Volume 54 - Number 4 - Winter 1988

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

54:40636 Johnson, D. Gale. Is population growth the dominant force in development? Cato Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring-Summer 1987. 187-93 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author presents a critique of a study by Julian L. Simon on the relationship between population growth and economic development.
For the study by Simon, also published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: D. G. Johnson, Eliakim Hastings Moore Distinguished Professor of Economics, University of Chicago, 5801 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

54:40637 Mason, Andrew. Population growth, aggregate saving, and economic development. In: World population trends and their impact on economic development, edited by Dominick Salvatore. 1988. 45-57 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author investigates the impact of declining population growth or declining fertility on aggregate saving. A model is developed that takes into account both the link between the number of children and expenditure on childrearing and the relationship between aggregate saving and expenditures on childrearing at the household level. Consideration is given to both developed and developing countries. The results suggest that "1. Reductions in childrearing, given relative price, unambiguously increase aggregate saving (in growing economies). 2. Reductions in childbearing due to increased price have an impact on aggregate saving that depends on the elasticity of demand for children. [and] 3. The magnitude of the impact of any reduction in childrearing, irrespective of its source, varies in direct proportion with the rate of growth of aggregate income."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40638 Simon, Julian L. Population growth, economic growth, and foreign aid. Cato Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring-Summer 1987. 159-86 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between population growth and economic development is explored in the context of the work of Peter Bauer. The author uses data for three pairs of countries--North and South Korea, East and West Germany, and China and Taiwan--to examine the factors associated with the speed of economic development. He then develops arguments to suggest that the rate of population growth does not determine the rate of economic development. Finally, he critically examines U.S. assistance for family planning.
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, Professor of Business Administration, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

54:40639 Spahr, Ronald W.; Deckro, Richard F. A non-linear goal programming approach to modeling intraregional economic development. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, Winter 1988. 10-8 pp. Clemson, South Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper provides a one-period normative model that may be used as a guide or benchmark by which the economic planner may develop policies and plans for regional economic development. The model can accomodate a region that could be as large as a small country or as small as a city, provided sufficient relevant data are available." The authors outline "a procedure for modeling and solving economic planning and analysis problems with 'intergoal trade-offs' while retaining the deviational variable as a measure of satisfaction....[They present] a generalized regional polynomial goal programming model with some suggested objectives and constraints [and illustrate] the approach with a hypothetical example."
Correspondence: R. Spahr, Department of Business Adminstration, College of Commerce and Industry, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40640 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Economic and social implications of population aging. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Population Structure and Development, Tokyo, 10-12 September 1987. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/85, 1988. viii, 430 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a 1986 conference on the economic and social implications of population aging held in Tokyo, Japan. Included are a report from the conference and its recommendations, as well as a selection of papers presented; these are organized under the headings of demographic background, economic and social implications, support for the elderly, women and youth, and aging in developing countries.
Correspondence: Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Building, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40641 van Dalen, Hendrik P.; Ritzen, Jozef M. M. Economic growth in a world of diverging populations. Jul 1988. 52 pp. Erasmus University: Rotterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The consequences of the different rates of population growth in developed and developing countries for capital accumulation and economic growth are analyzed using a two-country economic growth model. "A remarkable...finding is that under optimal policies interest rates are rarely equal across the two countries. Another finding is that a fully interdependent world in which both countries invest in themselves as well as abroad does not conform to principles of optimal policy. The comparative dynamics established for the case in which only the country with the low population growth rate invests abroad shows that a closing of the population growth gap by a decrease in population growth in the high population growth country is welfare improving for both countries."
Correspondence: Faculty of Economics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40642 van Imhoff, Evert; Ritzen, Jozef M. M. Optimal economic growth and non-stationary population. Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper Series, No. 8701/P, Jan 1987. 32, [7], 15 pp. Erasmus University Rotterdam, Institute for Economic Research: Rotterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes optimal economic growth when the (exogenous) rate of population growth changes. The optimal growth path is characterized by a strikingly straightforward generalization of the traditional steady-state Golden Rule of Accumulation. The comparative statics results allow for a generalization of Samuelson's...analysis of the lower-bound for the optimal rate of population growth. It is shown that under plausible assumptions the optimal savings rate follows an inverted U-shaped or U-shaped pattern during periods of demographic transition, according to whether the growth rate of births is falling or rising."
Correspondence: Institute for Economic Research, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40643 Vichnievski, Anatoly. Demographic change, economic growth, and social welfare. [Evolution demographique, croissance economique et bien-etre social.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 1, Sep 1988. 69-94 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article studies...various aspects of the relationships between demographic change and economic growth and also the influence of demographic changes on the welfare of generations and of families [in the USSR]. The author [addresses]...the large positive contribution of the demographic revolution to economic development and social welfare." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: A. Vichnievski, Commission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR for the Study of Productive Forces and Natural Resources, Maronovski Pereoulok 26, 117049 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

54:40644 Blau, David M.; Behrman, Jere R.; Wolfe, Barbara L. Schooling and earnings distributions with endogenous labour force participation, marital status and family size. Economica, Vol. 55, No. 219, Aug 1988. 297-316 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the impact of various schooling investment strategies on family and per capita earnings within a framework that integrates effects on earnings, family size, marital status and labour force participation." Data are from a 1977-1978 survey of urban Nicaraguan women aged 15-45.
