Volume 54 - Number 4 - Winter 1988

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

54:40582 Ales, Milan. Comparison of demographic indicators of Czechoslovakia and Austria. Demosta, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1988. 32-6 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng.
The results of a comparison of official demographic indicators for Czechoslovakia and Austria are presented. The main differences concern the fact that the Czechoslovak population is younger and has higher fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40583 Balaci, M.; Ghenciu, G.; Arcan, V. M. Demographic aging in Romania. Romanian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1988. 173-84 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Eng.
Trends in demographic aging in Romania during the period 1930-1986 are discussed. Consideration is given to age and sex distribution, causes and characteristics of demographic aging, and projections and implications of the increase in the population over 60 years of age. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: M. Balaci, National Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Bucharest, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40584 Banister, Judith. Implications of the aging of China's population. CIR Staff Paper, No. 44, Aug 1988. 27, [14] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report traces changes in China's mortality, fertility, and age structure up to the present, and discusses the future aging of China's population that is very likely to follow from these past trends. In addition, the author shows that if the one-child fertility policy is very successful, a strikingly large proportion of the population of China will be elderly by the middle of the next century." The author describes how the Chinese leadership has become aware of the implications of current antinatalist policies and the policy options currently available to them. She concludes that "China's government and people have time to plan for the aging of the population and to learn from the successes and failures of other countries."
Correspondence: Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40585 Bartiaux, Francoise. With whom do the elderly live and migrate? A comparison between the United States, Australia and Italy. Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 142, ISBN 2-87085-158-8. Jun 1988. 18 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper summarizes a number of results obtained regarding family aspects of elderly migration in three different countries: the United States, Australia and Italy. The paper begins with methodological considerations and then summarizes the major findings. Particular attention is given to the questions: with whom and to whom did the elderly migrate and how is this migration related to their living arrangements."
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40586 Fratczak, Ewa; Guraj-Kaczmarek, Kazimiera; Zarzycka, Zofia; Bartczak, Stanislaw; Czajkowski, Andrzej; Suchecka, Jadwiga. Selected aspects and consequences of the process of demographic aging in Poland. [Wybrane uwarunkowania i konsekwencje procesu starzenia sie ludnosci Polski.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 223, 1987. 232 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Aspects of demographic aging in Poland are examined. Part 1 describes the prospects for demographic aging up to 2020. Part 2 discusses the methodology for the causal analysis of the population aging process, and the relative impact of changes in fertility and mortality on this process. Part 3 examines the income of the elderly based on household budgets. The influence of age on the differentiation of cost of living indexes is considered in Part 4. Part 5 attempts to estimate the impact of aging on health services costs.
Correspondence: Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40587 Holzmann, Robert. Ageing and social-security costs. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, Jul 1988. 411-37 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper we take the view that the strong emphasis given in recent years to the demographic component in pension and health outlays [in OECD countries] is justified but at the same time exaggerated. The paper first shows that the demographic impact on past growth in expenditures...was small and that it was everywhere far outstripped by other factors. Moreover, linking projections of demographic trends up to 2050 with three scenarios for growth rates in real benefits and real earnings, shows that the effects of future ageing can be substantially eased (or exacerbated) by other factors that are, in principle, accessible to policy control. Consideration of several possible strategies suggests that a combination of several is necessary to ease the burden."
