamic theory and comparative analysis. ISBN 0-387-18441-4. LC 88-2002. 1988. xiv, 387 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic; Springer-Verlag:. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors that takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the study of migration, developing "a dynamic model of interregional migration...using the master equation method. The trend parameters of the model can be correlated to key-factors in regional socio-economics. The model is then applied to interregional migration within the countries Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, France, Israel, Italy and Sweden. A comparative analysis is included."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

55:10552 Dupree, Nancy H. Demographic reporting on Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1988. 845-65 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Current data sources concerning the estimated 3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to spatial distribution and population characteristics, health, education, and income.
Correspondence: N. H. Dupree, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10553 Hardjono, J. The Indonesian transmigration program in historical perspective. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1988. 427-39 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to look at what has been achieved by the transmigration program [in Indonesia], to examine the major problems that have arisen and to consider the present constraints which now cast some doubt upon the future of the program." A historical overview of government policies from 1905 to 1988 is provided, and problems of land supply, land use, and lack of funds are discussed. Data are from the 1961 and 1980 Indonesian censuses.
Correspondence: J. Hardjono, Padjadjaran University, Jalan Dipati Ukur 35, Bandung, Java, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10554 Lagerberg, C. S. I. J. Indonesian transmigration discredited. [Indonesische transmigratie in diskrediet.] Internationale Spectator, Vol. 41, No. 12, Dec 1987. 626-31, 671 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The Indonesian program of transmigration is described and evaluated. "The article goes into the aspect of national integrity or security, especially with regard to Irian Yaya, and the negative consequences of wild migration and the actions of the military forces for the original population of this region."
Correspondence: C. S. I. J. Lagerberg, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

55:10555 Eelens, F. Early return of Sri Lankan migrants in the Middle East. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1988. 401-15 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author examines early return migration patterns of labor migrants from Sri Lanka in the Middle East. "Attention [is given] to the reasons why a considerable number of migrants return to their country of origin prematurely....Differentials in the duration of stay in the host country, as well as some of the consequences of early return migration for the migrant and his family [are discussed]....The data used for this article are based primarily on a random survey held among 899 return migrants, 858 family members of current migrants and 409 non-migrants...[for] the period December 1985 to July 1986."
Correspondence: F. Eelens, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, POB 955, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10556 Lam, Kit-Chun. An analysis of the outmigration of foreign-born members in a population. Pub. Order No. DA8806102. 1987. 227 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this thesis we analyse the outmigration behavior of immigrants, both at a theoretical and an empirical level. The theoretical modelling of return migration is based on an information model extended to incorporate the human capital approach. It is shown that differential rates of return to schooling and productivities across countries and their changes over time can result in return migration. The partial effects of various socio-economic variables on the rate of return migration are analysed....We apply our methodology and empirical models to the study of outmigration of foreign-born members in the U.S. and the Canadian populations."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Harvard University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(3).

55:10557 McKee, D. L.; Tisdell, C. A. The developmental implications of migration from and between small island nations. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1988. 417-26 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine temporary migration as a possible solution to the economic development and overpopulation problems facing the small island nations of the Caribbean and the South Pacific. They discuss the impact of temporary migration on the labor force of the countries of origin and destination, as well as social and familial problems.
Correspondence: D. L. McKee, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10558 Peil, Margaret; Ekpenyong, Stephen K.; Oyeneye, Olotunji Y. Going home: migration careers of southern Nigerians. International Migration Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Winter 1988. 563-85 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"On the basis of data from rural and urban samples of men and women over 60 in three sites in southern Nigeria, nonmigrants, returnees and immigrants are compared on educational and occupational background and ages of first and last migration. The study found that most returnees go home before retirement rather than in old age, as had previously been suggested by studies of intentions to return. There is also a growing trend towards immigration to the cities as elderly parents, especially mothers, join their migrant children. Accommodation can be a major problem of dependent old age, and house ownership at home or in town is therefore an important factor in the decision to remain a permanent migrant or to return home."
Correspondence: M. Peil, University of Birmingham, POB 363, Birmingham B15 2TT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10559 Petras, Elizabeth M.; Kousis, Maria. Returning migrant characteristics and labor market demand in Greece. International Migration Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Winter 1988. 586-608 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Immigrants who repatriate bring with them modern work skills which many observers in labor exporting regions describe as a great contribution to the mother country. Using data from two samples of Greek repatriates as well as projections of industrial labor force demands in Greece for the 1980s, this article challenges this concept. We find that the uneven regional development and stunted industrial growth which pushed these workers abroad are also responsible for the narrowly limited employment options which they face once they repatriate."
Correspondence: E. M. Petras, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10560 Stauth, Georg. Remigration and social change--prospects for the migrant worker sending countries of the Middle East. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1987. 735-44 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author examines sociocultural aspects of the remigration of workers in the Middle East. He "suggests that migrants adopt, collectively, new cultural attitudes which they will attempt to maintain after getting re-settled back home." Consideration is given to consumerism and the religious beliefs of the repatriated workers. Special emphasis is given to return migration to Egypt and Pakistan.
Correspondence: G. Stauth, Department of Development Sociology, University of Bielefeld, Universitatsstrasse 25, 4800 Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

