Volume 54 - Number 4 - Winter 1988

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

54:40388 Charbit, Yves. Family and nuptiality in the Caribbean. [Famille et nuptialite dans la Caraibe.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 114, ISBN 2-7332-0114-X. 1987. ix, 412 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an interdisciplinary analysis of nuptiality and family characteristics in the Caribbean region, defined here as including Guyana, French Guyana, Suriname, and Belize. Data are from censuses, surveys (including the World Fertility Survey), and other published sources. Consideration is given to differences among ethnic groups, various family types, and the impact of slavery and migration. Demographic analyses are included on nuptiality in the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Guyana, and Guadeloupe and Martinique. A final chapter provides an overview of the family and nuptiality in the entire region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40389 Festy, Patrick. A 1985 INED survey on demographic and financial aspects of divorce. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 56, 1988. 165-9 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author reports the results of a 1985-1986 survey on the demographic and financial aspects of divorce. The survey, which concerned more than 2,300 women, was conducted by the Institute National d'Etudes Demographiques in France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40390 Festy, Patrick. After separation: variety and stability in behavior. [Apres la separation: diversite et stabilite des comportements.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 517-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A study [in France] of a wide range of behavioural reactions following the separation of spouses after a marital breakdown (e.g. work, change of residence, formation of a new union) showed a large number of associations, but also remarkable stability in trends. This stability is in contrast with divergent trends in these factors in the population at large, and with the sharp rise of marital breakdown during the past fifteen years. The question arises whether the increasing number of divorced persons in the population has led to the formation of a group with specific characteristics."
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40391 Haskey, John. Regional patterns of divorce in England and Wales. Population Trends, No. 52, Summer 1988. 5-14 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the evidence concerning the reliability of estimated regional divorce rates and concludes that the estimated rates are a reasonable guide. Information extracted from several sources--and findings from other studies--on the inter-regional movement of partners at the time of their divorce are investigated and presented. The South West, Yorkshire and Humberside and East Anglia standard regions are found to have above average crude divorce rates, whilst the East and West Midlands standard regions and Wales have below average crude rates, compared with the corresponding rate for England and Wales as a whole."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Population Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40392 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. Dissolution in Sweden: the break-up of conjugal unions to Swedish women born in 1936-60. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 45, ISBN 91-7820-032-6. Mar 1988. 70 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this paper we describe main changes in the stability of nonmarital and marital unions in Sweden from the late 1950s to the late 1970s in the light of preceding developments in modes of union formation." Consideration is given to the rise of consensual union as an institution, the decrease in the number of marriages formed without previous cohabitation, and the effects of socioeconomic factors and the presence of children on dissolution of both types of unions. Data are from official and other published sources and concern Swedish females born in five-year cohorts from 1936 to 1960.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40393 Hoffman, Saul D.; Duncan, Greg J. What are the economic consequences of divorce? Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 641-5 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Weitzman's...finding that the economic status of [U.S.] women falls by an average of 73 percent after divorce undoubtedly ranks among the most cited demographic statistics of the 1980s. What has been virtually unnoticed thus far is that this result is at considerable variance with the findings of other researchers who have examined the economic consequences of divorce....Our analysis suggests that Weitzman's finding concerning the precipitous decline in the economic status of women following divorce is likely to be incorrect. Her findings not only imply improbably large changes in income but are also inconsistent with the information she reports on changes in income and in income per capita. Corrected estimates suggest a decline in economic status of about one-third, rather than the widely cited 73 percent figure."
Correspondence: S. D. Hoffman, Department of Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40394 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). Census of India. Advance report on age at marriage differentials in India, 1984. Census of India Occasional Paper, No. 2 of 1988, 1988. vi, 79 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is the first report presenting results from a special survey conducted in India in 1984 using data from the Sample Registration System (SRS). The subject of this report is differentials in age at marriage. Data are presented on differences in age at marriage by various socioeconomic factors, for major states, and for rural and urban areas. Factors considered include religion, scheduled caste/scheduled tribe status, and level of education.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Vital Statistics Division, West Block No. 1, Wing No. 1, 2nd Floor, R.K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40395 Jacobs, Jerry A.; Furstenberg, Frank F. Changing places: conjugal careers and women's marital mobility. Social Forces, Vol. 64, No. 3, Mar 1986. 714-32 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the relationship between the socioeconomic status of successive husbands for two national [U.S.] samples of women who married two or more times." Data are from a sample of 743 women included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women and 413 younger women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women of 1967 who were followed up after remarriage in 1978. "Socioeconomic homogamy, as indicated by the educational attainment and occupational status of spouses, is quite similar in first and second marriages for both cohorts. On average, the socioeconomic standing of husbands in subsequent marriages is about equal to those in previous marriages, when one adjusts for the career trajectories of the men involved. Socioeconomic variables, timing, and the presence of children all influence the chances of finding an accomplished second husband. The implications of these findings for the welfare of children of disrupted families and for future trends in the socioeconomic homogamy are discussed."
Correspondence: J. A. Jacobs, Department of Sociology, 3718 Locust Walk Circle, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40396 Kaliappan, U. R.; Reddy, T. Chandramohan. A comparative analysis of some correlates of intra-spouse age disparity: a status determinant. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 17, No. 2, Autumn 1987. 217-25 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Age differences between spouses in India are analyzed. The data concern 144 farm families in isolated villages and 149 families in less isolated villages in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. The results show greater age differences between spouses in the more isolated villages. Reasons for this age gap are considered.