Correspondence: R. Holzmann, International Monetary Fund, Fiscal Affairs Department, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20431. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40588 Lee, Ronald D.; Arthur, W. Brian; Rodgers, Gerry. Economics of changing age distributions in developed countries. ISBN 0-19-829503-0. LC 86-25098. 1988. ix, 221 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Most of this book's nine chapters, which are by various authors, were originally prepared for a seminar on the economic consequences of changing population composition in developed countries, organized by an IUSSP committee and held in Laxenburg, Austria, in December 1983. The focus of the book is on the impact that age distribution irregularities have had on the United Kingdom, Israel, Japan, and the United States, where unusually large generations experience educational disadvantages, reduced wages, and increased levels of unemployment. Also considered are the effects of fluctuations in demographic aging on providing for the elderly, questions of intergenerational equity, and the long-term implications of demographic aging on the lifetime welfare of the populations of developed countries. Other topics covered include the impact of changing household living arrangements on the demand for housing and of changing age distribution on consumption demand.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:40589 Matthiessen, Poul C. The demographic perspective and the pension issue. [De demografiske perspektiver i pensionsdebatten.] Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 126, No. 2, 1988. 124-31 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on the official Danish population forecast, the article provides information on the development of the Danish population by age from 1985 to 2025. It is demonstrated how the number of people in an age-group is the final outcome of fertility and mortality (and migration) trends in the past. In the remainder of this century the dependency ratio will decrease due to a steady decline in the number of children and young people. The number of elderly people will--by and large--remain the same. In the next century a strong aging will take place and the dependency ratio will increase very substantially."
Correspondence: P. C. Matthiessen, Statistisk Institut, Kobenhavns Universitet, Studiestraede 6, 1455 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40590 Nair, Sadasivan P. Effect of declining fertility on population aging in India: an application of Coale's analytical model. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 175-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper, an attempt is made to gauge the effect of constantly declining fertility on population aging in India through the application of an analytical model proposed by Ansley Coale (1972), which employs stable population theory. We have assumed a linearly constant decline of fertility in India to obtain NRR=1 by the year 2001." The projected age distribution for the year 2001 shows an increase since 1971 in proportions of males and females age 65 and over, as well as an increase in the median age of both sexes. The magnitude of these changes and their implications are discussed.
Correspondence: S. P. Nair, Director, Population Research Center, Dharwad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40591 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Ageing populations. The social policy implications. Demographic Change and Public Policy, ISBN 92-64-13113-2. 1988. 90 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: OECD, 2 Rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library.

54:40592 Priest, Gordon E. Living arrangements of Canada's "older elderly" population. Canadian Social Trends, No. 10, Autumn 1988. 26-30 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author examines the "major change [that] has occurred in the living arrangements of Canada's 'older elderly' population (aged 75 and over) since 1971. A higher proportion of these people are living alone or in institutions, while the percentage living with others, primarily family, has declined." Consideration is also given to expenditures on housing costs and to the sex distribution of the aged population.
Correspondence: G. E. Priest, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40593 Serow, William J.; Sly, David F. Trends in the characteristics of the oldest-old: 1940-2020. Journal of Aging Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, Summer 1988. 145-56 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This article analyzes observed and projected changes in the economic, social, and demographic characteristics of that segment of the American population which is now growing at the fastest rate, namely those persons aged 85 and over, the so-called oldest-old. In addition to the rapid increase in numbers, this population will also be quite different in the future in terms of variables such as marital status, educational attainment, and probable levels of income. Compared with both current and previous cohorts, the oldest-old of the future will have greater levels of education and, in all probability, greater access to pension income. This will be particularly the case among the female segment of the oldest-old, who will continue to comprise the majority of this population."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Center for the Study of Population, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40594 Sharma, M. L.; Dak, T. M. Aging in India: challenge for the society. ISBN 81-202-0187-6. LC 87-903445. 1987. xvi, 250 pp. Ajanta Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This book is the product of a seminar on demographic aging in India, held on April 22-24, 1986, in India. It contains 23 papers by various authors under three main headings: aging in a changing society, socio-psychological perspectives of aging, and health and medical aspects of aging. The emphasis is on the demographic changes leading to a rapid increase in the elderly population and the consequent impact on Indian society. Particular attention is paid to the breakdown of traditional kinship and family organizations, which leave the elderly helpless, isolated, and economically dependent.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40595 Soldo, Beth J.; Agree, Emily M. America's elderly. Population Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 3, Sep 1988. 53 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Demographic aging in the United States and its consequences are examined. The characteristics of the elderly population are first described, and changes in mortality and morbidity of the elderly are reviewed. Chapters are also included on the quality of life of the elderly and government assistance provided for them. The authors note that the process of demographic aging is accelerating, and that one in four Americans will be 65 years or older by the year 2030, compared to the current proportion of one in eight. The increase in the numbers of the extreme aged is also noted. The authors address issues concerning both the increased demand for federal funding to support the elderly and those involving intergenerational equity.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40596 Townsend, Nicholas; Hammel, E. A. Age estimation from the number of teeth erupted. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 25, Feb 1988. 46 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the method of determining a child's age through dental examination. "We argue that the state of children's dentition provides a measure of their age that is independent of informants' reports and of social and cultural influences on estimates made by interviewers or other third parties. We support this contention with summaries of previous research results, that indicate that dental aging of children is relatively straightforward to perform, produces unbiased results, and is more accurate than alternative methods." Data are from official sources for selected countries and geographical areas.
