Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

55:10427 Adams, Owen. Divorce rates in Canada. Canadian Social Trends, No. 11, Winter 1988. 18-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in divorce rates in Canada since 1951 are briefly reviewed. The significant increase in the divorce rate over time is attributed to the easing of legal restrictions on marital dissolution since the Divorce Acts of 1968 and 1985.
Correspondence: O. Adams, Health Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10428 Al-Arabi, Mohammad. Educational differentials in nuptiality patterns: evidence from the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey. Pub. Order No. DA8804873. 1987. 442 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Rapid social and economic changes have been taking place in Jordan during the last two decades. Most notable is educational development, which has been outstanding. To assess the impact these changes have on nuptiality in Jordan, analysis of the levels and patterns of marriage timing, marital disruption, and remarriage for five identified educational groups of women was undertaken in this thesis....Levels and trends of sex differences in age at marriage and the proportions ever married were also examined. The socio-economic factors associated with the observed levels of female age at first marriage, divorce or separation, and remarriage were analyzed. The data used for analysis in this thesis are primarily those of the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey....Data from the censuses and demographic surveys conducted throughout the period 1961-1983 were also used."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(2).

55:10429 Anderton, Douglas L.; Emigh, Rebecca J. Polygynous fertility: sexual competition versus progeny. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, No. 4, Jan 1989. 832-55 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Three theoretical explanations for the effects of polygyny on marital fertility are investigated through an analysis of birth intervals in polygynous marriages of a 19th-century Utah [United States] population. Through the use of life-course fertility histories, behavior among polygynous wives is shown to depend on the number of children born to all wives rather than on biological factors such as the competition among greater numbers of wives for reproductive attention or age-related infecundity. When biological effects are controlled, a greater (lesser) number of children born to earlier wives reduces (increases) fertility of more recent wives later in their life courses. Thus, it is argued that largely data-driven studies of polygyny may benefit from fertility theory, which emphasizes the role of the demand for children."
Correspondence: D. L. Anderton, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:10430 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Chen, Jiajian. Religiosity, nuptiality and reproduction in Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 88-5, Aug 1988. 29 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"While religious affiliation per se is becoming less important in nuptiality and reproduction in Canada, religiosity continues to be very significant. Using the data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984 which interviewed a national sample of 5,315 women in the reproductive years, [the authors] find that religiosity, as measured by church attendance, is strongly related to premarital cohabitation, marital dissolution, fertility and contraceptive behaviour....Religiosity is also found to be associated with attitudes towards abortion, premarital sex and attitudes towards childbearing."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10431 Bartlema, J. Completing a two-sex nuptiality matrix with fixed marginals: an application of the relational approach in demography. In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F. H. A. G. Zwart, edited by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen. 1988. 89-100 pp. Geo Pers: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The two-sex nuptiality matrix with fixed marginals that is used to prepare official forecasts of nuptiality in the Netherlands is described. The author concludes that a relational model of this kind fits the available data satisfactorily.
Correspondence: J. Bartlema, Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI], P.O. Box 955, AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10432 Billig, Michael S. The marriage market in two Indian states: a study in demographic anthropology. Pub. Order No. DA8800869. 1987. 375 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines the notion of a 'marriage market' and presents an empirical and theoretical analysis of the demography of marriage in the Indian states of Rajasthan and Kerala over the last four decades. It is argued that pyramidal age composition, rapid population growth and age differences between spouses lead to a propensity toward 'marriage squeezes' against females, or a situation where there is a surplus of women at marriageable ages....It is concluded that the only way to truly understand a marriage market (i.e., the actual universe of potential spouses defined as appropriate) is through ethnographic investigation in a more limited locale on a lower level of aggregation. The marriage market is viewed as a constraining intermediate variable between population processes, gender relations, female autonomy and many aspects of culture change."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Harvard University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(11).

55:10433 Braun, Werner. Divorces 1986-1987: principal results. [Ehescheidungen 1986/1987: die wichtigsten Ergebnisse.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 10, Oct 1988. 682-8 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Information is presented on divorces in the Federal Republic of Germany for 1986-1987, with comparative data from earlier years also included. The data are analyzed according to marriage cohort, state, number of children involved, whether the husband or wife is seeking the divorce, rural and urban regions, duration of marriage, and age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10434 Bumpass, Larry L.; Sweet, James A. Preliminary evidence on cohabitation. NSFH Working Paper, No. 2, Sep 1988. 19 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Levels of cohabitation experience in the United States are estimated using data from the National Survey of Families and Households on 6,881 married couples and 682 cohabiting couples. "In this preliminary analysis we focus on the estimation of levels of cohabitation experience, and on the comparison between measures of unions based alternatively on cohabitation and marriage. The paper concludes with a look at factors associated with cohabitation before first marriage, using a proportional hazards model."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 514).
