Volume 54 - Number 4 - Winter 1988

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

54:40706 Farley, Reynolds. After the starting line: blacks and women in an uphill race. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 477-95 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
This study, which formed the Presidential Address to the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, is concerned with the changing role of blacks and women in contemporary U.S. society. The focus is on the integration of blacks into the economy and on the changing composition of black families. The author argues that the continuing high poverty rate among blacks can only be understood in the context of three major social changes: the civil rights revolution of the 1960s, shifts in employment and industry, and changes in the social and economic roles of women. He concludes that "largely because of changes in family patterns, many black women and an increasing proportion of white women face spans--often when they have custody of children--during which their incomes put them near or below the poverty line....[and that] the changes in family structure that occurred among blacks are a leading indicator of what may happen among whites." The importance of having demographers contribute to the debate on policy alternatives concerning the reduction of poverty, the future of the family, and affirmative action is stressed.
Correspondence: R. Farley, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40707 Findl, Peter; Holzmann, Robert; Munz, Rainer. Population and the welfare state: scenarios up to the year 2050. [Bevolkerung und Sozialstaat: Szenarien bis 2050.] Schriftenreihe des Ludwig Boltzmann-Instituts fur Okonomische Analysen Wirtschaftspolitischer Aktivitaten, Vol. 2, ISBN 3-214-06991-8. 1987. 137 pp. Manzsche Verlags- und Universitatsbuchhandlung: Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
This book focuses on future demographic trends in Austria and their impact on social programs. In the first section, historical trends in fertility, mortality, demographic aging, and migration are examined for the period since 1869, and three scenarios of future demographic changes up to the year 2051 are presented. In the second section, the impact of demographic trends on future expenditures for social programs is calculated based on estimated expenditure-age profiles. Two alternative budgetary strategies are investigated, and the importance of budgetary flexibility is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40708 Hogan, Dennis P.; Mochizuki, Takashi. Demographic transitions and the life course: lessons from Japanese and American comparisons. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1988. 291-305 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In this article [the authors compare] historical changes in the early life transitions of men and women in [twentieth-century] Japan and the United States. Trends in the transition to adulthood systematically relate to the structure of schools and labor markets in the two nations, drawing attention to the various life course implications of the institutional forms under which industrial societies may organize." Consideration is given to changes in vital rates, the life course of Japanese women, and socioeconomic factors and their effect on early life transitions. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: D. P. Hogan, Population Issues Research Center, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40709 McDaniel, Susan A. Demographic aging as a guiding paradigm in Canada's welfare state. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1987. 330-6 pp. Guelph, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relevance of demographic aging to the development of social policy in Canada is reviewed. "In this paper, some of the less well understood causes and consequences of demographic aging are explored within the specific context of Canadian policy-oriented thinking. Several contemporary aspects of the complex linkages between demographic aging, socio-economic structure and policy are highlighted, including shifting markets, economic dependency and pension and health care requirements."
Correspondence: S. A. McDaniel, Department of Sociology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40710 Oppong, Christine. African women: wives, mothers, and workers. [Les femmes africaines: des epouses, des meres et des travailleuses.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 421-40 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The status of women in Sub-Saharan Africa is reviewed, with consideration given to its links to the high fertility prevalent in the region. The author examines the relationships among females' lack of education, early age at marriage, and early childbearing. Women's household responsibilities and the type of employment opportunities open to women both outside and within agriculture are described. The need for social change before fertility can be expected to decline is noted.
Correspondence: C. Oppong, Bureau International du Travail, Service de la Planification de l'Emploi et des Activites en Matiere de Population, 12 Parc Chateau Banquet, Geneva 1202, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40711 Powers, Mary G. Development and the status of women: indicators and measures. In: World population trends and their impact on economic development, edited by Dominick Salvatore. 1988. 187-98 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter discusses (1) the change in development emphases giving rise to increased concern for the status of women during the past two decades; (2) some conceptual and methodological issues underlying efforts to measure the status of women; and (3) a series of indicators of the situation of women developed as part of a large ongoing project at the United Nations Statistical Office."