Correspondence: Program in Population Research, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40597 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population aging: review of emerging issues. Report, proposed study design and selected background papers from the Meeting on Emerging Issues of the Aging of Population, 22-26 September 1986, Bangkok. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 80, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/496. 1987. 95 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report concerns a meeting on demographic aging in Asia and Oceania held in Bangkok in 1986. A review is first presented of current issues related to demographic aging in the region and in selected countries. The report includes a selection of papers prepared for the meeting on the situation in Asia, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Japan, as well as the role of families and formal and informal support systems.
Correspondence: ESCAP Population Division, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Library, Bangkok, Thailand.

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

54:40598 Baker, Paul T. Human population biology: a developing paradigm for biological anthropology. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 40, No. 1, May 1988. 255-63 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"This article will concentrate on the reasons for change in the study of living populations or what is often called human biology....It appears...that the topic is developing into a transdisciplinary science best called human population biology. The paradigm provided by this transdisciplinary science is one that biological anthropologists have not only helped to create but are also likely to follow in the next decade. I therefore propose to explore first, why the study of biological anthropology developed in this direction; second, how the paradigm developed; and third, what the widening acceptance of this approach implies for future research and educational needs. These topics will be examined by focusing on the historical development of theory, scientific methods, and training in biological anthropology."
Correspondence: P. T. Baker, 47-50 Lulani Street, Kaneohe, HI 96744. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40599 Frisch, Rose E. Body fat, menarche, fitness and fertility. Human Reproduction, Vol. 2, No. 6, Aug 1987. 521-33 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationships among body fat, menarche, fitness, and fertility are reviewed. Specifically, the author suggests that these relationships are causal and that the high percentage of body fat in the mature human female may directly influence reproduction. "Evidence is presented that undernutrition and hard physical work can affect the natural fertility of populations, by the delay of menarche, a longer period of adolescent subfecundity, a longer birth interval, and an earlier age of menopause." The effect of fitness, low fat levels, and long-term reproductive health among women is also considered. The data are primarily from published sources.
Correspondence: R. E. Frisch, Harvard Center for Population Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

54:40600 Adelman, Irma; Sunding, David. Economic policy and income distribution in China. Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1987. 444-61 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
"Using the Kakwani interpolation method to reconstruct rural and urban size distributions, the authors present Lorenz curve estimates for Chinese income distribution by period, 1952-1986. The level of inequality is one of the lowest in the world. The change in inequality over time conforms to the experience of other less-developed countries. Although rural inequality increased after 1978, national inequality fell, due to a reduction in the rural-urban income gap."