Correspondence: D. M. Blau, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40645 Chanana, H. B.; Talwar, P. P. Implication of demographic goals in 2000 AD for aging population in India. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 9, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 67-79 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"An attempt has been made in this paper to determine the magnitude of the problem of aging in India and its socio-economic and health implications. The magnitude of the aged population has been obtained from the set of Expert Committee Population Projections where it has been assumed that the demographic goals in the National Health Policy are achieved. The number of aged people who will require employment or other economic support...because of acute or chronic illnesses has been estimated. The number of old people physically handicapped has also been given."
Correspondence: H. B. Chanana, Department of Statistics and Demography, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40646 Daniel, Clive. The economic and social performance of small nations. In: World population trends and their impact on economic development, edited by Dominick Salvatore. 1988. 199-210 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The economic and social development performance of 75 developing countries with populations under 20 million is analyzed using data from published U.N. sources. The results support the argument that countries pursuing export-oriented policies are the most likely to achieve high rates of growth.
Correspondence: C. Daniel, Department of Economics, Fordham University, Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40647 Demeny, Paul. The economic rationale of family planning programs. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 439-61 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the main rationale for government interest in the provision of contraceptive technology through voluntary family planning programs in less developed countries: that of enhancing economic development. The discussion is organized under headings that identify two distinct if interrelated functions governments aim to perform in this domain: that of promoter of economic growth and that of provider of human welfare. The first function rests on macro-economic arguments that suggest that slowing aggregate rates of demographic expansion will accelerate economic growth. The second function invokes benefits captured directly by the persons and their families who use the services offered by family planning programs. A concluding section comments on the possible need for government to set the stage for success in performing these functions by acting as an engineer of social change."
Correspondence: P. Demeny, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40648 Domenach, Herve; Picouet, Michel. The dynamics of population and migration in Guyana. [Dynamique de la population et migration en Guyane.] La Nature et l'Homme, 1988. 48 pp. Centre Orstom de Cayenne: Cayenne, French Guyana. In Fre.
Two studies on the demography of French Guyana are presented. The first concerns the demographic transition and migration, and considers the contrast between the region's potential to absorb a larger population and its actual capacity which is insufficient for its current population due to underdevelopment. The second presents a review of sources of data on Haitian immigration to French Guyana.
Correspondence: Centre Orstom de Cayenne, B.P. 165 97323 Cayenne Cedex, French Guyana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40649 Farooq, Ghazi M.; Pernia, Ernesto M. Need for and approaches to integrated population, human resource and development planning. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 23-24, 1987. 11-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The authors discuss the nature of an integrated approach to the treatment of population variables in the socio-economic planning exercises of developing countries and describe the obstacles that must be overcome in order to achieve meaningful integration. The nature of the system linking demographic and socio-economic processes is described, and a distinction is made between the roles of population-influencing and population-responsive policies. The types of studies needed to provide an effective analytical framework for integrated population and development planning are set forth and discussed....A classification scheme is proposed which would divide countries into broad categories according to their major characteristics and problems, and a scheme for providing each type of country with technical assistance in population and development planning is proposed."
Correspondence: G. M. Farooq, International Labour Organisation, 4 Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40650 Flegg, A. T. The demographic effects of income redistribution and accelerated economic growth revisited. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 50, No. 2, May 1988. 183-201 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a critique of a recent article by C. R. Winegarden concerning the relationship between the redistribution of income and changes in fertility in developing countries. A reply by Winegarden is included (pp. 195-201).
For the article by Winegarden, published in 1984, see 51:10678.
Correspondence: A. T. Flegg, Bristol Polytechnic, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40651 Horlacher, David E.; Mackellar, F. Landis. Population growth versus economic growth (?). In: World population trends and their impact on economic development, edited by Dominick Salvatore. 1988. 25-44 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors assert that population growth has both beneficial and adverse effects on the process of socioeconomic development and that there is uncertainty concerning its net impact on development. The emphasis of the chapter is on a review of the available evidence. "The first section assesses the results of international cross-sectional analyses of the aggregate relationship between the growth of per capita income and population growth. The second section is devoted to an examination of the effects of population growth on living standards, operating through changes in rates of capital formation, natural resource development, economies of scale, and technical advancement. Finally, findings on the implications of population growth for nutrition and the agricultural resource base will be considered." The primary focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: D. E. Horlacher, Population and Development Section, United Nations Population Division, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40652 Lobdell, Richard A. Economic structure and demographic performance in Jamaica, 1891-1935. ISBN 0-8240-1365-4. LC 87-8345. 1987. xii, 259 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between socioeconomic structure and demographic trends in the administrative parishes of Jamaica during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A causal model of the demographic consequences of the socioeconomic structure is presented, and the demographic impact of different types of economic activity is assessed. Multiple regression analysis is then used to examine these relationships.
Location: Population Council, New York, NY.

54:40653 Ohlin, Goran P. Determinants and consequences of population theories. In: World population trends and their impact on economic development, edited by Dominick Salvatore. 1988. 13-23 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter I shall first discuss the lack of a compelling conception of the relationship between population growth and other aspects of economic and social change in the context of developing countries....I shall then make some very simple observations about the hazards and advantages of defining this subject in terms of the two separate questions of the determinants of population trends and the consequences of such trends. Finally, I shall make a few comments on the underlying influences behind population thought."