Correspondence: M. G. Powers, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Fordham University, Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40712 Sandu, Dumitru. Patterns of territorial social development in Romania. [Dezvoltarea socioteritoriala in Romania.] 1987. 300 pp. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania: Bucharest, Romania. In Rum. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This work is concerned with territorial social development in Romania, including demographic, economic, labor force, and socio-cultural aspects. The primary objective is to present a theoretical model of development and fit it to empirical data. The data, which are for 1977 and 1982, concern fertility, mortality, nuptiality, divorce, migration, social mobility, consumption, morbidity, urbanization, housing, social class, and profession. The data are presented by district and for rural and urban areas.
Correspondence: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania, Calea Victoriei 125, R 79717, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40713 Schmahl, Winfried. Social policies for reducing demographically-induced costs in social security. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, Jul 1988. 439-57 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The demographically-induced increases in the cost of social-security systems (especially pension and health-insurance schemes) that will develop over the next few decades are briefly outlined and the available policy options for coping with them are discussed. Examples of the possible effect of various policies in the [Federal Republic of Germany] are presented. The importance of anticipatory action is stressed, particularly for systems like pension schemes where an individual's rights are built up through contributions made over a long period and where abrupt action could lead to perceived severe inequities or even hardship."
Correspondence: W. Schmahl, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Freie Universitat Berlin, Boltzmannstrasse 20, D-1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40714 Seager, Joni; Olson, Ann. Women in the world: an international atlas. A Pluto Press Project, ISBN 0-671-60297-7. LC 86-6739. 1986. 128 pp. Simon and Schuster: New York, New York. In Eng.
Maps and graphics are used to present comparative data on women around the world. Sections are included on marriage, motherhood, work, resources, welfare, authority, body politics, change, and statistical politics. The section on motherhood contains data on mothers, population policy, contraception, abortion, birth and death, birth care, and families. The section on resources includes data on educational status.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40715 Selvaratnam, S. Population and status of women. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1988. 3-28 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article reviews the current status of women in the Asian and Pacific region in terms of education, health and employment, and considers the mutual interrelationships between population and status of women, citing evidence from studies carried out in countries of the region. It concludes with several recommendations related to measures that would increase the participation of women in national socio-economic development. However, it states that such participation is possible only if serious efforts are made to eliminate discrimination and remove obstacles to their advancement in the field of education, training, employment and career prospects."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40716 Switzerland. Bundesamt fur Statistik (Bern, Switzerland); Switzerland. Bundesamt fur Sozialversicherung (Bern, Switzerland). The influence of demographic trends on the financing of old-age social security (demographic report concerning old-age social security). [Der Einfluss der demographischen Entwicklung auf die Finanzierung der AHV (Demographiebericht AHV).] Mar 18, 1988. 26-30 pp. Bern, Switzerland. In Ger.
The impact of long-term demographic trends on the financing of the old-age social security system in Switzerland is analyzed. A model for simulating demographic trends and social security finances is first outlined, and three population projections to the year 2040 are presented. The results of the three scenarios are then discussed, taking into account variations that could occur as a result of economic conditions and changes in retirement age. The findings indicate that the current financial situation is favorable but that the outlook is likely to worsen in the 1990s.
Correspondence: W. Haug, Chef der Abteilung Bevolkerung und Beschaftigung (BFS), Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40717 Tewinkel, A. Old-age social security and population decline: a theoretical and normative analysis. [Alterssicherung im Bevolkerungsruckgang: eine theoretische und normative Analyse.] Ifo-Studien zur Bevolkerungsokonomie, No. 3, ISBN 3-88512-035-6. 1987. viii, 289 pp. Ifo-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung: Munich, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The relationships between demographic trends, particularly population decrease, and old-age security are examined from a theoretical perspective, and measures for evaluating these relationships are discussed. Chapters are included on population problems and attempts to solve them, the interrelationships between population trends and various systems of old-age security, the problem of equity between generations, and private and governmental reactions to the burdens that population decrease will place on the old-age social security system. The geographical focus is on the Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

54:40718 Castonguay, Charles. Demographic change and French Quebec. [Virage demographique et Quebec francais.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1988. 49-61 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The socio-political climate and the dissemination of demographic results interact very closely over language matters in Quebec. An examination of the decline of the French-speaking population in North America casts some doubt on the thesis of the linguistic polarization of Canada. An overview of the factors which determine the future size and linguistic composition of Quebec's population shows that French Quebec has arrived at an extremely critical turning point. The most recent results on interprovincial migration and language shift will likely encourage a firm and careful language policy, in order to avoid the prospect of losing ground to English."
