Volume 55 - Number 1 - Spring 1989

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:10213 Adewuyi, Alfred A. Marital fertility in polygynous unions in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 393-400 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using data from the Nigerian Fertility Survey of 1981-82, the effect of polygyny on fertility is examined, by age cohort, for four regions of the country. Comparison of mean completed and current fertility suggests that changes in reproductive behaviour are taking place in Nigeria, restricting the fertility of women in polygynous unions, especially of younger women, when socioeconomic factors are taken into account."
Correspondence: A. A. Adewuyi, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10214 Atoh, Makoto; Nakano, Eiko; Otani, Kenji; Kaneko, Ryuichi. Marriage and fertility in present-day Japan: major findings of the Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 187, Jul 1988. 1-28 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Results of a major fertility survey conducted in Japan in June 1987 are presented, including data on age at first marriage, mate selection, arranged marriages, family types, wife's employment, fertility, birth timing, contraception, and abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10215 Bailey, Mohamed. Determinants of fertility in a rural society: some evidence from Sierra Leone. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1989. 285-92 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Data from a sample of 2,000 currently married women aged 15-49 years, [collected] during a fertility and family planning survey carried out in rural areas of Moyamba District of Sierra Leone in 1979, are used to investigate the influences of background (wife's tribal and religious affiliations, and current place of residence), socio-economic (wife's education and occupation, and husband's education), and demographic (wife's current age, age at first marriage, desired family size, and infant-child mortality) variables on marital fertility in Sierra Leone. An [ordinary least squares] regression analysis indicates that the demographic variables, size of place of residence and wife's occupation affect fertility significantly. Wife's educational level and tribal affiliation exhibit marginal effects on fertility. Policy implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: M. Bailey, 2422 Grant Street No. B, Berkeley, CA 94703. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10216 Baird, Allen J. A note on the Easterlin model of fertility in Northwestern Europe and the United States: 1950-1981. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Jan-Apr 1987. 57-68 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper tests a multivariate time series model of West European fertility change based on Easterlin's social and economic analysis of post-1945 fertility trends in the United States. Results indicate that fertility trends in Western Europe during the years 1950-1981 are associated with relative unemployment levels, and in some countries with age specific labor force supply constraints. Ex-post forecasts of fertility are generated up to 1981 for England and Wales, France, Sweden, and the United States. The difficulties with providing ex-ante forecasts are discussed."
Correspondence: A. J. Baird, Center for Research on the Acts of Man, Philadelphia, PA. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10217 Baskara Rao, N.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Hanumantha Rayappa, P. Determinants of fertility decline: a study of rural Karnataka. ISBN 81-7003-060-9. 1986. ix, 192 pp. South Asian Publishers: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the determinants of fertility in India, including age at marriage, desired family size, contraceptive use, infant and child mortality, and family planning programs. Socioeconomic factors and educational status are also considered. The study focuses on the state of Karnataka, where data were collected during 1979 and 1980 from 2,990 households.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10218 Behrman, Jere R.; Taubman, Paul. A test of the Easterlin fertility model using income for two generations and a comparison with the Becker model. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 117-23 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"An important dimension of Easterlin's seminal work on fertility is the hypothesis of intergenerational taste formation, or the relative income hypothesis. Previous estimates have not had data on income in two generations, so the estimated own-income effects may have had a downward bias. This article uses data with income from two generations to estimate the Easterlin model directly. Own income is still not positively significant. A simple single-equation test is developed to distinguish this model from a Becker intergenerational serially correlated endowments model that he claims is observationally equivalent. The test results favor the Becker formulation." Data are from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin and Adult Offspring Sample and concern the United States.
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, Department of Economics, McNeil 160, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10219 Benavente, Jaime. Social change and fertility decline in nineteenth century Catalonia. Pub. Order No. DA8801280. 1987. 321 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis is concerned with the historical decline of fertility rates among the Catalans [in Spain]. It looks at the relationships between the eighteenth-century structural transformations with nuptiality, fertility and population growth. It also describes the decline of marital fertility in the nineteenth century, and explores and tests explanations for different periods of decline. In doing so, this study pays close attention to the material circumstances surrounding these changes. The general assumption is that the social structural changes during this period were associated with the dramatic changes in nuptiality and reproduction....Censuses, parish registers and economic and geographical cadastres are used. The analysis is focused on the fertility experience and structural conditions of particular localities."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(2).

55:10220 Blayo, Chantal. Trends of fertility in Western Europe after 1980. Journal of Regional Policy, Vol. 7, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 493-514 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
Trends in fertility in Europe, excluding Eastern Europe, are reviewed. Consideration is given to trends in marital fertility and in prenuptial conceptions and illegitimate births. The author concludes that although fertility has fallen in most countries, a number of national and regional differences persist. Data are primarily from French sources and concern the period since 1980.
Correspondence: C. Blayo, INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: New York Public Library.

55:10221 Boingaoli, Bilusa B. The socio-cultural determinants of low fertility among the Uele of Zaire: a) marital status, b) conjugal mobility, and c) sexual promiscuity. [Determinants socio-culturels de la faible fecondite de l'Uele, Zaire: a) etat matrimonial, b) mobilite conjugale et c) libertinage sexuel.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.2.71-81 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons for the low levels of fertility experienced in the Uele region of Zaire are explored. Consideration is given to the impact on fertility of marital status, marital instability, and sexual promiscuity. Data are from various sources, including surveys and indirect sources, such as legal records from native courts.
Correspondence: B. B. Boingaoli, Universite de Kisangani, B.P. 241, Kisangani, Zaire. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10222 Bonitsis, Theologos H.; Geithman, David T. Does income affect fertility or does fertility affect income? Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 447-51 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper tests for the dynamic causal connection between real income per capita and the birth rate for a subset of developing countries. These countries are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay. Our empirical findings show that, for the historical period under review, in several countries real income per capita affected the birth rate. Virtually no evidence is found to support the hypothesis that the birth rate affected real income per capita."
Correspondence: T. H. Bonitsis, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10223 Chan, Tsze Hau. The determinants of fertility in rural Malaysia: an empirical evaluation of Easterlin's synthesis framework of fertility determination. Pub. Order No. DA8810057. 1987. 233 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The basic purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate Easterlin's synthesis framework of fertility determination. The framework was separately applied to World Fertility Survey data for Chinese and Malay rural populations in Malaysia. Two statistical techniques were implemented....Results from the single equation analysis show that the Chinese have a higher 'supply' of children and lower fertility control costs. They also use family planning for longer periods of time....When evaluated by the simultaneous equation system technique, the framework fails to fit the data in either group....As [the] simultaneous equation model is considered more reliable, results from this procedure cast doubts on the results of the single equation analyses obtained in this study as well as in Easterlin's own work."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(5).

55:10224 China. State Statistical Bureau. Department of Population Statistics (Beijing, China). China In-Depth Fertility Survey (Phase I). Principal report, Volumes I and II. Series CIDFS, No. 4 and 5, Oct 1986. 225; xiv, 780 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
These two volumes present results from large-scale fertility surveys conducted in April 1985 in the provinces of Shaanxi and Hebei and in the municipality of Shanghai. The first volume provides detailed information on the survey background, methodology, and main findings in the areas of nuptiality, fertility, child survivorship and child health care, fertility preferences, and contraception. The second volume is in three sections, which contain tabulated data for Hebei, Shaanxi, and Shanghai. Two kinds of tables are included, those presenting data on households and those presenting data from the individual questionnaire.
For related machine-readable data files, see 53:20826, 20827, and 20828.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10225 Cho, Ae-Jeo; Kong, Sae-Kwon. A study of the relationship between women's employment and fertility. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jul 1988. 34-57 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the Korean Family Life Survey are used to explore women's employment patterns and the relationship between women's employment and fertility. It is found that women who do not work generally marry earlier and have more children than women who do work. The data also show that the relationship between occupation and fertility is linked to socioeconomic status.
Correspondence: A.-J. Cho, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10226 Cleland, John; Rodriguez, German. The effect of parental education on marital fertility in developing countries. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 419-42 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The effects of parents' education on marital fertility are analysed with data from 38 surveys in the WFS [World Fertility Survey] programme, and a two-parameter model in which the age-dependent level of fertility and a duration-dependent slope of fertility are estimated. The level parameter reflects post-partum infecundity and, in some populations, contraceptive spacing of births. The slope parameter reflects parity-specific birth control. The effects of the husband's and of the wife's education are estimated, both before and after adjustment for other socio-economic factors. The schooling of the wife emerges as a more decisive influence on fertility than that of the husband, with substantial net effects even after controlling for urban-rural residence, husband's socio-economic status and wife's employment." Regional differences are identified and discussed.
Correspondence: J. Cleland, International Statistical Institute, Research Centre, 428 Prinses Beatrixlaan, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10227 Cochrane, Susan H. The effects of education, health, and social security on fertility in developing countries. Policy, Planning, and Research Working Paper, No. WPS 93, Sep 1988. 41 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, Population, Health and Nutrition Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses "the effects of various types of social programs on fertility..., not only to help in understanding the demographic transition, but also to enable social engineering to accelerate fertility decline [in developing countries]." Determinants analyzed are education, child mortality, social security, health care, and family planning. Findings indicate that female education is effective in producing fertility decline, and that health services that help to reduce child mortality also lower fertility rates. The author notes that social security systems are costly and difficult to evaluate. The results indicate that "the cost of averting births, for most countries, appears to be lowest when policy emphasizes family planning."
Correspondence: Sonia Ainsworth, Room S6-065, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10228 Dallos, Odonne; Czibulka, Zoltan; Zsori, Vincene. Data on fertility according to the 1984 microcensus (worksheets). [Termekenysegi adatok az 1984. evi mikrocenzus alapjan (munkaanyag).] ISBN 963-7056-19-X. LC 88-401168. 1987. 219 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
Data on fertility in Hungary are presented for the period 1960-1984, taken from the 1984 census and other official sources. Factors considered include marital status, number of children, age, occupation, child care, commuting, housing, and health. Data are also provided on birth order by sex, birth intervals, time spent living with children present in the home, and fertility among those married more than once.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

55:10229 de Beer, J. Use of birth expectations for population forecasting. [Gebruik van vruchtbaarheidsverwachtingen voor bevolkingsprognoses.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 9, Sep 1988. 9-15 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Two methods for adjusting data on birth expectations derived from fertility surveys for use in population forecasts are presented. The two methods, the relational Gompertz model and the partial adjustment model, are applied to data from the 1985 Netherlands Fertility Survey. The implications for forecasting future trends in fertility are then discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10230 Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. Endogenous versus exogenous fertility: what difference for the macroeconomy? In: Economics of changing age distributions in developed countries, edited by Ronald D. Lee, W. Brian Arthur, and Gerry Rodgers. International Studies in Demography, 1988. 183-215 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the present chapter we juxtapose exogenous fertility and life cycle models and report some comparative simulation experiments which provide information about the differences in the implications of the two types of models for the time-path of the macroeconomy and its theoretical steady state." Two separate models of endogenous and exogenous fertility are specified and compared in simulation experiments. "The results presented here support the case for viewing the population and the economy as a dynamic interactive macro-system rather than as a system in which fertility is taken to be exogenous."
Correspondence: F. T. Denton, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10231 Dyson, Tim. Decline of traditional fertility restraints: demographic effects in developing countries. IPPF Medical Bulletin, Vol. 22, No. 6, Dec 1988. 1-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the widespread increases in fertility in developing countries. "This article then focuses on the role played by the erosion of traditional forms of fertility restraint in bringing about these rises. Finally, some of the implications for health and family welfare activities are discussed." The data are from the World Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: T. Dyson, Department of Population Studies, London School of Economics, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10232 Ebanks, G. Edward; Loaiza, Edilberto. Nuptiality and fertility in the Dominican Republic. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 88-1, May 1988. 20, [15] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The relationship between nuptiality and fertility in the Dominican Republic is analyzed using data from the 1975 World Fertility Survey. Consensual, visiting, and married unions, and contraceptive use are analyzed for their impact on fertility.
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10233 Ermisch, John. Econometric analysis of birth rate dynamics in Britain. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 23, No. 4, Autumn 1988. 563-76 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author presents an econometric model to estimate annual fluctuations in the birth rate in the United Kingdom since 1950. The new model has been improved by "(1) adding additional economic variables to the model, particularly child allowances, real house prices and, following Easterlin (1980), women's cohort size; (2) using men's and women's net (after tax) wages rather than gross wages; and (3) employing econometric techniques developed from the theory of cointegrated series to deal with the nonstationarity of most of the data."
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 2 Dean Trench Street, Smith Square, London SW1P 3HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

55:10234 Feng, Fang Hui. Evaluation of the fertility model and the transformation of fertility in China. Renkou Dongtai, No. 3, 1988. 13-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Models of fertility developed by Coale and Trussell are applied to data from the 1-in-1,000 fertility survey carried out in China in 1982. The results indicate that although M, the measure of natural fertility, has not changed significantly from 1966 to 1981, there has been a major increase in m, the measure of fertility control for the same period.
Location: China Population Information Center, Beijing, China.

55:10235 Golata, Elzbieta. Demometric models of factors affecting the spatial differentiation of fertility among rural women by the criterion of place of residence. [Demometryczne modele czynnikow terytorialnego zroznicowania plodnosci kobiet wiejskich wedlug kryterium faktycznego miejsca zamieszkania.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/91, 1988. 25-50 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Demographic-economic models of the factors affecting differential fertility among Polish women in 49 voivodships are constructed using official data for 1978-1979 and 1983-1984. For each period a correlational analysis of the intermediate variables affecting fertility is performed taking into account age differentials. Period and age factors are also considered during the course of a longitudinal analysis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10236 Golata, Elzbieta; Kedelski, Mieczyslaw. On two demometric models of female fertility. [O dwoch modelach demometrycznych plodnosci kobiet.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/93, 1988. 21-36 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors evaluate two demometric models of female fertility. The first involves fitting a log-normal distribution to an age-specific female fertility function; the second is a modification of a classical version of Mazur's formula. The models are tested using data on age-specific fertility rates in Poland for the period 1950-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10237 Goldberg, Howard I.; McNeil, Malcolm; Spitz, Alison. Contraceptive use and fertility decline in Chogoria, Kenya. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 17-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article discusses some family planning and fertility results of a [1985] population-based survey conducted in one rural area of Kenya, which revealed levels of contraceptive use and a marked decline in rates of childbearing unprecedented in rural Kenya." The results of the survey indicate that family planning services have been partially responsible for reduced fertility.
Correspondence: H. I. Goldberg, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10238 Greenhalgh, Susan. Fertility as mobility: sinic transitions. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 141, Nov 1988. 61 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since the time of Malthus, explanations of fertility decline have focused on the link between small family size and upward socioeconomic mobility. This paper elaborates on this linkage and places it at the heart of an explanation for the rapidity of fertility declines in areas of Chinese culture. The perspective developed assumes that fertility is a subset of a group of behaviors, or strategies, aimed at advancing up a goal hierarchy ranging from security to mobility. Viewing fertility as mobility, the paper analyzes the institutional structures and cultural patterns that shaped fertility behavior in late traditional China. In the contemporary period, it argues, the fundamental cause of fertility decline in both the People's Republic of China and Taiwan was a set of institutional transformations that altered the security and mobility benefits of children, modified the costs of childrearing, and changed the terms in which cost-benefit calculations were made. However, the reason fertility declined so rapidly lies in the high degree of economic rationalism in Chinese culture, an attribute that, despite varying political-economic systems, persisted in traditional or modified form in both parts of China."
Correspondence: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10239 Grindstaff, Carl F. The high cost of childbearing: a fertility profile of Canadian women at age 30. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 87-5, Jul 1987. 19 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada; University of Western Ontario, Centre for Canadian Population Studies: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the social, demographic and economic characteristics of ever married women at age thirty in Canada in 1981, in relation to their level of fertility. The data are...from the 1981 Census of Canada, two percent public use sample tape...." Consideration is given to the factors affecting fertility including educational status, cultural factors, economic roles of women outside the home, age at marriage, and age at first birth. "Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the high cost of childbearing."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10240 Grunewald, Werner. Fertility life tables. [Fruchtbarkeitstafeln.] Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 204, No. 3, Mar 1988. 241-54 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Three tables for measuring human fertility are presented. The first, the Parity-Fertility-Life-Table, includes the intensity of fertility only. The second table, the Marriage-Duration-Fertility-Life-Table, bases on the Parity-Fertility-Life-Table and measures the tempo of fertility altogether. The third table, the Birth-Interval-Fertility-Life-Table, completes the Marriage-Duration-Fertility-Life-Table in considering the point of time, at which the last parity is reached." The methods are illustrated using official data for the Federal Republic of Germany.
Correspondence: W. Grunewald, Lehrstuhl fur Statistik, Postfach 1549, 8600 Bamberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