Correspondence: U. R. Kaliappan, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40397 Kaufmann, Georgia; Lesthaeghe, Ron; Meekers, Dominique. Marriage characteristics and trends. [Les caracteristiques et tendances du mariage.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 217-47 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The changing characteristics of marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa are explored using data from published sources. Topics covered include problems of measurement and the definition of indicators; the characteristics of divorce, widowhood, and remarriage; regional models of nuptiality; and trends in age at marriage and in the practice of polygyny.
Correspondence: G. Kaufmann, Institute of Social Anthropology, Oxford University, St. Anthony's College, Oxford 0X2 6JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40398 Krishnamoorthy, Sowrirajulu. Changing marriage and divorce patterns in Australia, 1921-81: an application of multi-state life table analysis. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 69-84 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Multi-state life table analysis is performed for the quinquennial years from 1921 to 1981 to study the changes in nuptiality among Australian women. The results of the analysis indicate that during the depression of the early 1930's, the mean age at first marriage was high and first marriages and remarriages were low. During the Second World War period, the first marriage rates, divorce rates and the remarriage rates for divorcees went up. However, divorces and remarriages of divorcees started falling...after 1946, although first marriages were on the increase till 1956. Both first marriages and remarriages of divorcees and widows fell during 1976-1981 most likely due to the recent increasing trend in living together arrangements. The proportion of life spent in married state is declining in the recent years due to increasing age at first marriages, declining proportion marrying and increasing divorces coupled with declining probability of remarriages."
Correspondence: S. Kirshnamoorthy, Department of Population Studies, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40399 Larsen, Ulla. Determinants of short-term fluctuations in nuptiality in Sweden, 1751-1913: application of multivariate ARIMA models. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1988. 203-32 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study examines the determinants of short-term fluctuations in nuptiality in Sweden from 1751 to 1913, using ARIMA [Auto Regressive Integrated Moving-Average] models....The following general patterns prevailed throughout the period 1751-1913: both better economic conditions (good harvests and lower rye prices) and higher mortality (leading to more remarriages, and enabling first marriages through inheritance) were followed by higher nuptiality. In addition, emigration of single persons after 1850 was inversely related to nuptiality."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Department of Statistics, Lund University, Box 7008, S-22007 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40400 Lehning, James R. The timing and prevalence of women's marriage in the French department of the Loire, 1851-1891. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1988. 307-27 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the determinants of the timing and prevalence of female marriage in a sample of 33 rural villages in the French department of the Loire in the second half of the nineteenth century when the area was beginning to experience a demographic transition. Data from 1851 and 1891 are used in the analysis." The author finds that "marriage chances were structured by demographic factors, with mortality in 1851 and the sex ratio in 1891 being significant determinants....Cultural factors...were [also] very significant: isolation, in 1851, and linguistic particularism, political conservatism, and female literacy in 1891 all supported traditional patterns of restricted marriage."
Correspondence: J. R. Lehning, Department of History, University of Utah, Salt lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40401 Lehrer, Evelyn L. Determinants of marital instability: a Cox-regression model. Applied Economics, Vol. 20, No. 2, Feb 1988. 195-210 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The objective of the present article is to quantify the influence of various factors on marital instability using the theoretical framework developed in the economic literature and data from a survey recently conducted in the U.S.A., the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). This data set is rich in information on husbands' and wives' characteristics, allowing examination of several factors that previous studies have been unable to consider. The data are analysed using Cox's proportional hazards model...."
Correspondence: E. L. Lehrer, Department of Economics, University of Illinois, P.O. Box 4348, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40402 Lindgren, Jarl; Nieminen, Mauri. Remarriage in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 26, 1988. 37-48 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
Remarriage in Finland is examined using data for 1984. Intervals between divorce and remarriage as well as the age at remarriage are calculated, and estimates are provided for the absolute number of remarried persons and the number relative to the divorced, married, and those living in consensual unions. It is found that "as a total somewhat more than an eighth of all men and women who married in the 1980s were remarrying. Of all divorced persons about 55 percent remarried."
Correspondence: J. Lindgren, Population Research Institute, Kalevankatu 16, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40403 London, Kathryn A.; Wilson, Barbara F. Divorce. American Demographics, Vol. 10, No. 10, Oct 1988. 22-6 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Trends in divorce in the United States are analyzed using official vital statistics data. Consideration is given to the characteristics of the divorced and to the extent of remarriage.
Correspondence: K. A. London, National Center for Health Statistics, Federal Center Building, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40404 Mahmood, Naushin; Ali, Syed M. Nuptiality patterns in Pakistan. Studies in Population, Labour Force and Migration: Project Report, No. 2, [1983?]. [4], 39 pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Nuptiality trends in Pakistan are analyzed using data from the Survey on Population, Labour Force and Migration, which covered approximately 10,100 ever-married women under age 50 and was carried out in 1979-1980. The analysis concentrates on changes in age at marriage and on differences in marriage patterns by residence, region, educational status, labor force participation, and husband's education and occupation. The results show a significant rise in marriage age over time.
Correspondence: PIDE, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40405 Malaker, Chitta R. On specification of marriage curves in India. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 165-73 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper attempts to specify the nature of the marriage curves in India by calculating the moments of the age distribution of marriage. The basic data used in this analysis are the age-sex specific proportions single in the census of India, 1971." Regional variations in nuptiality and differences in the shape of the marriage curves by sex are noted.