Correspondence: G. P. Ohlin, University of Uppsala, Department of Economics, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40654 Reddy, P. H. Population front of India's economic development. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 35, Aug 27, 1988. 1,809-12 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The relationship between economic and population growth in India since independence is examined. The author argues that the failure of the national economy rather than population growth was the main reason for the government's inability to double per capita income between 1950 and 1978. The author also examines why the birth rate has not declined though the reported percentage of people protected by effective family planning methods has increased. The reasons identified include overreporting of family planning acceptors, changes in the age distribution, improvement in women's health and fecundity, and a decline in breast-feeding.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40655 Salvatore, Dominick. Internal migration, urbanization, and economic development. [Migrazioni interne, urbanizzazione e sviluppo economico.] Rassegna Economica, Vol. 51, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 973-98 pp. Naples, Italy. In Ita.
Problems posed by rapid population growth in developing countries are examined, with emphasis on consequent rural-urban migration and the growth of unemployment in cities. The author describes models that have been developed by W. A. Lewis, M. P. Todaro, J. R. Harris, and others. He concludes by discussing policy options available to deal with the resulting problems of unemployment.
Correspondence: D. Salvatore, Fordham University, Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40656 Salvatore, Dominick. World population trends and their impact on economic development. Contributions in Economic and Economic History, No. 82, ISBN 0-313-25765-5. LC 87-32266. 1988. xii, 238 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by different authors on various aspects of the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in developing countries. It is the product of a session held at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. The 14 papers are divided into three main sections following a general introduction. The first four papers are concerned with general aspects of the relationship. The next five consider the role of migration in the process. A final section includes four papers on technical change, the status of women, the situation in small countries, and international responsibilities.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40657 Shah, Sukhdev. Nepal's economic development: problems and prospects. Asian Survey, Vol. 28, No. 9, Sep 1988. 945-57 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the probable causes of Nepal's low economic growth rate [during the period 1965-1985] and to evaluate the country's economic prospects for the rest of this century. The conclusion is that the government's goal of raising the living standard to the average Asian standard by the year 2000 will be difficult to achieve without a marked improvement in efficiency in the use of resources." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: S. Shah, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20431. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:40658 Simmons, Ozzie G. Perspectives on development and population growth in the third world. ISBN 0-306-42941-1. LC 88-19866. 1988. xv, 277 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This book offers a selective consideration of some of the models that have been dominant in the literature on development and on population growth. It constitutes an attempt to assess past and current thinking in both the development and the population field in the interest of identifying the tasks for both theory and research to enlarge the current knowledge base relating to the determinants and consequences of population growth in the Third World." Chapters are included on perspectives on development, issues of equity-oriented development, links between development perspectives and population growth, and a selective overview of population and development. In addition, the author presents "analyses of a series of key development sectors that affect and are affected by population change. The sectors investigated are natural resources; health, nutrition, and food; the status and employment of women; and education."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40659 Srinivasan, K.; Kulkarni, Sumati; Parasuraman, S. Impact of population on selected social and economic sectors. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 37-38, Sep 10 and 17, 1988. 1,913-7; 1,965-75 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to study the social and economic implications of alternative trends in population growth in India up to the year 2021 from a macro-economic-demographic point of view. The paper is published in two parts. The first part...presents the methodology of the study and carries out population projections under three alternative assumptions about trends in fertility. The second part...estimates the future requirements of food, clothing, housing, health, education and manpower in the health and education sectors from 1986 to 2021 at five-yearly intervals under each of the three population scenarios and assesses the extent of additional economic burden cast on society to achieve the minimum or desired norms in each of the above sectors."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

54:40660 Blanchet, Didier. Are the retired threatened by the decline in fertility? [Les retraites menacees par la denatalite?] Projet, No. 192, Mar-Apr 1985. 49-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The implications of current fertility trends in France for the funding of retirement costs are reviewed. Consideration is given to changes in the capital aspects of the current system, changes in the retirement age, and more efficient use of the existing labor force.
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40661 Jones, Randall S. The economic implications of Japan's aging population. Asian Survey, Vol. 28, No. 9, Sep 1988. 958-69 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The impact of demographic aging in Japan on its economy is analyzed using data from official sources. Consideration is given to the effects of increased life expectancy and of the decline in the birth rate on the population's age structure. Japan's economic situation is discussed, with a focus on both government expenditures on public pension programs and labor and economic policies. The author concludes that "according to the [International Monetary Fund], government pension and medical care spending will jump from 9% of gross domestic product to 21.5% in the year 2025."
Correspondence: R. S. Jones, Planning and Economic Analysis Staff, Department of State, 2201 C Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:40662 Maxwell, Philip; Peter, Matthew. Income inequality in small regions: a study of Australian statistical divisions. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, Winter 1988. 19-27 pp. Clemson, South Carolina. In Eng.
This paper provides "empirical analysis of the nature of the relationship between economic development of regions and income inequality in Australian sub-state regions. It does so in the context of considering the validity of the 'augmented inverted U' hypothesis and the influence of factors such as the business cycle, political issues, and demographic trends, which are likely to cause income inequality to change over time." Data are from the Australian censuses for the years 1976 and 1981.