55:10241 Haines, Michael R. American fertility in transition: new estimates of birth rates in the United States, 1900-1910. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 137-48 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article presents new estimates of age-specific overall and marital fertility rates for the entire United States for the period 1900-1910. The estimation techniques are the two-census parity increment method and the own-children method. The data sources are the 1900 census public use sample and tabulations of 1910 census fertility data published with the 1940 census. Estimates are made for the total population, whites, native-born whites, foreign-born whites, and blacks. Low age-specific marital fertility at younger ages is consistent with a view of a distinctive American fertility pattern at this time."
Correspondence: M. R. Haines, Department of Economics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10242 Hakkert, R. The fertility of early twentieth century "colono" families in the state of Sao Paulo: an application of the own children method. In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F. H. A. G. Zwart, edited by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen. 1988. 101-15 pp. Geo Pers: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author tests a version of the own-children method for estimating fertility using data on observed family compositions for "colono" families living on coffee plantations in Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period 1885-1929. "Colonato" was the economic system that replaced slavery on the coffee plantations of Brazil around 1870.
Correspondence: R. Hakkert, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Cidade Universitaria, Pampulha, C.P. 1621, 1622, 30000 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10243 Handl, Johann. Long-term fertility in Germany: marriage cohorts, 1920-1960. [Der langfristige Geburtenruckgang in Deutschland: Heiratskohorten 1920-1960.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1988. 295-317 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Fertility trends among marriage cohorts in Germany for the period 1920-1960 are analyzed. It is found that "the decrease [in] the mean number of children of economically active women as of the 1936 marriage cohort was [caused not] by changes in the reproductive behaviour but rather by the structural change in the employment conditions of economically active women."
Correspondence: J. Handl, Institut fur Soziologie der Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, Kochstrasse 4, 8520 Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10244 Heath, Kenneth; Da Costa-Martinez, Dona; Sheon, Amy R. Trinidad and Tobago Demographic and Health Survey, 1987. Nov 1988. xiv, 134 pp. Family Planning Association of Trinidad and Tobago: Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents findings from Trinidad and Tobago's 1987 Demographic and Health Survey. Data are provided on nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, fertility regulation and preferences, and infant and child health and mortality. Consideration is given to population and family planning policies and programs, characteristics of survey respondents, and the organization and design of the survey. Appendixes containing descriptions of survey methods and training procedures and a sample of the questionnaire are included.
Correspondence: DHS Program, IRD/Westinghouse, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10245 Henin, Roushdi A. Empirical evidence of the fertility impact and related factors of development projects in Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.3.23-48 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of the effect of development projects (or agricultural innovations) on fertility levels and trends. The paper will also show what proximate determinants...are influencing fertility regimes....The experience from three countries will be considered in this paper, based on surveys undertaken by the writer: The Sudan Demographic Survey conducted in 1961, the National Demographic Survey of Tanzania, conducted in 1973 and the third in Kenya in 1982....The argument advanced here is that in the absence of changes in people's ideals with regard to family size, a situation which is true of most of Africa, initial improvements in...income, education or health conditions, or the existence on account of environmental factors of circumstances conducive to agricultural development...are conducive to high fertility regimes."
Correspondence: R. A. Henin, c/o Dr. A. Meguid, 58 Hemlock Drive, North Tarrytown, NY 10591. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10246 Hsiung, Ping-Chun. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 103-28 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
Using data from a 1985 nationwide survey of labor force participation in Taiwan, the author argues that "the effect of patriarchal family structure on fertility is moderated by female education and occupational status. [It is shown that] females with higher educational and occupational status tend not to marry into patriarchal families. For those who do marry into patriarchal families, their educational and occupational status enable them to better resist the pressures to have more children [than] families try to impose on them. Females with lower educational and occupational status, on the other hand, do not have the personal resources to resist the pressures from the patriarchal family to bear more children. Consequently, these women have higher fertility than the others."
Correspondence: P.-C. Hsiung, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10247 Huinink, Johannes. The demographic analysis of human fertility using life history data. [Die demographische Analyse der Geburtenentwicklung mit Lebensverlaufsdaten.] Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, Vol. 72, No. 4, 1988. 359-77 pp. Gottingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"In this contribution we show how the analysis of data from the German Life History Study sheds light on and extends the official statistics on fertility trends in West Germany. First, the data gathered for the three cohorts 1929-31, 1939-41, and 1949-51, are proved for their representativeness. Then birth rates of the first, second, third, and following order for women and men are presented. At last we discuss results of simple survival analyses of the entry into parenthood for different sociostructural groups of men and women in our cohorts."
Correspondence: J. Huinink, Max-Planck-Institut fur Bildungsforschung, Lentzeallee 94, 1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10248 Huss-Ashmore, Rebecca. Seasonal patterns of birth and conception in rural highland Lesotho. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 3, Jun 1988. 493-506 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
Seasonal patterns of birth and conception in rural Lesotho are examined. "Fertility data [collected in 1982] on a group of peasant cultivators in highland Lesotho show a bimodal pattern of birth seasonality that differs substantially from neighboring groups in South Africa. [It is found that] while climate, diet, workload, and marriage contribute indirectly to the overall pattern of conception and birth, only labor outmigration is significantly correlated....[and that] given the rapid pace of modernization in this society, economic factors may be more important than environmental factors in determining season of birth."
Correspondence: R. Huss-Ashmore, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10249 Ilyas, Baharuddin. The study of socioeconomic factors that influence the fertility of eligible couples for population policy implementation: a case study in Ujung Pandang. [Kajian faktor-faktor sosial ekonomi yang mempengaruhi fertilitas pasangan usia subur dalam rangka pengelolaan kependudukan, suatu studi kasus di kotamadya Ujung Pandang.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 15, No. 29, Jun 1988. ii-iv, 17-36 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The socioeconomic factors affecting fertility in Indonesia are examined using data for 185 couples in Ujung Pandang, capital of South Sulawesi province. Using multivariate linear regression, the author establishes that education, age at first marriage, and woman's economic activity have a negative correlation with fertility, while infant and child mortality and maternal age have a positive correlation. The correlation between education and age at first marriage and between education and contraceptive use are also analyzed.
Correspondence: B. Ilyas, IKIP, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10250 Itoh, Tatsuya. A measure of birth intervals from the National Household Survey in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 179, Jul 1986. 49-59 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Birth intervals in Japan are analyzed using data from the National Household Survey. Consideration is given to changes over the period 1970 to 1983.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10251 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Indicators of fertility by prefecture in 1970-1985. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 246, Feb 10, 1987. 56 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Indicators of fertility by prefecture and age for Japan are presented for the period 1970-1985 using data from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10252 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey in 1987. Volume I. Marriage and fertility in present-day Japan. Field Survey Series, Nov 1, 1988. 228 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data from the Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey of 1987 are presented and analyzed. Data are included on age at first marriage, spouse selection, the length of the engagement period and duration of first marriage, the effect of living with parents following marriage, wife's employment after marriage, number and distribution of children born within marriage, premarital pregnancy and births outside marriage, expected and ideal number of children, contraceptive use and methods chosen, induced abortions, and childbirth.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10253 Kedelski, Mieczyslaw. Demometric estimation of fertility function by age of women in Poland. [Demometryczna estymacja funkcji plodnosci wedlug wieku kobiet w Polsce.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/91, 1988. 3-24 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An attempt is made to fit selected distributions to fertility functions characterizing variations of age-specific fertility rates for one-year age groups using official Polish data. The alternative distributions utilized include the Pearson curve type I, the gamma distribution, and the Maxwell distribution. The author finds that up to 1974 the gamma distribution fits less well than the Pearson curve type I, but that the gamma distribution is better fitted to the 1980s data. A statistical analysis of the empirical distributions is also made using the calculus of moments.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10254 Klepinger, Daniel H. A life cycle model of fertility and female labor supply with stochastic births. 1988. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this paper a lifecycle model of female labor supply and fertility is developed and empirically tested. Both fertility and labor supply are treated as fully endogenous....It is assumed that there are economies of scale in mother provided home care, a hypothesis that is empirically tested....The data used to test the theory presented here were obtained from the Young Women file of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey....The empirical results generally provide strong support for the theory. Labor supply rises with the wage and declines with the number of children already born. Young children have a larger negative impact on labor supply than older children. Births are negatively related to the wage, number and age of existing children and positively related to the number of months since last birth. Finally, the empirical results provide support for the hypothesis of economies of scale in home care."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(3).

55:10255 Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn; Frisen, Carl. Has Thailand's fertility decline stalled? Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 1988. 3-20 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Thailand is one of the third world countries where a very substantial fertility decline has occurred during the last two decades; however, there has been some recent concern, based on fertility rates derived from three national contraceptive prevalence surveys conducted in 1978/79, 1981 and 1984, that the fertility decline may have lost momentum at a level well above replacement fertility. New evidence now available from a more recent national survey, which permits calculation of retrospective fertility trends, in combination with those from registration data, clearly contradict the suggestion of a stall in the fertility decline. Moreover, because expected family size remains low among women currently starting their reproductive careers and evidence shows that the preferred number of children has fallen more or less steadily, low fertility may be expected to be a feature of the Thai population for some time to come."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10256 Kouaouci, A. Fertility north of the Sahara: an application of the Bongaarts model. [Fecondite au nord du Sahara: une application du modele Bongaarts.] In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.1.31-51 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in fertility in Northern Africa are analyzed "based on the results of the application of the Bongaarts Model to the fertility data collected in three North African countries (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) between 1979 and 1986." The accuracy of the Bongaarts model is critically examined, and suggestions are made for improvements.
Correspondence: A. Kouaouci, CENEAP, Algiers, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10257 Krishnan, Vijaya. Occupational status, earnings, and fertility expectations: development and estimation of a causal model. Economist, Vol. 136, No. 3, 1988. 358-82 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
The causal structures of the relationships among occupational status, earnings, and fertility expectations in Canada are examined using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey. Differences among three groups of wives classified by generation of Canadian residence are also analyzed. Factors considered include age, educational status, work experience, ethnic group, and English language ability. The major findings are "(1) lower earnings of third generation wives are strongly related to lower levels of education, work experience, and job status; (2) wives who speak an ethnic language are likely to have lower fertility than comparable wives who do not speak an ethnic language; and (3) generational effects on earnings and fertility are limited to differences in education, work experience, and occupational status."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E1, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

55:10258 Lappe, France M.; Schurman, Rachel. The missing piece in the population puzzle. Food First Development Report, No. 4, Sep 1988. 87 pp. Institute for Food and Development Policy: San Francisco, California. In Eng.
"In this report we seek to probe beneath the descriptive social perspective in order to examine the relationships of social power--economic, political, cultural--that influence fertility [in developing countries]. We construct what we call the power-structures perspective, referring to the multilayered arenas of decision-making power that shape people's reproductive choices or lack of them. We use this framework to show how the powerlessness of the poor often leaves them little option but large families....It follows from our power-structures perspective that far-reaching economic and political change is necessary to reduce birth rates to replacement levels....Social arrangements beyond the family...must offer both security and opportunity. Most important, the power of women must be augmented through expanded opportunities for both men and women."
Correspondence: Institute for Food and Development Policy, 145 Ninth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10259 Levy, Michel L. When the storks come. [Quand viennent les cigognes.] Population et Societes, No. 227, Sep 1988. 1-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in fertility in France for 1986 are analyzed using vital statistics data. The focus is on the range and types of data available.
Correspondence: M. L. Levy, INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10260 Li, Bohua; Zhu, Gang. Changes in total fertility rate among minority women in rural areas (1964-1981). Zhongguo Renkou Kexue/Population Science of China, No. 3, Jun 1, 1988. 1-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Changes in fertility among minority women from 1964 to 1981 in rural China are examined using data from the 1-in-1,000 fertility survey and census of 1982. The methodology used involves the Brass-Gompertz fertility model. Fertility differentials among the four major minority groups are considered. The results indicate that the decline in fertility has occurred mainly among older women.
Location: China Population Information Center, Beijing, China.