Correspondence: I. Adelman, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40601 Chiswick, Barry R. Differences in education and earnings across racial and ethnic groups: tastes, discrimination, and investments in child quality. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 103, No. 3, Aug 1988. 571-97 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Viewing the United States as comprising many racial and ethnic groups, it is shown that group differences in earnings, schooling, and rates of return from schooling are striking and that the groups with higher levels of schooling also have higher rates of return. These data are shown to be consistent with a child quality investment model, but they are not consistent with the hypotheses that the primary determinants of schooling level are discrimination, minority group status, differences in time preference (discount rates), or 'tastes' for schooling. Group differences in fertility and female labor supply are examined as partial determinants of investment in child quality. Policy implications are discussed."
This paper was originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 443).
Correspondence: B. Chiswick, University of Illinois, 5801 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:40602 Costa, Leticia B. The question of occupation in vital statistics. [A questao da ocupacao no registro civil.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 59-69 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The author discusses the results of an analysis of the information on occupation, collected during the last few decades in connection with vital events in the State of Sao Paulo (Brazil). The stages of collection, clearing, coding and processing are considered, and the resulting tables are investigated. The evidence suggests that no historical series is available, as far as occupation is concerned." Suggestions are made for improving data collection in this area.
Correspondence: L. B. Costa, Grupo Especial de Analise Demografica da Fundacao SEADE, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40603 Desrosiers, Helene; Colin, Christine. Demographic picture of pregnancies among the disadvantaged. [Portrait demographique des grossesses en milieu defavorise.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1988. 91-111 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Special tabulations, based in particular on the data obtained from the Canadian fertility survey of 1984, have made possible an analysis of the extent of poverty among Canadian pregnant women, and of the demographic profile of low income pregnant women. Results are presented according to three dimensions: educational level, marital status and fertility."
Correspondence: H. Desrosiers, INRS-Urbanisation, Universite du Quebec, 3465 Rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40604 Ermisch, John. Fortunes of birth: the impact of generation size on the relative earnings of young men. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1988. 266-82 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the impact of generation size [in the United Kingdom] on a young person's earnings relative to those of older workers. While it proves difficult to identify precisely the factors producing an upward trend in young men's relative earnings, there is strong evidence that young men from larger generations earn less. Thus, variation in the relative number of new labour force entrants has produced fluctuations in young men's relative earnings around an upward trend." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, 2 Dean Trench Street, Smith Square, London SW2P 3HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40605 Hirsl, Miroslav. Influence of employment changes on incomes and expenditures of Czechoslovak households. [Vliv zmen v zamestnanosti na prijmy a vydani domacnosti.] Demografie, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1988. 119-26 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author notes that employment of both spouses is almost universal in Czechoslovakia and that one income alone is insufficient to provide for the basic needs of a household. However, current economic reforms and changes in production will reduce the demand for labor and lead to a decline in the rate of employment. The consequences for economic and social policy are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40606 Keil, Thomas J.; Usui, Wayne M. The family wage system in Pennsylvania's anthracite region: 1850-1900. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 1, Sep 1988. 185-207 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Using data from the U.S. Census manuscript collections from 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, and 1900, this study examines the prevalence of the family wage economy among different categories of occupations and across ethnic groups. Two aspects of family wage economies are examined: the use of child labor and the use of the labor of young adults and/or adolescents. We find that there are marked differences in the levels of use of both types of labor across occupational and ethnic categories and over time. In general, our data show that it was those workers who were most economically distressed who turned to the family wage system as a way of adapting to the emerging industrial economy."
Correspondence: T. J. Keil, Department of Sociology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40607 Ketkar, Kusum W.; Ketkar, Suhas L. Population dynamics and consumer demand. Applied Economics, Vol. 19, No. 11, Nov 1987. 1,483-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze the effects on consumption in the United States of 11 demographic variables, including "regional location and the urban/rural base of the household, its age, size, race, sex and marital characteristics, and the education and the employment status of the household head and the spouse." Data are from the 1972-1973 Consumer Expenditure Survey. The expenditure functions are first specified, followed by descriptions of the data sources and the empirical estimates of expenditure functions for various items of consumption spending.