Correspondence: P. Maxwell, School of Management, Deakin University, Victoria 3217, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40663 Morrison, Peter A. Demographic factors shaping the U.S. market for new housing. Rand Paper, No. P-7467, Jul 1988. 15 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of demographic forces on the market for new housing during the remainder of this century in the United States. The focus is on "(1) the growing number of middle-age households, (2) their forthcoming prosperity, (3) the falling rate of homeownership under age 45, (4) the changing composition of households, and (5) regional population shifts." The impact of the maturing baby boom generation on the new housing market is specifically addressed.
Correspondence: Rand Corporation, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40664 Smeeding, Timothy M.; Torrey, Barbara B. Poor children in rich countries. Science, Vol. 242, No. 4880, Nov 11, 1988. 873-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Poverty rates among families with children in six industrialized countries are examined, and the effectiveness of government programs in relieving poverty is assessed using data from the Luxembourg Income Survey for Australia, Canada, Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. The authors find that "the United States, the wealthiest country of six studied, has a higher poverty rate among children than the other five countries. Each country reduces the poverty of its children with government programs, but substantial differences in the effectiveness of these programs exist among countries. Understanding such differences may be useful in considering how to reduce poverty among children in the United States."
Correspondence: T. M. Smeeding, Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies, Nashville, TN 37212. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

54:40665 van Imhoff, Evert. Optimal economic growth and investment in education under conditions of non-stable population. Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper Series, No. 8804/P, Jan 1988. 40, 16 pp. Erasmus University Rotterdam, Institute for Economic Research: Rotterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper analyzes optimal investment in physical and human capital when the (exogenous) rate of population growth changes. The one-sector growth model describes a closed economy with overlapping generations and homogeneous human capital. The educational production function has the individual's stock of human capital and the fraction of time spent training as arguments....The model is illustrated with a case study. The policy consequences of the present fertility decline are analyzed for the Netherlands, in order to get some insight into the order of magnitude of the policy adjustments involved."
Correspondence: Institute of Economic Research, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40666 van Imhoff, Evert. Optimal economic growth and non-stable population. 1988. vii, 241 pp. Krips Repro: Meppel, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
"This thesis studies optimal economic growth in a closed economy which experiences non-stable population growth. The economy is described by means of a neoclassical growth model which distinguishes overlapping generations within the population. The basic neoclassical growth model is extended to include various types of technical change, as well as investment in human capital or education." The focus of the study is to connect the analytical tools of traditional growth theory with the actual demographic experience of most industrialized countries. "The discussion will show that growth theory needs to extend its scope through the construction of growth models which explicitly recognize demographic forces as a potential source of non-stationarities."
Correspondence: E. van Imhoff, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40667 Wolff, Nancy. Income redistribution and the Social Security program. Research in Business Economics and Public Policy, No. 12, ISBN 0-8357-1807-7. LC 87-10791. 1987. vii, 181 pp. UMI Research Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan/London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the income redistribution effects of the Social Security program in the United States. The author uses actuarial formulae to relate the amount of individuals' old age benefits to their paid Social Security taxes. The book's primary focus is on the program's effectiveness in redistributing income within and among retirement cohorts. It concludes with recommendations designed to address the inequities in the present system.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

54:40668 Hrabovszky, Janos P.; Miyan, K. Population growth and land use in Nepal: "the great turnabout" Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 7, No. 3, Aug 1987. 264-70 pp. Boulder, Colorado. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper reports on recent changes and future potential developments in land use in Nepal. It discusses differential population growth rates and land potentiality; it describes the rising pressure on land and how the people are adjusting by changes in land use, or migration, or both. The results of three studies, on potential land-use development, agricultural production, and food availability by AD 2005, are reported." The authors emphasize the need for the intensification of land use, the importance of irrigation, and the need for the integration of land-use types.
Correspondence: J. P. Hrabovszky, 164 Oberdorf, Varna 39040, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40669 Mahar, Dennis J. Population growth and human carrying capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. In: World population trends and their impact on economic development, edited by Dominick Salvatore. 1988. 59-76 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which Malthusian predictions concerning the relationship between population growth and food supply are relevant to the current situation in sub-Saharan Africa. The emphasis is on the concept of carrying capacity and its usefulness in analyses of this kind. Case studies concerning the Sahelian and Sudanian zones and southern Kenya are included. The author concludes that major improvements in agriculture are possible but remain to be implemented and that rates of population growth need to be reduced.
Correspondence: D. J. Mahar, World Bank, Economic Advisory Staff, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40670 Milimo, Mabel C. Women, population and food in Africa: the Zambian case. Afrique et Developpement/Africa Development, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1986. 95-132 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The role of women in resolving Africa's problems concerning the achievement of a balance between food supply and population is considered. The paper is in two parts. "The first is a brief analysis of the food and population problem in Africa. It tries to trace the root causes of the problem, both historical and in their present form. Emphasis is placed on the current involvement of women in food production in patriarchal structures and the resultant impact on fertility and food self-sufficiency. The second and final section discusses strategies to solve the food and population problem." The data concern some 400 women engaged in peasant farming in rural Zambia.