55:10261 Locoh, Therese. Fertility in Black Africa: a rapid growth in knowledge but a future still difficult to assess. [La fecondite en Afrique noire: un progres rapide des connaissances mais un avenir encore difficile a discerner.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 3, ISBN 2-87762-002-6. Oct 1988. 26 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Current fertility levels and determinants in Africa South of the Sahara are analyzed based primarily on data from the World Fertility Survey. "Nuptiality, breastfeeding and abstinence are still the main factors [affecting] fertility levels. Practice of contraception remains low and is limited to urbanized elites. The reason why the African considers large families as desirable is to be found in the history of African populations, their social and economic structures, and their kinship systems." The author concludes that although some changes in norms and behaviors affecting fertility can be observed, fertility will not decline substantially in the near future.
Correspondence: CEPED, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10262 Luther, Norman Y.; Cho, Lee-Jay. Reconstruction of birth histories from census and household survey data. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 451-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper a new procedure for reconstructing birth histories from census or household survey data is developed. Given the number of children ever born, the number of deceased children, and the 'own children' birth history of each woman, it is possible to 'fill in' probabilistically the missing births of her deceased children and of children not present in the household. Thus, the procedure generates complete birth histories from which such measures as age-specific fertility rates, parity progression ratios, and birth interval measures may be estimated." The procedure is illustrated using household survey data from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey.
Correspondence: N. Y. Luther, Department of Mathematics, Hawaii Pacific College, Honolulu, HI 96813. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10263 Meireles, Denise M. Suggestions for a comparative analysis of fertility in Indian populations. [Sugestoes para uma analise comparativa da fecundidade em populacoes indigenas.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1988. 1-20 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents the results of...fieldwork research relating to three Indian societies in Brazil, through the use of the model for the comparative study of fertility proposed by Kingsley Davis and Judith Blake. The collected data show changes within these societies which favourably affected fertility. From this evidence many other questions concerning the social organization and its influence on fertility are discussed."
Correspondence: D. M. Meireles, Departamento de Historia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Avenida Fernando Correa s/n, 78000 Cuiaba, MT, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10264 Mengistu, Genet. Fertility and child mortality in rural Ethiopia: Gondar and Hararge regions. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 115-21 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents fertility and child mortality estimates for agricultural households of the Gondar and Hararge regions [of Ethiopia], based on the 1981 Rural Demographic Survey. The study shows that fertility and child mortality are quite high in both regions as in the rest of the country. However, Hararge has significantly higher mean parity and child mortality than Gondar."
Correspondence: G. Mengistu, Central Statistical Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10265 Mhloyi, M. M. The determinants of fertility in Africa under modernization. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.3.1-22 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Using examples and data from a number of surveys in Sub-Saharan Africa, the author examines fertility determinants in Africa. Three questions are considered: "What factors have been traditionally important in maximizing and sustaining fertility at its current level? How are these factors changing under modernisation? and What new factors are coming into play, and through what mechanisms do they impinge upon fertility? In answering these questions focus will be placed on factors determining both the supply for children (the proximate determinants) and the demand for children as determinants of deliberate adoption [of] fertility control--the factor underlying fertility transition. The status of women as it determines the locus of decision making on fertility will also be considered."
Correspondence: M. M. Mhloyi, Sociology Department, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167 Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10266 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). The proximate determinants of fertility in Morocco. [Determinants proches de la fecondite au Maroc.] Sep 1988. 19 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
The proximate determinants of fertility in Morocco are analyzed using data from a variety of official sources. Factors considered include age at marriage, divorce and remarriage, lactation and postpartum amenorrhea, and contraception. Changes in fertility over time, geographical variations in fertility, and socioeconomic fertility differentials are also studied. The report concludes that fertility remains high, with an average of just over five children for each woman, but that a decline in fertility since the 1960s is apparent.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10267 Mosher, William D. Fertility and family planning in the United States: insights from the National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 207-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Fertility and family planning trends in the United States are explored using data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). "This article summarizes the results of about 50 published reports and articles derived from the 1982 NSFG and reviews their implications for research and policy. The framework for this discussion is the intermediate fertility variables, or proximate determinants of fertility [defined as]....intercourse variables (affecting the probability that intercourse will occur), conception variables (affecting the probability that intercourse will result in pregnancy) and gestation variables (affecting the probability that a pregnancy will be carried to term)." Some discussion of fertility differentials between whites and blacks is also offered.
Correspondence: W. D. Mosher, Family Growth Survey Branch, National Center for Health Statistics, Federal Center Building, Room 1-57, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10268 Ohbuchi, Hiroshi. The quantity and quality of children, labor supply and wages of married women in postwar Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, May 1988. 5-14 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"The purpose of this paper is...to build a simultaneous estimation model of fertility, child quality, wife's labor supply and female wage, and to test the applicability of this model using time-series data from postwar Japan." The results imply "that fertility and employment have generally been [an] alternative behavior for...Japanese women; that their behavioral choice has depended on economic conditions; and that the quantity and quality of children have been substitutes."
Correspondence: H. Ohbuchi, Chuo University, 742-1 Higashinakano, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-03, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10269 Okoye, S. Chike. Application of multiple decrement life table to the analysis of fertility and family building. RIPS Working Paper, No. RIPS/WPS/3/87, 1987. 23 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The focus of this study is "primarily on the application of [the] multiple decrement life table to the analysis of fertility and some demographic variables related to family building." Data were constructed for the purpose of illustration.
Correspondence: RIPS, University of Ghana, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10270 Paiva, Paulo de T. A. The process of proletarianization and the fertility transition in Brazil. [O processo de proletarizacao e a transicao da fecundidade no Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Economia, Vol. 41, No. 4, Dec 1987. 383-414 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of changes in the organization of the labor force in Brazil on fertility is assessed. The author notes that conditions before industrialization favored high fertility and that the proletarianization of the labor force reduced the advantages of having a large family, thereby leading to a rapid decline in fertility since the late 1960s.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10271 Papiernik, Elzbieta. Appraisal of the factors influencing changes in the total number and composition of births by mother's age. [Ocena wplywu wybranych czynnikow na zmiane ogolnej liczby i struktury urodzen wedlug wieku matki.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 5, May 1988. 6-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The causes of the temporary and unexpected increase in fertility in Poland that occurred at the beginning of the 1980s are reviewed. Among the possible causes considered are a change in the number of women of reproductive age, changes in the size of the female population in selected areas due to migration, and actual changes in age-specific fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10272 Pardthaisong, Tieng. Fertility decline and consequences of the national family planning program: an analysis of the achievements of family planning activities in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1988. 43-76, 147 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on the census data of 1970 and 1980 for each province of Thailand, the present study has revealed that between 1960-1980, a rapid fertility decline took place in 17 northern provinces and 26 central provinces of Thailand. A similar rapid fertility decline also took place starting in 1975 in the 16 northeast provinces and in the 14 southern provinces. Levels and trends of fertility found in this study suggest that most of the districts in the northern and the central regions reached the replacement level or below by 1985, and that similar levels will be attained by 1990 for almost every district in Thailand." Consideration is given to the impact of rapid fertility decline on development in Thailand.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10273 Patil, R. L. Fertility in Karnataka state during 1971-1981: an application of Bongaarts' model. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 2, Dec 1987. 55-62 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Estimates of fertility levels in Karnataka, India, for 1971 and 1981 are derived. Bongaarts's model of proximate determinants of fertility is utilized to examine the change in fertility rates during this period.
Correspondence: R. L. Patil, Population Research Centre, J. S. S. Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10274 Pennington, Renee; Harpending, Henry. Fitness and fertility among Kalahari !Kung. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 77, No. 3, Nov 1988. 303-19 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A model is developed that examines fertility and childhood mortality patterns and their relationship to environmental factors. Data are for two Bushmen populations of Southern Africa collected in 1967-1968. The model "attempts to quantify the idea that there is a trade-off between producing a few children likely to survive to reproductive age and producing a greater number of children with lower chances for survival. The optimum mix of these strategies depends on environmental characteristics....The results do not support explanations of the low fertilities observed among !Kung Bushmen women, in whom it is thought that fitness is maximized by limiting fertility, and show no relationship between mortality and family size in either !Kung population. Instead, the number of offspring reaching reproductive age in both populations increases as their completed family size increases."
Correspondence: R. Pennington, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10275 Pick, James B.; Butler, Edgar W.; Pavgi, Suhas. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility: selected Mexican regions, 1976-1977. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1988. 137-57 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Cumulative fertility is analyzed for four regions of Mexico, based on World Fertility Survey data of 1976-77: the State of Baja California, the Northwest region, the State of Jalisco, and the Northeast region. Based on stepwise regression methodology, the study compares results for twelve subsamples of married respondents, three age categories by four regions. The dependent variables are children ever born and children ever born in the last five years. Migration, urban, educational, and occupational variables are included as independent variables. Regression results reveal level of education is the major, and negative, influence on fertility. Other results include specific negative effects for prior occupation, size of place of residence, and childhood place of residence. Fertility effects appear different for migration origin and destination regions, but more similar for younger ages. Effects of migration on fertility are small."
Correspondence: J. B. Pick, Graduate School of Management, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10276 Poston, Dudley L. Childlessness patterns in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 55-78 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
The author examines patterns of childlessness among the hsiens (counties) and major cities of Taiwan. He first reviews prior studies of childlessness in developed and developing countries, then continues with specific propositions and hypotheses regarding the demographic and socioeconomic factors affecting childlessness in Taiwan. 1980 official data are used to analyze the relationship between the increase in voluntary childlessness and levels of modernization.
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10277 Poston, Dudley L. Fertility and family planning in China: an analysis of provincial patterns. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 379-91 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the patterns of fertility and family planning [in China] among the 28 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions (here referred to as provinces) for the period around 1981. A major question is the degree to which variation among the provinces in family planning and contraception rates is related to variation in fertility rates." Data are from a variety of official sources. The author concludes that "fertility rates in the more urban and developed parts of China are very low, approximating those of countries with the lowest fertility rates in the world. Family planning in these areas is also very common and widespread. The more rural and interior areas of China, however, are characterized by much higher fertility rates and by much lower family planning rates. Family planning variables are very good predictors of provincial fertility."
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10278 Powell, Virginia. Relationships between gender and fertility: insights from the case of the baby boom. Pub. Order No. DA8801861. 1987. 235 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"I reinterpret the baby boom [in the United States] from a feminist perspective, asking whether attention to ideologies of gender and sexual divisions of labor alters understandings of that phenomenon. Using bibliographic and documentary materials on the postwar period, I describe the postwar historical context, emphasizing gender ideologies and sexual divisions of labor....My analysis challenges demography to produce more complex, multi-causal explanations for fertility, to explore the impact of men's lives and masculinities on fertility, and to examine relationships between the social organization of gender, gender inequalities, and fertility."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(12).

55:10279 Prioux, France. Order-specific cohort fertility rates: a comparative study of England and Wales, France, and the Netherlands beginning with cohorts of the 1930s. [La fecondite par rang de naissance dans les generations: evolution comparee en Angleterre-Galles, en France et aux Pays-Bas, depuis la generation 1930.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1988. 855-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Order-specific fertility rates for England and Wales, France, and the Netherlands are compared, with a focus on developments in completed family size among cohorts. "At the beginning of the period the fall in higher-order birth rates which was responsible for the decline in fertility, masked an increase in first and second births in all three countries. More recently, however, births of third and higher orders appear to have reached their lower limit, and the decline in completed family size between successive cohorts is due to the fall in rates of first and second births, particularly in England and Wales and in the Netherlands. The number of two-child families has increased because of a decline in the number of families with four or more children, and also because of a fall in the number of childless women. However, beginning with the cohort of 1948, the two-child family seems to have ceased to be the ideal to which the majority of women in England and Wales and Holland aspire, and the proportion of women who remain childless is likely to increase significantly in these two countries."
Correspondence: F. Prioux, INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10280 Rai, Suresh. Proximate determinants of fertility decline in Bihar during 1971-81. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1988. 35-43 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper was to study the fertility change in the state of Bihar [India] during 1971-81 and assess the contribution of each proximate variable in the process of fertility change through the decomposition of the total fertility rate (TFR) into their proximate components as proposed by Bongaarts." The data, drawn from the 1981 census and other official sources, indicate a probable future decline in fertility levels.
Correspondence: S. Rai, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10281 Rajulton, Fernando; Balakrishnan, T. R.; Chen, Jiajian. Changes in timing of fertility: a Canadian experience. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 88-6, Aug 1988. 16, [6] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper examines the patterns of timing of births of women using data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. Semi-Markovian schemes are applied to the maternity histories of the 5,315 sample women in their reproductive ages in order to measure the intensity and tempo of childbearing. Age-and-duration-specific transition probabilities are found to have substantially changed for the more recent birth cohorts compared to the older cohorts."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10282 Ram, F.; Agarwal, Usha D. Transition of NRR: an international experience. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 2, Dec 1987. 16-28 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"In view of the urgency of achieving NRR [net reproduction rate] =1 in India as early as possible and also for a better understanding of the transition in NRR, an attempt has been made in this paper to study the past levels of NRR, the pattern of decline in NRR over a period of time, and some associated factors in a few selected countries...where NRR=1 has already been attained. Further, an attempt has been made to examine the prospects of the long-term demographic goal set for India in the light of the experience of these countries."
Correspondence: F. Ram, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10283 Rath, B. K.; Mohapatra, J. Occurrence of few biological events in females in relation to literacy, economic status and adoption of family planning in rural and urban area of central Orissa, India. Man in India, Vol. 68, No. 2-3, Jun-Sep 1988. 228-34 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
The impact of educational status, income, and the adoption of family planning on selected biological events in rural and urban areas in India are analyzed using data from 100 families in Cuttack, an industrial town, and Tangi, a rural village, both in the state of Orissa. The results indicate that a combination of these factors are associated with reduced fertility, longer birth intervals, and lower levels of infant mortality.
Correspondence: B. K. Rath, P. G. Department of Home Science, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Orissa 768 019, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10284 Reza, Mohammad H. An economic analysis of fertility in rural Iran. Pub. Order No. DA8812650. 1988. 156 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis attempts to construct and test empirically a socioeconomic theory of human fertility in rural Iran, which is characterized by a high fertility rate....In this study we focus our attention on the effects of women's education, age structure of the female population, female labor force participation, women's age at marriage, and household income, which we believe to have substantial effects on fertility in rural Iran and for which detailed data is available [from the 1976 census]. The theoretical model in this study is a modified version of the neoclassical theory of human fertility, especially Becker's work....According to this model any factor which directly or indirectly affects the price (cost) of children relative to the price of other goods can affect the fertility decisions....From this analysis, it can be concluded that the key factors to lowering fertility in rural Iran are: women's age at marriage, women's education, and the age structure of the female population respectively. However, based on regression coefficients, women's age at marriage may be considered as the most effective measure that can influence rural fertility in Iran."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at New York University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(5).

55:10285 Robinson, Warren C.; Kantner, John F. The impact of development programmes on fertility: a framework for analysis. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 1988. 65-80 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article is limited to a consideration of the impact on fertility of development programmes and projects [in developing countries]. It outlines a framework for measuring and monitoring that impact over time. The impact-monitoring framework a) connects development and fertility through a proximate variables framework, b) treats development in a disaggregated, project-specific and region-specific manner, and c) pays special attention to data requirements and arrangements for obtaining such data on a routine basis. The article shows that the data requirements for such a framework are not unreasonably large and that most countries already collect many of the data this framework requires. The framework thus provides a general approach which can be modified as needed for local circumstances and problems."
Correspondence: J. F. Kantner, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10286 Sathar, Zeba; Crook, Nigel; Callum, Christine; Kazi, Shahnaz. Women's status and fertility change in Pakistan. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 415-32, 534-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Female education, workforce participation, and age at marriage are argued to be imperfect but workable indicators of women's status in Pakistan. All three measures are shown to be significant determinants of fertility in a survey of 1979-80. Similarly, age at marriage is related to female education and, in urban areas, to workforce participation. In addition, the education of the next generation of mothers is shown to depend on parental education, and in urban areas the discrimination against girls' education diminishes as the occupational and educational level of their parents increases. These differentials and their implications for future change are masked by the absence of national fertility decline."
Correspondence: Z. Sathar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10287 Scheffel, David Z. The dynamics of Labrador Inuit fertility: an example of cultural and demographic change. Population and Environment, Vol. 10, No. 1, Fall 1988. 32-47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on quantitative data of unusual depth, the article outlines several possible correlations between demographic and cultural change experienced by the Inuit of Labrador. Starting with an examination of aboriginal reproductive behaviour, the author reviews the influence of modernization on native fertility, paying particular attention to the introduction of Christian values....The results suggest that contrary to the Malthusian dogma, some aboriginal arctic societies seem to have practiced several fertility-reducing techniques."
Correspondence: D. Z. Scheffel, Department of Social Science, Cariboo College, Kamloops, British Columbia V2C 5N3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10288 Segamba, Leonce; Ndikumasabo, Vincent; Makinson, Carolyn; Ayad, Mohamed. Demographic and Health Survey of Burundi, 1987. [Enquete Demographique et de Sante au Burundi, 1987.] Oct 1988. xxii, 178 pp. Ministere de l'Interieur, Departement de la Population: Gitega, Burundi; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
These are the results of a 1987 survey carried out in Burundi as part of the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development's Demographic and Health Survey program. The Burundi survey included a sample of some 5,000 women from both rural and urban areas, as well as an additional sample of 750 husbands. Chapters are included in the first part on survey methodology, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, contraception, fertility preferences, and maternal and child mortality and health. The second part presents results from the survey of husbands. Appendixes are included on the design of the survey, error sources, and the survey questionnaire.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Westinghouse, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10289 Senegal. Direction de la Statistique (Dakar, Senegal); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Senegal. Demographic and Health Survey of Senegal, 1986: summary report. [Senegal. Enquete Demographique et de Sante au Senegal, 1986: rapport resume.] Dec 1988. 20 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Fre.
Summary results are presented from the Senegal Demographic and Health Survey of 1986, one in a series of surveys being conducted by the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Separate sections are included on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. The section on fertility considers nuptiality, age at first birth, lactation and postpartum infertility, and fertility preferences.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Westinghouse, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10290 Singh, Kuldip; Viegas, Osborn; Ratnam, S. S. Fertility trends in Singapore. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 401-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Fertility trends in Singapore are analyzed from the early 1960s to 1985, with a focus on the impact of disincentives and incentives. Factors affecting fertility are identified, including liberalized abortion laws, increased use of contraceptives in childbearing years, and voluntary sterilization.
Correspondence: K. Singh, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University Hospital, Singapore. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10291 Sinha, R. K. Impact of age at marriage on fertility and completed family size in eastern Rajasthan. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 1, Sep 1987. 32-40 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Data from a 1980-1981 survey of over 2,500 married women in Rajasthan, India, are utilized to examine the relationship between age at marriage and marital fertility. The findings support the contention that there is an inverse relationship between marriage age and fertility. This relationship appears to be stronger in urban areas.
Correspondence: R. Sinha, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10292 Skjaerven, Rolv; Wilcox, Allen J.; Lie, Rolv T.; Irgens, Lorentz M. Selective fertility and the distortion of perinatal mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 6, Dec 1988. 1,352-63 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, covering more than one million births for the period 1967-1984, were used to study the magnitude and effects of selective fertility, which is the tendency for a woman to replace a perinatal loss. Variation in fertility after the first three births is studied, controlling for perinatal outcome of previous births, maternal age, and year of birth. [The authors find that] even after the first birth, fertility is higher after a perinatal loss....As the average number of births per woman decreases, the force of selective fertility increases; that is, its importance has increased over time....[They conclude that] a major portion of the increase in perinatal mortality from the second to fourth birth seen in most studies based on cross-sectional data can be explained by the mechanism of selective fertility."
Correspondence: R. Skjaerven, Section for Medical Informatics and Statistics, University of Bergen, MFH, N-5021, Bergen, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

55:10293 Smolinski, Zbigniew. Fertility prospects in Poland. [Perspektywy rozrodczosci w Polsce.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 5, May 1988. 1-4 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The three phases of the demographic transition in Poland are described with emphasis on changes in fertility. The author notes that the country had entered the third phase of low fertility by 1965. Despite a slight temporary increase due to pronatalist incentives, fertility has since remained low and will probably continue at this level or decline further.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10294 Sorenson, Ann M. Husbands' and wives' characteristics and fertility decisions: a diagonal mobility model. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 125-35 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this article a diagonal mobility model is used to describe the relative effects of husbands' and wives' characteristics on fertility. Compared with the characteristics of their wives, the characteristics of non-Hispanic husbands are nearly insignificant in their effect on fertility. The relative importance of husbands' attributes is much greater among Mexican-American couples. Although this suggests ethnic stereotypes about male dominance in Mexican-American families, differences in female educational attainment may offer a better explanation. The most immediate conclusion from this analysis pertains to the use of wives' characteristics as a proxy for couple data. This strategy is reasonable if female educational levels generally extend into high school. Relying on wives' characteristics to study marital fertility, however, may be problematic if the analysis involves respondents with a wide range of educational levels." Data are from the Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas Public Use Microdata Samples and concern the United States.
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 377).
Correspondence: A. M. Sorenson, Department of Sociology, University of Toronto, 563 Spadina Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10295 Tanko, Nana M. Differential fertility and fertility decision making: a case study of three social areas in Yolo, north east Nigeria. Pub. Order No. BRD-82396. 1988. 508 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This is a...case study of three social areas in a Nigerian urban area, Yola. It focuses on the processes involved in the achievement fertility at the household level....The study explores the relationship between fertility and socio-economic change and the general lack of fertility transition in the country....Information on fertility attitudes--desired family size, perceptions of the value and cost of children, contraception--and on fertility decision making--the relationship between attitudes and actual fertility, who determines when to have children, the number to have, and why--[were] collected from both husband and wife in [a] household survey, and from other household members. These [were] further followed up in in-depth interviews to explore the reasons for existing fertility levels and differences."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of East Anglia.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(6).