Correspondence: C. Castonguay, Department of Mathematics, University of Ottawa, 550 Cumberland Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40719 Cliff, Julie; Noormahomed, Abdul R. Health as a target: South Africa's destabilization of Mozambique. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1988. 717-22 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Since 1982 attacks on the health services have been an integral part of South African destabilization of Mozambique. After independence in 1975, Mozambique began successfully to implement a primary health care policy. By attacking primary health care units, kidnapping and killing health workers and destroying transport, a South African supported rebel movement has attempted to undermine this policy. The combined effects of the negative economic consequences of the war, the forced displacement of over a million people and the destruction and disruption of health services have worsened the health of the Mozambican people....Effects on health include an increase in mortality rates, famine and infectious disease epidemics."
Correspondence: J. Cliff, Seccao de Epidemiologia, Ministerio da Saude, C.P. 264, Maputo, Mozambique. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40720 de Beer, J.; van der Hoeven, L. Trends in election results since 1917. [Trendmatige ontwikkelingen van verkiezingsresultaten na 1917.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 5, May 1988. 19-27 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Long-term changes in election results for the main political parties in the Netherlands since 1917 are analyzed. Differences between national and local election trends are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40721 Goodis, Tracy A. The political adaptation of Hispanic immigrants to the United States. Impacts of Immigration in California Policy Discussion Paper, Pub. Order No. PDS-88-4. Sep 1988. 35, 3 pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"As a first step in understanding both the responsibility of the majority society and of the Hispanic population this paper presents a review of the literature on the political adaptation of Hispanic immigrants to the United States and their descendants. The first part...presents a discussion of the political socialization of Hispanics. The second section contains an examination of the propensity of different segments of the Hispanic population to become U.S. citizens and what factors influence the decision to naturalize. Finally, a discussion of the voting behavior and patterns among Hispanics is presented."
Correspondence: Urban Institute, 2100 M street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40722 Kasun, Jacqueline R. Gnats and camels: Congressional oversight of population programs. Society, Vol. 25, No. 5, Jul-Aug 1988. 4-7 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author uses the examples of Iran, Nicaragua, and the Philippines to develop the argument that family planning programs promoted by a variety of U.S.-based private organizations were a major cause of the overthrow of pro-U.S. governments and the subsequent rejection of both the United States and family planning. She asserts that these population organizations are in fact making U.S. policy without Congressional control, and attacks the motive and methods of advocates of slower rates of population growth.
Correspondence: J. R. Kasun, Department of Economics, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40723 Longino, Charles F.; Leeds, Dawn. Camels and gnats: the Malthusian fundamentalism insurgency. Society, Vol. 25, No. 5, Jul-Aug 1988. 8-10 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The authors challenge the arguments of Jacqueline R. Kasun concerning U.S. aid for family planning in developing countries. They see the roots of modern fundamentalist opposition to government support for family planning at home or abroad as being based in traditional Malthusianism, in which the solution to population problems is to be found in a combination of moral restraint and a growth of material prosperity.
For the article by Kasun, also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: C. F. Longino, Center for Social Research in Aging, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40724 Uhlenberg, Peter. Does population aging produce increasing gerontocracy? Sociological Forum, Vol. 3, No. 3, Summer 1988. 454-63 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The impact of demographic aging on the involvement of older persons in leadership roles in the United States is explored. "The period covered is roughly 1940 to the present, and the areas of leadership examined are representation in Congress and in professional and managerial occupations....The data examined here show that over the past several decades the engagement of older persons in leadership positions has declined rapidly."