Correspondence: M. C. Milimo, Department of African Development Studies, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40671 Mulder, Monique B. Resources and reproductive success in women with an example from the Kipsigis of Kenya. Journal of Zoology, Vol. 213, No. 3, 1987. 489-505 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper proposes that variability in the relationship between resources and reproductive success arises from an inadequate specification of the nature and availability of resources critical to reproduction and a failure to understand the mechanisms whereby resources confer reproductive differentials in different environments. Data are presented from the Kipsigis of Kenya showing how land ownership affects female reproductive success; reasons why the effects of landholding are changing over time are examined."
Correspondence: M. B. Mulder, Evolution and Human Behavior Program, Rackham Building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40672 Pingali, Prabhu L.; Binswanger, Hans P. Population density and farming systems: the changing locus of innovations and technical change. In: World population trends and their impact on economic development, edited by Dominick Salvatore. 1988. 165-86 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter highlights the farmer-based and modern technological options available to societies for achieving growth in agricultural output through increases in land and labor productivity." Such agricultural growth is needed to feed growing populations in the context of the absence of frontier lands for cultivation in most countries.
Correspondence: P. L. Pingali, International Rice Research Institute, POB 933, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40673 Pool, Ian. Population, nutrition, and labor force. [Population, alimentation et main-d'oeuvre.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 479-96 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationships among population growth, food supply, and employment and the labor force in Africa South of the Sahara are explored using published data for U.N. and F.A.O. sources. The author asserts that demographic pressures will strain available food supplies and lead to higher levels of unemployment. It is recommended that solutions be sought in local or community-level projects rather than in centrally-planned initiatives.
Correspondence: I. Pool, Population Studies Center, Department of Sociology, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

54:40674 Audace, Nsabimana. Population growth and labour supply in an agrarian economy: the case of Burundi, 1950-1980. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 513-41 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this paper is to identify the components of the growth of the labour force in Burundi, over the period 1950-1980, and to estimate their respective impacts on the size of the labour force." The data used are estimates of the labor force produced by the International Labour Office and 1979 census statistics. Economic consequences of the labor supply growth, particularly the subsistence agricultural sector, are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40675 Beaie, Sonkarley-Teahtune. The structure and dynamics of labour force in Montserrado County--Liberia (1962-1974). In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 563-91 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines labor force changes in Montserrado County, Liberia, the area surrounding the capital city, between 1962 and 1974. Census data are used to study the sex distribution of the labor force, determinants of change in labor force size and crude activity rate, the industrial and occupational structure of employment, and the extent of labor force replacement as a result of deaths and retirements. Among the conclusions, the author notes that "the population component acted as the main agent for the changes in the size of the labour force for both sexes because of the rapid increase in the population over the period."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40676 Bloom, David E.; Freeman, Richard B.; Korenman, Sanders D. The labour-market consequences of generational crowding. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1988. 131-76 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper attempts to distinguish between two alternative views of the labour-market problems faced by young workers in a number of industrialized countries in the 1970s and early 1980s. The first view is that the low relative earnings and high unemployment rates experienced by these cohorts were largely age-related; the second is that they are a consequence of large cohort size. A multi-country empirical analysis indicates that large cohort size tends to have a negative effect on the expected earnings...of a cohort....More detailed data for the U.S.A. show that the relatively low wages and high unemployment of the 'unlucky' cohorts have tended to converge to the patterns that would have resulted had the cohorts been more 'normal' in size, but that their lifetime income has been permanently reduced."
Correspondence: D. E. Bloom, Department of Economics, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40677 Brinkmann, Christian. Demographic aspects of the labour force and employment. Council of Europe Population Studies, No. 19, ISBN 92-871-1028-X. 1987. 147 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This report is the result of three meetings held in 1985 and 1986 of a committee organized by the Council of Europe to examine demographic aspects of the labor force and employment in Europe. Separate consideration is given to overall trends, the entry of young people into the labor force, early retirement, women in the labor force aged 25 to 54, and foreign nationals. A selection of country reports from Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg, France, Turkey, Italy, and the United Kingdom are also included.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40678 Choucri, Nazli. Migration in the Middle East: old economics or new politics? Journal of Arab Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring 1988. 1-18 pp. Fresno, California. In Eng.
This article discusses the increasing mobility and internationalization of labor in the Middle East. Using examples from a number of countries, the author pays particular attention to the resultant political and economic complexities of governing such a fluid population. Consideration is given to remittances from employment abroad and how these funds support a significant transnational economy as well as promote inflation in the labor-exporting countries. The article also considers the impact of non-Arab labor migration, particularly the influx of Asian workers.
Correspondence: N. Choucri, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

54:40679 El Yazidi, El Hassan. Components of change in the Moroccan labour force between 1960-1971. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 421-47 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Changes in the labor force in Morocco between 1960 and 1971 are analyzed, with attention to levels and patterns of labor force participation as well as to factors affecting the size of the labor force. Census data and a factorial analysis model are used. Evidence is found of an increase in the size of the labor force in conjunction with an increase in population size, reductions in age-specifie activity rates among males and increases among females, a decline in crude activity rates due to an increase in the proportion of the population under age 15, and a slight shift of workers from agricultural to industrial occupations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40680 Euzeby, Alain. Social security and part-time employment. International Labour Review, Vol. 127, No. 5, 1988. 545-57 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The author examines social security provisions that constitute obstacles to part-time employment before considering a number of measures that could be taken to make the schemes more flexible and hence promote part-time employment both as a means of meeting the needs of many workers and as a form of work sharing that can help to combat unemployment." The geographical focus is on developed countries, with an emphasis on Europe.