Correspondence: C. R. Malaker, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40406 Mihailescu, Ioan. The strengthening of family cohesion and the divorce rate. [Consolidarea coeziunii familiale si rata divortialitatii.] Viitorul Social, Vol. 80, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 520-8 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Recent trends in divorce in Romania are analyzed. The author develops a theory concerning the factors influencing family stability and dissolution in the context of recent social, political, and economic changes. Data are from recent sociological research carried out in Bucharest and from research into public opinion. The article concludes with recommendations for preventing an increase in the divorce rate.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40407 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Marital status and male nuptiality in Morocco. [Etat matrimonial et nuptialite masculine au Maroc.] May 1988. 46 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Trends in male marital status and nuptiality in Morocco are analyzed using data from the censuses of 1960, 1971, and 1982. The section on marital status gives separate consideration to the unmarried, the married, the widowed, and the divorced. The section on nuptiality includes data on marriage age of males and females and on regional differences in nuptiality.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, Direction de la Statistique, BP 178, Avenue Maa El Ainine, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40408 Ntozi, James P. M.; Kabera, John B. Marriage patterns in Ankole, south-western Uganda. African Demography Working Paper, No. 16, Aug 1988. 41 pp. University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper studies marriage patterns and systems in Ankole [southwestern Uganda]. Discussed in the study are age at marriage, proportion married, marriage dissolution, remarriages, types of marriage and bridewealth. The paper finds that most of the marriage patterns are among the major causes of high fertility in the area."
Correspondence: Librarian, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40409 Pereira, Pedro T. Time single and divorce. Faculdade de Economia Working Paper, No. 60, Dec 1986. 34 pp. Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia: Lisbon, Portugal. In Eng.
"This paper studies the influence of the time single in the probability of a female divorcing. Time single is taken as a decisional variable in an environment with uncertainty. The point of departure is the recognition that females have a finite lifetime and there are returns to search and education in the labor and marriage markets. The empirical results indicate that in States of the U.S. where it is easier to get divorced females marry earlier while Catholics marry later. In addition empirical results seem to indicate that the amount of time single and the amount of time studying should not be considered exogenous in the study of the probability of divorcing or the study of the mating function."
Correspondence: Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Trav. Estevao Pinto. Campolide, P-1000 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40410 Pison, Gilles. Polygamy, fertility, and family structures. [Polygamie, fecondite et structures familiales.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 249-78 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The practice of polygamy in Sub-Saharan Africa is discussed, including a consideration of the prevalence of polygamy despite an almost even sex distribution. The impact of polygamy on fertility and the differences in attitudes toward the family and parenthood in polygamous and monogamous societies are also analyzed.
Correspondence: G. Pison, Musee de l'Homme, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie, Palais de Chaillot, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40411 Richter, Kerry. Union patterns and children's living arrangements in Latin America. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 553-66 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article analyzes how union patterns in Mexico and Colombia affect the lives of children. The proportion of children affected by a disruption by the age of 15 is estimated by using life table methods. The factors that contribute to a child's risk of experiencing a disruption are investigated by using proportional hazard models. Finally, the living arrangements of children by the mother's marital status, the urban status, and the mother's educational attainment are explored. The findings indicate that about one-fifth of Mexican children and one-third of Colombian children spend some time with an unmarried mother by the age of 15. In addition, those who experience a disruption or are born outside of a union spend a considerable length of time in the single-parent state. Most children of an unmarried mother live in an extended-family household, often with a grandparent."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, p. 419).
Correspondence: K. Richter, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakornpathom, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40412 Sharma, Raghubar D. First-marriage decrement tables, for males and females in Ontario, Canada, 1971-1981. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 61-8 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author analyzes "first-marriage decrement tables for males and females in Ontario for 1971, 1976 and 1981. The analysis indicates that along with the age at first marriage, the age range between two sexes has also increased. An increasing number of Ontarians are remaining never-married and the prospectus of eventually getting married has also declined. The paper also discusses social and economic implications of these changes in the nuptiality patterns of Ontario."
Correspondence: R. D. Sharma, Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40413 Squarzoni, R. The evolution of divorce in Reunion: from the unthinkable to the acceptable. [Evolution du divorce a la Reunion: de l'impensable au pratique.] Etudes et Recherches: Etude Generale: Famille, No. 1, Feb 1985. 21 pp. Universite de la Reunion, Observatoire Demographique Economique et Social de la Reunion [ODESR]: St. Denis, Reunion. In Fre.
Trends in divorce in Reunion from 1961 to 1984 are analyzed based on official data. The author notes that although the number of registered divorces has increased from 38 in 1961 to 566 in 1984, a 1983 survey indicated that only about 3 percent of women experienced divorce.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:40414 Stark, Oded. On marriage and migration. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 4, No. 1, Sep 1988. 23-37 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Marriage, migration and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. We thus proceed in this paper to explore the role of migration in obtaining joint labour-market and marriage-market equilibrium. This facilitates identification of several novel and testable hypotheses." Data are from official and other published sources, and the geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: O. Stark, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40415 Tan, Poo Chang; Chan, Paul T. H.; Tan, Boon Ann; Tey, Nai Peng; Rajoo, R. A study of Indian women in the estates in Peninsular Malaysia: social mixing, marriage and the family. 1988. xiii, 129, [288] pp. University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
This is the last in a series of four reports from a study on marriage and marital dissolution in Peninsular Malaysia. It presents results from a survey of 293 married women and 44 single women who were living on rubber estates in 1979, and a 1981 survey of 105 married and 67 single women. Topics covered include social mixing and the choice of a mate, age at marriage and age differences between spouses, and opinions on divorce, remarriage, and remaining single. All the individuals included in the study were from the Indian ethnic group.