Correspondence: P. Uhlenberg, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40725 Wiemer, Reinhard. Zionism, demography, and emigration from Israel. Orient, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1987. 420-7 pp. Hamburg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This is a general discussion of the demographic component of the push to create and maintain a Zionist state in Israel in the face of an Arab majority in the region. Topics covered include demographic planning since 1948 and the impact of emigration and immigration on the demographic makeup of Israel. The author concludes that neither emigration nor immigration will play a decisive role in the ethnic composition of the Israeli state.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

54:40726 Winter, J. M. The Great War and the British people. ISBN 0-674-36212-8. LC 85-27034. 1986. iv, 360 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author assesses the impact of World War I on mortality and morbidity in the United Kingdom. "The first part describes Britain's 'lost generation' of young men who died in the war. It shows that the higher up the social scale a man was, the greater were his chances of becoming a casualty of war. The second section explores civilian life and seeks an explanation for the increase in civilian life expectancy registered during the war. [The author] concludes that it was an unplanned but substantial rise in the standard of living of the worst-off sections of society that accounts for improving health in wartime Britain. The final part examines the aftermath of the war and the ways in which it left an indelible imprint on the memory of a generation. The evidence on population trends is surveyed as well as the more elusive, but perhaps more profound, meaning of the war captured in the literature of the period."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:40727 Bebbington, A. C. The expectation of life without disability in England and Wales. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1988. 321-6 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Trends in the expectation of life without disability (ELWD) over the past 10 years are calculated for England and Wales using data from the General Household Survey and methods developed by Jean-Marie Robine et al. "At present ELWD from birth is about 59 years for men, 62 for women. The trend is upward, but by no more and possibly less than the rate of increase in expectation of life. Men live a greater proportion of their lives without disability than do women. The improvement in ELWD is most marked in the highest age-groups, but the evidence is that the health of the elderly in relation to that of the population as a whole has been poorer in England and Wales than in two other countries for which similar evidence is available."
For the study by Robine et al., published in 1986, see 53:20705.
Correspondence: A. C. Bebbington, PSSRU, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40728 Behrman, Jere R. Nutrition, health, birth order and seasonality: intrahousehold allocation among children in rural India. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1988. 43-62 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Nutrients available to children are determined largely by intrahousehold allocations. There are a number of reasons why birth order may affect these allocations. A model is developed to estimate critical parameters of parental preferences regarding the allocation of nutrients among their children. Latent variable estimates for rural south India indicate that parental preferences have productivity-equity tradeoffs and parents favor older children. The productivity-equity tradeoff, however, is much less for the lean season. Therefore, when food is scarcest, parents follow more closely a pure investment strategy, exposing their more vulnerable children to greater malnutrition risk."
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40729 Ferraz, Elenice M.; Gray, Ronald H.; Fleming, Patricia L.; Maia, Tarcisio M. Interpregnancy interval and low birth weight: findings from a case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 5, Nov 1988. 1,111-6 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this case-control study, data on pregnancy outcome for women in northeast Brazil have been examined to ascertain the relation between short birth-to-conception intervals and the risk of preterm deliveries or intrauterine growth retardation. The results provide additional clues to the causal network through which child spacing may operate to increase the risk of low birth weight."
Correspondence: R. H. Gray, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40730 Hansluwka, Harald E. Measuring the health status of a population: current state of the art. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 23-24, 1987. 56-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000 by the World Health Organization has revived interest in looking for objective measures of the health status of a given population....This paper attempts to survey existing and proposed health indicators, including mortality and survival, growth and development, and morbidity and disability; and discusses problems associated with them. It concludes that mortality statistics are likely to retain their central place in the evaluation of health progress."
Correspondence: H. E. Hansluwka, Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Situation Assessment, World Health Organization, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40731 Jacobson, Jodi L. Family planning and world health. Society, Vol. 25, No. 5, Jul-Aug 1988. 18-24 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The contribution of family planning to the improvement of world health is reviewed. Consideration is given to changing contraceptive technologies, the ingredients of successful programs to lower fertility, and the role of international assistance for population activities.
Correspondence: J. L. Jacobson, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40732 Kampert, James B.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Paffenbarger, Ralph S. Combined effect of childbearing, menstrual events, and body size on age-specific breast cancer risk. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 5, Nov 1988. 962-79 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors estimate "age-specific relative risks of breast cancer according to childbearing, menstrual events, and body size...." Consideration is given to the effects of age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, menopause, and body weight. Data are for 1,884 women of all ages with breast cancer and 3,432 matched controls admitted to hospitals in the San Francisco, California, area during the period 1970-1977.