Correspondence: A. Euzeby, Department of Economics, Universite des Sciences Sociales, B.P. 47X, 38040 Grenoble Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

54:40681 Ferenc, Munkacsy. Population and employment. [Nepesedes es foglalkoztatas.] Nepessegtudomanyi Kutato Intezetenek Kutatasi Jelentesei, No. 30, LC 88-401192. 1986. 133 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This study is concerned with the relationship between population and employment in Hungary. The emphasis is on the impact that the projected decrease in the size of the labor force will have on the country's plans for economic and social development. The author concludes that current demographic trends are likely to lead to more serious economic problems in the future.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40682 Fullerton, Howard N. An evaluation of labor force projections to 1985. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 111, No. 11, Nov 1988. 7-17 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Errors in the projections of the U.S. labor force prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics are identified and their consequences assessed. The author concludes that "among the five rounds of projections of the 1985 labor force conducted between 1970 and 1980, those produced in 1978 yielded results closest to actual 1985 values."
Correspondence: H. N. Fullerton, Office of Economic Growth and Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

54:40683 Glass, Jennifer; Tienda, Marta; Smith, Shelley A. The impact of changing employment opportunity on gender and ethnic earnings inequality. Social Science Research, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1988. 252-76 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper investigates how the expansion and transformation of employment opportunities [in the United States] affected the structured wage inequality between men and women of differing racial and ethnic origins. Our analyses identify in the matrix of occupations and industries where men's and women's employment has increased most rapidly between 1970 and 1980 and define the characteristics of jobs in those growth sectors in terms of current earnings by sex. Further, we identify which employment shifts--occupational recomposition within industries or industry growth and decline--are most strongly related to current wages, and how the earnings impacts differ between men and women of differing racial and ethnic origins. Finally, we address potential consequences of economic transformation for long-term equity in wage determination."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 396).
Correspondence: J. Glass, Department of Sociology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40684 Gower, David. Labour force trends: Canada and the United States. Canadian Social Trends, No. 10, Autumn 1988. 14-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in labor force participation in Canada and the United States are analyzed and compared using data from official sources for the period 1981-1987. Consideration is given to annual percentage change in employment, sex and age distributions, percentage employed in service and production sectors, and unemployment.
Correspondence: D. Gower, Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40685 Grossbard-Shechtman, Shoshana A.; Neuman, Shoshana. Women's labor supply and marital choice. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 96, No. 6, Dec 1988. 1,294-302 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper hypothesizes that value of time, and consequently labor force participation, can vary with circumstances specific to a marriage or a marriage market. Wives' traits valued in the marriage market are expected to be associated with lower labor force participation, whereas husbands' traits valued in the marriage market are expected to be associated with lower participation rates on the part of wives. Evidence for these hypotheses is found on the basis of regressions of labor force participation for a sample of Israeli married women. Inclusion of traits valued in the marriage market and marital sorting patterns increases the explanatory power of the regressions."
Correspondence: S. A. Grossbard-Shechtman, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40686 Guhl, Nora L. The rise in children's labour force participation in metropolitan Egypt, 1960-1976. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 249-67 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to document how children's labour force participation has changed in Cairo and Alexandria [Egypt] from 1960 to 1976. Evidence on the levels of children's labour force participation during this period, the variation in these levels between the districts of Greater Cairo...and Alexandria, and the nature of children's economic activity in these two cities [are] presented. Two sources of data are used: Egyptian census data and anthropological data from interviews of twenty youths working in Greater Cairo." Factors affecting these trends, such as wages, employment opportunities, microeconomic factors, and school experiences, are studied. "The evidence from the small sample suggests that some urban youths may be supplying as much as one third of the family's annual income."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40687 Lebon, Andre. Foreign manpower at the end of 1985. [L'emploi etranger a la fin de 1985.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, 1988. 85-105 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The size of the foreign population in the French labor force at the end of 1985 is investigated using data from official sources, including both the census and special surveys. Using data taken primarily from the Enquete ACEMO concerning manpower activity and employment conditions, the author estimates the 1985 foreign labor force to be between 1.5 and 1.6 million, a decrease of approximately 225,000 since 1973. The data are examined by professional status and by industry.
Correspondence: A. Lebon, Direction de la Population et des Migrations, Ministere des Affaires Sociales et de l'Emploi, 1 Place Fontenoy, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40688 Legare, Jacques; Desjardins, Bertrand. Concerning a reconsideration of the universality of the normal retirement age. [Pour une remise en question de l'universalite de l'age normal de la retraite.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1988. 123-9 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre.
The calculation of retirement age in industrialized countries is critically examined. The arbitrary selection of age 65 is first discussed, and a new method for determining retirement age is then proposed, based on qualitative measures such as life expectancy and quality of life after age 65. The authors suggest a retirement age of 62 for men and 65 for women, noting that while their method arrives at approximately the same age as the traditional quantitative approach, the qualitative method can be adapted to account for changing conditions.