55:10296 Unalan, Turgay. Family size preferences in Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 10, 1988. 21-38 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This paper first reviews the recent literature on fertility preferences [in Turkey], especially ideal family size..., and the problems and criticisms about these preferences....Findings about the fertility preferences are given using the data from the 1983 Turkish Fertility Contraceptive Prevalence and Family Health Status Survey. As expected, it was found that the mean number of children desired increased as the number of living children, marital duration and age of the women increased, and decreased as the level of education increased." Consideration is given to the effects of contraceptive use, socioeconomic factors, and husbands' and wives' attitudes toward fertility.
Correspondence: T. Unalan, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10297 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). World population trends and policies: 1987 monitoring report. Special topics: fertility and women's life cycle and socio-economic differentials in mortality. Population Studies, No. 103; ST/ESA/SER.A/103, Pub. Order No. E.88.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151168-2. 1988. xiv, 411 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the fifth full monitoring report prepared by the Population Division of the U.N. Secretariat. The focus of the report is on fertility and women's life cycle and on socioeconomic differentials in mortality; data are from a number of developed and developing nations. The current publication consists of three parts. "Part One...presents the results of the monitoring of population trends and policies in substantive areas such as population growth and structure, fertility, mortality, population distribution, and migration. In Part Two...a review of recent global trends in the area of social and economic development is followed by a survey of recent studies on the consequences of population change on social and economic development. Finally, in Part Three...two special topics--fertility and women's life cycle and socio-economic differentials in mortality--are analysed...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10298 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). Interrelationships between child survival and fertility. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 25, 1988. 27-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present article explores a variety of relationships between child survival and fertility behaviour within environments that differ according to the socio-cultural correlates of demand for children, the prevailing mortality pattern and the availability of family planning. A range of probable effects of improved child survival on fertility for different settings are derived from logical argument and empirical evidence drawn from adequately designed studies. This permits the formulation of a few policy guidelines and the identification of promising areas for future research." The geographic scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: U.N. Secretariat, Population Division, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10299 van de Walle, Francine; Omideyi, Kehinde. The cultural roots of African fertility regimes. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.2.35-53 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper is concerned with culture and systems, and the logic of a natural fertility regime. In the classical view of the fertility transition, the term 'natural fertility' characterizes the traditional fertility regime where conscious control of the number of children is not yet a part of the behaviour of couples. We shall review arguments about the internal logic that supports natural fertility and we shall consider the issue of whether that logic is so strong in Africa that high fertility has been sustained despite obvious societal needs for a decline." Particular attention is paid to factors related to marriage, breast-feeding, and postpartum sexual abstinence. The focus is on Sub-Saharan Africa.
Correspondence: F. van de Walle, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10300 Venieris, Yiannis P.; Stewart, Douglas B. Long-run social and economic responses of fertility in the United States. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, Summer 1988. 137-57 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Based on the results of an econometric analysis, the paper looks into the dynamic response of fertility behaviour in the United States, to changes in some of its determinants. Specifically, the effect of current and past marriage rates on fertility has been studied. In doing so, the role of permanent income and the divorce rate on the marriage rate, and through it, on fertility, has also been examined." Data are from official and other sources.
Correspondence: Y. P. Venieris, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10301 Vishnevskii, A. G.; Shcherbov, S. Ya.; Anichkin, A. B.; Grechukha, V. A.; Donets, N. V. New birthrate trends in the Soviet Union. [Noveishie tendentsii rozhdaemosti v SSSR.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 54-67 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Recent fertility trends in the USSR and its constituent republics are reviewed using data from official sources. A general increase in fertility is noted, specifically in the age group 25-29, in contrast to previous increases recorded for younger age groups. An increase in second and third births is also noted. In many of the republics characterized by low birth rates, an increase in fertility among those below 25 years of age is noted, although this increase is not large enough to compensate for a decline in fertility in the older age groups. Data are presented for the USSR and republics on cumulative fertility by selected ages.
Correspondence: A. G. Vishnevskii, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Sociology Studies, Moscow V-71, Leninsky Pr. 14, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10302 Vishnevskij, Anatole. The demographic revolution and fertility in the USSR from the nineteenth century to the present day. [Revolution demographique et fecondite en URSS du XIXe siecle a la periode contemporaine.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1988. 799-814 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper the author gives a brief outline of the major stages of the demographic transition in the USSR, particularly in the Russian Soviet Republic, and relates it to the history of the country. This analysis is followed by a brief study of regional differences in fertility. The development of fertility during the post-war period is studied by means of age-specific fertility rates. Estimates of cohort fertility show that the size of completed families has increased slightly for the most recent cohorts."
For a related study by Vishnevskii et al., also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: A. Vishnevskij, Commission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR for the Study of Productive Forces and Natural Resources, Maronovski Pereoulok 26, 117049 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10303 Wachter, Kenneth W.; Lee, Ronald D. U.S. births and limit cycle models. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 99-115 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Lee's (1974) formal demographic feedback models summarize the implications for births and age-structure of neo-Malthusian theories of baby booms such as those of Easterlin. For some parameter values, such models imply sustained cycles, so-called 'limit cycles,' in births. Frauenthal and Swick recently reestimated a continuous-age version of Lee's basic cohort model with U.S. series and, contrary to Lee's original findings, concluded that 'limit cycles oscillations have been occurring in U.S. births.' This article disputes their conclusion, ascribing it to an inconsistency in detrending procedures. Furthermore, it corrects Lee's original conclusion by showing that his alternative period labor-force feedback model, estimated from U.S. series, leads to cycles of implausibly long period. This article thus reopens the question of whether any feedback model could account for the observed cycles in U.S. births."
Correspondence: K. W. Wachter, Graduate Group in Demography, University of California, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10304 Wang, Jichuan. Determinants of fertility increase in Sichuan, 1981-86. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1988. 481-8, 535, 537 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In 1984 Sichuan Province's crude birth rate reached the historically low level of 10.8 per thousand, below the rates of most developed countries in that year. But a pronounced rise in the CBR for 1985-86--primarily the result of overconfidence among family planning officials regarding the success of their efforts to control fertility--led to a resurgence of population growth. Second and higher order births increased, and some localities within the province virtually abandoned controls over early marriage and early childbearing. Although China's local governments have responded to the recent upturn in fertility with a more thorough application of the one-child policy, giving permission for more second births will not jeopardize the country's long-term population target if young couples observe late marriage and late childbearing and avoid unplanned births."
Correspondence: J. Wang, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10305 Wang, Temu. The effects of infant and child mortality on fertility in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 1-17 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between infant and child mortality and fertility in Taiwan is analyzed using survey data. Particular attention is paid to interval, replacement, and insurance effects.
Correspondence: T. Wang, Department of Sociology, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10306 Wenk, DeeAnn L. Social structural effects on the timing of family formation. Pub. Order No. DA8802583. 1987. 220 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examined economic structural effects on family formation in labor market areas in southeastern United States. Recent research has suggested that in addition to the effects of individual attributes on the timing of family formation there may be additional effects of the characteristics of the areas in which teenage women live. The major hypotheses tested were that young women living in labor market areas offering relatively more economic opportunities were less likely to be teenage mothers than those living in labor market areas with fewer economic opportunities and that labor market areas with more economic opportunities for young women had lower proportions of teenage mothers than areas with fewer economic opportunities....The Public-Use Micro-data Sample version D of the 1980 United States Census was used for analysis. A total of 62 Labor Market areas with counties located in Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina and Kentucky are included in this study."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Kentucky.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(11).

55:10307 Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland); Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Bureau of Statistics (Monrovia, Liberia). Liberia: Demographic and Health Survey, 1986. Sep 1988. 16 pp. Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Summary results are presented from the Liberia Demographic and Health Survey of 1986, one in a series of surveys being conducted by the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Separate sections cover fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. The section on fertility includes data on marriage patterns, age at first birth, sexual abstinence, and breast-feeding, as well as desired fertility.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Westinghouse, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10308 Westoff, Charles F. Unintended pregnancy in America and abroad. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 254-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"U.S. women under age 25 are far more likely to become pregnant than are comparable young women in other developed countries; however, there is no such differential among older women. Young American women appear to be no more likely than their European contemporaries to marry or to engage in intercourse at a young age, but they do seem less likely to practice contraception." The author addresses this difference by examining pregnancy rates, childbearing intentions and the incidence of induced abortion, nuptiality, sexual behavior, and contraceptive use in the United States and selected other developed countries. Reasons suggested for the higher U.S. pregnancy rates include more limited access to efficient contraceptives, the existence of an underclass alienated from middle-class values, a greater propensity for risk-taking, and a general ambivalence about sexuality.
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10309 Wirakartakusumah, M. Djuhari. The impacts of health, education, family planning and electrification programs on fertility, mortality and child schooling in East Java, Indonesia. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 15, No. 29, Jun 1988. iv-vi, 37-73 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
"This paper examines the effects of public health, family planning, education, electrification, and water supply programs on fertility, child mortality, and school enrollment decisions of rural households in East Java, Indonesia." The data concern 3,170 rural households and are from the 1980 East Java Population Survey, the Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS), and a detailed village census.
Correspondence: M. D. Wirakartakusumah, Demographic Institute, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia, Salemba Rya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10310 Wright, Robert E.; Ermisch, John F.; Hinde, P. R. Andrew; Joshi, Heather E. The third birth in Great Britain. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 489-96 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relationship between female labour force participation, and other socioeconomic factors, and the probability of having a third birth is examined, using British data collected in the 1980 Women and Employment Survey, by hazard regression modelling with time-varying covariates. The results demonstrate the strong association between demographic factors, e.g. age at first birth and birth interval and subsequent fertility behaviour. Education appears to have little effect. Suprisingly, women who have spent a higher proportion of time as housewives have a lower risk of having a third birth. This finding is in sharp disagreement with the conventional expectation that cumulative labour force participation supports lower fertility. These findings are briefly compared with similar research carried out in Sweden."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10311 Yen, Eva C. Sex preference in Taiwan--an exploratory study. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 19-32 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
The author attempts to simplify the Ben-Porath and Welch models of offspring sex preference. She also uses KAP data to examine the reasons for male offspring preference in Taiwan and the effects of this preference on fertility.
Correspondence: E. C. Yen, Chung-Hua Institute for Economic Research, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10312 Zuravin, Susan J. Fertility patterns: their relationship to child physical abuse and child neglect. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 4, Nov 1988. 983-93 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
This study focuses on fertility patterns of abusing and neglecting families in the United States and "separately [examines] relationships between two types of maltreatment, physical abuse and neglect, and five fertility patterns--family size, family spacing, mother's age at first birth, number of sires, and family planning status of children. The data were collected during personal interviews with 518 urban, single parents who were recipients of Aid to Families of Dependent Children (AFDC)." The findings indicate that "(a) both types of maltreatment are associated with fertility patterns independent of demographic characteristics; (b) neglect appears to be more strongly associated with the fertility variables than abuse; and (c) the two types of maltreatment display both similarities and differences relative to their relationships with the patterns."
Correspondence: S. J. Zuravin, School of Social Work and Community Planning, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

55:10313 Adegbola, O. Religion and reproduction of Sub-Saharan Africa. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.2.1-34 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relationship between religion and fertility in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is analyzed. "The first part briefly reviews the state of the art. In the second part, a short description of the position of the major religions found in Africa is given. The procedure employed in the analysis is discussed in the third part. The fourth part examines gross religious fertility differentials while the fifth part analyses the net effects of religion on fertility."
Correspondence: O. Adegbola, Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10314 Ahmed, Sultan. Intermediate variables affecting fertility in four Muslim countries. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 1, Sep 1987. 41-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"An attempt is made in this paper to study the differentials in selected intermediate variables and their effects to explain fertility differentials in four selected Muslim populations." Intermediate variables considered include contraception, induced abortion, and postpartum infertility. Bongaarts's model is applied using mid-1970s World Fertility Survey data from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan, and Pakistan.
Correspondence: S. Ahmed, Department of Statistics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10315 Brown, Lorrie J. An economic analysis of regional fertility differentials in the Soviet Union. Pub. Order No. DA8802198. 1987. 89 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation uses a standard utility maximizing model to analyze fertility in the Soviet Union. The model assumes that the price of children is equal to the monetary cost of bringing up children, plus the opportunity cost of the mother's time which is needed in caring for children. The point of the analysis is to model the differences between the urban and rural, European and Central Asian population of the Soviet Union....using 1959 and 1970 Soviet census data....The results...demonstrate that urban women do face a work constraint, that rural women do not, and that the work constraint negatively affects fertility. There is also evidence that rural children are a source of income and are possibly net producers of income, and that this has a positive effect on rural fertility. The results also demonstrate that because of the urban work constraint, demand for children is more elastic with respect to changes in income and prices in rural areas than in urban."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(12).

55:10316 de Jong, A. H. Differences in provincial fertility levels are increasing. [Provinciale vruchtbaarheidsverschillen nemen toe.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 10, Oct 1988. 9-15 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in regional fertility differentials are discussed for the Netherlands. Consideration is given to provincial differences in female labor force participation, average number of children per woman, percent of childless women, age factors, and the influence of the Catholic church. Data are from official and other published sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10317 Ebanks, G. Edward; Loaiza, Edilberto. Nuptiality and fertility in the Dominican Republic. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 71-82 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the interrelationships of fertility and marriage type in the Dominican Republic...using data from the World Fertility Survey carried out in 1975...." The authors find that "women in marital unions had more live births than those in consensual unions. The relationship between cumulative fertility and the number of fertile sexual unions is positive for the early childbearing years and negative for the later ones....The relationship between fertility and nuptiality in the Dominican Republic is consistent with that for the Caribbean region."
Correspondence: G. Ebanks, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10318 Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi; Takemoto, Tai-Ichiro. Altitude and reproduction of the Japanese in Bolivia. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 6, Dec 1988. 833-45 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Reproduction among Japanese women living at high altitudes in Bolivia was examined in comparison with their counterparts in the Bolivian lowlands. While there were no differences in age, contraceptive usage and the incidence of fetal deaths between the two groups, both pregnancies and livebirths were significantly fewer in the women at high altitudes than in their lowland counterparts. However, multiple regression analyses controlling for age, age at first pregnancy (age at marriage) and age at menarche indicate that the effect of altitude on reducing fertility has not been as great as would be expected from the literature. [The authors find that]...the difference in reproductive performance was largely attributable to later marriage in the high-altitude women than in their low-altitude counterparts." Consideration is also given to the effect of hypoxia on birth weight. Data are from a survey of 100 married women living in La Paz and Santa Cruz.
Correspondence: H. Kashiwazaki, Department of Human Ecology, School of Health Sciences, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10319 Nathanson, Constance A.; Kim, Young J. Components of change in adolescent fertility, 1971-1979. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 85-98 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article disaggregates change in [U.S.] adolescent fertility between 1971 and 1979 into four components: change in marriage patterns, in nonmarital sex, in pregnancy, and in birth. It also assesses quantitatively the relative contribution of each component to the change over time in two fertility outcomes: the probability of a nonmarital live birth and, given a live birth, the odds of its being nonmarital. The changes in the probability of sexual debut prior to marriage and in marriage patterns themselves are the two most important contributors to these changes. The influence on the change in adolescent fertility outcomes of the decreased likelihood of marriage following a nonmarital pregnancy was compensated for by the increased use of abortion to terminate the pregnancy."
Correspondence: C. A. Nathanson, Department of Population Dynamics, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10320 Nigem, Elias T.; Nagi, Mostafa H. Fertility patterns and differentials in Israel. Biology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1988. 119-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using fertility rates derived from the Statistical Abstracts of Israel, fertility differentials by religion, ethnicity, continent of birth, and education were examined. The fertility rates of non-Jews, although slowly declining, are significantly and substantially higher than those of Jews. There are differentials in fertility rates between Western and Eastern Jews; and between Moslems, Druze, and Christians."
Correspondence: E. T. Nigem, Department of Sociology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10321 Pavlou, Victoria P. Differential fertility in Cyprus: a micro-analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8809125. 1987. 175 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation is a micro-level case study of the determinants of fertility in Cyprus. The data [are] obtained from the government of the Republic of Cyprus....The number of children ever born to all ever married women aged 30 and above is related to the educational levels of women and their husbands, employment status, current age, age at marriage, child mortality, and residency....Child mortality is the single best predictor of fertility....The significant impact of child mortality leads to a conclusion that lost children are usually replaced. The replacement theory is clearly supported by the data."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Wayne State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(4).