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10435 Carmichael, Gordon A. Socio-demographic correlates of divorce in New Zealand. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 5, No. 1, May 1988. 58-81 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper links data obtained from a one-in-five systematic sample of New Zealand divorce files covering the period 1940-78 with published marriage and birth statistics to examine socio-demographic differentials in divorce rates among couples married between 1939 and 1973. Differentials investigated are those by age at marriage, relative age of bride and groom, marital status prior to marriage, relative marital status of bride and groom, pregnancy status of the wife at marriage, timing of the first birth, religion, country of birth and socioeconomic status. Several findings of overseas studies, such as the special proneness to divorce of very youthful marriages and remarriages following previous divorces, are verified for New Zealand. After controlling for age at marriage, pregnancy does not seem to have directly increased the risk of divorce."
Correspondence: G. A. Carmichael, Australian Family Project, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10436 Cutler, Blayne. Bachelor party. American Demographics, Vol. 11, No. 2, Feb 1989. 22-6, 55 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Trends in the characteristics of the single male population in the United States are reviewed. Consideration is given to the categories of never-married, divorced, and widowed men; shifts in the age distribution among these groups; and the implications of these changes for business markets.
Correspondence: B. Cutler, American Demographics, 108 North Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10437 Domenach, Jean-Luc; Hua, Chang-Ming. Marriage in China. [Le mariage en Chine.] ISBN 2-7246-0542-X. 1987. 187 pp. Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques: Paris, France. In Fre.
Marriage in contemporary China is analyzed using data from Chinese sources, primarily the press. The authors show that marriage in China is an institution which reflects individual aspirations, the rules of society, and the objectives of those in power. The impact of bureaucracy and political cadres on marriage and the family is noted. The high level of continuity in the characteristics of marriage from pre-revolutionary times is then discussed, and the continuing influence of traditional cultural factors as well as new economic factors described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10438 Festy, Patrick. Divorces in France and World War II. [Les divorces en France et la Seconde Guerre Mondiale.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1988. 815-28 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The impact of World War II on divorce trends in France is reviewed. The author notes that "the yearly number of divorces rose much more sharply after the second world war than they had fallen during the war. This is due to the disturbances the war had caused in the lives of couples, but it also turns out that marriages contracted in 1939 and 1940 were particularly liable to break down. Low birth rates typify these pre-war and post-war cohorts, particularly marriages contracted at the beginning of the war."
Correspondence: P. Festy, INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10439 Kane, Thomas T.; Stephen, Elizabeth H. Patterns of intermarriage of guestworker populations in the Federal Republic of Germany: 1960-1985. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1988. 187-204 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This study takes advantage of a unique body of exceptionally good quality data to examine the patterns and trends in intermarriage between foreign guestworker populations residing in the Federal Republic of Germany...and native Germans between 1960 and 1985. Rates and prevalence of intermarriage of native Germans and the five largest foreign guestworker populations living in Germany...are estimated for 1960 to 1985 using published and unpublished data. Also, the propensity of foreign men and women residing in Germany to intermarry with native Germans is examined in relation to changes in the demographic structure...of the foreign groups over time. Lastly, the relationship between intermarriage and other measures of assimilation is examined for each of the five foreign groups."
Correspondence: T. T. Kane, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10440 Kaneko, Takeharu; Mita, Fusami. Marriage tables for Japanese couples: 1975-1985. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 187, Jul 1988. 57-66 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Marriage tables are presented for Japan for the years 1975, 1980, and 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10441 Larson, Ann. Marriage in late nineteenth-century Melbourne. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 5, No. 1, May 1988. 15-45 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"This article uses Melbourne [Australia] marriage certificates from 1866 to 1896 to compare urban and rural marriage trends and study the individual determinants of the timing of first marriage; on the whole, urban brides and grooms were likely to be younger than rural ones. Economic conditions, as measured by occupation, played a more important role in men's timing of marriage than in women's. The fact that prenuptial pregnancy led couples to marry several years before their peers suggests that family commitments and other personal, unmeasured, factors affected marriage age."
Correspondence: A. Larson, Department of Demography, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10442 Lee, Tung-Ming. A study on the stability of first marriages for married women of childbearing age in the Taiwan area--an exploration of the age of first marriage, dimensions of premarital pregnancy and the method of marital decision making. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 33-54 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
The stability of first marriages among women of childbearing age in Taiwan is examined. The data are from a survey of induced abortion among over 12,000 Taiwanese married women. Consideration is given to age at first marriage, premarital pregnancy, and marital decision making. The relationship of these factors to marriage duration and remarriage is analyzed.