Correspondence: K. W. Ketkar, Department of Economics, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ 07079. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40608 Lindsay, Colin; Donald, Shelley. Income of Canada's seniors. Canadian Social Trends, No. 10, Autumn 1988. 20-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The economic status of Canada's elderly population is examined. Consideration is given to real income of the elderly by sex and age group, public pensions and old age security benefits, and sources of private income by sex. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: C. Lindsay, Canadian Social Trends, 11th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40609 Nam, Charles B.; Terrie, E. Walter. 1980-based Nam-Powers occupational status scores. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 88-48, 1988. 6, [15] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Among the several indexes of occupational status found in the research literature, the Nam-Powers index has been available for several decades. It was first developed in the late 1950's and [was] based on 1950 [U.S.] Census data. Subsequent revisions were made based on the 1960 and 1970 censuses. This paper presents the scores for occupations based on the 1980 Census. It describes the procedures used in calculating the scores and how these have changed with each revision. Moreover, it informs users how to employ the scores in their own studies."
Correspondence: Center for the Study of Population, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40610 O'Hare, William P. The rise of poverty in rural America. Population Trends and Public Policy, No. 15, Jul 1988. 16 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
In this report, the author documents the growing levels of economic distress being experienced by the rural population of the United States. The factors associated with this trend are analyzed, including population loss and rural unemployment following the deterioration of the rural economy. Comparisons are made with trends in urban areas. The author notes that by 1986, "one out of every four children in rural America was living in poverty, unemployment in rural areas was 26 percent higher than in urban areas, and the escalating population movement out of small towns and the surrounding hinterlands which make up rural America was being led by the better educated." The need for the federal government to take a larger role in developing economic policies to halt the decline in rural areas is stressed.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40611 Sathar, Zeba A.; Kazi, Shahnaz. Variations in demographic behaviour by levels of living in Pakistan. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 113-36 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The relationships among various demographic factors and standard of living in Pakistan are examined using data for 10,000 households collected in the 1979 Population, Labour Force and Migration Survey. Attention is given to the association between standard of living and household size, average number of children under age 15, school attendance rates and labor force participation rates of young males, infant mortality, and migration patterns.
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Senior Research Demographer, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40612 Wilson, Julie B. Women and poverty: a demographic overview. Women and Health, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, 1987. 21-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the current debate about causes and cures for poverty [in the United States], much attention is given to women. Women are more likely than men to be poor, and once impoverished, to remain poor for longer periods of time than do men. In addition, a much greater responsibility for raising the next generation of adults belongs to poor women than to poor men. No individual policy response will alleviate poverty among women. Rather, a multi-faceted policy response that recognizes the wide diversity of their situations is necessary. This paper describes the diversity among poor women and suggests a series of appropriate policies."
Correspondence: J. B. Wilson, Office of Program Planning Analysis and Development, New York State Department of Social Services, 40 North Pearl Street, Albany, NY 12243. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

54:40613 Bruno, Rosalind R. School enrollment--social and economic characteristics of students: October 1986. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 429, Aug 1988. v, 103 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed tabulations of data on [U.S.] school enrollment in October 1986 and summary time series of data collected since the inception of the survey. The data are from the October school enrollment supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40614 Gill, Mehar S. Religious composition of Punjab's urban population, 1981. Population Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1986. 38-49 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes the religious composition of the urban population in Punjab, India, for the period 1971-1981. Aspects considered include the relationship between religious composition and size-class of urban centers, changes in the size of urban religious populations, and the different spatial patterns of various religious communities.