Correspondence: Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40416 Thornton, Arland. Cohabitation and marriage in the 1980s. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 497-508 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Using cohabitation and marriage histories collected in 1985 from 23-year-old [U.S.] women and men, this study investigates the process of union formation, considering transitions from single life into cohabitation and marriage. The outcomes of cohabitation are also considered--both the dissolution of unions and the transformation of cohabiting unions into marriage. These data indicate that large proportions of men and women experience cohabitation fairly early in the life course. At the same time, many cohabiting unions are dissolved fairly quickly and numerous others are soon transformed into marriages. Thus even though cohabitation will be experienced by many, most people will continue to spend substantially more time in marital unions than in cohabiting unions."
Correspondence: A. Thornton, Institute for Social Research, Department of Sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40417 Turcotte, Pierre. Common-law unions: nearly half a million in 1986. Canadian Social Trends, No. 10, Autumn 1988. 35-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in the incidence of consensual union in Canada are discussed using data from official sources. The author concludes that "between 1981 and 1986, the number of common-law unions increased sharply, while the number of married couples rose by only a small amount....The characteristics of people in common-law relationships differ from those of people who are married. While common-law partners were older in 1986 than in 1981, they remained a much younger group than married people. Regardless of their age, people in common-law relationships were also less likely than married couples to have children at home."
Correspondence: P. Turcotte, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

54:40418 Abdalla, Ahmed A. Work experience of married women and desired fertility in Egypt and Ghana. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 293-315 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The relationship between women's work experience and desired fertility in Egypt and Ghana is examined using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and the 1979-1980 Ghana Fertility Survey. Differentials in the proportions of women desiring more children and in desired family size are analyzed by place of work, type of payment, type of occupation, and employment status for urban and rural populations in both countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40419 Beaujot, Roderic. Attitudes among Tunisians toward family formation. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1988. 54-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This is a report on a 1983 survey of Tunisian adults' attitudes toward family formation. Results indicate a "large majority prefer the nuclear family, believe that people should be free to choose their own spouses, and agree with the right of women to divorce and with the laws that prohibit polygamy." Tunisians consider a family size of four children to be ideal and indicate that the primary reason for having children is to ensure support in old age. The author concludes that "without societal changes that would include a radical structural change to alter people's reliance on their families for old age security, the government objective of 2.4 children per family by the turn of the century appears unattainable."
Correspondence: R. Beaujot, Population Studies Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40420 Bednogo, M. S. Family, health, society. [Sem'ya, zdorov'e, obshchestvo.] 1986. 239 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This study of the family in the USSR is presented in three sections. The first, on the contemporary family, contains chapters on the family and employment, labor force and economic factors, moral and cultural aspects, the family as seen in the media, and changes in family structure and development. The second section covers family health, including health and family size, marital status and length of life, and an examination of alcohol, the family, and children. The third section, on the family and demographic policy, includes chapters on regulation of the birth rate in contemporary families, the role of preschool institutions in the development and implementation of population policy and family assistance, and the results of a contraceptive survey in Moscow.
Location: Columbia University Library, New York, NY; Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

54:40421 Bernheim, B. Douglas; Stark, Oded. Altruism within the family reconsidered: do nice guys finish last? Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 40, Aug 1988. 30 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The theoretical effects of altruism within the family on family behavior are explored. The authors present mathematical models to demonstrate and predict economic and social behavior within a family. They conclude by criticizing "the view that altruism either increases the benefits of group interactions or improves the allocation of resources within families. Altruism can alter the social utility possibility frontier....Altruism also often entails exploitability and therefore causes family members to behave in ways that leave all parties worse off." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Migration and Development Program, Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40422 Blau, David M.; Robins, Philip K. Child-care costs and family labor supply. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 70, No. 3, Aug 1988. 374-81 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The child care industry has expanded rapidly in recent years as a result of growing labor force participation by mothers of young children. Much, but not all, of the child care is being provided through the market. In this paper, a model of family labor supply incorporating both market and nonmarket child care is specified and estimated. The empirical analysis is performed using data from the 1980 baseline household survey of the Employment Opportunity Pilot Projects. The results suggest that both the decision to become employed and the decision to purchase market child care are sensitive to child-care costs." The geographical focus is on the United States.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 382).
Correspondence: D. M. Blau, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40423 Bracher, Michael; Santow, Gigi. Changing family composition from Australian life-history data. Australian Family Project Working Paper, No. 6, Oct 1988. 30 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors report on the patterns, correlates, and causes of change in family structure in Australia. They "describe contemporary Australian household composition as reflected in the screening data collected during the [1976]...Australian Family Project's national survey [and] employ life-history data collected in interviews with women to create a dynamic picture of changing patterns of co-residence during the lifetimes of survey respondents."