Correspondence: T.-M. Lee, Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10443 Leridon, Henri. An analysis of matrimonial histories in the survey on family status. [Analyse des biographies matrimoniales dans l'enquete sur les situations familiales.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 19, Nov 1988. 64 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Initial events in the family life cycle in France are analyzed using data compiled in 1986 from a national sample of 4,091 men and women aged 21-44. The events considered include first union, marriage, birth of first child, separation, and divorce. In the first part, the author shows that although age at first union has not changed significantly over the last 20 years, the proportion of first unions started outside marriage has increased substantially and that these changes have an impact on separation and divorce rates. He then discusses the relationships between these changes in marital history and fertility, including fertility outside marriage and fertility by type of union. An English summary is separate from the main body of the text.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10444 London, Kathryn A. Children of divorce. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 46, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1924. ISBN 0-8406-0400-9. LC 88-31316. Jan 1989. iv, 25 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report analyzes trends for the period 1950-84 in the number and proportion of children whose parents divorced [in the United States]. Characteristics of divorcing couples with and without children are examined, including number of previous marriages, age at divorce, age at marriage, race, education, and whether it was the husband or the wife who petitioned for the divorce. Geographic variations are also discussed."
Correspondence: NCHS, Federal Center Building, Room 1-57, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10445 Martin, Teresa C.; Bumpass, Larry L. Recent trends in marital disruption. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 37-51 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The post-1980 decline in the crude [U.S.] divorce rate must be interpreted in the context of the long-term trend and in terms of what we know about composition effects on crude measures--particularly given shifts in age at marriage and the age composition effects of the baby boom. Data from the June 1985 Current Population Survey permit more detailed, exposure-specific measurements as well as the use of separation as the event terminating marriage. Estimates from these data suggest a decline followed by a recovery. Taking into account well-known levels of underreporting, we find that recent rates imply that about two-thirds of all first marriages are likely to end in separation or divorce. We examine the persistence of major differences in marital stability and evaluate the comparative stability of first and second marriages."
Correspondence: T. C. Martin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10446 McCrate, Elaine. Trade, merger and employment: economic theory on marriage. Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1987. 73-89 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper I explore two neoclassical theories on marriage which extend the conventional analyses of trade and merger. An alternative perspective on marriage is proposed, which extends a Marxian analysis of employment relations. I develop each of the three theories' implications concerning the nature of power relations between men and women in the family. Finally, I argue that the employment approach produces the most compelling account of the peculiarities of the marriage contract, and of the contemporary unprecedented decline in the proportion of United States women who are married."
Correspondence: E. McCrate, Department of Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10447 McQuillan, Kevin. Protoindustry and marriage: some evidence from Alsace. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 88-8, Aug 1988. 20, [8] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The present paper seeks to clarify the argument regarding the effects of protoindustry [on marriage patterns] and to test the model using data from agricultural, protoindustrial and industrial communities in [nineteenth-century] Alsace [France]. The analysis points to a lower age at marriage among male factory workers and their brides but uncovers no evidence of a pattern of early marriage among protoindustrial workers."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10448 Montgomery, Mark R.; Cheung, Paul P. L.; Sulak, Donna B. Rates of courtship and first marriage in Thailand. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 375-88 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The rate at which marriage opportunities occur is an important determinant of age at first marriage. In this paper the authors consider individual-level data on courtships in Thailand, and develop a statistical model of the courtship rate, using data drawn from the Thailand Asian Marriage Survey of 1978-9. A proportional-hazards model of women's age at first marriage is also estimated. The first-marriage hazard function can be partitioned into the courtship rate and the probability that a given courtship will lead to marriage. The authors show how the rate of courtship contributes to an understanding of the age-pattern in the first-marriage hazard function."
Correspondence: M. R. Montgomery, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10449 Ndubuisi, Samuel C. Nuptiality patterns in Jamaica: an increment-decrement life table analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8806520. 1986. 204 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the history of nuptiality, its patterns, dynamics, and stability in Jamaica using data from the World Fertility Survey and increment-decrement life table analysis. "Union formation starts early and is fairly universal and popular in Jamaica. Contrary to many published reports, union life is stable and long lasting. A ten year old girl should expect to spend almost all her remaining life in one marital union. Most initial unions are of the visiting kind and most legal unions or marriages take place late in life. Marriages in Jamaica may be demographically insignificant since they do not signify the beginning of union life or of childbearing."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Howard University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(2).

55:10450 Riche, Martha F. The postmarital society. American Demographics, Vol. 10, No. 11, Nov 1988. 22-6, 60 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Current and prospective marriage patterns in the United States are reviewed, with particular reference to the implication of these trends for consumer businesses. The focus is on the growing number of individuals who are spending more of their adult lives unmarried and the long-term implications of these trends for those providing goods and services.
Correspondence: M. F. Riche, The Numbers News, P.O. Box 68, Ithaca, NY 14851. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10451 Singh, V. K.; Mishra, R. N.; Singh, K. K.; Swivedi, S. N. On the pattern of age at marriage in rural India: a mathematical approach. Rural Demography, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, 1986. 47-54 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
A mathematical model to estimate age at first marriage is presented and adapted to data from a 1978 survey of married couples living in 19 villages in Varanasi Tehsil, India.