Correspondence: M. S. Gill, Department of Geography, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002, Punjab, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40615 Harcsa, Istvan. Migration, mobility, and income: based on a study of social mobility and income undertaken in 1983. [Vandorlas, mobilitas, keresetalakulas: az 1983 evi tarsadalmi mobilitas es jovedelmi vizsgalat alapjan.] Tarsadalom Statisztikai Kozlemenyek, ISBN 963-340-812-1. LC 87-409641. 1987. 86 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
The author studies the relationship between migration and social mobility, the social statuses these concern, and the financial aspects of such changes. Special attention is given to rural-urban movements and to the role of in-migrants.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40616 Kominski, Robert. Educational attainment in the United States: March 1987 and 1986. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 428, Aug 1988. iv, 88 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report contains data from the Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted by the [U.S.] Bureau of the Census in March 1986 and 1987....The detailed tables present data on years of school completed by persons 15 years old and over by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, type of residence, region of residence, occupation, marital status, and education of spouse. Also, summary data are presented for the 15 largest States and metropolitan areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40617 Sharma, O. P.; Retherford, Robert D. Recent literacy trends in India. Occasional Paper, No. 1, 1987. v, 107 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors analyze recent literacy trends in India and its states and union territories, using data from the 1961, 1971, and 1981 censuses. "The section on states and union territories includes an examination of sex differentials and urban-rural differentials in literacy rates. Age differentials in literacy rates are also examined. Then follows an analysis of the quality of literacy in terms of its changing composition by educational attainment. Next the developmental correlates of literacy are considered in an analysis of how female literacy and several development indices covary across 14 major states. The final section presents some rough projections of literacy rates for states and union territories...."
Correspondence: O. P. Sharma, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40618 Singh, Mehar. Christianity in India: a temporal-spatial view. Population Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1986. 82-98 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author "attempts to analyse the spatial diffusion of Christianity in India from the earliest times to the present." Consideration is given to the history of Christianity, its diffusion throughout the country, the response of different social groups to Christianity, and the impact of British colonial rule on the growth of the religion. It is concluded that the "distribution of Christians in the country is highly uneven and is associated with the vast historic, socio-economic and political diversity of various parts of the country." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: M. Singh, Department of Geography, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40619 White, Michael J. American neighborhoods and residential differentiation. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-922-0. LC 86-42951. 1987. xx, 327 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, undertaken for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is one of a series presenting analyses of the results of the 1980 U.S. census. This volume is concerned with neighborhoods and patterns of residential differentiation. It examines data for neighborhoods of 21 metropolitan areas representing the spectrum of settlement in the United States as a whole, and compares these data with those taken from earlier censuses. The author traces patterns over time and shows "how racial segregation has declined modestly while socioeconomic segregation remains constant, and how population diffusion gradually affects neighborhood composition. His assessment of our urban settlement system also illuminates the social forces that shape contemporary city life and the troubling policy issues that plague it."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40620 Zeroulou, Zaihia. Migrants' childrens' academic achievement: the contributions of a mobilization approach. [La reussite scolaire des enfants d'immigres: l'apport d'une approche en termes de mobilisation.] Revue Francaise de Sociologie, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1988. 447-70, 556 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The academic success of migrants' children in France is explored, with an emphasis on the family characteristics that may determine such an outcome. "How can the surprising academic achievement of a minority of migrants' children who gain admission to university be explained? According to our hypothesis, such an explanation should be found in the families' migration trajectories. Taking them into account allows one to correct the well-known deficient indicator of social origin: father's occupation when in France. Families' strategies and mobilization toward an educational project, part and parcel of their migration project, can thus be explained. This hypothesis has been tested through the interviewing of two [predominantly Algerian] groups of migrants' children of the Lille region, one having experienced school failure, the second having gained admittance to university."