Correspondence: Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40424 Chanaka, Teshome T. The effect of child loss experience on fertility preference and regulation: a comparative study based on WFS data for Egypt, Ghana and Lesotho. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 451-79 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Impacts on fertility preferences and regulation of child loss experiences in Egypt, Ghana, and Lesotho are investigated using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey, the 1979-1980 Ghana Fertility Survey, and the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey. Multiple classification analysis is applied to two groups of women, those with and those without loss of one child or more. While the analysis indicates that couples having experienced child loss have a larger desired family size than couples who have not, actual family size and women's educational status also affected additional births wanted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40425 Corbett, Jane. Famine and household coping strategies. World Development, Vol. 16, No. 9, Sep 1988. 1,099-112 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the evidence on household strategies for coping with famine in Africa and identifies some distinctive patterns in these strategies which can be used to examine household objectives at times of crises, the management of resources to meet these objectives and limits to the effectiveness of coping strategies. In particular it examines the role of asset management and trade-offs between maintaining current food consumption levels and protecting the future income generating capacity of the household." Case studies are presented on northern Nigeria, two provinces in Sudan, and northeastern Ethiopia.
Correspondence: J. Corbett, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40426 Devi, D. Radha. Ideal, desired, expected, and actual family size: an analysis of interrelationships and worker/non-worker differences. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 196-206 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to compare the ideal, desired, expected, [and] actual...[family size] of working and non-working women [in India, and to examine] the inter-relationship between these variables." Data are from a fertility survey conducted in 1975 among 434 working and 266 nonworking women aged 20-49, who were living in Kerala, India.
Correspondence: D. R. Devi, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40427 Faessen, W. B. M. Lone parent families, January 1, 1987. [Eenoudergezinnen, 1 januari 1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 8, Aug 1988. 20-30 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in one-parent families in the Netherlands are examined using official data. Consideration is given to marital status of the parent and to regional differences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40428 Felix, Asikpata O. Determinants of family size preferences in Ghana. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 481-512 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The overall objective of the study is to examine the demographic and socio-economic determinants of family size preferences in Ghana with a view to isolating factors which will be of importance to planners and policy makers in Ghana in addressing high fertility levels." The data used in the analysis are from the 1979-1980 Ghana Fertility Survey. Variations in total desired family size by age and socioeconomic characteristics are examined, and a multivariate regression analysis is performed to determine the extent to which socioeconomic and demographic factors influence desired family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40429 Gershuny, Jonathan; Robinson, John P. Historical changes in the household division of labor. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 537-52 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article draws on evidence from time-budget surveys--three from the United States...and three from the United Kingdom...to investigate the evolution of housework time for men and women over the last three decades....Even having controlled for...sociodemographic changes, we conclude that in the two countries, women in the 1980s do substantially less housework than those in equivalent circumstances in the 1960s, and that men do a little more than they did (although still much less than women)."
Correspondence: J. Gershuny, School of Social Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40430 Gulati, S. C. Some reflections on son preference and its influence on additional desired fertility. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 207-20 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author attempts to "quantify the intensity of preference [in India] for sons over daughters in terms of their adverse effect on [the] probability of having additional children. The demand or desire for additional children...is analyzed through a logit model [and] estimated by [a] maximum likelihood procedure. [The author also identifies] some of the crucial demographic and socio-economic variables influencing the demand for additional children." Data are from a 1970-1971 survey of 1,052 women under age 40 living in urban Delhi.
Correspondence: S. C. Gulati, Institute of Economic Growth, University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40431 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. The Swedish family: aspects of contemporary developments. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1988. 397-424 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"It is the purpose of this article to present an account of some of the most important developments that concern the family in Sweden since the beginning of the 1960s. Most of our analysis is based on the Swedish fertility survey conducted by Statistics Sweden in 1981....In the interpretation of our findings, we contend that the young nonmarital cohabitation that has emerged should be seen as a phenomenon separate from (though tightly connected with) that of family building....It is important to note that even though almost half of all children are now born outside of marriage in Sweden, nearly all children are born to parents who live together in a marital or nonmarital union."
Correspondence: B. Hoem, Section of Demography, University of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40432 Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt. The changing family in the Federal Republic of Germany. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1988. 317-35 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
Changes in family structure in the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed. Family characteristics are first reviewed, followed by an outline of family policy and legislation. Data are from official and other published sources and concern selected years from 1900 to 1985, with an emphasis on the period since 1950.
Correspondence: K. Luscher, Fachgruppe Soziologie, Universitat Konstanz, Postfach 5560, Constance, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40433 Keilman, Nico. Recent trends in family and household composition in Europe. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, Jul 1988. 297-325 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article attempts to give a broad overview of trends in family and household composition in Europe during the last few decades. The focus is on Western Europe. We look at the decreasing average size of the household and the family (section 2) and its demographic causes. The changing role of the traditional family is reviewed in section 3, while section 4 contains a discussion of non-traditional household types: one-parent families, consensual unions and one-person households. Future trends in living arrangements are explored in section 5, where simulation results of a dynamic household model, applied to the Netherlands, are presented."
Correspondence: N. Keilman, Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, NL-2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40434 Ketkar, Kusum W.; Ketkar, Suhas L. Socio-demographic dynamics and household demand. Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 55-62 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The relationship between household characteristics and household expenditure in the United States is explored. "The basic hypothesis of this paper is that socio-demographic characteristics of households are important determinants of their expenditure patterns as are price and income variables."
Correspondence: K. W. Ketkar, Department of Economics, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ 07079. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40435 Kiernan, Kathleen E. The British family: contemporary trends and issues. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1988. 298-316 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
Trends in family characteristics in Britain are discussed using data from official and other published sources. Separate consideration is given to marriage patterns, particularly marriage age and marriage postponement; the rise in consensual unions; fertility and illegitimacy; divorce; single parent families; and location of children under age 18. The effects of the employment situation on families as well as the future of social policies are also briefly examined.