Correspondence: V. K. Singh, Centre of Population Studies, Barnaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10452 Tripathy, P. K. Determinants of age at marriage for females in Orissa: a path analysis. Rural Demography, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, 1986. 21-30 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The authors analyze the socioeconomic and demographic determinants affecting female marriage age in Orissa, India. Factors studied include percentage of urban population, sex ratio, female literacy, percentage of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, and percentage of non-agricultural workers. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: P. K. Tripathy, Department of Statistics, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 003, District Puri, Orissa, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10453 Verma, K. L.; Mohapatra, S. C.; Mohapatra, P.; Mishra, Gitanjali; Goyal, C. P. Some prospects of perception of fertility and marriage. Man in India, Vol. 68, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1988. 243-51 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
Attitudes toward marriage among fertile and infertile women in India are compared using data on 400 urban and rural women in Varanasi. The universality of marriage among women is noted.
Correspondence: K. L. Verma, Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon, Varanasi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10454 White, Douglas R.; Burton, Michael L. Causes of polygyny: ecology, economy, kinship, and warfare. American Anthropologist, Vol. 90, No. 4, Dec 1988. 871-87 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We discuss and test competing explanations for polygyny based on household economics, male-centered kin groups, warfare, and environmental characteristics. Data consist of codes for 142 societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, including new codes for polygyny and environmental characteristics. An explanatory model is tested for the worldwide sample using regression analysis, and then replicated with regional samples. We obtain convergent results with two different measures of polygyny, cultural rules for men's marriages and the percentage of women married polygymously. We conclude that the best predictors of polygyny are fraternal interest groups, warfare for capture of women, absence of constraints on expansion into new lands, and environmental quality and homegeneity."
Correspondence: D. R. White, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10455 Wilson, Barbara F. Remarriages and subsequent divorces: United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 45, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 89-1923. ISBN 0-8406-0399-1. LC 88-600249. Jan 1989. iv, 34 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The trend in remarriages and subsequent divorces during the 1970-83 period [in the United States] is presented. Data drawn from records of remarriage provide information on geographic variation and month of marriage. Demographic characteristics of the spouses such as age, race, previous marital status, interval since last marriage ended, and educational attainment are described. Information drawn from records of redivorce provide information on ages of spouses, number of children involved, and duration of the remarriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10456 Wineberg, Howard. Duration between marriage and first birth and marital instability. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1988. 91-102 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper considers whether marital instability varies by the duration between marriage and first birth among ever-married white and black American women." Data are from the June 1985 Current Population Survey. Possible reasons for the racial differences identified are discussed.
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Center for Population Research and Census, School of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland, OR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10457 Wong, Odalia H. A survival analysis of first marriage postponement. 1987. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation analyzes the determinants of the age at first marriage of young [U.S.] women. The empirical analysis is performed on a sample of white women born between the late 1940s and the mid-1950s which is taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women's [Labor] Market Experiences....The relationships between the age at first marriage and the women's personal characteristics such as educational attainment, school enrollment, employment, income, and future plan at age 35...are examined. In addition, the relationships between the age at first marriage and the women's family background characteristics such as parental education level, father's occupational level, mother's employment and living arrangement at age 14 are also examined. Our analysis shows that late marriers are generally more highly educated, employed, have higher income, and plan to work later in life." The results indicate that young women are not foregoing marriage. "Rather, it is an indication that young women are postponing marriage until education is completed, employment is secured and savings accumulated."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Chicago.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(11).

55:10458 Wu, Lawrence L. Age dependencies in rates of first marriage. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-35, Jun 1988. 54 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
Using data on women from the June 1980 U.S. Current Population Survey, the author finds "that first marriage rates exhibit simple and highly regular patterns of age dependence. Individual-level attributes alter, but do not fundamentally change, these observed regularities. [It is also shown that] the effects of individual-level attributes also vary in highly regular ways with age. Situational, historical, and cultural factors influence distinct aspects of the rate. Thus, regular patterns of age dependence appear characteristic of both first marriage rates and the social mechanisms governing the rate."
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

55:10459 Anderson, Michael. Households, families and individuals: some preliminary results from the national sample from the 1851 census of Great Britain. Continuity and Change, Vol. 3, No. 3, Dec 1988. 421-38 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper uses data from the national sample from the 1851 census of Great Britain to describe a number of aspects of household and family structure, and of the residence patterns of individuals within families and households. Where appropriate, the data are compared with findings from the Cambridge Group's collection of pre-industrial English listings and with material from modern published censuses. Among the many subjects surveyed are the kinship composition of households, patterns of servant keeping and lodging, the frequency and membership patterns of two- and single-parent family groups, and the residential behaviour of the aged and of children."