Correspondence: Z. Zeroulou, Ominor-Labores, CNRS, 1 Rue Norbert Segard, Lille 59000, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

54:40621 Acosta-Belen, Edna; Sjostrom, Barbara R. The Hispanic experience in the United States: contemporary issues and perspectives. ISBN 0-275-92740-1. LC 87-37690. 1988. xi, 261 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a conference on the Hispanic community in the United States, held in Albany, New York, in 1985. The book "deals with the history and development of the diverse Hispanic communities, and the cultural, social, and economic implications of Hispanic immigration and population growth. Hispanic contributions to a redefinition of ethnicity in the United States and group efforts to maintain a distinctive cultural identity are also a major focus, as are problems such as racism and discrimination. A final objective of this book is to gather the most recent data on U.S. Hispanics and provide readers not only with current information on demographic and socioeconomic indicators, but also to interpret this information and analyze its implications for the present and future of the community."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40622 Broman, Clifford L.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S. Racial group identification among black adults. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 1, Sep 1988. 146-58 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The relation between sociodemographic factors and racial group identification [in the United States] is explored in this paper....The findings of this research indicate that racial group identification is strongest among older blacks and the least-educated blacks who live in urban areas. Additionally, significant interactions between education and region are found; highly educated blacks living outside the West have strong levels of racial group identification. Income and sex are not found to be related to racial group identification."
Correspondence: C. L. Broman, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40623 Carvalho, Carlos A. da C. A demographic and socioeconomic profile of Portuguese residents in France. [Perfil demografico e socio-economico dos Portugueses residentes em Franca.] Revista do Centro de Estudos Demograficos, No. 28, 1986. 37-68 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
Demographic characteristics of those of Portuguese nationality living in France are analyzed. Data are from a variety of official French and Portuguese sources. Consideration is also given to the entire foreign resident population of France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40624 Chauveau, Jean-Pierre. The Baule share. Total population and ethnic domination: a historical perspective. [La part baule. Effectif de population et domination ethnique: une perspective historique.] Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, Vol. 27, Pt. 1-2, No. 105-106, 1987. 123-65, 226-7 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The use of demographic data to examine the importance of ethnic data in African demographic history is considered using data on the Baule in the Ivory Coast. The importance of developing a new criterion for studying the development of ethnic groups apart from the traditional tribal approach is stressed.
Correspondence: J.-P. Chauveau, Departement Conditions d'un Developpement Independant, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Paris, France. Location: New York Public Library.

54:40625 Galster, George. Residential segregation in American cities: a contrary review. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1988. 93-121 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
W. A. V. Clark "has reviewed evidence on the causes of racial residential segregation in [U.S.] cities and has concluded that economic factors, job locations, preferences, and information bear the predominant explanatory weight; private acts of housing discrimination carry little weight. This article argues that Clark's conclusions are erroneous because they are based on a selective and incorrect interpretation of the evidence available to him and because more recent studies provide strong evidence to the contrary." A reply by Clark is included (pp. 113-21).
For the article by Clark, published in 1986, see 53:10075.
Correspondence: G. Galster, Department of Economics, College of Wooster, Wooster, OH 44691. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40626 Hammel, E. A. A glimpse into the demography of the Ainu. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 23, Mar 1987. 48 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The author examines the history of the demography and ecology of the Ainu of northern Japan, using official census data from the nineteenth century. Consideration is given to household structure, family characteristics, social relations, and the effects of regional ecology and political and economic pressures on the population's social organization and eventual decline.
Correspondence: Program in Population Research, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40627 Ibounig, Peter. The Carinthian Slovenes in light of the 1981 census. [Die Karntner Slowenen im Spiegel der Volkszahlung 1981.] Karnten-Dokumentation, Vol. 2, 1986. 122 pp. Amt der Karntner Landesregurung: Klagenfurt, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Slo; Ita.
The size and distribution of the Slovene population living in the province of Carinthia, Austria, are analyzed using data from the 1981 census. The focus is on the impact of legislation designed to protect the economic and educational welfare of ethnic minorities. A continuing decline in the size of the Slovene-speaking population throughout the 1970s is noted.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:40628 Laponce, Jean A. Advice to the Prince who would want to ensure the survival of the French language in North America. [Conseil au prince qui voudrait assurer la survie du francais en Amerique du Nord.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1988. 35-48 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"After a brief analysis of natality, linguistic mobility, endogamy and interprovincial migration, the author takes into account the impact of the main demographic trends in the world on the future of the French language in North America. He concludes that, in order to ensure this future, one should look to the Swiss example, that is, one should promote the concentration of the minority population, give to this population the right to control its territorial borders, and take as main objective the protection of the language rather than the survival of the ethnic group."