55:10322 Rahman, Mizanur; Phillips, James F. An investigation into proximate determinants responsible for fertility differentials between two rural Bangladeshi populations. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 411-21 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Fertility differentials are analyzed for Matlab and Teknaf, two rural areas of Bangladesh, with different environmental and cultural conditions. Data are from the surveillance system of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. The results suggest that "most of the variation of natural fertility is explained by the difference in breast-feeding practices of the two populations, median duration 30 months for Matlab and 22 months for Teknaf. This difference suggests that prolonged breast-feeding is as important a factor contributing to the relatively low fertility in Matlab as contraception. While the increase of contraceptive use in Matlab has greatly affected fertility, the concomitant contribution of prolonged lactational amenorrhoea is also important."
Correspondence: M. Rahman, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, GPO Box 2, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10323 Rios-Neto, Eduardo L. G. Class and institutional determinants of rural fertility in Brazil. Pub. Order No. DA8814006. 1987. 373 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study analyzes the role of social classes and institutional aspects of the labor market in the determination of cross [sectional] fertility differences in rural Brazil. The major thrust of the dissertation is the attempt to integrate marxist perspectives with neoclassical fertility theory, to find a more careful and well-motivated theory of institutional and occupational influences on fertility....The principal data source of the study consists of a sample of agricultural households with married women obtained from the Brazilian 1980 demographic census....The occupational choice discussion in the first part covers aspects associated with two fields: agricultural economics and economic development....The second part of the dissertation covers aspects associated with two fields in demography: economic demography and fertility determinants." The impact on fertility of factors such as proletarianization, wife's educational level and occupation, land availability, and rural electrification is examined.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(6).

55:10324 Rob, Abul K. U. Regional variations and determinants of fertility in Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA8801404. 1987. 184 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the regional variations and determinants of fertility in Bangladesh. Information from several in-depth surveys conducted in four rural areas during 1982-86 is utilized in this study. The four study areas are divided into two regions: Sirajgonj and Abhoynagar. The results suggest that the Sirajgonj region has higher fertility levels than the Abhoynagar region and that the socioeconomic characteristics of the sample households vary between the regions....The factors influencing contraceptive use and fertility are investigated by path analysis. The results suggest that the differences in socioeconomic status, religion, and family planning program inputs explain regional variations in contraceptive use and fertility in the study areas."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(11).

55:10325 Sorenson, Ann M. The fertility and language characteristics of Mexican-American and non-Hispanic husbands and wives. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1988. 111-30 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
The effects of language characteristics on the fertility of Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white couples in the United States are analyzed using data on a sample drawn from the 1980 census. The data support a cultural explanation that confirms a pronatalist orientation leading to higher fertility among Mexican Americans. The analysis also identifies a subset of English-speaking Mexican-American couples with low fertility, and a subset of non-Hispanic whites whose higher fertility is also tied to language characteristics.
Correspondence: A. M. Sorenson, Program in Measurement, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: New York Public Library.

55:10326 Trussell, James. Teenage pregnancy in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 262-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, I will examine the incidence of teenage pregnancy in the United States; contrast the U.S. experience with the experience of other developed countries; analyze the determinants of pregnancy and the consequences of adolescent childbearing; and explore the relative merits of possible intervention strategies." The effects of attitude, sexual behavior, contraceptive use, sex education, and school-based services are discussed. Possible solutions suggested include preventing adolescent sexual activity, promoting contraceptive use, providing contraceptive education and services in schools, and ameliorating the negative consequences of childbearing.
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10327 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Adolescent reproductive behaviour. Evidence from developed countries. Volume 1. Population Studies, No. 109; ST/ESA/SER.A/109, Pub. Order No. E.88.XIII.8. ISBN 92-1-151173-9. 1988. ix, 178 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one of two volumes presenting results from a global review conducted by the U.N. Population Division concerning the factors affecting adolescent reproductive behavior. The present report concerns developed countries and is accompanied by a substantial section presenting data for selected countries on population estimates; fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates for adolescents; marital status; contraceptive use; and sexual activity of adolescents.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10328 Wai, Lokky. Social status, value of children and fertility in Mardan, Pakistan. 1988. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The relationship between social status and fertility is examined in this study. Special attention is given to the effects of social status on the value of children, and the effects of these two variables on fertility. Several demographic theories are reviewed....A theoretical model which incorporates several fertility determinants is constructed and subsequently tested on data derived from an agricultural evaluation project in a rural area of Pakistan....Major findings from the regression analyses indicate that the effects of the various social status variables on fertility are weak and inconsistent. While the inclusion of the value of children variables enhances the explanatory power of the fertility regression model, it is the 'intermediate variables' which explain most of the variance."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(5).

55:10329 Wang, Feng. China's reproductive revolution: individual and community determinants of fertility variation in Hebei, China. Pub. Order No. DA8801440. 1987. 243 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This is a study of the process and causes of fertility change in Hebei province, the People's Republic of China, during the past few decades, with the emphasis on the rapid fertility decline in the 1970s. Using the 1982 Chinese One-Per-Thousand Fertility Survey data and supplementary data for 49 rural communities in Hebei province, analyses of the effects of individual and community characteristics on fertility variation are performed. The results reveal that when both individual and community characteristics are used simultaneously for analysis of individuals' fertility, the education level of a community has a significant effect on individuals' fertility in addition to the effect of socioeconomic and reproductive characteristics of the individual." The impact of the government family planning program is also considered.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(11).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

55:10330 Farley, T. M. M.; Belsey, E. M. The prevalence and aetiology of infertility. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.1.15-30 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We shall review the information on the prevalence of infertility in different regions of the world and consider aetiological factors explaining regional variations in infertility rates. Data from a large multinational standardized clinical investigation of couples consulting for infertility point to the relative contributions of different aetiological factors; of these, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are identified as the major preventable cause. The mechanisms by which STDs can cause infertility in the male and female are summarized from available epidemiological evidence."
Correspondence: T. M. M. Farley, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

55:10331 Achanfuo-Yeboah, David J. Contraceptive use in Africa. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 54, Oct 1988. 10 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The main objective of this study is to examine contraceptive use in Africa using data from the World Fertility Survey. The author notes the generally low levels of contraceptive use in Africa, the differentials in use between rural and urban areas and by educational status and other socioeconomic factors, and the relative inefficiency of the contraceptive methods used.
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10332 Bailey, Patricia E.; Janowitz, Barbara; Solis, Marcial; Machuca, Mike; Suazo, Margarita. Consumers of oral contraceptives in a social marketing program in Honduras. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 53-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A private Honduran family planning association sponsored the development of an oral contraceptive that was socially marketed from 1984 to 1986 for the purpose of making oral contraceptives available to women of middle to lower socioeconomic status. This paper presents the results of a 1986 survey to analyze the program's effectiveness in reaching economically disabled women and in targeting new and continuing users of this specific form of contraception.
Correspondence: P. E. Bailey, Program Evaluation Division, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10333 Bhatia, Shushum; Becker, Stan; Kim, Young J. The effect of oral contraceptive acceptance on fertility in the postpartum period. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 1-11 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors attempt "to determine whether or not it is counterproductive in rural Bangladesh to recruit oral contraceptive users when the women are in a state of lactational amenorrhea." Based on preliminary data from the Matlab area, the authors find that "the result of introducing oral contraception during the period of postpartum amenorrhea is actually to decrease the interval to the next pregnancy." Consideration is also given to breast-feeding status, and contraceptive acceptance and continuation.
Correspondence: S. Bhatia, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10334 Bidegain Greising, Gabriel; Diaz Michelena, Gisela. Family planning in Venezuela. [La planificacion familiar en Venezuela.] ISBN 980-300-178-7. [1987?]. xvi, 222, [12] pp. Sociedad de Planificacion Familiar de Venezuela [PLAFAM]: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The development of organized family planning activities in Venezuela is described. The book begins with a description of the history of family planning in Venezuela. In Part I, the organization and administration of the program in hospitals and private clinics is described, followed by a section on user characteristics. Part II considers general trends in population dynamics, fertility, and family planning in Venezuela.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10335 David, Paul A.; Sanderson, Warren C. Measuring marital fertility control with CPA. Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 4, Winter 1988. 691-713 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Cohort Parity Analysis (CPA) is an indirect method for measuring the extent and timing of the adoption of fertility control within marriage. The basic CPA methodology is presented here in a nonmathematical form, making use of parity progression flowcharts. The simple, key formulas to which it leads are applied illustratively to census statistics reporting the distribution of married women by number of children ever born for urban Ireland in 1911. This analysis reveals, among other things, that about 28 percent of urban Irish women under the age of 54 and married four or more years in 1911 had practiced some form of effective fertility control....[The authors assert that] other sources that provide marriage age- and duration-specific data on numbers of children ever born to women in continuous marital unions can be analyzed in much the same way...."
Correspondence: P. A. David, Department of Economics, Encina Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-6072. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10336 Donaldson, Peter J. American Catholicism and the international family planning movement. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 367-73 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the role of the American Catholic Church in the international family planning movement and discusses elements of the Catholic opposition to birth control. The paper argues that the reaction of American Catholics to government support for contraceptive services was based not only on the Church's condemnation of particular contraceptive methods, but also on a variety of other factors including class and ethnic hostility between Catholics and the promoters of family planning, jurisdictional disputes over what institutions would guide family life, [and] the perceived threat that government support of family planning was to the authority of the Church and the Church's understanding of sex and women. The role of an American theology of political compromise and accommodation in mitigating the American Catholic Church's opposition to organized family planning is assessed."
Correspondence: P. J. Donaldson, Committee on Population, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10337 Donaldson, Peter J.; Keely, Charles B. Population and family planning: an international perspective. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 307-11, 320 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
U.S. government support for population and family planning programs in developing countries is reviewed. "This article reviews recent thinking about population growth and family planning in the developing world, outlines the experience of the past 20 years, and suggests the population and family planning issues that will need attention over the next 20 years." The effectiveness of family planning programs throughout the world is considered. "For the future, three aspects of population and fertility control in developing countries merit special attention: the supply of contraceptive commodities going to family planning programs; the maintenance and strengthening of the family planning infrastructure; and the need to examine the policy implications of differing patterns of fertility and population growth for national development and individual well-being."
Correspondence: P. J. Donaldson, Committee on Population, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10338 Dryfoos, Joy G. Family planning clinics--a story of growth and conflict. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 282-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Federally funded family planning centers in the United States were created in 1970 with the passage of Title X of the Public Health Service Act. The program's role in providing contraceptive services to adolescents has led to controversy resulting in a decrease in funding for the centers and an increase in funding for Medicaid. The impact of growing opposition to the program and of suggestions to integrate all family planning services into the general medical care system is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10339 Ebigbola, Joshua A. Modernization, trends in desired family size and contraceptive use among the Yoruba: evidence from Oyo State survey. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.3.49-65 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"It is the aim of this paper to explore how the effects of modernization [in Nigeria] have worked on reproductive behaviour in terms of changes in desired family size and rate of contraceptive use in Yoruba society." The data are from three rounds of a survey of 1,200 households conducted in 1983, 1984, and 1986. Particular attention is paid to the educational status of the respondents.
Correspondence: J. A. Ebigbola, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10340 Gold, Rachel B.; Guardado, Sandra. Public funding of family planning, sterilization and abortion services, 1987. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 228-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors provide data on federally and state funded family planning services in the United States for 1987. They found that "Medicaid was the leading source of public funding, accounting for 36 percent of all public monies spent on family planning. Title X of the Public Health Service Act provided 34 percent of total public funds, and two block-grant programs--Social Services and Maternal and Child Health--together were responsible for 17 percent of public support in this area. State governments...accounted for the remaining 13 percent of public funding."
Correspondence: R. B. Gold, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10341 Groat, H. Theodore; Neal, Arthur G.; Wicks, Jerry w. Psychosocial aspects of contraceptive sterilization. Jan 15, 1987. iv, 257 pp. Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology: Bowling Green, Ohio; Bowling Green State University, Population and Society Research Center: Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
This study is concerned with contraceptive sterilization and the factors affecting it in the contemporary United States. The data are from a two-wave survey of 610 white, married couples in Toledo, Ohio, in their first six years of marriage, who were first interviewed in 1978 and reinterviewed in 1985-1986. Chapters are included on the correlates of sterilization, the choice between tubal ligation and vasectomy, the process of decision making, plans for sterilization, and consequences of sterilization.
Correspondence: Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10342 Inazu, Judith K. Partner involvement and contraceptive efficacy in premarital sexual relationships. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 4, Winter 1987. 225-37 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to account for the strong, positive correlation between partner involvement and contraceptive behavior in premarital sexual relationships [in the United States]. Interpersonal and structural characteristics of partner involvement identified in previous research as possible explanatory variables were factor analyzed and three major dimensions were isolated: 1. affection and commitment, 2. sexual and contraceptive communication, and 3. predictability of intercourse ....Prior sex-related communication emerged as the strongest predictor of contraceptive behavior, followed by affection for partner; contrary to expectations, however, predictability of intercourse was not significantly related to contraceptive use."
Correspondence: J. K. Inazu, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2500 Campus Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10343 Joshi, Vinoda; Saroja, K. Fertility and adoption of tubectomy among rural women. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1988. 57-63 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The main objectives of the present study were to examine the association between adoption of tubectomy by rural women [in India] and their age, desired family size and fertility behaviour." The data, drawn from 34 villages in Dharwad taluka, show that women generally accept tubal ligation later in life.
Correspondence: K. Saroja, Department of Child Development and Family Relations, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad 580 005, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10344 Kabir, M.; Elahi, K. M.; Moslehuddin, M. Unmet need for contraception in rural Bangladesh: evidence from a micro study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 1, Sep 1987. 3-10 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to evaluate the existing level of latent demand or unmet need for contraception in the study population, in the hope that a relatively accurate estimate of the unmet need will enable planners to formulate more realistic targets." The data are from the 1984 Rural Fertility and Female Economic Activity Survey in Bangladesh. Demographic and socioeconomic factors related to fertility and family planning are also discussed.
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10345 Leoprapai, Boonlert. Impact of the introduction of NORPLANT implants into the National Family Planning Program of Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1988. 1-10, 141 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This paper analyzes the impact of the planned introduction of NORPLANT implants as an additional method of contraception in the family planning service delivery system in Thailand. Results of the analysis indicate that NORPLANT implants may contribute to the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate of currently married women in reproductive age but not significantly." The author attempts to estimate how many users will switch to NORPLANT implants from their current contraceptive methods. The impact of the cost factor on NORPLANT use is stressed.
Correspondence: B. Leoprapai, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonchaisri, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10346 Lewis, Jan; Lockridge, Kenneth A. "Sally has been sick": pregnancy and family limitation among Virginia gentry women, 1780-1830. Journal of Social History, Vol. 22, No. 1, Fall 1988. 5-19 pp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The extent of family planning practice in the antebellum South of the United States is examined using data on 298 Virginia gentry women born between 1710 and 1849. The data are from letters and diaries and indicate that, although fertility remained high, a definite trend to lower marital fertility can be established by the 1840s and 1850s.
Correspondence: J. Lewis, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102. Location: New York Public Library.