Correspondence: M. Anderson, Department of Economic and Social History, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10460 Andorka, Rudolf. The number of children in developed societies. [Gyermekszam a fejlett orszagokban.] ISBN 963-281-758-3. LC 87-208289. 1987. 372 pp. Gondolat: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Socioeconomic factors affecting fertility and family size in developed countries are examined using the example of Hungary. Separate consideration is given to preindustrialization, the period of the baby boom, and the mid-1960s.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:10461 Beaujot, Roderic. Rationales for childbearing in Tunisia. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 87-15, Nov 1987. 34, [13] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The author examines rationales for childbearing in Tunisia. Respondents in a survey of 532 persons carried out in 1983 were questioned concerning reasons for having children, family size preferences, age at marriage, and contraceptive use. Findings have implications on how rationales develop in a culture and affect behavior including attitudes toward family planning.
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10462 Bernhardt, Eva M. Changing family ties, women's position and low fertility. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 46, ISBN 91-7820-033-4. Sep 1988. 32, 6 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to try to clarify the issue of how changing family ties and changes in women's position in society is related to below-replacement fertility." The geographical focus is on Western Europe and English-speaking developed countries, with a primary emphasis on Sweden. The author first examines gender roles in the family context, and then proceeds to examine women's roles outside the family, specifically female labor force participation and its effect on gender equality and fertility. She concludes that the solution to raising fertility to replacement levels may lie in increasing gender equality and male involvement in the family, rather than in reinforcing traditional female roles emphasizing motherhood.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Section of Demography, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10463 Boiko, V. V. The small family: socio-psychological aspects. [Malodetnaya sem'ya: sotsial'no-psikhologicheskii aspekt.] 2nd ed. ISBN 5-244-00041-1. 1988. 238 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This study is concerned with the social and psychological problems associated with the increasing prevalence of small families in urban areas of the Soviet Union. Data are from official sources and psychosocial surveys carried out in Leningrad in 1973-1974, 1977, and 1981. Topics covered include the desire for children, ideal family size, and motives for limiting fertility. Consideration is given to the implications of low fertility for both the family and society.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10464 Cherlin, Andrew J. The weakening link between marriage and the care of children. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 302-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines reasons for the weakened link between marriage and child care in the United States. "We focus in this article on the changes that have taken place in three areas of family formation: out-of-wedlock childbearing, marriage and divorce, and living arrangements." The social consequences of these changes are considered, and possible public policies to address the situation are assessed. Comparisons are made with child-care strategies in Japan and Sweden.
Correspondence: A. J. Cherlin, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10465 Crispell, Diane. Three's a crowd. American Demographics, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan 1989. 34-8 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Characteristics of the 6 million U.S. families with three or more children are described. The emphasis is on the spending patterns of such families.
Correspondence: D. Crispell, American Demographics, 108 North Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10466 Ermisch, John. Changing demographic patterns and the housing market with special reference to Great Britain. In: Economics of changing age distributions in developed countries, edited by Ronald D. Lee, W. Brian Arthur, and Gerry Rodgers. International Studies in Demography, 1988. 155-82 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The first part of this chapter considers the factors influencing the number of households formed out of the population [in Great Britain]. With this as a background, a measure of the change in the number of households purely attributable to age-sex distribution changes is derived. The second part...uses this measure in an econometric analysis of the effect of changes in the age-sex distribution of the population on house prices and public and private sector investment in housing....The third part of the chapter investigates the effect of demographic changes on the composition of housing demand....In general it can be said that British housing markets are subject to considerable demographic pressure during the 1980s, but during the 1990s the demographic impetus to household growth and aggregate housing investment gradually fades away."
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, Policy Studies Institute, 100 Park Village East, London NW1 3SR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10467 Faessen, W. B. M. Alone or with other persons at an address. [Alleen of met anderen op een adres.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 11, Nov 1988. 13-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
One-person households and their characteristics are examined for the Netherlands using data on the addresses of individuals from the partial enumeration of January 1, 1987. The data concern persons living alone and those in consensual unions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10468 Fapohunda, Eleanor R. Household structure and economic-demographic decision-making in southern Nigeria. Pub. Order No. DA8801530. 1987. 327 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study argues that the New Home Economics Model can not adequately explain either Southern Nigerian family financial practices or fertility behavior for it considers the domestic decision-making unit to be a nuclear household with common preferences and pooled resources. Instead, the thesis theoretically extends the Transactions Framework which recognizes the importance of family structure on domestic decision-making....Using a data set of 226 Lagos households, the study establishes that....spousal reproductive goals may not be homogeneous and that the reproductive decision-making unit need not be the household. Moreover, it demonstrates that the characteristics of implicit family contracts influence reproductive goals or actual fertility behavior by altering perceived price and income effects."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at New York University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(11).