Correspondence: J. A. Laponce, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40629 Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary C. From many strands: ethnic and racial groups in contemporary America. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-543-8. LC 88-9651. 1988. xiv, 289 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, undertaken for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is one in a series providing analyses of the results of the 1980 U.S. census. The present volume examines the data on ethnicity, which in 1980 were collected for all respondents for the first time. The authors examine not only the 16 principal European ethnic groups but also the major non-European groups such as blacks, Asians, Native Americans, and Hispanics. Comparisons are made across a range of dimensions, including regional and spatial distribution, cultural background, economic attainment, intermarriage, and education. Consideration is given to levels of assimilation and maintenance of ethnic diversity. The growth of the population reporting no ethnic background and the significance of this trend are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40630 Martiniello, Marco. Toward the formation of new ethnic groups in Western Europe? [Vers la formation de nouveaux groupes ethniques en Europe Occidentale?] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 25, No. 90, Jun 1988. 202-12 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The possibility is explored of immigrant groups in Europe developing an ethnic identity and the accompanying political influence, similar to those of ethnic groups in the United States. The author concludes that while such a development is at this time highly improbable, it may occur in the future.
Correspondence: M. Martiniello, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40631 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Hispanic Americans: an emerging group. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 69, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1988. 2-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the growth of the Hispanic population in the United States based on the Bureau of the Census's current statistics and projections. In the first part of the article, growth patterns, Hispanic ethnic groups, and geographic distributions of Hispanics are described. In the second part, a profile of demographic characteristics is provided, with a focus on age distribution, educational status, and occupations.
Correspondence: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40632 Shaw, Chris. Components of growth in the ethnic minority population. Population Trends, No. 52, Summer 1988. 26-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"According to the most recent results from the Labour Force Survey..., the ethnic minority population is estimated to have been 2.43 million (4.5 per cent of the total population of Great Britain) averaged over the period 1984-6. Comparisons with earlier years suggested that the population was currently increasing by between 80 and 90 thousand a year. The present article provides estimates of the components of population growth for broad subgroups of the ethnic minority population using relevant data from birth and death registrations, the international Passenger Survey and the Labour Force Survey. It...concludes that two thirds of the current population increase is due to natural growth and one third to net migration."
Correspondence: C. Shaw, Population Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40633 Sokolova, Gabriela. The development of nationalities in Czechoslovakia. [Soudobe tendence vyvoje narodnosti v CSSR.] 1987. 216 pp. Academia Praha: Prague, Czechoslovakia; Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved: Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Ger; Rus.
The development of the various national groups making up the population of Czechoslovakia is examined using data from official sources. The emphasis is on political and social developments since 1948.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40634 Termote, Marc; Gauvreau, Danielle. The demo-linguistic situation in Quebec. [La situation demolinguistique du Quebec.] Dossiers du Conseil de la Langue Francaise, No. 30, ISBN 2-551-08254-4. 1988. xxi, 292 pp. Conseil de la Langue Francaise: Quebec City, Canada. In Fre.
Recent trends in the demography of the French language in the province of Quebec, Canada, are reviewed. Trends in mother tongue and language fluency are first analyzed for the period 1976-1981. Regional differences during the longer time period 1951-1981 are then considered. Other topics discussed include the natural increase of various language groups, linguistic mobility, and migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40635 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 1988 (advance report). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 431, Aug 1988. iii, 19 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents advance data on selected demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Hispanic population of the United States." Data are from the March 1988 supplement to the Current Population Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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