55:10347 Liao, Futing. Estimating fuzzy set membership coefficients with log-multiplicative association models: the case of contraceptiveness. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1989. 357-76, 397 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Demographers conventionally group survey respondents into categories. Along the lines of classical set theory, membership in a category is a dichotomous 0-1 variable. In this article, I present an alternative to this yes-no grouping in which observations belong to fuzzy sets, in which the membership is a gradation between 0 and 1, depending on the extent to which a person belongs to the set. The analysis uses data on a sample of women from the 1982 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth, and substantively focuses on reasons for sterilization. The log-multiplicative association model is used to estimate contraceptiveness, i.e., the extent to which sterilization was for a contraceptive purpose, versus a medical purpose."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 380).
Correspondence: F. Liao, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10348 Lodewijckx, E. Recent trends in contraceptive sterilization in Flanders. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 59-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Current trends in voluntary sterilization in the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium are examined using data from personal interviews conducted in 1975-1976 and 1982-1983 with 7,550 women aged 20-44. The author finds that "despite the sharp increase of this contraceptive method since the end of the 1970s, its frequency is still lower than in many neighbouring countries and much lower than in the U.S. and Canada, mainly due to the lag in male sterilization. Further increase in contraceptive sterilization and a greater participation of men is expected in the near future."
Correspondence: E. Lodewijckx, Department of Obstetrics, University of Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10349 Mauldin, W. Parker; Segal, Sheldon J. Prevalence of contraceptive use: trends and issues. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1988. 335-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article discusses the sources of data for estimates of contraceptive use, including their reliability and validity. Data from sample surveys and from censuses are presented by countries from the 1960s to the present time. Tables on proportions of users by method of contraception for various time periods are included. The relationship between contraceptive use and level of fertility is also shown. Contraceptive use has increased rapidly in much of Asia and Latin America, but much less so in Arab countries and sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, about 400 million of the 800-850 million married couples of reproductive age practice contraception; of these, about 340 million use a modern method. Sterilization is the most widely practiced method of contraception in the world, with tubal ligations far outnumbering vasectomies."
Correspondence: W. P. Mauldin, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10350 Mauldin, W. Parker; Segal, Sheldon J. World trends in contraceptive use, by method, and their relationship to fertility. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 139, Jul 1988. 68 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This working paper presents information, by country, on the proportion of users of contraception among couples in which the wife is of reproductive age. Data are presented for as many countries and time periods [1963-1987] as we have been able to document....We also show use by contraceptive methods...for more than one time period, to the extent that such information is available. Analysis of these statistics demonstrates a very strong relationship between the level of contraceptive use and fertility....This relationship is strong when the measure of contraceptive use is limited to modern methods, but the inclusion of traditional methods substantially increases the closeness of this relationship. The focus of this paper is on developing countries but percentages of contraceptive users are also presented for developed countries."
Correspondence: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10351 Maynard Tucker, Gisele Y. Reproductive decision-making and the use of modern contraceptives in rural Peru. Pub. Order No. DA8815472. 1988. 297 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research, conducted in 1986 in a Quechua-speaking community of highland Peru in the department of Cuzco, is concerned with reproductive decision making among 110 couples, and 45 married women and men whose spouses were out of the community at the time of the research....This study reveals that administrative regulations and sociocultural barriers prevent couples from using family planning services at the village health post. Within the household context men and women make most decisions jointly, although men have the last word. Husbands' and wives' conflicting opinions about who is the decision-maker in some issues appear to be related to the recent acquisition of modern values. The data suggest that women usually do not have any autonomy with regard to household and fertility decisions. Most villagers know about modern contraceptives, but only a third of the study population use them. The majority prefer traditional and natural methods."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Los Angeles.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(6).

55:10352 Phillips, James F.; Simmons, Ruth; Koenig, Michael A.; Chakraborty, J. Determinants of reproductive change in a traditional society: evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1988. 313-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A decade has elapsed since a project was launched in Matlab, Bangladesh to test the hypothesis that contraceptive services can induce and sustain fertility decline in a rural traditional population. The demographic impact of this project has been pronounced, lending support to the view that supply-side policies can succeed even where institutional supports for demand are weak. This paper reviews the relationship between the Bangladesh climate of demand and the Matlab system of supply with the aim of explaining how such effects arise. A sociologically appropriate system of supply can induce fertility change in a society where such change would not spontaneously arise."
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10353 Potts, Malcolm. Birth control methods in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 288-97 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This review will examine the family planning methods available to American couples and how couples use these methods to control their fertility. The appropriate perspective here is a long-range one that emphasizes the changing family planning needs of couples as they pass through their reproductive years." Patterns of use, efficacy, and side effects of the pill, the IUD, barrier methods, periodic abstinence, and sterilization are described. The author makes the case for increased funding of contraceptive research and development to provide U.S. women with more acceptable methods of contraception.
Correspondence: M. Potts, Family Health International, Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10354 Ramachandran, L. Maternal and child health and family planning: perceptions and links. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 2, Dec 1987. 3-15 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author evaluates the extent to which family planning in India is linked to the provision of maternal and child health services. The data are drawn from interviews with 1,200 married women in Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu. The author finds that the target population does not perceive prenatal maternal and child health care to be related to family planning.
Correspondence: L. Ramachandran, Family Planning Association of India, Dindigul Branch, 21 Society Street, Dindigul 624 001, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10355 Randow, Harry. Contraception in adolescents. [Kontrazeption bei Jugendlichen.] Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung, Vol. 82, No. 3, 1988. 115-9 pp. Jena, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Psychosocial problems of contraceptive use among adolescents are reviewed. Consideration is given to contraceptive counseling, permanent contraceptive methods, and hormonal contraception. The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: H. Randow, Chefarzt der Frauenklinik des Stadt, Krankenhauses im Friedrichshain, Leninallee 49, Berlin 1017, German Democratic Republic. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10356 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Liao, Futing. Medical and contraceptive reasons for sterilization in the United States. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1988. 370-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, Cycle III data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth, 1982, were used to investigate the determinants of different types of sterilization decisions--sterilizing for contraceptive, medical, or 'mixed' reasons. It is important to recognize this 'mixed' component of sterilization motivation. Parity and, to a lesser degree, education have consistent effects on differentiating these types of rationales, which appeared to have somewhat different patterns among black and white women."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, CB #3210, Hamilton Hall 070A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10357 Riphagen, F. E.; Lehert, P. A survey of contraception in five West European countries. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 23-46 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In 1984 and 1985, a survey was conducted of 7,696 women aged 15-44 living in Italy, France, Great Britain, Spain and the Federal Republic of Germany. The aim of the study was to examine the use of contraceptive methods, the differences in contraceptive use, knowledge of fertility, communication about contraception, motives for choice and the perceptions held by women regarding contraceptive methods, particularly oral contraception. The results show important differences between the countries studied."
Correspondence: F. E. Riphagen, International Health Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10358 Riphagen, F. E.; de la Cueva, O. S.; Koelb, S. A survey of family planning in the Philippines. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 435-44 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a multi-centre survey in 1986, 400 married Filipino women aged 15-40 were interviewed about their use of contraceptive methods, and specifically about their perceptions of the effects on health of oral contraceptives and their attitudes to contraceptive methods. The sample was randomly selected in the urban and rural areas surveyed and cannot be considered representative for the country as a whole. The results showed that women hold definitive views on the health risks posed by oral contraceptives and point to the importance of family planning clinics as a source of contraceptive counselling."
Correspondence: F. E. Riphagen, International Health Foundation, 1 Place du Port, CH-1204 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10359 Saiprasert, Sirinan. Ethical issues in family planning. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1988. 99-119, 148 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
The author makes a case for family planning as a basic human right and argues against the inclusion of coercive measures in population policies. The importance of considering ethical issues and cultural factors in the development of family planning programs is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10360 Sawangdee, Yothin. A qualitative study on the reasons why the rural people in Nan Province use contraception. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1988. 121-35, 149 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines why the residents of rural Nan Province in Thailand choose a particular contraceptive method. Utilizing data from Phase II of the Impact and Efficiency of the Family Planning Program in Thailand Survey, the author finds that contraceptive use is related to both economic and environmental factors. Factors related to use of family planning include desire for only two children, a wish to space children, shortages of land supply, unhappiness with employment situation, and economic hardships.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10361 Siripala, Dewage. The pattern of male sterilisation in Sri Lanka: a preliminary survey. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1988. 3-11 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to identify some of the crucial socio-economic factors leading to the acceptance of voluntary surgical contraception as a method of family planning among Sri Lankan males." Particular attention is paid to the relationship between male sterilization and religion, age, occupation, education, and economic factors. The data are drawn from 100 vasectomy acceptors attending a clinic in Kandy.
Correspondence: D. Siripala, Department of Economics, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10362 Soomro, Ghulam Y.; Ali, Syed M.; Khalid, Mohammad; Siyal, Hussain B.; Sheikh, Khalid H.; Gerwal, Sharif-ul-Haq; Tariq, M. Javed. Prevalence of knowledge and use of contraception in Pakistan. Studies in Population, Labour Force and Migration: Project Report, No. 3, [1983?]. [vi], 44 pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Levels and differentials in contraceptive use among currently married women in Pakistan are analyzed using data from a fertility survey conducted as part of the Population, Labour Force and Migration Survey of 1979-1980. The survey, which covered 10,085 ever-married women, used the same questionnaire as the 1975 Pakistan Fertility Survey, in order to study the changes in contraceptive knowledge and use over time. The results indicated that knowledge of family planning methods decreased from 76 percent in 1975 to 26 percent in 1979-1980: contraceptive use declined from 10.5 to 4.9 percent over the same period, although current use was roughly comparable between surveys, at between 3 and 4 percent for effective methods. Reasons for these changes are discussed.
Correspondence: PIDE, Post Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10363 Thapa, Shyam. A decade of Nepal's family planning program: achievements and prospects. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 38-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the achievements and prospects of Nepal's national family planning program over the period 1976-1986. "This paper first reviews the infrastructure for family planning service delivery and organizational support in Nepal. The emerging patterns and trends in awareness about and practice of family planning, as well as the program's impact on fertility, are then examined. Possible factors influencing the observed patterns in contraceptive knowledge and use are discussed, and the prospects for reaching the national fertility target through increasing contraceptive use are assessed. Finally, suggestions are made for strengthening the directions and performance of the program."
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Program Evaluation Division, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3950. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10364 van Norren, B. Public opinion and the adoption of family planning in a village ward in West Java, 1970-1973. In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F. H. A. G. Zwart, edited by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen. 1988. 155-79 pp. Geo Pers: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
Public opinion and its effect on acceptance of family planning is discussed using data from field surveys conducted in Cianyar, West Java, Indonesia, during the early 1970s. Consideration is given to socioeconomic factors, social class, religious and political conditions, and the influence of community leaders on the adoption of family planning.
Correspondence: B. van Norren, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72, 9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10365 Verma, B. D.; Singla, A. K. A profile of acceptors of terminal methods of family planning in a rural community. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1988. 20-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the use of sterilization as a method of contraception among the rural population of Bathinda district, Punjab, India. The data, drawn from almost 2,500 couples, show that there has been an increase in the number of acceptors over the past decade but that the procedure often occurs too late in life to reduce fertility significantly. The authors conclude that the Indian government must change its sterilization incentive policies to encourage the procedure earlier in the reproductive period.
Correspondence: B. Verma, Operation Concern, Milk Plant, Bathinda, Punjab, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10366 Viegas, O. A. C.; Singh, K.; Ratnam, S. S. Family planning as a priority for maternal and child health. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1988. 105-11 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the world literature in an attempt to stress the need for recognising family planning as an important public health priority. It also discusses some of the socio-demographic changes that have occurred in Singapore as a result of unique family planning policies and their contribution to an overall improvement in maternal and child health in this Republic."
Correspondence: O. A. C. Viegas, University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University Hospital, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10367 Warren, Charles W.; Oberle, Mark W.; Morris, Leo; Medica, Wilma. Changes in contraceptive use and fertility: Panama, 1976 to 1984. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1988. 74-81 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"From 1976 to 1984 important demographic changes occurred in Panama. The total fertility rate declined from 4.5 to 3.7, and contraceptive use among married women 20-44 years of age increased from 55 per cent to 63 per cent. However, using data from three national level reproductive health surveys which were conducted in Panama in 1976, 1979, and 1984, we found that most of the changes took place between 1976 and 1979. Since 1979, overall contraceptive use and fertility have remained virtually unchanged, although there has been an important method-mix shift toward an increase in the use of contraceptive sterilization and IUD's, with an accompanying decline in the use of oral contraceptives." Discussion of future family planning program strategy is included.
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10368 Warren, Charles W.; Monteith, Richard S.; Johnson, J. Timothy; Oberle, Mark W. Tubal sterilization: questioning the decision. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, Nov 1988. 407-18 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with cross-national comparisons of satisfaction or regret following contraceptive sterilization. Data are from a 1982 survey conducted in Puerto Rico, the 1984 Panama Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Survey, and the 1982 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth. "While generally high levels of satisfaction with the decision to undergo sterilization are confirmed, they also show that variations between different surveys in the questions asked...and the ambiguity presented by variations in permitted response categories...make it impossible at this time accurately to compare levels of dissatisfaction with sterilization among the populations studied, or to identify adequately the important covariates associated with sterilization dissatisfaction."
Correspondence: C. W. Warren, Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10369 Wong, Rebeca. Estimation of a microeconomic model of contraceptive use in rural Mexico. Pub. Order No. DA8801449. 1987. 130 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation addresses the problem of empirical estimation of the determinants of current contraceptive use among women of fertile ages and exposed to the risk of conception, in rural Mexico. The effect of socioeconomic variables on the choice of contraceptive...is examined. Variables representing costs, income, differences in fecundity, and other socioeconomic factors are evaluated. A sub-sample of women of fertile ages and exposed to the risk of conception is taken from the Rural Mexican Survey, 1981. Analysis is performed for the entire sub-sample of women, and separately for each of three age groups....The results from the contraceptive efficiency equation show that women with a lower desire for an additional conception use more effective methods of contraception."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(2).

55:10370 World Federation of Health Agencies for the Advancement of Voluntary Surgical Contraception (New York, New York). Safe and voluntary surgical contraception: guidelines for service programs. ISBN 0-935955-05-4. 1988. xv, 104 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This manual presents guidelines for agencies offering voluntary surgical contraceptive services, and provides recommendations of an expert committee convened in Singapore in 1986 by the World Federation of Health Agencies for the Advancement of Voluntary Surgical Contraception. "Chapter 1 reviews the issues of counseling and informed-decision screening. Chapters 2 and 3 cover preoperative assessment, surgical technique, prevention and management of complications, and postoperative care and follow-up for tubal occlusion and vasectomy procedures. Chapters 4 through 7 cover asepsis, anesthesia, monitoring and supervision, and training. Appendix A contains a discussion of the special safety concerns of providing services in mobile settings. Appendix B reviews facilities and equipment requirements. Appendix C includes examples of client record forms and summary reports used in voluntary surgical contraception programs. Appendix D lists the participants of the task forces."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10371 Yusuf, Farhat; Briggs, Dora K. Incidence of hysterectomy and tubal ligation in public hospitals in South Australia, 1980-82. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 453-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents information on the incidence of hysterectomy and tubal ligation in South Australia in the period 1980-82, and on the age, marital status and ethnicity of women undergoing these procedures in public hospitals during the period....South Australian women had a lifetime chance of one in six of undergoing hysterectomy and of one in five of undergoing tubal ligation. The findings are consonant with the suggestion that increasing numbers of women are choosing forms of sterilization as means of contraception."
Correspondence: F. Yusuf, School of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

55:10372 Diczfalusy, E.; Bygdeman, M. Fertility regulation today and tomorrow. Serono Symposia Publications from Raven Press, Vol. 36, ISBN 0-88167-180-0. LC 85-043334. 1987. xii, 317 pp. Raven Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are a proceedings of the symposium titled Fertility Regulation Today and Tomorrow, which was held in Stockholm, Sweden, under the joint sponsorship of the Karolinska Institute and Serono-Ares Symposia. The 24 papers cover topics including postovulatory methods, long-acting infertility agents, medical benefits and risks of contraception, regulation of male fertility, and diagnosis and treatment of infertility. The opening and closing sessions' papers review the future of family planning, international programs of research, and contraceptive choices. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Raven Press, 1140 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10373 World Health Organization [WHO]. Task Force on Oral Contraception. Contraception during the postpartum period and during lactation: the effects on women's health. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 13-26 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Drawing on data from official and other published sources, the potential harmful effects of contraceptive use by lactating women are analyzed. "The inferences we present on the risk-benefit equation for breast-feeding women are based upon the possible interactions between each specific contraceptive method and the physiological and metabolic changes which are known to occur in the lactating, postpartum woman." It is found that "there is little...evidence to suggest that lactation per se interacts adversely with the effects of [contraceptive methods including] the IUCD, barrier methods, sterilization or progestogen-only contraception (oral or injectable)."
Correspondence: Mark A. Belsey, Maternal and Child Health Unit, Division of Family Health, WHO, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10374 Zacharias, Sergio; Aguilera, Eneida; Jimenez, Jorge; Assenzo, J. Robert; Zanartu, Juan. The effects of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptives on human lactation and on the re-establishment of fertility. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 249-55 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors' main objectives are "to evaluate the effects of different contraceptive methods on the duration of lactation and on the re-establishment of fertility; to measure the return of fertility in lactating mothers who were not using contraceptives; and to assess the health of infants whose mothers had used intramuscular DMPA as a contraceptive during lactation." The data presented are drawn from women who gave birth at the University Maternity Hospital in Santiago, Chile, between 1974 and 1976. Among other conclusions the authors find that "the use of contraception, especially DMPA and clogestone, prolonged the duration of lactation."
Correspondence: S. Zacharias, Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 6635, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