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40436 Kilgour, R. An analysis of wives' and husbands' differing responses to questions about the family. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1988. 22-34 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Demographers have frequently used the response of wives as being representative of married couples. Using existing data [for a sample of New Zealand couples], this paper compares husbands' and wives' responses to questions about decision-making, family size and contraceptive use. Relationships between decision-making and other variables are not statistically confirmed, but suggest hypotheses for further study."
Correspondence: R. Kilgour, Sociology Department, University of Canterbury, Private Bag, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40437 Levy-Vroelant, Claire. The fragility of the urban family during the nineteenth century: life cycles in Versailles between 1830 and 1880. [Fragilite de la famille urbaine au XIXe siecle: itineraires versaillais de 1830 a 1880.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 639-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Little is known about the characteristics of the life cycles of individuals and families in urban areas in the nineteenth century, or about the social and residential mobility of households. The existence of particularly well kept nominative censuses relating to the inhabitants of the city of Versailles [France] every year between 1824 and 1882 provides a unique opportunity for a study of the subject. In this paper an attempt is made to reconstitute the family and residential histories of a sample of approximately 700 individuals and to analyze these by classical statistical methods. The fragility of the urban family during a period when the industrial revolution had upset the status quo is witnessed by the considerable mobility of individuals and households, the large number of people living on their own, the distance from the family of origin, and the poverty of relatives."
Correspondence: C. Levy-Vroelant, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 Boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40438 Link, Krzysztof. Socioeconomic factors affecting the size of households. [Spoleczno-ekonomiczne czynniki tworzenia gospodarstw domowych.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 222, LC 87-151925. 1986. 155 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The impact of changes in both demographic and non-demographic factors on household headship rates in Poland is explored. The author first considers changes in the number and structure of households from 1970 to 1978 and their causes. Next, the effect of socioeconomic development on headship rates is assessed, and the author attempts to quantify the impact of socioeconomic factors on such rates.
Correspondence: Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40439 Locoh, Therese. Family structures and social change. [Structures familiales et changements sociaux.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 441-78 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The characteristics of the African family are described, and the impact of demographic trends on the family is reviewed. The author first considers problems related to the availability of data on the African family. Other topics considered include household size, family and household characteristics, extended families, and household headship. The custom of sending children out to other households is also described. The author then attempts to identify some key factors for analyzing African family characteristics. Among the changes affecting family structure are lower mortality, new methods of production and sources of income, migration and urbanization, rising levels of education, and new family models.
Correspondence: T. Locoh, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Departement Methodes et Previsions, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40440 Moore, Maureen. Female lone parenthood: the duration of episodes. Canadian Social Trends, No. 10, Autumn 1988. 40-2 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The factors leading to and the duration of female single parenthood in Canada are discussed. Tabular data are presented for average age at start of first single parenting episode by originating event, including illegitimate birth, separation, divorce, and widowhood; age distribution; and length of time spent as a single parent. Data are from Statistics Canada's 1984 Family History Survey.
Correspondence: M. Moore, Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40441 Nock, Steven L.; Kingston, Paul W. Time with children: the impact of couples' work-time commitments. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 1, Sep 1988. 59-85 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Using detailed time diaries of a 1981 national sample of 226 married [U.S.] couples with children, we analyze the extent of the trade-off between their time commitments to work and time with their children. Parents in single-earner families spend substantially more time with children than their dual-earner counterparts; the overall difference is largely accounted for by the lesser time of employed mothers in activities that involve children only peripherally, not in directly child-oriented activities....Although the widespread employment of women has not led to a more directly participative male parental role, work time affects fathers' time with children more than mothers'."
Correspondence: S. L. Nock, Department of Sociology, 539 Cabell Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40442 Oyarebu, K. A.; Ukoli, F. A. M. Family size aspiration among mothers of infants attending the under-five welfare clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. Public Health, Vol. 101, No. 2, Mar 1987. 129-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Family size aspiration of mothers of infants attending an under-five welfare clinic was studied. The study was conducted at the Urban Health Centre (UHC) in Benin City, Nigeria. Over a period of three months, 132 of these mothers were randomly selected and interviewed about their family size aspirations. Results showed that 84 (63.7%) of the mothers wished to have as many children as possible, while 7 (5.3%) would like any number God gave to them. Only 11 (8.3%) would prefer to limit the family to 4 or 5 children. No mother would want to have less than 4 children....Family size aspiration...varied with educational level and social status. The reasons for these high aspirations, and the consequences of large family sizes are discussed."
Correspondence: K. A. Oyarebu, Department of Community Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:40443 Patnaik, Madan M. The impact of sex and survival of infants on fertility behaviour: a factorial analysis. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 221-7 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines the "extent to which the outcome [in India] of sex and survival of infants of the first two births [in a family] explains the reproductive behaviour of couples...." Consideration is given to family type, place of residence, fathers' education, socioeconomic and occupational status, and income. Data are from published sources.