55:10469 Foteeva, Ekaterina. Living conditions of the family, relationships between married couples, and the birth rate in the USSR. [Usloviya na zhivot na semeistvoto, vzaimootnosheniya mezhdu sapruzite i razhdaemost v SSSR.] Naselenie, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1988. 79-93 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationships between various aspects of the family and reproduction in the USSR are explored using data from various Soviet sources. Attention is paid to the impact of living conditions on fertility, as well as to the effects of personality and the roles played by both spouses within the family. The author concludes that large families are associated with mothers who are more involved in the family than in outside activities, mothers who are able to combine family roles with their other activities, and families in which both spouses participate in family-oriented tasks.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10470 Glick, Paul C. Fifty years of family demography: a record of social change. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 4, Nov 1988. 861-73 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Written in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Marriage and the Family, this essay tells how family demography developed in the United States and then summarizes findings from selected research projects on the subject since 1940. Early studies examined the family life cycle, historical family trends, religious and racial intermarriage, socioeconomic status and family stability, and the marriage squeeze. Later analyses dealt with international trends in marriage, health of the married and unmarried, cohabitation outside marriage, one-parent families, and living alone. Still more recent investigations included gender preferences in children, marital stability and sex of children, no-fault divorce, divorce among children of divorce, projections of marital status, remarriage, marital homogamy, stepfamilies, and some consequences of recent changes in American family demographics."
Correspondence: P. C. Glick, Department of Sociology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10471 Grindstaff, Carl F. The future of Canadian fertility: reproductive expectations among university students. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 87-3, Jan 1987. 16, [6] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada; University of Western Ontario, Centre for Canadian Population Studies: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine child expectation data for a sample of [650] university students in Canada...in 1985, and to analyze factors and determinants associated with differential expectations. The sample expected to have 2.57 children with an approximate range of between 2 and 3 children expected in sub groups differentiated by religion, life goals, religiosity, abortion attitudes, age, sex, siblings and parental educational level. The discussion centres around the level of future fertility in Canada and the trends in variables associated with possible fertility differentials."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10472 Guo, Zhigang. Several problems about the study of family households. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1988. 29-33, 13 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
In China there are trends toward households consisting of only the nuclear family and toward reduced family size. The author discusses the development of these trends and their impact on the economy, population characteristics, number of households, and internal migration for the period 1953-1987. Data are from official Chinese sources.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 2, 1987.
Correspondence: Z. Guo, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10473 Hirosima, Kiyosi. A model of parent/child coresidence, taking into account postnuptial competition. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 186, Apr 1988. 14-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of coresidence patterns among parents and their children is presented. The author develops a two-sex model to show that what he defines as coresidability "is affected not only by the competition among children's siblings concerning the coresidence with their parents, but also by the competition between the siblings of the children and the siblings of children's spouses concerning the coresidence with parents and by the competition between the parents and the parents of children's spouses concerning the coresidence with their children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10474 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Yamamoto, Chizuko. Analysis and prospect of the number of households in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 179, Jul 1986. 60-70 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Recent estimates of the number of households in Japan are analyzed and some official projections considered up to the year 2050. Consideration is given to changes in household characteristics and size over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10475 Hoem, Britta. Early phases of family formation in contemporary Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 47, ISBN 91-7820-034-2. Aug 1988. 33, 6 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author examines recent demographic trends in Sweden, in which "the country has led the way in the decrease in marriage rates and the increase in nonmarital cohabitation..., almost half of all children and two in three of first children are now born outside marriage, and female labor force participation of mothers with preschool children is at a record high...." Data are primarily taken from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey and a mail survey of 600 young people conducted in 1985.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Section of Demography, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10476 Hohn, Charlotte. From the extended family to the nuclear family? Changes in family forms during the demographic transition. [Von der Grossfamilie zur Kernfamilie? Zum Wandel der Familienformen wahrend des demographischen Ubergangs.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1988. 237-50 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"After briefly discussing the question whether the demographic transition is a theory, a concept, or a historical description, the paper...presents theory approaches dealing with the change of family forms. [It addresses]...the debate about the nuclearization hypothesis implying that--during the process of modernization--the family system changes from a predominance of the extended family in agrarian societies to a dominance of the conjugal or nuclear family in industrialized, urbanized societies....The paper finally points to the open end of the theories of demographic transition and change of family forms. Just as there will not be zero population growth at the end of demographic transition but population decline, nuclearization will lead to a diversification of family forms."
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10477 Kanjanapan, Wilawan. Family interventions, life cycle, and reproductive behavior of married couples in Thailand. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 79-102 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"The present study attempts to identify factors leading to the practice of family planning [in Thailand] and the results this had on the size, structure, and functions of the family." The author argues that a model using the family as the reference unit for demographic analysis has advantages over conventional measures, which are restricted to residential units of individuals. An empirical test of the model using data from a 1982 survey in Thailand is presented.