Correspondence: J. Legare, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40689 Lichter, Daniel T.; Costanzo, Janice A. How do demographic changes affect labor force participation of women? Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 110, No. 11, Nov 1987. 23-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the question, "to what extent have changes in fertility rates, marital status, educational levels, and age structure accounted for growth in [U.S.] labor force participation rates of women since 1970?" They conclude that almost half of the increase "has roots in ongoing patterns of demographic change, especially recent fertility declines, shifts in patterns of marriage and divorce, and educational upgrading." Data are from official sources and concern the period 1970-1985.
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Population Issues Research Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40690 Lindley, Robert M. Prospects for European labour demand. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, Jul 1988. 383-410 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labour demand. It explores briefly the methods used to model the labour market with special reference to demography and technology and reviews the evidence on recent and prospective changes in labour demand for five countries: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A distinction is made between the different forms in which job opportunities arise and the different areas of economic activity in which they appear....The focus is on medium-term changes. The findings nonetheless indicate the underlying trends that are likely to continue over the next decade or so."
Correspondence: R. M. Lindley, Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40691 Miller, James P.; Bluestone, Herman. Prospects for service sector employment growth in non-metropolitan America. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, Winter 1988. 28-41 pp. Clemson, South Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on how successfully non-metropolitan areas [in the United States] can compete for service-producing industry. Data on wage and salary employment for the 1969-84 period are used to assess how well non-metropolitan areas have been keeping up with metropolitan areas in expanding service jobs. Changes in patterns of employment growth in non-metropolitan and metropolitan service industries between 1969-76 and 1976-84 are described and these changes related to the growth pattern in goods-producing industries. In addition, data are used to identify the types of service activities that have concentrated in non-metropolitan areas."
Correspondence: J. P. Miller, Agriculture and Rural Economy Division, ERS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 14 and Independence Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20250. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40692 Moen, Jon R. From gainful employment to labor force: definitions and a new estimate of work rates of American males, 1860 to 1980. Historical Methods, Vol. 21, No. 4, Fall 1988. 149-59 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author creates an alternative concept of the labor force that would allow the production of estimates that are consistent over time. "The concept of the labor force that is emphasized and developed in this paper is based on the principle of gainful employment that was used by the United States census from 1850 through 1930. Under gainful employment, a person's occupation was the pursuit that he usually followed as a means to support himself." The measure is applied to labor force participation rates of males aged 65 and over during the period 1860-1980.
Correspondence: J. R. Moen, Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, 104 NW Marietta Street, Atlanta, GA 30303. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40693 Morrison, Philip S. Access, employment structures and local labour markets. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1988. 35-50 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper constructs...a picture of a regional employment structure [in New Zealand] which focuses explicitly on the link between a region's industries and the kinds of tasks performed by labour they employ. The account, based on the experience of the Wellington Region, shows both the comparative features of employment in the region and the particular changes which have occurred in the employment structure over the last decade."
Correspondence: P. S. Morrison, Department of Geography, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40694 Nagi, Abdel-Sattar M. The impact of industrialization and educational development on the labour force participation in Egypt, 1968-82. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 269-92 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This study attempts to assess the trends in the labour force structure in Egypt during the period 1968-82 by investigating the relationships among industrialization, school enrolment, and the labour force participation rates in this period. These relationships will be analyzed using ordinary least squares estimation....The main source of the data used in the present study is the annual labour force survey...undertaken during the period from 1968 to 1982." The size, sex composition, and occupational structure of the labor force during the period is described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40695 Odland, John. Migration and occupational choice among young labor force entrants: a human capital model. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 281-96 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"Interregional variations in the conditions for entering the labor force are investigated by analyzing interdependencies between migration behavior and occupational choice for young labor force entrants....Occupational choice and migration behavior will be interdependent if the costs and returns for particular occupations vary over local labor markets, relative to other occupations, and patterns of interdependence between the two decisions are analyzed, using a model of the joint choice of occupation and location. An empirical analysis of occupational choices and migration behavior for young people who entered the U.S. labor force in the 1975-80 period indicates that the odds for entering professional or managerial occupations varied with origin and migration behavior in systematic ways."
Correspondence: J. Odland, Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:40696 Paiva, Paulo de T. A. Fifty years of population growth and the absorption of the force in Brazil: from 1950 to 2000. [Cinquenta anos de crescimento populacional e absorcao de mao-de-obra no Brasil: de 1950 a 2000.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 63-86 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The economically active population (EAP) grows rapidly in Brazil, resulting either from growth of population or increased [female] participation in labor. This rhythm of growth will continue, at least until the end of this century. The impact caused by the recent decline in [fertility] will be moderate and will only affect the younger age group. Despite the rapid growth of employment in the processing industry, the relative size of the so-called informal sector has remained stable since 1950. With the EAP rate of growth and the decrease in employment in agriculture, there will be a great demand for urban employment in the next 20 years."
Correspondence: P. de T. A. Paiva, Departamento de Ciencias Economicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 1621, 1622, 30000 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40697 Perevedentsev, Viktor I. Changes in the structure of employment and entry into the work force. Problems of Economics, Vol. 31, No. 6, Oct 1988. 6-28 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
Trends in employment structure and labor force participation from 1970 to the present in the USSR are examined. Separate consideration is given to annual average number of workers by occupation, percent distribution of workers among occupations, regional differences, education, socioeconomic factors, and the effects of scientific and technological advances on occupations and the labor force. Data are from official and other published sources.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Rabochii Klass i Sovremennyi Mir (Moscow, USSR), No. 6, 1987, pp. 54-65.