Correspondence: M. M. Patnaik, MIGH-346, Kankar Bagh, Patna 20, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40444 Rasul, M. Aminur. Quality aspects of stated famiy size desires in Bangladesh. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 645-70 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The reliability of fertility preference data for Bangladesh is examined based on an analysis of data from the 1975-1976 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. Attention is given to "the degree of specificity and internal consistency of stated desired family size with other preference measures, ...individual variation in stated desired family size in order to assess the influence of societal norm, ...the influence of rationalization of achieved family size in stating desired family size, ...[and] the behavioural consistency of desired family size in terms of contraceptive knowledge, practice and intention to use contraception in future....On the whole there do not seem to be serious quality deficiencies which render the data on desired family sizes unusable for any meaningful analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40445 Roeske-Slomka, Iwona. Multinomial functions as a predictor of the number of children within a family according to income. [Funkcje wielomianowe jako predyktor dzietnosci rodzin wedlug dochodu.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/90, 1987. 23-37 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Family size differentials in Poland are analyzed by income using data from surveys of family budgets conducted between 1975 and 1983. Consideration is given to duration of marriage, educational status, and residence characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40446 Rueschemeyer, Marilyn. New family forms in a state socialist society: the German Democratic Republic. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1988. 354-71 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
Family formation patterns and the changing role of women in the German Democratic Republic are examined. Consideration is given to employment and female labor force participation, the availability of child care, changes in the fertility rate (including illegitimacy), female education and occupational level, single parenthood, divorce, consensual union, and state policies. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: M. Rueschemeyer, Liberal Arts, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI 02903. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40447 Ruggles, Steven. The demography of the unrelated individual: 1900-1950. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 521-36 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article is an analysis of the frequency and characteristics of unrelated individuals [in the United States] between 1900 and 1950. The much-heralded rise of the primary individual during the 20th century has been offset by a decline in the frequency of secondary individuals. The overall percentage of persons residing without family did not exceed turn-of-the-century levels until the 1970s. Using data from national microdata samples of the census for 1900, 1940, and 1950, the study applies decomposition techniques and life-course analysis to investigate these patterns. The results show that the decline of the secondary individual from 1900 to 1950 was largely a function of changing demographic composition, but the increase of primary individuals is linked to changing residential preferences."
Correspondence: S. Ruggles, Department of History, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40448 Santi, Lawrence L. The demographic context of recent change in the structure of American households. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 4, Nov 1988. 509-19 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article examines recent changes in the structure of American households within the context of broad population changes. Decreases in married-couple households and increases in single-parent households are almost entirely due to the changing patterns of marriage, divorce, fertility, and child custody; headship rates for families have remained relatively stable. Increases in single-person and other nonfamily households are due to increases in the size of the unmarried, childless population and to the aging of this population. Increasing propensities to live alone or with nonrelatives were observed between 1970 and 1980, but these behavioral changes have abated during the early 1980s."
Correspondence: L. L. Santi, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40449 Santow, Gigi; Bracher, Michael; Guoth, Nicholas. Household composition in Australia. Australian Family Project Working Paper, No. 5, Nov 1988. 26 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper is an initial descriptive report on household composition in Australia in mid-1986. The data come from screening interviews conducted to identify women and men who would be eligible for interview in the Australian Family Project of the Research School of Social Sciences of The Australian National University....[The authors] report here on household size overall, and for households distinguished according to headship and the presence of other members. [They then] examine the characteristics of members of households of different types, according to age, sex and marital status, and conclude by presenting information on the relationships of household members."
Correspondence: Australian Family Project, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40450 Sarma, R. S. S. Trends and differentials in household size and composition and projection of households for Liberia. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 543-62 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objective of the present study is to examine the trends and differentials in size, composition and headship rates of households for Liberia and provide projections of number of households and their size up to year 2000." Census data for the years 1962, 1974, and 1984 are used. It is found that "during the periods 1962-1974 and 1974-1984, the growth of households was less than that of the population and as a result the average household size exhibited a continuous increase. This was reflected in the reduction of headship rates which was more pronounced during 1974-1984 than during 1962-1974." Variations in headship rates by age, sex, urban or rural residence, and employment status are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40451 Sengupta, Prasun. Demographic influences on the pattern of time use: some experimental results for Peninsular Malaysia. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 24, Jan 1987. 40 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The author "investigates the effects of household composition on the time use pattern of individuals in [a developing country] by analyzing the 'intermediate variables', linked with household production and consumption behavior, through which these effects operate. A typology of such intermediate variables due to Lee...is used to develop labor supply models for Peninsular Malaysia. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section describes the Lee typology. In the second section, a theoretical framework...is established for analyzing household composition effects on labor supply. The empirical results of the study, based on the Malaysian Family Life Survey (1976-77), are presented in the third section. The fourth section analyzes the effects of compositional changes on the time use pattern of Malaysian women. The final section contains the main conclusions."
Correspondence: Program in Population Research, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40452 Sgritta, Giovanni B. The Italian family: tradition and change. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1988. 372-96 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
The evolution of the Italian family over the past 30 years is reviewed using official and other published data. The author describes the effects of socioeconomic and regional factors on family structures, the importance of tradition and kinship networks, social policies, female labor force participation, and family stability and dissolution. The relationship between traditional and modern family behaviors is also discussed.
Correspondence: G. B. Sgritta, Dipartimento di Scienza Demografische, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40453 Thomson, Elizabeth; Goldman, Paula. Measuring fertility norms. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall 1987. 173-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "argue that social norms must be measured at the group level of analysis, allow for a range of acceptable behaviors, and be linked to the individual level of analysis to explain social behavior. From a survey of young adults in Wisconsin (1973), we generated measures of family size norms from sibship experience and friends' expected family size. These measures satisfied our primary criterion for a social norm: Those with non-normative family size desires tended to shift expectations toward the norm. The analyses demonstrate the difficulty of estimating normative effects when by its very definition a norm is expected to restrict variation in human behavior."