55:10375 Azefor, Michael N. A. Policies and family planning programmes in Africa: evaluation and prospects. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.4.1-15 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper attempts to illustrate that the almost total neglect of the cultural, religious and societal organizational settings in [Sub-Saharan Africa] resulted in complete insensitivity to the priorities and pre-occupations of the societies for which family planning services were being organized. It argues that, at the onset of country programmes, no empirical basis existed for the family programme goals that were set, and no quantitative programme targets for fertility reduction were fixed. The paper further argues that because key issues of programme management capabilities were not dealt with, the perpetual use of external consultants for programme design, monitoring, and sometimes management and supervision functions, meant that national family planning programmes were generally viewed as externally generated, foreign financed and sustained by anti-natalist groups from the Western World."
Correspondence: M. N. A. Azefor, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10376 Danielson, Ross; McNally, Kevin; Swanson, Janice; Plunkett, Anne; Klausmeier, Walter. Title X and family planning services for men. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 234-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the role of the Title X program in providing family planning services for men in the United States, with a focus on the administrative or policy changes that may be necessary in order to encourage a greater participation of men in family planning. "We examined the viewpoints of family planning administrators employed at different levels of the Title X program. In this article, we present an overview of their opinions, followed by our analysis and recommendations."
Correspondence: K. McNally, Program Assistant for Family Planning, New Jersey State Department of Health, John Fitch Plaza, Trenton, NJ 08611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10377 Durojaiye Oyekamni, Felicia. Demand for and cost-benefit analysis of family planning services in the private sector in Nigeria. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.4.49-71 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author provides a cost-benefit analysis of employer-sponsored family planning services in the private sector in Nigeria. Reasons for high fertility rates in Nigeria are first discussed. The author then examines data from a survey of 1,319 employees of two multinational corporations operating in the country, in which respondents provided information on their knowledge and practice of family planning. It is found that "there is a ready demand for family services and these needs should be met by the companies in order to get maximum productivity from their employees."
Correspondence: F. Durojaiye Oyekanmi, Department of Sociology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10378 Entwisle, Barbara. Measuring components of family planning program effort. Demography, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1989. 53-84 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The measures of family planning program effort developed by Lapham and Mauldin have played a key role in family planning program analysis, but surprisingly little is known about them. This article investigates the measurement of family planning program effort based on data reflecting conditions circa 1982 in 100 developing countries. Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques, it tests some hypotheses implicit in the work of Mauldin and Lapham. Since the data do not fully support these hypotheses, an alternative conceptualization is proposed that consists of eight rather than four components. The discussion focuses on the expanded set of components and includes an assessment of the empirical indicators associated with them." A comment by Donald J. Hernandez (pp. 77-80) and a reply by Entwisle (pp. 81-4) are included.
Correspondence: B. Entwisle, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10379 Gaisie, S. K. Measuring the impact on fertility of family planning programmes in several African countries: data methods and results. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.4.17-32 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author argues that family planning programs in Africa must utilize different strategies to deal with the reproductive behaviors of different social groups. Consideration is given to contraceptive knowledge and methods for evaluating the impact of family planning programs. Particular attention is paid to the experiences of Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Mauritius. Data are from the World Fertility Survey and various official sources.
Correspondence: S. K. Gaisie, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 31966, Lusaka, Zambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10380 Jain, Anrudh K. Fertility reduction and the quality of family planning services. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 1-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a focus on quality of family planning services [in developing countries] is consistent with meeting demographic objectives. An analytical framework that links...six elements of quality with fertility is described. A review of existing literature and analysis suggests that improvements in quality of family planning services by enhancing the choice of contraceptive methods available in a country would increase the overall practice of contraception and thus would result in fertility reduction."
Correspondence: A. K. Jain, Programs Division, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10381 Khan, Mehrab A.; Smith, Caroline; Akbar, Jalaluddin; Koenig, Michael A. Contraceptive use patterns Matlab, Bangladesh: insights from a 1984 survey. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 47-58 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"An experimental maternal and child health and family planning programme has been in existence in Matlab [Bangladesh] for almost 10 years....Based upon a 1984 survey, this study examines the pattern of contraceptive use in the Matlab treatment area, and contrasts it with the regular government programme in the neighbouring comparison area. Important differences between the two areas are observed, with the treatment area characterized by substantially higher levels of current contraceptive use, greater reliance upon temporary methods for birth spacing and, among acceptors of sterilization, more prior experimentation with other methods....The findings suggest that an intensive and innovative family planning programme in rural Bangladesh can achieve success not only in terms of contraceptive prevalence, but can also attract users interested in child spacing and others wanting to limit their family size, by offering the widest range of contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: M. A. Khan, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10382 Lerman, Charles; Molyneaux, John W.; Moeljodihardjo, Soetedjo; Pandjaitan, Sahala. The correlation between family planning program inputs and contraceptive use in Indonesia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1989. 26-37 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using 1980 Census and 1986 service statistics program inputs, this paper evaluates the net correlation of socioeconomic, region, and program variables with 1987 contraceptive prevalence and method-specific use rates for Indonesian regencies and municipalities. The region variables--primarily, though not exclusively, reflecting program design and maturity--correlate most strongly with the contraceptive prevelance rates. Field-worker activities, field-worker supervisor activities, and community-based distributors also have a correlation with these rates. Pill use is highest in the areas that are predominantly Islamic and least developed, whereas the pattern is reversed for use of the IUD, condom, and other modern methods (mainly female sterilization). The findings are assessed in terms of their implications for policymaking."
Correspondence: C. Lerman, Bureau of Analysis, National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), P.O. Box 186, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10383 Maloney, Clarence. India's population--what is being done? UFSI Report, No. 28, Pub. Order No. CM-2-'86. 1986. 9 pp. Universities Field Staff International: Indianapolis, Indiana. In Eng.
The author evaluates India's family planning programs and reviews population trends. He concludes that "despite strenuous efforts involving hundreds of thousands of people and enormous financial outlays, India's attempts to curtail population growth have consistently failed to meet official targets. Until small family norms are internalized by the majority of Indians, the goal of population stabilization will remain elusive and India's numbers will double in the 21st century." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: UFSI, 620 Union Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10384 Moslehuddin, M.; Kabir, M.; Sufian, A. J. M. Factors affecting achievements in family planning in Bangladesh: a discriminant analysis. Rural Demography, Vol. 13, No. 1-2, 1986. 13-9 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Factors affecting the lack of success of Bangladesh's family planning program are examined. Consideration is given to family planning personnel and their communication with community leaders and concern for agricultural development, and to the level of education of family planning program participants.
Correspondence: M. Moslehuddin, Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Ramna, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10385 Park, Insook Han. Are research projects necessary for a successful family planning program? Cheju Project. Studies in Population Problems, Vol. 3, Dec 1986. 34-58 pp. Pusan, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to describe how the [Republic of Korea's] family planning program has [succeeded] by introducing a research project and assessing the ways the research findings were implemented into the program....In the first stage, as a pretest, three new types of [contraceptive] delivery systems were introduced....In the second stage, the most workable, acceptable, and effective of the three methods, as indicated by experience in the initial stage, was introduced into Cheju Province, which has a population of approximately 400,000....In the third stage, a post-action survey was carried out in both areas. The final stage was an evaluation of the efficacy and efficiency of the new delivery system in terms of increased contraceptive practice and fertility reduction."
Correspondence: I. H. Park, Sociology Department, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10386 Prasartkul, Pramote; Porapakkham, Yawarat; Sittitrai, Werasit. Birth order distribution as a family planning program evaluation indicator. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1988. 11-28, 141-2 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This research aims at deriving a simple indicator for measuring fertility and family planning program output at various administrative levels of [Thailand]. The proportion of first and second births to total registered births (FSB) is [proposed] as an ideal measure of family planning performance at the provincial and regional level." The authors conclude that the FSB is a practical indicator of family planning performance at any administrative level and recommend its immediate adoption.
Correspondence: P. Prasartkul, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonchaisri, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10387 Saksena, D. N. The challenge of population in a backward area of India: the case of Uttar Pradesh. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 4, Summer 1988. 389-99 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Despite early success in the government backed family planning program in India, progress has been less marked during the present decade. The overall problem is here discussed with special reference to Uttar Pradesh....The aim of the present paper is to evaluate this situation in terms of trends, [population] size and composition in relation to the country as a whole, its potentialities, the impact of the family planning programme to date, and the path to be followed in the future."
Correspondence: D. N. Saksena, Population Research Centre, Lucknow University, Badshah Bagh, Lucknow 226 007, UP, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10388 Tolnay, Stewart E.; Rodeheaver, Daniel G. The effects of family planning effort and development on fertility: an intervening variables framework. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1988. 28-50 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to shed more light on the relationships among: development, family planning effort, and fertility. Specifically, an attempt is made to explicate the intervening forces that transmit the impacts of development and family planning effort on fertility. A modified 'proximate determinants' framework [as developed by John Bongaarts] is applied to cross-national data to estimate the relative importance of marriage patterns, contraceptive use and fecundity-related factors as variables mediating the influence of development and family planning effort on crude birth rates. A better understanding of how development and family planning effort influence societal fertility should shed more light on the 'family planning' versus 'development' debate, as well as provide insights for demographic policy makers." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12203. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10389 Vernon, Ricardo; Ojeda, Gabriel; Townsend, Marcia C. Contraceptive social marketing and community-based distribution systems in Colombia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1988. 354-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Three operations research experiments were carried out in three provinces of Colombia to improve the cost-effectiveness of Profamilia's nonclinic-based programs. The experiments tested: (a) whether a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) strategy can replace a community-based distribution (CBD) program in a high contraceptive use area; (b) if wage incentives for salaried CBD instructors will increase contraceptive sales; and (c) whether a specially equipped information, education, and communication (IEC) team can replace a cadre of rural promoters to expand family planning coverage." The effectiveness of the programs is analyzed, and recommendations are made for future guidelines.
Correspondence: R. Vernon, Population Council, Apartado Aereo 75808, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

55:10390 Astone, Nan M. The expectations of adolescent girls about birth timing and their future occupations. 1988. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation tests several propositions of neo-classical and socialization theory using data on the expectations of young [U.S.] girls about the timing of first birth and sex typicality of occupation. The data are from the High School and Beyond Study, which is a longitudinal survey done on a nationally representative sample of American high school students. All analyses were done separately on white and black girls who were seniors in 1980. The results support the interpretation that the timing of family formation is to some extent the outcome of a process of rational planning. There is little evidence to indicate that occupational choice is the outcome of such a process."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Chicago.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 49(2).

55:10391 Chiang, Chien-Dai. The socio-economic characteristics and KAP of teenage mothers in Taipei City, 1978. Journal of Population Studies, No. 11, Jun 1988. 163-96 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
The author analyzes socioeconomic characteristics and family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practice among 786 teenage mothers registering their first births in Taipei city, Taiwan, in 1978. "Significant personal factors like younger age, less education, lack of knowledge of family planning, conservative attitude to use contraception before first delivery and conservative attitude toward premarital pregnancy etc., are examined. Significant [other] factors like parent's education, family attitude toward premarital pregnancy..., and situational factors like migration to city, working in factories, restaurants, etc., exposure to premarital sexual contact, use of contraceptives, limited availability of artificial abortion were studied."
Correspondence: C.-D. Chiang, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10392 Cushman, Linda F.; Philliber, Susan G.; Davidson, Andrew R.; Graves, William L.; Rulin, Marvin C. Beliefs about contraceptive sterilization among low-income urban women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 218-21, 233 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to describe some of the beliefs about contraceptive female sterilization that are held by low-income urban clinic patients [in the United States]. In this study we examine the content of these beliefs, and the extent to which they are held by women who intend to be sterilized in comparison with women who, despite their stated desire to have no more children, are not planning to be sterilized." Data are from interviews conducted in 1985-1986 with some 2,000 women from three metropolitan areas.
Correspondence: L. F. Cushman, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10393 Marcil-Gratton, Nicole. Sterilization regret among women in metropolitan Montreal. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 222-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the incidence of post-sterilization regret among women in metropolitan Montreal, Canada, using data from telephone interviews with 497 women aged 25-44. Some of the factors analyzed include sources of dissatisfaction with sterilization, desire for another child, age at sterilization, and marital stability.
For a related study, published by the same author in French in 1987, see 54:30283.
Correspondence: N. Marcil-Gratton, Department of Demography, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10394 Turner, Charlotte; Anderson, Peter; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Fowler, Godfrey; Mayon-White, Richard. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and knowledge of AIDS of Oxford University students. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 445-51 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Results are presented from a 1987 survey of 374 students at Oxford University, England, concerning the impact that knowledge of AIDs has had on behavior and contraceptive practice. The results indicate that "the use of contraception has changed over the last 5 years, with fewer students using oral contraceptives as their most frequent means of contraception and more using barrier methods. In general, knowledge about AIDS was high. Most students did not consider that they were at risk of becoming infected by the AIDS virus and, by their reported sexual behaviour, very few students appeared to be at any risk."
Correspondence: C. Turner, Department of Community Medicine, Oxfordshire Health Authority, Headington, Oxford OX1 3BG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10395 Uhlman, Jerry; Weiss, Gregory. Performed and refused vasectomy: a decade of waning popularity and increasing awareness of safety. Social Biology, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1988. 41-9 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Family planning clinics and a random sample of private physicians throughout the United States were surveyed in 1972 and 1984 to learn the incidence of performed and refused vasectomy, and to discern attitudinal change over time toward delayed physical and psychological sequelae related to vasectomy. Data show that, after a dramatic rise in popularity in the early 1970's, incidence has fallen significantly in the intervening years." Factors affecting the decline are discussed, including the differences between clinics' and physicians' screening techniques, counseling, and applicant eligibility.
Correspondence: J. Uhlman, Virginia Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Substance Abuse Services, Richmond, VA. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10396 van de Kaa, D. J. A first note on the right to decide freely and responsibly. In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F. H. A. G. Zwart, edited by B. van Norren and H. A. W. van Vianen. 1988. 181-91 pp. Geo Pers: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author critically evaluates the World Population Plan of Action's paragraph 14f, which defines couples' or individuals' rights to decide the number and spacing of their children. The author contends that "the text fails to recognize that a hierarchy of (human) rights is involved, makes insufficient distinction between the right to birth control and the right to procreate, and makes insufficient distinction between rights and duties, and between the rights and duties of individuals, couples and the government. In this essay the history of the most recent text on 'the right to decide freely and responsibly' will be traced in an effort to show how its shortcomings have become increasingly apparent. The direction in which changes could be sought is then indicated."
Correspondence: D. J. van de Kaa, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences [NIAS], Meyboomlaan 1, 2242 PR Wassenaar, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10397 Westoff, Charles F. Is the KAP-gap real? Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1988. 225-32, 378-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Evidence from four Demographic and Health Surveys suggests that the KAP-gap--defined as currently married women who either want no more children or want to postpone the next birth, who are not intending to use contraception, and who are immediately exposed to the risk of pregnancy--is negligible. The reasons for nonuse among this small minority cover a range of considerations, including lack of contraceptive availability, health concerns, partner disapproval, and cost. The significance of the finding of a very small KAP-gap is not the absence of an unmet need for family planning services, but rather that the difficult problems of motivation, religious and other objections to contraceptive use, fatalism, and health concerns are not the serious problems that may have been presumed and that the basic supply problem of contraceptive availability has been successfully met." The surveys concerned are for Peru, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Liberia.
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

55:10398 Badagliacco, Joanne M. Who has abortions: determinants of abortion choice among American women. Pub. Order No. DA8809323. 1987. 211 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis addresses the issues of who has abortions and what variables affect that decision among [U.S.] women. Two comparison groups of women were analyzed: those who were childless and those who were mothers at the time of the pregnancy in question. The data analyzed are from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle II (1976)....The literature concerned with fertility decision-making and abortion decisions was critically reviewed and summarized....Methodological considerations in abortion research, including negative responses, are addressed. Some of the variables that were found to directly affect abortion choice include whether the woman was childless at the time of her pregnancy, if she was attending school, whether abortion was legal at that time, race/ethnicity, the availability of abortion facilities, and religiosity."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Columbia University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 49(4).