Correspondence: W. Kanjanapan, Institute of American Culture, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10478 Keilman, Nico; Klijzing, Erik. Living arrangements and opting for children--future trends. [Leefvormen en kinderkeuze--toekomstige ontwikkelingen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Sep 1988. 19-34 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article discusses the increasing pluriformity in living arrangements in the Netherlands. The diversity of household types and living arrangements will grow. At the same time individuals will live in a greater variety of household types during their life course." The authors predict an increase in consensual cohabitation and a weakened link between marriage and childbearing.
Correspondence: N. Keilman, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10479 Kiefl, Walter. The investigation of family formation processes. Reflections on the productivity of standardized and nonstandardized research. [Die Untersuchung von Familienbildungsprozessen. Uberlegungen zur Ergiebigkeit standardisierter und unstandardisierter Befragungen.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 16, 1988. 83 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The author critically examines current methodological assumptions used in the social sciences, with a focus on the study of the family formation process. Problems are found in the preference for numerical over qualitative data, the pursuit of objectivity, and reliance on the criteria of the natural sciences. An alternative approach based on small-scale, in-depth interviews is suggested. The geographical focus is worldwide, with data for the Federal Republic of Germany used as an example.
Correspondence: BIB, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Postfach 5528, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10480 Malawi. National Statistical Office (Zomba, Malawi). Malawi Family Formation Survey, 1984. [1986]. ix, 95 pp. Zomba, Malawi. In Eng.
These are the results of a 1984 World Bank survey in Malawi intended to provide data for a child-spacing program. The survey methodology and sample population are first described. Subsequent sections present the data collected on levels of fertility and mortality, attitude toward family size, desire for more children, factors related to the use of child-spacing methods, birth intervals, breast-feeding and nutritional status of children, utilization of maternal and child health services, and the availabitity of community and household facilities.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, P.O. Box 333, Zomba, Malawi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10481 Motta, Jose F. The slave family and the introduction of the coffee crop in Bananal, 1801-1829. [A familia escrava e a penetracao do cafe em Bananal, 1801-1829.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 71-101 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This work studies the importance of family [relationships] among slaves in Bananal (Sao Paulo, Brazil) in the early nineteenth century. Additionally, it examines the effects on the slave family of the introduction and growth of [the] coffee plantation occurring in that region....[It is concluded] that the slave family in Bananal had a cyclical evolution, according to the genesis and development of [the] coffee plantation. Manuscript censuses, especially for the years 1801, 1817 and 1829, are the primary sources on which the analysis is based."
Correspondence: J. F. Motta, Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 7141, Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira, 05508 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10482 Oh, Young-Hie. Impact analysis of husband-wife communication about number of children. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1988. 58-72 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Data drawn from the 1985 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey are used to examine the relationship between the extent of husband-wife communication and family planning practices. The author finds that husband-wife communication, especially before the first live birth, has a significant impact on fertility.
Correspondence: Y.-H. Oh, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10483 Ojeda De la Pena, Norma. Family life cycle and social classes in Mexico. Pub. Order No. DA8806390. 1987. 314 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The research focuses on the timing and sequencing of family formation and family expansion among the social classes in [Mexico using a life-course perspective]. A conceptualization of this kind permits us to include formation and legalization of consensual unions, premarital fertility, divorce and separation which are sociodemographic events ignored by conventional analysis of the family life cycle....[Findings indicate that] every social class exhibits a peculiar time pattern in both the formation and expansion stages of the life cycle of the conjugal family....[and] that legalization of established consensual unions is a step in the process of family formation for some couples belonging to the various social classes. Also, premarital fertility is an early step of famliy expansion of first conjugal families in the different social classes."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(2).

55:10484 Peron, Yves; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Morissette, Denis. The impact of new demographic behavior on family life: the Canadian example. [Les repercussions des nouveaux comportements demographiques sur la vie familiale: la situation canadienne.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 242, [1987]. [10] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The impact of recent demographic changes on the family in Canada is examined. Trends considered include the declines in fertility and the popularity of marriage, and the increase in divorce.
This paper is reprinted from Revue Internationale d'Action Communautaire/International Review of Community Development, Vol. 18, No. 58, Autumn 1987, pp. 57-66.
Correspondence: Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10485 Qiu, Liping. A model study on changes and development of urban family structure in China. Population Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1988. 18-27 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Trends in urban family structure in China from the 1920s to 2040 are analyzed using a mathematical model. Data are from a family survey conducted in 1982-1983 in five major cities.