Correspondence: J. B. Kampert, Department of Family, Community, and Preventive Medicine, Health Research and Policy Building, Room 113, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40733 Loewenson, Rene. Labour insecurity and health: an epidemiological study in Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1988. 733-41 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The research presented in this paper focuses on health status and health care provision within the agricultural working class in Zimbabwe, with specific reference to the association between underemployment of agricultural labour and patterns of ill health and the use of health services....[The author assesses] the patterns of employment and income in permanent and non-permanent labour households on large scale farms...; the relationship between employment status and living environment, dietary patterns, levels of ill health and use of health services; [and] the relationship between seasonal patterns of employment and income and patterns of diet, ill health and use of health services in both permanent and non-permanent households." Data are from a survey of 78 permanent and 76 non-permanent (underemployed) agricultural families.
Correspondence: R. Loewenson, Medical School, P.O. Box A 178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40734 Manton, Kenneth G. A longitudinal study of functional change and mortality in the United States. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 5, Sep 1988. S153-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Studies of functional impairments in the U.S. elderly population have tended to rely on prevalence estimates from nationally representative health and institutional surveys. These prevalence estimates generally show higher rates of disability for females than males. Unfortunately, prevalence estimates can be misleading when one attempts to assess the risks of certain types of health event transitions for individuals. This study directly examined the individual transitions both into and out of functionally impaired states using longitudinal data from the 1982 and 1984 National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS). The data show that, even at very high levels of impairment, there are significant numbers of community residents who apparently manifest long-term improvement in functioning. The longitudinal data also show that the risks of becoming disabled are roughly the same for males and females. This suggests that sex differences in the national prevalence of disabilities arise from the greater longevity of females at any given level of age and functional impairment."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

54:40735 McBarnette, Lorna. Women and poverty: the effects on reproductive status. Women and Health, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, 1987. 55-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"National surveys, over the years, have provided evidence of [a] relationship between poverty and health. In the United States, access to health care is generally dependent on the ability to pay for it. As a consequence, poor women are dependent upon government-funded social-welfare programs to attain access to health care. This paper examines the relationship between poverty and several indicators of reproductive status, and concludes that there is a relationship between poverty and poor reproductive status. The health gap between poor and nonpoor women is related to the absence of financial and other resources that dictate lifestyle."
Correspondence: L. McBarnette, New York State Department of Health, Corning Tower, 14th Floor, Albany, NY 12237. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:40736 Price, Max. The consequences of health service privatisation for equality and equity in health care in South Africa. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1988. 703-16 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The impact of the increasing demand for private-sector health services in South Africa on the provision of health services to the population as a whole is assessed. "This paper examines one set of consequences--those concerned with equality and equity in health care. Except for the individuals able to use the private sector, the trend towards privatisation is likely to exacerbate the already unequal allocation of health care suffered by the majority of people....Although the discussion is concerned specifically with health services in South Africa, the arguments about privatisation apply more generally to developing countries."
Correspondence: M. Price, Department of Community Health, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40737 Sanders, David; Davies, Rob. The economy, the health sector and child health in Zimbabwe since independence. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1988. 723-31 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper has reviewed child health and the economy in Zimbabwe from the immediate pre-independence period through the periods of postindependence economic growth and recession. It has attempted to show in particular how the recession affected the general economic environment and how this in turn may have influenced childhood mortality, morbidity and nutrition. It has also examined the effect of recession and the stabilisation policies adopted on a reoriented and rapidly expanding health sector, and has assessed the likely impact on child health."
Correspondence: D. Sanders, Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40738 Sutherland, Alan R. Health care for the homeless. Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, Fall 1988. 79-87 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Health and political issues concerning the homeless population in the United States are discussed using data from official and other published sources. Consideration is given to the ways in which mental and physical health problems both contribute to and are caused by homelessness; health care needs of the homeless and the effectiveness of the current health care system in meeting those needs; economic factors leading to the increase in numbers of the homeless; characteristics of the homeless population; and policy recommendations. Additional comments by Bruce Vladeck are included (pp. 86-7).