55:10399 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Krotki, Karol J. Attitudes towards abortion in Canada. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 87-6, Dec 1987. 23 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada; University of Western Ontario, Centre for Canadian Population Studies: London, Canada. In Eng.
"An analysis of the data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984 shows that attitudes towards abortion among a national sample of women are related to not only their demographic and socio-economic background but their experience with unwanted pregnancy. Women who were non-Catholic, educated, less religious and lived in large urban areas were more liberal in their attitudes towards abortion. Those who had an unwanted or an untimed pregnancy were also more liberal. It was also found that attitudes towards abortion [are] correlated with attitudes towards marriage, family and childbearing in general. Women who place less value on marriage, and childbearing and more value on work and personal freedom are more liberal towards abortion."
Correspondence: Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10400 Brookes, Barbara. Abortions in England, 1900-1967. Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine, ISBN 0-7099-5046-2. 1988. 195 pp. Croom Helm: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The history of abortion in England from 1900 to 1967, the year an abortion reform bill was passed, is reviewed. The focus is on the female subculture in which women shared information on abortion, and on the intersection of women's culture, medicine, law, and public policy. The author shows how abortion evolved from a female-centered form of fertility control into a medical event closely monitored by the state. The relationship between the development of modern methods of contraception and the changing attitudes toward and practice of abortion is also noted.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10401 De Blasio, R.; Spinelli, A.; Grandolfo, M. E. Application of a mathematical model in estimating repeat abortions in Italy. [Applicazione di un modello matematico alla stima degli aborti repetuti in Italia.] Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1988. 331-8 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons for the apparent increase in repeat induced abortion in Italy are explored. The authors conclude that this phenomenon can be attributed to the growth in the numbers of women who have had a first legal abortion and who are therefore at risk of having a repeat abortion. A mathematical model is applied to data for Abruzzo and Puglia to provide support for this hypothesis. The authors also conclude that the results, which show a lower rate of repeat abortion than might be expected, indicate a greater reliance on contraception over abortion rather than the reverse.
Correspondence: R. De Blasio, Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

55:10402 Hoffmeier, James K. Abortion: a Christian understanding and response. ISBN 0-8010-4317-4. 1987. 260 pp. Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, Michigan. In Eng.
This is a collection of 15 essays by various authors designed "to increase a reader's understanding of the facts, issues, principles, and values that should be part of any discussion regarding abortion." The essays are grouped under the general headings of historical, biblical, and theological background; ethical perspectives and value systems; and facts, figures, and practical concerns. The general approach of the collection is an Evangelical Christian one that is opposed to abortion, and the primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10403 Ide, Arthur F. Abortion handbook: abortion's history, practice and psychology. Women in History, 2nd ed. No. 75, ISBN 0-934659-07-9. LC 87-21388. 1987. vi, 153 pp. Liberal Press: Las Colinas, Texas. In Eng.
The author presents the pro-choice case concerning induced abortion, with a focus on the United States in 1987.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10404 Marks, Stephen V. Teaching guide: abortion economics. Economic Inquiry, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1988. 175-9 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
The author presents a series of questions and solutions concerning the economics of abortion in the United States. The article is based on an economic approach to abortion developed by Daniel A. Farber, the text of which is also provided, in which a market is created that takes into account the economic interests of both the fetus and the parents in arriving at the decision to terminate or carry the pregnancy to full term.
Correspondence: S. V. Marks, Pomona College, Sumner Hall, Claremont, CA 91711. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10405 Medoff, Marshall H. An economic analysis of the demand for abortions. Economic Inquiry, Vol. 26, No. 2, Apr 1988. 353-9 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"This study uses an economic model of fertility control to estimate the demand for abortions [in the United States]. The results show that the fundamental law of demand holds for abortions, with the price elasticity of demand equal to -.81. Abortions are a normal good with an income elasticity of demand equal to .79. The demand for abortions is also positively related to the labor force participation of women and to being unmarried. Catholic religion, education and the poverty status of women were found to have no statistically significant impact on the demand for abortions."
Correspondence: M. H. Medoff, Department of Economics, California State University, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

55:10406 Rossi, Alice S.; Sitaraman, Bhavani. Abortion in context: historical trends and future changes. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1988. 273-81, 301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a historical survey of abortion in the United States, with a focus on the reform movement leading up to the legalization of abortion in 1973 and on trends since that time. Trends in public attitudes and behavior since 1973 are discussed. The authors analyze the determinants of attitude, including sex, age, education, religion, and race. They also examine the impact of abortion views on voting behavior. In conclusion, they discuss future abortion trends in light of changes in religious and political influences. Using data from European values studies as predictors, they conclude that legal abortion in the United States, as in other Western developed countries, is unlikely to be jeopardized. Data are from a variety of U.S. surveys.
Correspondence: A. S. Rossi, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

55:10407 Ahamed, M. Mohiuddin; Kabir, M.; Moslehuddin, M. Post-partum amenorrhoea in Bangladesh: duration and differentials. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 3, Mar 1988. 28-34 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Data from the 1975 Bangladesh Fertility Survey are utilized to estimate the duration of postpartum amenorrhea and the possible implications for family planning programs. Demographic and socioeconomic factors related to differentials in the estimates are discussed.
Correspondence: M. M. Ahamed, Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

55:10408 Bongaarts, John; Frank, Odile. Biological and behavioral determinants of exceptional fertility levels in Africa and West Asia. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.1.1-13 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Countries with fertility rates well above the levels expected on the basis of their contraceptive prevalence rates include Kenya, Rwanda and Zimbabwe in sub-Saharan Africa, and Jordan..., Syria and Yemen...in West Asia, whereas a notable example of a country with low fertility in Africa is Gabon. The present analysis of the behavioral and biological proximate determinants of natural fertility--breastfeeding, abstinence, marriage and infertility--yields insights into these exceptional cases, and underscores the relevance of variables other than contraceptive use in interpreting levels and trends of fertility, particularly in countries in the early phases of the fertility transition."
This is a revised and expanded version of an article originally published in 1987 (see 53:30401).
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10409 Carballo, Manuel; Belsey, Mark A. Breast-feeding, contraception and fertility: joint WHO/FIGO task force the "Promotion of Maternal and Child Health Including Family Planning in Primary Health Care" International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. vi, 259 pp. Elsevier Scientific Publishers: Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented to a joint WHO/FIGO task force on maternal and child health on the interrelationships among breast-feeding, contraception, and fertility. Topics covered include the impact of contraceptive use on postpartum fertility, lactation, infant and maternal health, and the sociocultural and biological bases for the contraceptive effects of breast-feeding.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10410 Holland, Bart; Pratt, William F. Age patterns of breast-feeding in Africa and the United States share a common functional form. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 3, Jun 1988. 461-74 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors examine patterns of breast-feeding discontinuation in Africa and the United States. "Lesthaeghe and Page (1980) developed a two-parameter model standard curve of the probability of breast-feeding by duration since birth, based on African data. We fitted data from the U.S. National Survey of Family Growth Cycles II [1976] and III [1982] to their model curve; the U.S. data followed the standard curve quite closely. The findings demonstrate empirically that a common family of monotonically declining curves can describe patterns of breast-feeding discontinuation in quite different societies."
Correspondence: B. Holland, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103-2757. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10411 Huffman, Sandra L. Risk of pregnancy associated with maternal and child nutritional status. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 57-75 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"This paper will explore the roles which maternal and infant nutritional status have on fertility in the postpartum period." Consideration is given to socioeconomic status, maternal and infant nutrition and health, and child morbidity. The author finds that "child nutrition affects the risk of pregnancy through the frequency of both nutritive and non-nutritive suckling." Policy implications of the findings are also discussed. The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on developing countries.
Correspondence: S. L. Huffman, Center to Prevent Childhood Malnutrition, P.O. Box 30458, Bethesda, MD 20814. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10412 Hull, Valerie J. Breast-feeding and fertility: the sociocultural context. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 77-109 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors "present first a framework in which breast-feeding and fertility patterns can be related. In an organizational way, this framework is used to identify specific topics to which research has been, or could be, directed in order to clarify the role played by specific sociocultural variables in explaining variations in breast-feeding and fertility. This section draws upon the available anthropological literature, on the author's field experience in rural Java and on relevant research in other fields. A final section presents suggestions for future research into this important meeting-point of social and biological processes."
Correspondence: V. J. Hull, Australian Development Assistance Bureau, P.O. Box 887, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10413 Joesoef, M. Riduan; Annest, Joseph L.; Utomo, B. A recent increase of breastfeeding duration in Jakarta, Indonesia. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 79, No. 1, Jan 1989. 36-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Comparison of breastfeeding practices from two similar surveys conducted in Jakarta, Indonesia shows an increase in breastfeeding duration from 14.4 months in 1976 to 19.8 months in 1983. This increase was predominantly among noneducated women....Among working women breastfeeding duration declined slightly....Unlike industrialized countries where increases in breastfeeding have occurred initially among the higher socioeconomic groups, recent increases in Jakarta have occurred initially among the lower socioeconomic groups."
Correspondence: M. R. Joesoef, Division of Chronic Disease Control, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10414 John, A. Meredith. Lactation and the waiting time to conception: an application of hazard models. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 6, Dec 1988. 873-88 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The suitability of a class of statistical regression models, hazard models, is examined for use in studying questions arising in human biology involving waiting times. A general description of hazard models is given, and the use of hazard models is demonstrated by a study of the effect of prolonged breastfeeding--breastfeeding after the resumption of menses--on the monthly probability of conception. The data used in the study are taken from the Determinants of Natural Fertility Survey, conducted by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. In the hazard model analysis, we show that, when considered in conjunction with other factors, breastfeeding beyond the resumption of menses has a significant effect on the monthly probability of conception."
Correspondence: A. M. John, Food Research Institute, 310 West Encina Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10415 Jones, Robert E. A hazards model analysis of breastfeeding variables and maternal age on return to menses postpartum in rural Indonesian women. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 6, Dec 1988. 853-71 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The association among breastfeeding variables, maternal age, and resumption of menses postpartum was examined in a longitudinal study in Indonesia....The proportional hazards model, which has not previously been used to examine the biobehavioral determinants of postpartum amenorrhea, was applied to postpartum amenorrheic survival data to simultaneously adjust for censoring and relationships among variables....[The author finds that] age and the three breastfeeding variables were all significantly related to return to menses. Low intensity breastfeeding with 3 or fewer bouts at night, 6 or fewer bouts during the day, and 6 minutes or less of nursing per bout, and younger age, all increase the risk of early postpartum resumption of fecundity in these Indonesian mothers."
Correspondence: R. E. Jones, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10416 Jones, Robert E. Breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Indonesia. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 83-100 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The association between breast-feeding patterns and resumption of menses post-partum was examined in a prospective study in Indonesia....Information on suckling patterns and menstrual status was collected by recall for 444 women at monthly visits for 2 years. Three main breast-feeding variables, minutes per episode, number of episodes per day, number of episodes per night, and other breast-feeding variables were derived for each woman, to give the average nursing pattern up to menses or the end of the study, whichever came first....The interactions between more minutes per episode, and more frequent day- and night-time feeds, were found to be the most important factors in the delay in onset of post-partum menstruation in those women whose menses resumed while still nursing or who remained amenorrhoeic and nursing at the end of the study."
Correspondence: R. E. Jones, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10417 Kabera, J. B.; Ntozi, J. P. M. The role of marital sexual customs in maintaining high fertility in East Africa: the case of Ankole in south-western Uganda. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.2.55-69 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors "will first give a brief socio-demographic backgroun of Ankole [Uganda]. This will be followed by a review of marital sexual customs supporting high fertility among the Banyankole. A presentation and discussion of the data and how the customs relate to the high fertility in the area will form the core of the next section. Lastly a section on policy implications of these customs will be given." The data are from a 1984 survey concerning fertility determinants.
Correspondence: J. B. Kabera, Department of Geography, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10418 Kallan, Jeffrey E.; Udry, J. Richard. Demographic components of seasonality of pregnancy. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1989. 101-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"From data on monthly populations at risk and monthly probabilities of pregnancy [in the United States] this paper determines the relative contribution of each component to the monthly distribution of pregnancies. The data come from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. While there is some seasonality in the size of the at-risk population, it contributes little to the overall monthly variation of pregnancy, which is determined mainly by seasonality of pregnancy probability (fecundability)."
Correspondence: J. E. Kallan, Center for Population Research and Census, Portland State University, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10419 Komba, Aldegunda S.; Kamuzora, C. Lwechungura. Fertility reduction due to non-marriage and lactation: a case study of Kibaha District, Tanzania. In: African Population Conference/Congres Africain de Population, Dakar, Senegal, November/novembre 7-12, 1988. Vol. 1, 1988. 2.1.53-71 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The effects on fertility of non-marriage and postpartum amenorrhea are analyzed using data from a 1986 survey in Kibaha District, Tanzania. The accuracy of fertility estimates obtained using the Bongaarts model is assessed.
Correspondence: A. S. Komba, Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 796, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10420 Laukaran, Virginia H. The effects of contraceptive use on the initiation and duration of lactation. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 129-42 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"The initation and duration of lactation are variables which are studied in relation to the effects which contraceptives have on breast-feeding." The author first reviews the available literature from around the world. Consideration is given to the timing of the initiation of contraception and the criteria for the measurement of lactational performance.
Correspondence: V. H. Laukaran, National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, 2102 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10421 Lesthaeghe, R. Lactation and lactation related variables; contraception and fertility: an overview of data problems and world trends. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 143-73 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The author presents a cross-national comparative study "concerned with the distribution of postpartum variables, i.e. with breast-feeding, postpartum amenorrhea and postpartum abstinence, and with the parameters of these distributions." The first section covers the types of data available, the truncation effect, and the selection criteria. The following section is an overview of worldwide differentials in postpartum variables. The author continues with an exploration of "the relationship between breast-feeding and postpartum amenorrhea, and other variables in more depth." A final section brings contraception and fertility into consideration in this relationship.
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Inter-University Programme on Demography, c/o Vrije Universiteit, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10422 Liestol, Knut; Rosenberg, Margit; Walloe, Lars. Lactation and post-partum amenorrhoea: a study based on data from three Norwegian cities 1860-1964. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 423-34 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Medical records from maternity clinics in three Norwegian cities, Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim, have been used to study the relationship between lactation and post-partum amenorrhoea during the period 1860-1964. Resumption of menses after a period of post-partum amenorrhoea has been examined separately during lactation, after cessation of lactation, and in the absence of lactation, in 5,250 cases....In a Cox regression analysis, age of menarche and parity were found to influence the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea, in addition to the child's birth year....The decline in the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea during ongoing lactation from 1860 until today is...probably caused by a changed breast-feeding pattern rather than by improved nutrition for women giving birth."
Correspondence: K. Liestol, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Box 1072, Blindern, 0316 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10423 Popkin, Barry M.; Akin, John S.; Flieger, Wilhelm; Wong, Emelita L. Breastfeeding trends in the Philippines, 1973 and 1983. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 79, No. 1, Jan 1989. 32-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines comparable national surveys of breastfeeding from the Philippines carried out in 1973 and 1983. The probability of breastfeeding at selected infant ages is estimated, using the weighted life table. The conclusions are that a 5 per cent decline in the proportion of infants ever breast-fed occurred during the referenced period, and that median length of breastfeeding remained essentially the same."
Correspondence: B. M. Popkin, Carolina Population Center, C.B. #8120, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

55:10424 Ramachandran, Prema. Breast-feeding and fertility: sociocultural factors. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 191-206 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"The physiological consequences of variations in breast-feeding practices and their impact on nutrition, fertility and mortality under the existing socio-cultural milieu in different communities [are] reviewed....Special emphasis [is] placed on lacunae in our existing knowledge of the subject." Data are drawn primarily from India with some consideration given to other developing regions.
Correspondence: P. Ramachandran, Indian Council for Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

55:10425 Short, Roger. The biological basis for the contraceptive effects of breast feeding. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 207-17 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
From an evolutionary viewpoint, the author considers why lactation is important to the regulation of human fertility. He compares and contrasts reproductive strategies, lactation, and suckling patterns for humans and primates. The author also discusses the changes in these factors as man underwent the transition from hunter-gatherer to settled farmer to urban dweller.
Correspondence: R. Short, Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

55:10426 Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Marlena. Births outside of marriage. [Urodzenia pozamalzenskie.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 33, No. 5, May 1988. 9-11 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The characteristics of the five percent of women who have children outside of marriage in Poland are analyzed, as well as the characteristics of their children. Data are from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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