Correspondence: V. I. Perevedentsev, Institute of the International Labor Movement, USSR Academy of Sciences, Kolpachny per. 9a, Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40698 Prabhakara, N. R.; Usha, M. N. Population growth and unemployment in India. ISBN 81-7024-041-7. 1986. ix, 102 pp. Ashish Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors analyze the relationship between unemployment and poverty in Karnataka, India. Recent trends in economic growth and social problems are examined with respect to unemployment and underemployment levels. Other topics considered include changes in the labor force and trends in rural unemployment. Data are from national sample surveys conducted in 1972-1973 and 1977.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40699 Raishad. Labour force projections for Pakistan and provinces: 1986-2001. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 671-707 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Regional labor projections for Pakistan are produced based on data from the 1961 and 1981 censuses, and the 1973 Housing Economic Demographic Survey, and the 1984-1985 Labour Force Survey. Developments in Pakistan's population and labor force since 1961 are studied, and regional projections of population and male labor force participation are provided to the year 2001. Two sets of projections are calculated based on different assumptions. "Whichever projection is considered, the growth in labour supply is expected to be phenomenal and calls for massive programmes of employment creation. The size of the labour force in all provinces except in Baluchistan is expected to grow at a faster rate than the population during the projection period in both variants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40700 Riboud, Michelle. Labour-market response to changes in cohort size: the case of France. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, Jul 1988. 359-82 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Recent changes in the labour market in France, more particularly changes in labour supply and in unemployment, are examined. Particular attention is paid to the arrival of the baby boom on the labour market. The effect of demographic changes is, however, shown to have been less than that of behavioural changes. Relative earnings of succesive cohorts are also examined, and the earnings-gap between baby boomers and preceding cohorts is discussed and compared with that observed in the USA. The evidence suggests that with earnings too, non-demographic factors have been important: the inequities observed in the earnings of a number of cohorts cannot be fully explained by relative cohort size."
Correspondence: M. Riboud, Centre de Recherche sur l'Emploi et la Production, Faculte de Droit, d'Economie et de Gestion, Universite d'Orleans, B.P. 6739, F-45067 Orleans Cedex 2, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40701 Sakamoto, Arthur. Labor market structure, human capital, and earnings inequality in metropolitan areas. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 1, Sep 1988. 86-107 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Individualistic versus structuralist explanations of aggregate-level earnings inequality are contrasted. Their respective predictions are then empirically considered in regression analyses of earnings inequality across 282 [U.S.] metropolitan areas. In general, the results do not provide strong support for the structuralist model at least as operationalized in terms of industrially and occupationally discrete segments. The effects of individualistic variables, however, do not provide strong support for human capital theory either, and the results vary substantially depending on which particular measure of inequality is considered. Implications for labor market research and theory are discussed."
Correspondence: A. Sakamoto, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40702 South Africa. Central Statistical Services (Pretoria, South Africa). Current Population Survey: Coloureds, Asians and Blacks, 1986. [Lopende bevolkingsopname: Kleurlinge, Asiers en Swartes, 1986.] Verslag/Report, No. 07-07-04, ISBN 0-621-11030-2. [1987]. xi, 327 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng; Afr.
This report presents statistics on the economically active population of South Africa for 1984, excluding whites. The data are presented separately for Blacks, Coloureds, and Asians and include figures for occupations, unemployment, and the unemployed population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40703 Sumono. Analysis of recent changes in the unemployment and part-time employment in Indonesia, 1980-85. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 623-43 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines "the extent of unemployment and part-time employment in Indonesia in 1980 and 1985. The study includes the analyses of the age-sex patterns of unemployment and part-time employment, education and unemployment, part-time employment by industry, and the rural and urban differentials over the period 1980-1985....The data on labour force used in the study come from the 1980 census and the 1985 Intercensal Population Survey conducted in Indonesia." It is found that the overall level of unemployment increased during the period while the proportion of part-time employment also rose. Sectors of the economy where the percentage of part-time employment has increased are identified.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40704 Tokman, Victor E. Urban employment: research and policy in Latin America. CEPAL Review, No. 34, Pub. Order No. LC/G.1521-P. Apr 1988. 109-26 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng.
Trends in urban employment policy research and design in Latin America are discussed. "This article is organized into three main parts....The first reviews research and policies in the 1970s, while the second deals with the 1980s. The two periods are set off by different economic conditions and, particularly, by the severe crisis which has affected the region since the beginning of the present decade. Finally, in the third part the nature of the current debate on the subject will be outlined."
Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

54:40705 Uruguay. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Montevideo, Uruguay). National Household Survey, 1986. [Encuesta Nacional de Hogares, 1986.] 1987. 105 pp. Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
This publication contains labor force data from the 1986 National Household Survey of Uruguay. Data are presented in tables and charts for the country as a whole, Montevideo, and the interior. Chapters are included on the economically active population, employment and unemployment, average number of hours employed, underemployment, and income. Within each chapter, data are provided by type of economic activity, category of occupation, age group, educational level, and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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