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40739 Thacker, Stephen B.; Berkelman, Ruth L. Public health surveillance in the United States. Epidemiologic Reviews, Vol. 10, 1988. 164-90 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this review is to describe the historical and current practice of public health surveillance [in the United States], to discuss new directions for surveillance both in terms of new public health priorities and new methodological tools, and to assess the limitations of surveillance."
Correspondence: S. B. Thacker, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40740 van Lerberghe, Wim; Pangu, Kasa A. The politics of health. [Les politiques de sante.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 335-67 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The introduction of Western medicine into Sub-Saharan Africa as part of the process of colonization is first described. Developments in African health services since independence are then discussed, with a focus on the delivery of primary health care. Consideration is given to the gaps between objectives and achievements. The authors also examine alternative approaches to the provision of health services, such as small nongovernmental projects, and the provision of selective services.
Correspondence: W. van Lerberghe, Institut de Medecine Tropicale, Unite de Sante Publique, 155 Nationalestraat, 2000 Anvers, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40741 Vaughan, Megan; Moore, Henrietta. Health, nutrition and agricultural development in northern Zambia. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1988. 743-5 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This note describes ongoing research in the Northern Province of Zambia which is being conducted....to examine the current nutritional and health problems of the area in longitudinal perspective. In particular, it aims to chart changes in the sexual division of labour, and in the agricultural system generally, over the last 50 years, and to examine the possible effects of these changes on the health and welfare of the people of the area, especially women and children."
Correspondence: M. Vaughan, Nuffield College, Oxford 0X1 1NF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40742 Wallace, Helen M.; Ryan, George M.; Oglesby, Allan C. Maternal and child health practices. 3rd ed. ISBN 0-89914-028-9. LC 88-050643. 1988. xix, 722 pp. Third Party Publishing: Oakland, California. In Eng.
Major problems concerning the health care of mothers, infants, children, youth, and their families in the United States are reviewed in this collection of studies by various authors. Sections are included on policies and issues in maternal and child health; basic services for maternal and child health; reproductive health care, including methods of fertility control; child health care, including infant mortality; health care of adolescents, including teenage pregnancy; children with special needs; and a global overview of the health of women and children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40743 Winikoff, Beverly. Women's health: an alternative perspective for choosing interventions. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 197-214 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper outlines the health problems of mothers, discusses the links between maternal health and child health, and emphasizes the need to focus attention more clearly on the problems of women and the interventions that might help them as a way to improve both maternal and child health. The special problems of girls and women in the developing world--including maternity care, abortion, and maternal mortality and morbidity--and the ways in which these problems affect mothers and their children, are examined. Nutritional morbidity and infectious morbidity are described in terms of their effects on maternal and infant health, including low birth weight. It is shown how the cultural, social, and economic factors that affect women and children interact with their health problems." A series of recommendations is included.
Correspondence: B. Winikoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

54:40744 Roberts, D. F. Migration and genetic change. Raymond Pearl lecture 1987. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 4, Aug 1988. 521-39 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The varying impact of different kinds of migration on genetic change is explored using a combination of genetic and demographic methods. Consideration is given to both long- and short-range migration, as well as to the genetic impact on the nonmigratory population. The examples given are worldwide.
Correspondence: D. F. Roberts, Department of Human Genetics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40745 Roy, Raymond; Bouchard, Gerard; Declos, Manon. The first generation of the Saguenay population: origin, kinship, and rootedness. [La premiere generation de Saguenayens: provenance, apparentement, enracinement.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1988. 113-34 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The responsibility of demographic isolation for the high incidence of genetic disorders among the population of the Saguenay region of Quebec, Canada, is explored. The authors reject the view that "a few family founders are the ancestors of most of the current population....Actually, between 1838 and 1911, more than 28,000 immigrants (representing one third of the number of births) settled in Saguenay, a major fact that has to be taken into account if one sets out to explain the genetic structure of this population, particularly if one considers that most of these immigrants came from the same region and were grouped in kin-related families."
Correspondence: R. Roy, Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherches sur les Populations (SOREP), Universite du Quebec, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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