55:10561 Belwe, Katharina. Migration in the German Democratic Republic: rural flight and urbanization. [Migration in der DDR: Landflucht und Verstadterung.] Deutschland Archiv, Vol. 20, No. 5, May 1987. 515-30 pp. Cologne, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Patterns of internal migration in the German Democratic Republic since the 1950s are examined. The emphasis is on rural-urban migration. The side effects and later consequences of planned migration are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10562 Chan, Kam Wing. Rural-urban migration in China, 1950-1982: estimates and analysis. Urban Geography, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988. 53-84 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objectives of this study are to construct a series of annual net rural-urban migration estimates for post-1949 China and to examine the temporal patterns of rural-urban migration and urbanization and their relationship with economic growth....It is shown that the volume of net rural-urban migration since 1949, accounting for about half the urban population increase, is by no means small and is certainly more than was previously realized. The tremendous variation in migration rates reflects the heavy interventionist role of the government in this area. The periods of high net migration generally coincide with the periods of better economic performance. It is argued that the temporal patterns of migration and urbanization have been shaped mainly by the economic development strategy pursued by China. Finally, the current trend of rural-urban migration is examined."
Correspondence: K. W. Chan, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

55:10563 Long, Larry; DeAre, Diana. U.S. population redistribution: a perspective on the nonmetropolitan turnaround. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 433-50, 535, 537 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A major demographic surprise emerged in the United States (and many other highly developed countries) in the 1970s, when the nonmetropolitan population was observed to be growing faster than the metropolitan population. To analyze when and where the turnaround began and what has happened to it, the article presents new data that extend comparisons back to 1900 and monitors change annually after 1970. The turnaround in growth rates began earlier than previously thought and reversed around 1980, with subsequent growth increasingly favoring the metropolitan sector. It was found that metropolitanization has not necessarily implied increasing concentration of population across all spatial units."
Correspondence: L. Long, Center for Demographic Studies, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10564 Mantra, Ida B.; Sunarti. Population mobility and issues in Surabaya. [Mobilitas penduduk dan permasalahannya di kotamadya Surabaya.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 15, No. 29, Jun 1988. vi-viii, 75-91 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
Rural-urban migration to Surabaya, Indonesia, is analyzed using data from a survey on migrant population mobility conducted by the Ministry of Population and Environmental Affairs. The focus is on "the patterns and behaviors of the migrant workers in Surabaya and several of the problems created by their migration." The authors conclude that because of the filtering effect of smaller towns in the region and the tendency of migrant workers to return to their places of origin, population growth in Surabaya between 1971 and 1980 was slower than expected.
Correspondence: I. B. Mantra, Fakultas Geografi dan Pusat Penelitian Kependudukan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10565 Osipov, A. M. The causes of migration from the country to the cities. [Motivy pereseleniya iz derevni v gorod.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 71-3 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The causes of migration from rural to urban areas in the Soviet Union are explored using data from a survey conducted in the city of Novgorod. Among the factors affecting migration are desire to move to a place with many young people, lack of educational opportunities in rural areas, and lack of cultural amenities in rural areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


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