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40454 Tien, H. Yuan; Lee, Che-fu. New demographics and old designs: the Chinese family amid induced population transition. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 3, Sep 1988. 605-28 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The impact of China's induced population transition on its family structure is examined using data from official and other published sources. "Local, national, and comparative data show that households encompassing three generations or more remain prevalent." The authors conclude that "households of [such] old designs evidently are far from being endangered species in China. Their practicality has eroded little because, given the limited industrialization and urbanization in recent decades, the transformation of the socioeconomic realities of the Chinese family...has been relatively...slow."
Correspondence: H. Y. Tien, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40455 Topinska, Irena. Formation and individualization of households. [Powstawanie i usamodzielnianie sie gospodarstw domowych.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/90, 1987. 57-78 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in household formation in Poland are discussed using official data, including the 1978 census. The focus is on the process by which children become independent adults and form new households. The author notes that sons usually leave the parental home at a later age than daughters. Consideration is also given to educational level and socioeconomic status. She concludes that today's younger generation of Poles tend to remain dependent on their parents for a long period of time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40456 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Households, families, marital status and living arrangements: March 1988 (advance report). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 432, Sep 1988. 19 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Advance results from the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey concerning households and families in the United States are presented. Consideration is given to household composition, household and family size, postponement of marriage, and unmarried couple households.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40457 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Who's helping out? Support networks among American families. Current Population Reports, Series P-70: Household Economic Studies, No. 13, Oct 1988. iv, 44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report focuses on the individual financial support networks which supplement the incomes of persons living in different households. Information in this report was collected in a supplement to the Survey of Income and Program Participation...conducted between January 1985 and April 1985, in approximately 17,000 interviewed households in the [United States]. Statistics are presented for persons 18 years and over in 1985 who were regularly making cash payments for the support of persons not living with them in their households." Providers are described in terms of age, sex, family and marital status, race, and income. Profiles of recipients and data on amounts received are also presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40458 Vasilev, Dimitar. Medical-demographic risks in family formation and possibilities for their medical prophylaxis. [Mediko-demografski riskove vav formiraneto na semeistvoto i vazmozhnosti za meditsinskata im profilaktika.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1987. 5-17 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author discusses some biological and demographic risks involved in family formation in Bulgaria. Factors considered include contraceptive failure, infertility, delay of wanted pregnancy, fetal death, and sex ratio of living children. Possible medical solutions to these risks are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40459 Vimard, Patrice. Household structure in Akye country: family composition and type in Memni and Montezo. [Structure des menages en pays akye: composition et typologie familiales a Memni et Montezo.] 1987. 25 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation [ORSTOM], Programme de Recherche-Formation ENSEA-ORSTOM: Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Fre.
The results of a survey conducted in two Ivory Coast villages in 1985 are presented. The survey's focus was on the impact on family characteristics and headship of rapidly changing conditions in the coffee, cocoa, and palm-oil industries. Consideration is given to the decline in available cultivatable land and the growing shortage of manual labor.
Correspondence: Centre ORSTOM de Petit-Bassam, 04 BP 293, Abidjan 04, Ivory Coast. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40460 Vimard, Patrice. The diversity of family structures in the Ivory Coast: an approach through case studies in the Akan rural environment. [Diversite des structures familiales en Cote-d'Ivoire: une approche a partir d'etudes de cas en milieu rural akan.] 1987. 22 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation [ORSTOM], Programme de Recherche-Formation ENSEA-ORSTOM: Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Fre.
Data from two recent surveys, a 1985 survey in the villages of Memni and Montezo and a 1986 survey in the Brobo sub-prefecture, are used to analyze the effects of recent economic, cultural, and demographic changes on family structure in the Ivory Coast. Trends covered include changes in the agricultural economy at the village level, migrations, urbanization, and the westernization of family customs through alterations in legislation affecting polygamy, preferential marriage, and dowries. The impact of different economic systems on family structure is considered.
Correspondence: Centre ORSTOM de Petit-Bassam, 04 BP 293, Abidjan 04, Ivory Coast. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40461 West, Kirsten K.; Morgan, Leslie A. Public perceptions of the ideal number of children for contemporary families. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall 1987. 160-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Demographic and family dynamics have been influenced by the recent downturn in average family size. This research examines perceptions of the ideal size for contemporary families and beliefs regarding factors which have contributed to families' decisions to have fewer children. Findings reveal that the two child family is the overwhelming standard chosen by respondents, and that this preference holds for virtually all demographic categories. Three of five reasons offered for smaller families today (expense of children, wives working and better birth control) were viewed as important by over 85% of those sampled." Data are from a public opinion survey conducted in an East Coast U.S. metropolitan area in 1982.
Correspondence: K. K. West, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40462 Witte, James; Lahmann, Herbert. Formation and dissolution of one-person households in the United States and West Germany. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 1, Oct 1988. 31-42 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This paper offers a demographic analysis of one-person households, the social processes leading to their formation and dissolution, and the socioeconomic characteristics of those who live alone. The analysis is based on panel data collected over a two-year time period in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany."
Correspondence: J. Witte, Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, Konigin-Luise-Strasse, 1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


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