Correspondence: L. Qiu, Department of Sociology, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10486 Santi, Lawrence. The demographic bases of recent change in the structure of American households. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-2, [1988]. 17, [10] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines recent changes in the structure of [U.S.] households within the context of broad population changes. Decreases in married-couple households and increases in single-parent households are due almost entirely to changing patterns of marriage, divorce, fertility and child custody; headship rates for families have remained relatively stable. Increases in single-person and other non-family households are due to increases in the size of the unmarried, childless population and to the aging of this population. Increasing propensities to live alone or with non-relatives were observed between 1970 and 1980, but these behavioral changes have abated during the early 1980s." Data are from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10487 Schulz, Reiner. Strategies for an improved compatibility of household duties and economic activity. [Strategien fur eine bessere Vereinbarkeit von Familien- und Erwerbsarbeit.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1988. 251-74 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines the integration of household activities and occupational responsibilities. Consideration is given to possible changes in company operating time, flexible working hours, and the availability of social welfare institutions to accommodate the needs of working family members. Recommendations are provided based on examples from several European countries.
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10488 Suzuki, Tohru. Measuring household complexity. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 187, Jul 1988. 52-6 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Some issues concerning the measurement of household complexity are discussed in general terms.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10489 Thomson, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Laura. Gender and the value of children. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-29, Apr 1988. 13, [6] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors "examine the effects of gender roles on the economic and social benefits/costs of children to wives and to husbands, as well as on couples' family size desires....Data [are] from the International Value of Children Surveys, conducted during the mid-1970's, for South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan..., and Turkey."
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10490 Unalan, Turgay. Nuclear families in Turkey. [Turkiye'de cekirdek aileler.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 10, 1988. 51-62 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and [the] majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest percent of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean region, and the lowest in the Black Sea region....It is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formations in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics."
Correspondence: T. Unalan, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10491 Wojtkiewicz, Roger A. Household composition change and economic welfare inequality: 1960 to 1980. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-18, [1988]. 26, [12] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with the relationship between household composition change and economic welfare inequality between blacks and whites in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. Demographic factors studied are marriage patterns including divorce rates, marriage age, remarriage, and fertility patterns. Data are from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 U.S. censuses.
This paper was presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, pp. 445-6).
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10492 Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Garfinkel, Irwin. The growth of families headed by women: 1950 to 1980. CDE Working Paper, No. 88-31, [1988]. 32 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors use U.S. census data to analyze the impact of several "major demographic components on the growth in female-headed families from 1950 to 1980." Factors considered include "decrease in fertility, increase in divorce, increased propensity for women with children to establish independent households, decrease in remarriage, and increase in nonmarital births." Differences in trends in the growth of female-headed families between blacks and whites are considered.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10493 Woortmann, Ellen F. Keim and kinship: reflections on a cultural concept of German-Brazilian settlers. [Keim e parentesco: reflexos sobre uma categoria cultural de colonos teuto-brasileiros.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 21-35 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"In this study the author analyses the cultural [concept] Keim, which can be translated as 'germinative principle'. The [concept] classifies people, through families, defining them as marriageable or non-marriageable, according to [their] being carriers of a good or a bad Keim. In the conceptions of the study group--peasants of German origin in Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil]--Keim corresponds to the 'sap' of the genealogical tree through which the families are organized in stem households. The category is fundamental for the understanding of marriage exchanges, that is, the possibilities of alliances as well as the endogamy of the group. By the opposing principles, strong and weak Keim, the peasants explain their present decadence as well as the general decline in the number of children."
Correspondence: E. F. Woortmann, Universidade de Brasilia, Agencia Postal 15, 70910 Brasilia, DF, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10494 Yamamoto, Chizuko. The definition of private household: household statistics of Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 185, Jan 1988. 55-9 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The definitions of a household used in the official statistics of Japan are described. Consideration is given to differences in the definitions of private households used by the various statistical agencies concerned.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10495 Yotopoulos, Pan A.; Kuroda, Yoshimi. A subjective equilibrium approach to the value of children in the agricultural household. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Autumn 1988. 229-76 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"[A] model of the subjective equilibrium of the household [in the Philippines] is extended to include both production and consumption behaviour and to account for the household's demographic structure (age-sex composition, education, etc.). Child labour is considered an endogenous variable on the production side. In this manner the contributions (benefits) of child labour to the agricultural household are directly measured. Moreover, we derive by the duality theorem the profit and factor demand functions. We then estimate explicitly the child labour demand function together with the other variable factors of production, including the adult labour demand function and the output supply function."
Correspondence: P. A. Yotopoulos, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10496 Zurayk, Huda; Shorter, Frederic. The social composition of households in Arab cities and settlements: Cairo, Beirut, Amman. Population Council Regional Papers: West Asia and North Africa, Aug 1988. 88 pp. Population Council: Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
Using information from censuses and surveys, the authors consider the "households of two Arab cities, Cairo and Beirut, with additional comparative references to the households of Palestinians living in five small 'squatter' areas of Amman....The...paper is mainly empirical in its contribution, offering a systematic description of the social composition of households. It also suggests some of the reason why the household compositions are as we find them. They are, to a great extent, unique products of the Arab family culture...." Specific topics covered include demographic factors affecting household size and composition, socioeconomic factors, women's status, and marriage patterns.
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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